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3rd Year, 2nd Sem, B.Tech. – Section B

Assistant Professor
Dept. of Mechanical Engg., NIT Warangal
INTERNAL FLOW - Introduction

 The pipes with a circular cross section can withstand large pressure differences
between the inside and the outside without undergoing any distortion.

 Noncircular pipes are usually used in applications such as the heating and cooling
systems of buildings where the pressure difference is relatively small and the
manufacturing and installation costs are lower.

 The terms pipe, duct, tube, and conduit are usually used interchangeably for flow

 In general, flow sections of circular cross section are referred to as pipes

(especially when the fluid is a liquid), and the flow sections of noncircular cross
section as ducts (especially when the fluid is a gas).

 Small diameter pipes are usually referred to as tubes.

Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal

 The friction between the fluid layers in a tube may cause a slight rise in fluid
temperature as a result of mechanical energy being converted to thermal energy.

 But this frictional heating is too small for any consideration in calculations, and thus
is disregarded.

 For example, in the absence of any heat transfer, no noticeable difference will be
detected between the inlet and exit temperatures of a fluid flowing in a tube.

 The primary consequence of friction in fluid flow is pressure drop.

 Thus, it is reasonable to assume that any temperature change in the fluid is due to
heat transfer.

 But frictional heating must be considered for flows that involve highly viscous fluids
with large velocity gradients.

Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal


 In external flow, the free-stream velocity served as a convenient reference velocity for
use in the evaluation of the Reynolds number and the friction coefficient.

 In internal flow, there is no free stream and thus we need an alternative.

 The fluid velocity in a tube changes from zero at the surface because of the no-slip
condition, to a maximum at the tube center.

 Therefore, it is convenient to work with an average or mean velocity Vm, which

remains constant for incompressible flow when the cross sectional area of the tube is

 The value of the mean velocity Vm in a tube is determined from the requirement
that the conservation of mass principle.


Where, m is the mass flow rate, ρ is the density, Ac is the cross sectional area, and V(r, x)
is the velocity profile.

Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal

Then the mean velocity for incompressible flow in a circular tube of radius R can be
expressed as,


Therefore, when we know the mass flow rate or the velocity profile, the mean
velocity can be determined easily

 When a fluid is heated or cooled as it flows through a tube, the temperature of the
fluid at any cross section changes from Ts at the surface of the wall to some
maximum (or minimum in the case of heating) at the tube center.

 In fluid flow it is convenient to work with an average or mean temperature Tm that

remains uniform at a cross section.

 The value of the mean temperature Tm is determined from the conservation of

energy principle.
 That is, the energy transported by the fluid through a cross section in actual flow
must be equal to the energy that would be transported through the same cross
section if the fluid were at a constant temperature Tm.
Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal

Where, Cp is the specific heat of the fluid. Note that the product mCpTm at any cross
section along the tube represents the energy flow with the fluid at that cross section.

Then the mean temperature of a fluid with constant density and specific heat flowing
in a circular pipe of radius R can be expressed as,


Also, the fluid properties in internal flow are usually evaluated at the bulk mean fluid
temperature, which is the arithmetic average of the mean temperatures at the inlet
and the exit. That is, Tb = (Tm,i + Tm,e)/2.

Laminar and Turbulent region

Re < 2300 Laminar flow

2300 ≤ Re ≤ 10,000 Transitional flow
Re > 10,000 Turbulent flow

Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal

 Consider a fluid CIRCULAR PIPE
entering a circular tube
at a uniform velocity.

 A velocity boundary
layer develops along
the tube in all 360°.
 The thickness of this boundary layer increases in the flow direction until the
boundary layer reaches the tube center and thus fills the entire tube.

 The region from the tube inlet to the point at which the boundary layer merges at
the centerline is called the hydrodynamic entrance region, and the length of this
region is called the hydrodynamic entry length Lh.

 Flow in the entrance region is called hydrodynamically developing flow since this is
the region where the velocity profile develops.

 The region beyond the entrance region in which the velocity profile is fully developed
and remains unchanged is called the hydrodynamically fully developed region.
 The velocity profile in the fully developed region is parabolic in laminar flow and
somewhat flatter in turbulent flow due to eddy motion in radial direction
Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal
 Consider a fluid at a uniform
temperature entering a circular tube
whose surface is maintained at a
different temperature.
 The fluid particles in contact with the
surface of the tube will assume the
surface temperature.
 This will develop of a thermal boundary layer along the tube.

 The thickness of this boundary layer also increases in the flow direction until the
boundary layer reaches the tube center and thus fills the entire tube.

 The region the thermal boundary layer develops and reaches the tube center is called
the thermal entrance region, and the length is called the thermal entry length, Lt.

 Flow in the thermal entrance region is called thermally developing flow since this is the
region where the temperature profile develops.

 The region beyond the thermal entrance region is called the thermally fully developed
Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal
The region in which the flow is both hydrodynamically and thermally developed and
thus both the velocity and dimensionless temperature profiles remain unchanged is
called fully developed flow


Constant Wall Temperature Boundary condition:
Red < 2300
Re = Dum/ν (8.5)
Friction factor f is defined as,
where ΔP is the pressure drop in length L, the other terms defined as usual. This factor f
(Darcy friction factor) is also equal to 4Cf.
Where, Cf is friction coefficient, Cf = τw/ 0.5 ρu2.

