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ACTEW Corporation Ltd

4. STRUCTURAL DESIGN
4.1 GENERAL DETAILING REQUIREMENTS FOR PIPELINES

As mentioned in the introduction, there is a demonstrated need to construct systems in a standard


configuration using tried and proven methods and materials. Within the ACT, any deviation from
normal practice has the propensity to increase stock holdings for spare parts, and create additional
maintenance costs by way of labour charges. Any deviation from standard practice will require the
specific approval of ACTEW. A submission detailing the proposals, in full, must be made to include
an economic and long term benefit analysis, and the covering life cycle costs. The costs of burst
mains can quickly erode cost differentials of the initial costs in pipe networks. Unless otherwise
noted, the current version of Australian Standards shall apply.

4.2 PIPE MATERIALS AND DIAMETERS

Unless specifically approved otherwise by ACTEW, pipes for water supply shall be selected from the
following approved materials:
• Ductile iron, cement lined and rubber ring jointed, produced in standard lengths of 5.5 metres to
AS 2280, having sizes of DN100, 150, 225, 300, 375, 450, 500, 600 and 750. For pipes up to
DN300 an approved seal coating on the internal cement mortar lining is applied to reduce
leaching; above DN300 the need for a coating will be determined by ACTEW. Class K9 shall be
used for general application including direct tapping, and class K12 where additional structural
capability is required;
• PVC Class 16 to AS/NZS 1477 Series 2, having sizes of DN100, 150, 225, 300 and 375. Direct
tapping is not permitted;
• Modified PVC (PVC-M) Class 16 to AS/NZS 4765 (Int) Series 2, having sizes DN100, 150,
225, 300, 375 and 450. Direct tapping is not permitted;
• Molecular Oriented PVC (PVC-O) Class 16 to AS/NZS 4441 (Int) Series 2, having sizes
DN100, 150, 225, 300 and 375. Direct tapping is not permitted;
• For sizes above DN750, steel pipe to AS 1579, cement mortar lined to AS 1281, and externally
coated with fusion bonded polyethylene;
• PE, pressure class PN16, to AS/NZS 4130 having size DN63. Direct tapping not permitted.

If a change in pipe material is to occur within the area covered by a particular project submission the
extent of the different materials used must be clearly delineated on the design submission drawings.

Use of other pipe materials may be approved in special cases.

Metal pipes and spigots of metal fittings shall not be inserted into PVC or PE sockets. Metal fittings
to be connected to PVC or PE pipes are to be socketed fittings only.

4.3 CORROSION PROTECTION OF PIPES

(i) Internal Lining: All ductile iron and steel pipes, fittings and specials shall be cement mortar lined
(factory installed) or epoxy lined unless special conditions (i.e. excessive velocity) or factors (i.e.
weight considerations) exist which prohibit a lining of this type. In these special cases ductile

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Release 2  Copyright 1999
ACTEW Corporation Ltd

iron and steel pipes, fittings, valves and specials are generally lined with a high build solventless
epoxy paint system approved for use in potable water supplies;

(ii) Polyethylene Wrapping: In addition to the factory applied coating, all ductile iron pipes and
fittings of size DN225 and larger shall be protected upon pipelaying with an overwrapping of
green polyethylene sleeving or sheet. Details of this overwrap shall be to the requirements of AS
3680. Special attention shall be paid to wrapping details at house connections where the ductile
iron pipe manufacturers recommendations should be followed;

(iii) Welded or Flanged Joint Protection: Welded joints in buried steel pipelines shall be externally
protected with a joint protection system acceptable to ACTEW. Buried flanged joints in steel or
ductile iron pipelines (prior to polyethylene overwrap) shall be similarly protected;

(iv) Cathodic Protection: Buried steel pipelines, whether flanged or welded, may require induced
current or sacrificial anode type cathodic protection. Reference should be made to ACTEW for
guidance.

4.4 COVER OVER PIPELINES

The minimum cover to water mains shall normally be 750mm in roadways or traffic areas and
600mm elsewhere. The minimum cover to water services shall be 450mm in roadways or traffic areas
and 375mm elsewhere. Provision shall be made for transient loads such as construction equipment
where cover is reduced during the construction phase.

Repairs on pipelines laid at excessive depths are difficult and costly, and often result in the pipeline
being out of service for an unacceptably long period. All reasonable steps shall be taken to avoid
exceeding a trench depth of 1.5 metres. Concurrence of ACTEW must be obtained where works
propose a greater trench depth than this. The maximum depth of a service pipe shall be 1.5 metres.

Refer also to Standard Drawing No. WSS 012 for details on cover over pipelines.

4.5 INSUFFICIENT COVER OVER PIPELINES

A pipeline shall be lowered when cover is removed from existing pipelines for new works (such as
roads). If this is physically impossible then consideration shall be given to protection by a suitably
designed reinforced concrete relieving slab; extending at least 500mm into natural ground beyond
existing pipe trench lines. This slab shall be segmented by construction joints into maximum l.0 metre
long easily removed segments, and separated from the pipe obvert by no less than 25mm of granular
or compressible material. Notwithstanding, specific concurrence of ACTEW must be obtained.

4.6 THRUST BLOCKS

Thrust or anchor blocks of plain or reinforced concrete, which have been designed to resist
unbalanced hydraulic forces, shall be provided at all bends, tees, tapers, in-line stop valves and dead
ends. Wherever applicable, thrust blocks shall be sized in accordance with Standard Drawing Nos.
WSS 013 and WSS 014.

Appropriate geotechnical advice should be sought by designers to determine allowable bearing


pressures to be used. Thrust or anchor blocks not covered on Standard Drawing Nos. WSS 013 and

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ACTEW Corporation Ltd

WSS 014 shall be designed for the appropriate allowable bearing pressure in either mass or reinforced
concrete.

Restrained joints (Tyton-Lok or approved equivalent), as an alternative to concrete thrust or anchor


blocks, can be considered for use with ductile iron pipes and fittings, DN100 to DN300, in
accordance with Standard Drawing No. WSS 025. However as there is currently no approved repair
fitting for these mains specific ACTEW approval will be required in each instance.

4.7 TRENCH AND SCOUR STOPS

To limit the scouring effect arising from water flow within the pipe bedding material, and also to
anchor the pipe, special bedding, trench stops and scour stops may be required in accordance with
Standard Drawing No. WSS 012. Scour stops shall be provided along inclined mains where the slope
is 5 to 30%. Trench stops can be regarded as an alternative to scour stops and may be provided
along inclined mains where the slope is 5 to 15%. To enable easy location, trench and scour stops
shall be placed at intervals of equal length with spacing not exceeding that which is specified on
Standard Drawing No. WSS 012.

4.8 FLANGES

Flanges shall conform to AS 4087. Unless otherwise noted, the flange table should be Figure B5
(which is Table C compatible).

4.9 ALTERNATIVE PIPELAYING METHODS

ACTEW may at times approve the use of alternative pipelaying technology such as thrust boring,
directional boring, or pipe bursting. Where such methods are envisaged to be used ACTEW should
be consulted for appropriate standards and specifications.

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