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# Strength of Material

## Lecturer : Heng Piseth (MSc.)

Email : hg.piseth1@gmail.com
1
Content of Lecture
Chapter 1. Introduction
Chapter 2. Actions
Chapter 3. Stress
Chapter 4. Strain and Deformation
Chapter 5. Mechanical Property of Material
Chapter 6. Geometrical Characteristic of Cross-Section
Chapter 7. Support Condition
Chapter 8. Reduction Element
Chapter 9. Simple Tension and Compression
Chapter 10. Simple Flexion
Chapter 11. Shear Stress
Chapter 12. Oblique Flexion
Chapter 13. Combination of Flexion and Compression or Tension
Chapter 14. Torsion
Chapter 15. Combination of Flexion and Torsion
Chapter 16. Structural Stability
Chapter 17. Concentration of Stress
Chapter 18. Failure Criteria
2
Chapter 4: Strain and
Deformation

3
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation

 4.1. Introduction
 4.2. Components of the strain tensor related to deformation
 4.3. Two-Dimensional Analysis of the Strain Tensor
 4.4. State of deformation in a plane in arbitrary directions
 4.5. Measurement of Strain

4
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.1. Introduction
The displacement of the material points inside a solid body or a liquid mass may
be a consequence of a rigid body motion or of a deformation. Motion is generally
caused by force that is the consequence by acceleration. Deformation is almost always a
consequence of internal forces, temperature variation or the retraction of a concrete
mass during the curing process.

The deformation is always effected by the displacement, because the way material
deforms will influences the way the internal forces are distributed inside the body,
unless the case under consideration fits into the rare category of fully statically
determinate problems.
F1
F1
Motion
Displacement Deformation
F
F22  ma

5
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.1. Introduction
In the non-homogeneous deformation, the same infinitesimal length, ds in parallel,
deform to various rotations and elongations in the different line segments. The
homogeneous deformation is rare; it occurs in a body with isostatic supports under a
uniform temperature variation or in an non-slender member under constant axial force.

Non-homogeneous deformation

Homogeneous deformation

6
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.1. Introduction
Under the action of applied forces, the points of the solid move. As a result, for
infinitesimal fibers of matter, variations in length and variations in angle are called
(elongations and angular variations) deformations.

7
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.1. Introduction
In infinitesimal deformations, there are the elongation and the angular variation
of what were initially right-angles between the line segments. The elongation of
infinitesimal segment causes the longitudinal strain and the angular variation induces
the shearing strain.

## Normal (longitudinal) Strain

s '   s
 avg 
s
s '   s
  lim
B  A along n s
s '  1    s

## Shearing Strain (Rotation)

 nt   lim '
2 B  A along n
C  A along t

8
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.1. Introduction

## x '  1   x  x y '  1   y  y z '  1   z  z

  
 ' xy    xy  ' yz    yz  ' zx    zx
2 2 2 9
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.2. Components of the strain tensor related to deformation
In a rectangular Cartesian reference, there are three longitudinal strains and
three shearing strains to define the state of deformation around a point.

The initial position of the material points of the body is described by the coordinates
x, y, z of the point P and its displacement is defined by vector PP ' with components u, v, w
in the reference directions x, y, z, respectively.

P ( x, y , z )

P '( x  u, y  v, z  w)

u  u  x, y , z  ; v  v  x, y , z  ; w  w  x, y , z 

10
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.2. Components of the strain tensor related to deformation
P0 ( x0 , y0 , z0 ) and P1 ( x0  dx, y0 , z0 )

P '0 ( x0  u0 , y0  v0 , z0  w0 )

P '1 ( x0  dx  u1 , y0  v1 , z0  w1 )
 u
 u1  u 0  du  u0  dx
x

 v
 v1  v0  dv  v0  dx
 x
 w
 w1  w0  dw  w 0  dx
x

 x0  dx  u1  x0  u0 
P '0 P '1 :  y0  v1  y0  v0 
 z w z w 
P '0 P '1  P0 P1 P '0 P '1  dx  0 1 0 0 
x  
P0 P1 dx  u   u 
 dx  u  dx  u   dx  dx
x 
0 0
 P '0 P '1  1   x  dx x
   
 v   v
 v0  dx  v0  dx 
 x   x 
 w   w 
 w0  dx  w0   dx 
 x   x 
11
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.2. Components of the strain tensor related to deformation
 u   v   w  
2 2 2

P' 
2
 1   x 
2
0 P '1 dx   dx  dx    dx   
2
dx  
  x   x   x  
2 2 2
u  u   v   w 
 1  2 x    1  2        
2
x 
x  x   x   x 
u 1  u   v   w  
2 2 2
 x2
 x            
2 x 2  x   x   x  