For laminar flow, f = 64/Re (8.8)

The entry length Hydrodynamic, x/D = 0.04 Re (8.9)

Thermal, (xt/D) = 0.04 Re Pr (8.10)

Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal


The friction factor for smooth pipes is given by, for Re > 104


For transition range (8.12)

f = 0.316 Re–0.25

For rough pipes, the Moody chart can be used. Also for relative roughness of ε/D


The following two relations are useful for finding the Nu at the entrance region


Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal

The more popular correlation for fully developed flow in smooth tubes is due to Dittus
and Boelter (1930) (modified Colburn)
Nu = 0.023 Re0.8 Prn (8.16)
n = 0.3 for cooling and 0.4 for heating of fluids.

A modified form when the property variation due to temperature change was large
proposed by Sieder and Tate (1936) is



A more recent correlation (1970)

In internal flow fluid properties
which fits experimental values more
should be taken at Tm = (Tmi+Tmo)/2.
closely is given
If Tmo is not given, then we should
by (properties at film Temp., except μ)
go with Tmi. Later, if Tmo will be
found, if much variation is noticed,
(8.19) then we do re-calculate the
properties with new Tm. So, plate
temp (Ts) no need to be considered
in internal flow for taking properties.
Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal
Example 8.1: Water at a bulk mean temperature of 40°C flows through a tube of 0.05 m
inner diameter with a velocity of 0.025 m/s. The tube is 2 m long and its surface is at a
constant temperature of 60°C. Determine the heat transfer and the mean temperature
rise during the flow. Assume hydrodynamic boundary layer already developed.
Solution: The properties of water at 40°C are, specific heat, c = 4178 J/kgK

Using the chart (HMT data book, page: 130) the value of Nu is read as 9.

Heat transferred, Q = hA(Ts – Tm) = = 113.04 × π × 0.05 × 2(60 – 40) = 710 W.

Temperature rise, ΔT = Q/mc = 710/(0.04884 × 4178) = 3.48°C

Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal

Page no: 124, 1.2

By the empirical correlations the Nusselt number values are close.

Example 8.2: Water is to be heated at the rate of 0.01 kg/s from bulk temperature of
20°C to 60°C as it flows through a tube of 20 mm ID by means of electrical resistance
heating at the rate of 15 × 103 W/m2. Calculate the length required. Also find the heat
transfer coefficient.

Solution: Bulk mean temperature = (60 + 20)/2 = 40°C (here, the water is heated from
20 to 60°C. So, this is the better way to pick the Tm value). The property values are:
ρ = 995 kg/m3, ν = 0.657 × 10–6 m2/s, Pr = 4.34, c = 4178 J/kg K, k = 0.628 W/mK.

Confirm this flow is laminar or turbulent. Therefore, the Re should be estimated. For
finding the Re, velocity is not given. But mass flow rate is given (m = 0.01 kg/s). From that
find the velocity as, m = ρAcv, where Ac is cross section area, v is velocity in m/s.

Therefore, velocity v = 0.01/(995 x π x 0.022/4) = 0.032 m/s

Re = vD/ν = 974, therefore, it is laminar flow.
Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal
Constant heat flux condition: assuming fully developed flow (page no: 125, 1.2.7)
Nu = 4.364, therefore, h = 4.364 x 0.628 / 0.02

h = 136.0 W/m2 K

Using energy balance,

π DLq = mc ΔTm, therefore, L = mc ΔTm / πDq
L = 0.01 x 4178 (60 – 20) / (π x 0.02 x 15 x 103)

L = 1.773 m.

Example 8.3: Air at 20°C flows through an 8 cm dia pipe with a velocity of 9 m/s, The
pipe wall is at 80°C. The length of the pipe is 1 m. Determine the exit temperature of air.

L / D = 1 / 0.08 = 12.5. So it is better to use entry region correlations (pg. no: 126, 2.2.2).
Considering properties at 20°C
ρ = 1.205 kg/m3, ν = 15.06 × 10–6 m2/s, Pr = 0.703, k = 0.02593 W/mK, Cp = 1005 J/kg K,
Re = 9 × 0.08/15.06 × 10–6 = 47809. (Flow is TURBULENT as Re > 2300)

Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal

Using equation 2.2.2, pg no: 126

Nu = 0.036 Re0.8 Pr0.33 (D/x)0.055 with the constraints of 10 < (L/D) < 400

Therefore, Nu = 154.37, ∴ h = 50.04 W/m2K

The temperature variation is shown in figure. So LMTD should be used in place of ΔT

Tmi = 20 and Tmo = 29.1 °C. Now we can re-do the problem with the new bulk mean temp
[Tm = (20+29.1)/2 ≈ 25 °C] properties. We can get refined Nu and h values.

Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal

Example 8.4: Liquid sodium flows through a 5 cm dia pipe at a velocity of 4 m/s. The
temperature of the fluid at entry is 200°C. If at the pipe wall the fluid is exposed to
uniform heat flux, determine the value of convective heat transfer coefficient.

Solution: The property values at 200°C are (pg. no: 33)

ρ = 903 kg/m3, ν = 0.506 × 10–6 m2/s, Pr = 0.0075, k = 81.41 W/mK, c = 1327.2 J/kg K

Re = 0.05 × 4/0.506 × 10–6 = 395257, (Turbulent flow) With the condition of,
3.6 x 103 < Re < 9.05 x 105
Using equation 2.4.2, pg no: 127, constant heat flux And 102 < Re Pr < 104

Nu = 4.82 + 0.0185 (Re Pr)0.827 = 18.58,

∴ h = 30244 W/m2K

Chandramohan V.P./Asst Prof./MED/NIT Warangal