Electrical Distribution
System Protection
Copyright 2005
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States
""'
COOPER Power Systems
I
The information in this manual, while based on generally accepted fundamentals and practices, does not claim to cover all details or variations
in the requirements and problems relating to electrical distributionsystem overcurrent and overvoltage phenomena, and in the methods and
equipment for dealing with such phenomena. Also, the examples ctted for achieving overcurrent and overvoltage protection are typical ones
presented for illustration only, and their solutions should not be applied to specific situations without full consideration of all appropriate factors.
II
A Guide to the Manual
The designer of an electrical distribution tors as well as by causing dangerous In this manual, prepared for system
system must anticipate a variety of sit voltage transients ondistribution designers, protection engineers, and
uations that might interfere with normal circuits. students, the general subject of
operation of the system. Among the The primary cause of overloads is distributionsystem protection is broken
most commonly encountered abnormal simply unforeseen or fasterthan into its two principal areas: overcurrent
conditions are line faults and their expected load growth, and equipment protection and overvoltage protection.
resultant overcurrents, transient over malfunction or failure also might over Within each of these sections are
voltages, and system overloads. tax a system. Equipment failure can be detailed discussions of fundamentals
Generally, atmospheric distur caused by the improper design, manu and theory, equipment characteristics,
bancesand, to a lesser extent, human facture, installation, or application of and applications. A third section then
and animal interference  are the under the equipment itself, and by lightning, covers the special considerations that
lying causes of faults and overvolt insulation deterioration, and system must be taken into account in protect
ages. Line faults can be caused by faults. ing systems with industrial loads, with
strong winds that whip phase conduc "Distributionsystem protection" is dispersed generation, and with system
tors together and blow tree branches the composite of all the measures automation.
onto lines. In winter, freezing rain can taken on a given system to minimize To guide you into the manual, pre
produce a gradual buildup of ice on a the effects of the abnormal conditions sented below is a general listing of the
circuit, causing one or more conduc described above. All of the conditions three main sections, each of which
tors to break and fall to the ground. cannot be prevented from occurring at contains a detailed table of contents.
Squirrels and birds will sometimes all times, but they can be controlled
produce line or ground faults by placing and containedby protecting equipment
themselves between energized portions and lines from damage to the fullest
of the circuit and/or ground. On under extent that technology and economics
ground systems, the severing of cables permit, and by limiting any interrup
by earthmoving equipment is tions of service to the smallest
a prevalent cause of faults. Lightning practical portions of the system and
strokes can fault a system by opening numbers of customers.
lines or initiating arcs between conduc
III
Section A
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
Table of Contents
Page Page
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY 2. PROTECTIVE .EQUIPMENT CHARACTER
Introduction . .. . .... . . ..... .. . . ....... .. .. ...... 5 ISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS ... 51
Principles and Objectives .. . ..... . .. . ..... . .... ... 6 Introduction . .. . . . .. . ... . .......... . .. . ... . . .. .51
Distribution System Reliability . ................ ... . . .6 Fusing Equipment . . .. .. . .. ..... ... . . ...... . .... 52
Performance Indices .. ..... . ..... . ............ .. 6 Designs and Characteristics ........ . ......... . .... 52
Feeder Length as a Factor in Reliability .... . ... . .. .. 7 Fuse Links ... . .... . ............. . .... .. ...... 52
Protection Concerns and Practices ........ . ...... . .. .7 Fuse Cutouts . . ... .. .. . ..... .. .. . .. . ... . ... .. .53
Temporary vs. Permanent Faults ................ ... 7 CurrentLimiting Fuses .. ............... . .... . .. 54
Protecting Feeder Segments and Taps ..............7 Fuse Application Factors .. . ....... . ............ . .. 59
"Protecting" and "Protected" Devices ... . ........... .8 Fuse Cutouts/Fuse Links ..... . ..... . .. . .. . .. . . . .59
Momentary Service Interruptions ..... . ... . ... . ...... 8 FuseLink Selection .. ..... . .... . ... . . .. .. . ... . .60
Tools for Fault Analysis ..... . ......... . ......... .9 CurrentLimiting Fuse Selection ........... . ...... 61
Method of Symmetrical Components ......... ." ...... .9 Automatic Circuit Reclosers ... . ..... . ...... .. .. . .62
Simplifying the Approach to Recloser Classifications ... . .... .. ...... . .. .. .... . .62
Complicated Problems .. . ......................9 SinglePhase Reclosers . ... ... ... . .. . .. . . . .... .62
Balanced Systems in Symmetrical Components ..... .9 ThreePhase Reclosers . .. ................. . .... 64
Relationships Between Symmetrical Components and Triple/Single Reclosers ............ . .... . ....... 64
Phase Quantities . . . .. . ............ . ......... 10 Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers .. . . . . .. . .. . .... 65
Example of Symmetrical Components Method ....... 10 Electronically Controlled Reclosers . .. .. .. . ... . .... 65
Sequence Impedances ... ............ . ......... 11 Types of Interrupters ... . .. . .... . .. . ....... .. . . .65
The PerUnit Method ...... . . .... . ................ 11 Types of Insulating Mediums ...... . . . ....... . . . .. 65