In the same way, the expressions relating strains in the directions y and z to the
displacement functions may be established yielding:

v 1  u   v   w  
2 2 2
 y2
 y            
2 y 2  y   y   y  

w 1  u   v   w  
2 2 2
 z2
z            
2 z 2  z   z   z  

12
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.2. Components of the strain tensor related to deformation
In the same way, the expressions relating strains in the directions y and z to the
displacement functions may be established yielding:
 u  
 1  x  dx 
  
 v 
P '0 P '1 :  dx 
 x 
 w 
 x dx 
 
 u 
 y dy 
 
 v  
P '0 P '2 :  1   dy 
 y  
 w 
 dy 
 y 

P0 P1  dx and P0 P2  dy

## P '0 P '1  1   x  dx and P '0 P '2  1   y  dy

13
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.2. Components of the strain tensor related to deformation
The scalar product of vectors P '0 P '1 and P '0 P '2 may be expressed by:

 u  u v  v  w w  
 1   dx dy  dx  1   dy  dx dy  1   x  dx 1   y  dy cos    xy 
 x  y x  y  x y 2 
u u u v v v w w
     1   x  1   y  sin  xy
y x y x x y x y
u v u u v v w w
   
y x x y x y x y
 sin  xy 
1   x  1   y  a  b  a . b .cos 

In the same way, the distortions θxz and θyz may be related to the derivatives of the
displacement functions:
u w u u v v w w
   
sin  xz  z x x  z  x  z x z
1   x 1   z 
u w u u v v w w
   
z y y z y z y z
sin  yz 
1   y  1   z 
14
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.2. Components of the strain tensor related to deformation
In structural Engineering the longitudinal and shearing strains are small enough
2
to be considered as infinitesimal quantities, which allows the simplifications     ,
2
, sin    and makes it possible to disregard the strains.
u 1  u   v   w  
2 2 2

 x           
x 2  x   x   x  
u v u u v v w w
 xy   xy  2 xy     
y x x y x y x y
Furthermore, if the rotations are sufficiently small to be considered as infinitesimal
quantities, the squares and the products of the derivatives may be disregarded.

 u   xy 1  u v 
   xy     
 x
x 2 2  y x 
 
 v   xz 1  u w 

 y  and  xz     
 y  2 2  z x 
 w   yz 1  v w 
 z   yz    
 z
 2 2  z y 
15
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.3. Two-Dimensional Analysis of the Strain Tensor
In the same way as in the case of the stress tensor, a two-dimensional analysis of the
strain tensor can also be performed, if one of the principal directions is known. If the
principal strain associated with this direction is zero, we have a state of plane strain.

 u
 x 
 z  0  x
  v
 xz   zx  0   y 
    0  y
 yz zy
 u v
 xy  
 y x

## Normal Strain  x Normal Strain  y Shearing Strain  xy

 xy   x   y

16
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.4. State of deformation in a plane in arbitrary directions
The homogeneous deformation of a rectangle may be defined by the elongation of its
sides (Δdx & Δdy) and by the variation of the initially right-angle between two sides (γxy).

 dx   x .dx

 dx   y .dy

 x   x .dx   y .dy

 y   y .dy   x .dx
 dx  ds.cos 

 dy  ds.sin 
 xy  2. xy   x   y

17
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.4. State of deformation in a plane in arbitrary directions
Consider an infinitesimal line segment with infinitesimal length ds and orientation
defined by the angle θ, measured from axis x in the positive direction (from x to y). The
elongation in the direction of ds of line segment is:
ds   x .cos    y .sin 
  x .dx.cos    y .dy.cos    y .dy.sin    x .dx.sin 

## The normal strain εθ in direction along ds is defined as follow:

ds dx dy dy dx
    x . .cos    y . .cos    y . .sin    x . .sin 
ds ds ds ds ds
  x .cos2    y .sin 2    y .sin  .cos    x .sin  .cos 
  x .cos2    y .sin 2    xy .sin  .cos 
x  y x  y  xy
   cos 2  .sin 2
2 2 2
The transversal displacement of the tip of ds is obtained:
 t   x .sin    y .cos 
  x .dx.sin    y .dy.sin    y .dy.cos    x .dx.cos 

18
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.4. State of deformation in a plane in arbitrary directions
The rotation β of the line segment ds is obtained as follow:
t dx dy dy dx
   x . .sin    y . .sin    y . .cos    x . .cos 
ds ds ds ds ds
   y   x  .cos  .sin    y .sin 2    x .cos 2 
The rotation β’ in the line segment ds’, which make a right-angle with ds is obtained

as follow (which mean  '    ):
2
       
 '   y   x  .cos     .sin       y .sin 2       x .cos 2    
2  2  2  2 
    y   x  .cos  .sin    y .sin 2    x .cos 2 

The double shearing strain γθ between the directions defined by the angles  and

'   is then given by:
2
      '   y   x  .2.cos .sin    x   y  .  cos 2   sin 2  
    x   y  .sin 2   xy .cos 2

  xy 
 xy

 x y 
.sin 2 
 xy
.cos 2
2 2 2
19
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.4. State of deformation in a plane in arbitrary directions
The normal strain and shearing strain in a plane x’y’, which is have an oblique
angle θ from x to x’ in positive direction (counterclockwise), are defined as following:

 x  y x  y  xy x  y x  y
  x '  2  2 .cos 2  2 .sin 2  2  2 .cos 2   xy .sin 2

 x  y x  y  xy x  y x  y

 y'   .cos 2  .sin 2   .cos 2   xy .sin 2
 2 2 2 2 2
  x' y' x  y  xy x  y

 x' y'    .sin 2   .cos 2    .sin 2   xy .cos 2
 2 2 2 2
20
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.4. State of deformation in a plane in arbitrary directions
Mohr’s Circle of the strains would be drawn as follow :

 x  y x  y

 x'   .cos 2   xy .sin 2
 2 2
2 2
 x  y x  y  x  y   x  y 
   
2 2

 y'    .cos 2   xy .sin 2   x'     x' y'      xy
 2 2  2   2 
 x  y
  x' y'   .sin 2   xy .cos 2
 2

## The Circle is:  x '   Avg    x ' y '   R 2

2 2

where:
2
x  y  x  y 
 
2
 Avg  ; R     xy
2  2 

21
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.4. State of deformation in a plane in arbitrary directions
Principal directions and principal strains :
- Principal normal strains :
Direction angles :
 1 2 xy
 2 arctan
 x  y
1 or  2  
 1 arctan 2 xy  
2 x  y 2

Principal values :
2
x  y  x  y 
 
2
1 or  2       xy
2  2 

## - Principal shearing strains :

Direction angles : Principal values :
 1 y  x
 2 arctan 2  xy ,max  x  y 
2

  xy 
 xy
 xy ,max     
2
 3 or  4   2
 1 arctan  y   x    2 
2 2 xy 2 22

Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.5. Measurement of Strain
The strain is commonly measure by the strain gage which is an electrical resistance
strain gage. It measures strain based on the change in resistance of the wire as the object
is strained. When a wire is strained, the wire’s resistance changes according to change in
the wire’s diameter (A), length (L), and resistivity (ρ):

 .L
R
A
23
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.5. Measurement of Strain
The changes in resistance of the strain gages are most easily measured by a
Wheatstone Bridge.

## Wheatstone Bridge Circuit

Vmeas  RG R3 
  
Vin  RG  R2 R1  R3 

Quarter-Bridge Circuit

## The strain ε found by quarter-bridge

circuit is defined as following:
 
Vmeas GF .  1 
  
Vin 4  1  GF .  
 2 24
Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.5. Measurement of Strain
A strain gage only measure strain in one direction. To get principal strains, it is necessary
to use a Strain Rosette. A strain rosette is a cluster of 3 strain gages oriented at different
angles.

##  a   x .cos2  a   y .sin 2  a   xy .sin  a .cos  a

  b   x .cos  b   y .sin  b   xy .sin  b .cos  b
2 2

##     .cos2    .sin 2    .sin  .cos 

 c x c y c xy c c

  x  a
  x  a 
 1
 
 y   2 b  2 c   a 
  y  b  3
  2       2
 xy b a c

 xy   b   c 
 3

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Chapter 4: Strain and Deformation
4.5. Measurement of Strain
Application of Bridge Circuit to find a strain gage:
- Quarter-Bridge Circuit Strain Gage

 
Vmeas GF .  1 
  
Vin 4  1  GF .  
 2

## - Quarter-Bridge Circuit Strain Gage - Full-Bridge Circuit Strain Gage

Vmeas VO GF . Vmeas VO
    GF .
Vin VEx 2 Vin VEx
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Reference
. Economic Committee of World Steel Association (2016). Steel
Statistical Yearbook 2016. World Steel Association: Brussels, Belgium.
 Silva V.D. (2006). Mechanics and Strength of Materials. Springer-
Verlag Berlin Heidelberg: The Netherland.
 Timoshenko S. (1940). Strength of Materials-Part I: Elementary
Theory and Problem. D. Van Nostrand Company, INC.: New York, USA.
 Vong Seng (2007-2008). Résistance des Matériaux (R.D.M.). Institut
de Technologie du Cambodge
 Svetlana L.M., Angel M. & Dimitrina K. P. (2014). Strength of
Materials. University of Architecture, Civil Engineering and Geodesy.
. Jessica G. Rosette Strain Gages & Wheatstone Bridge. Retrieve
from: “ http://user.engineering.uiowa.edu/~bme_158/problems/rosette
ANDwheatsone.pdf ”.
. Several images are gotten from Google.com

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