SinglePhase System Calculations . ...... ... . .. ... 12 Recloser Locations and Functions .. . . . . ........ . .. .66
ThreePhase System Calculations ................ 13 Padmounted Reclosers . .. .. ... . ............. . .66
Use of Impedances in Fault Calculations ............. 14 Recloser Application Factors . . ..... . .. . ....... . .. . .66
Types of Distribution Circuits .... .. ............... 14 System Voltage . .. .. . .. ...... . .. .. .... . ..... . .66
Impedances of Overhead Distribution Circuits ....... 14 Maximum Fault Current ........ . ... . ...... . . . . . .66
Impedances of Underground Distribution Cable ...... 19 Maximum Load Current ....... . .... . .. .. .. . ... . .66
Equations for Calculating Sequence Impedances Minimum Fault Current . . ........ . .............. 66
of Underground Concentric Neutral Cable .. . ....20 Coordination with Other Protective Devices . .. . . . . . .66
Effect of Cable Insulation . . ...... . ... ..........25 Dual Timing . . . .. . . .. .......... . ......... .. .67
Effect of Neutral Size ............ ... .... ......25 GroundFault Sensing .. . .... . ..... . . . ........ . .67
Effect of Earth Resistivity ... .. .. . . . .. . .. .. .. ... 25 Sectionalizers .. . .. . . . .. . . . ..... . ..... .. ........ 68
Effect of Interphase Spacing . . .. .. . . .......... .25 Sectionalizer Classifications ... . ... . .. . .. ... . ... ... 68
Skin Effect and Proximity Effect . . .. . . .. . .... .. . .26 Hydraulically Controlled Sectionalizers . ..... . . . .. . .68
Impedances of Transformers ............. .. . . ... .26 Electronically Controlled Sectionalizers ... . .... . .... 68
Impedances of Transmission Lines . . ........ . . ... .27 Sectionalizer Features .. .. .. . . ..... . .... . .... .. ... 68
Impedances of Generators ... .. .... . .. . ....... ..27 Sectionalizer Application Factors .. .. . ....... . . . ..... 68
Source Impedance ................ . ...... . .. . .29 System VoHage .. .......... .. ...... . . . .. . .. . .. 69
Methods for Finding Source Impedance ........ . .30 Maximum Load Current . . .... . ........ . ......... 69
Fault Impedance .. . .. . . . ... ... . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. .31 Maximum FauH Current . .. ......... . .. ... . . . . ... 69
System Faults . . .... . .. . .. . ...... . . . . . . . .... . .. 33 Coordination with Other Protective Devices ...... . .. 69
Types of Faults .. . ... . ... .. . . ............... . ....33 Circuit Breakers and Relays . .. . ..................70
Voltages at the Terminals of a Generator . .. ... . .. . .33 Circuit Breaker Characteristics and Classifications ...... 70
Equations for a Single LinetoGround Fault ... . .. . .. 34 Circuit Breaker Ratings . .... . . . .. . ......... . ...... 71
Sequence Networks ...... . ........... . . . ...... 35 Rated Maximum Voltage .. . ..... . .. . .... . .. .. ... 71
Equations for Other Fault Conditions . . .. . .... . .. . .36 Rated VoHage Range Factor, K . .......... .. .... . .71
Thevenin's Theorem . . . . ..... . ..... . ......... .36 Rated Withstand Test Voltage, Low Frequency . . ..... 71
Equations for FaultCurrent Magnitudes ... . .. .. . .36 Rated Withstand Test Voltage, Impulse . .... .. ..... .71
Asymmetrical Fault Current . .. . . . .... .. .. .. . . .... . .38 Rated Continuous Current at 60Hz .. . . . ..........71
Definition and Significance . . .......... . ..... . . . .38 Rated ShortCircuit Current
Application of Current Asymmetry Information . ...... 39 (at Rated Maximum kV) . . . ... . . .. . .. . . .. ...... 71
MotorCurrent Contributions ......... . ............ .42 Transient Recovery Voltage, Rated Time to Point P ... 71
Fault Calculation Procedures and Examples ...........43 Rated Interrupting Time ... . ..... . ...............71
Assumptions ............ . .......... . . . .. . .. . .43 Rated Permissible Tripping Delay .... . ....... .. . . .71
Basic Approach . . .. . ... .. . . . .. . . . ... . ... . . .. . .43 Rated Maximum Voltage Divided by K ... . ...... . . .72
Example of SourceImpedance Calculation ..... . ... 44 Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting Capability ....... 72
Example of DistributionSystem Calculation ........ .45 ThreeSecond ShortTime CurrentCarrying Capability 72
Computer Calculation of Fault Currents . ........ . .47 ClosingandLatching Capability . . ..... . ....... . .. 72
Index of Figures and Tables . .. . . . ....... . ... . . . . .50 Types of Relays . .. . . .. .. . . ......... . .... . .. . . ...73
Overcurrent Relay . . .......... . .... . . . ... . .... : .. 73
TimeCurrent Characteristics ... . ... . ..... . ....... 73
Instantaneous Trip .. . ... . ... . ....... . .. .... .. ·. .75
Reset . ..... . .. . .. . ..... . . . . ... ...... . .... . .. 78
2
Section A
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
Page Page
Reclosing Relay .................................78 Using TimeCurrent Curves ....................... 125
Microprocessor Based Relay .....................78 Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers
Index of Figures and Tables ......................79 Coordination Basics ........................... 125
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND Smaller Reclosers (Series Coil Operated} ......... 125
COORDINATION Larger Recloser (HighVoltage Solenoid Closing) .... 126
Introduction ...................................81 Electronically Controlled Reclosers
Coordination Basics ............................82 Coordination Basics ........................... 126
Example of System Coordination ...................82 Example of Electronic Recloser Coordination ....... 127
FuseFuse Coordination .........................83 Alternate Coordination Scheme ................. 128
TCC Coordination Method .........................83 Features and Accessories for Electronically
Use of Coordination Tables ........................ 84 Controlled Reclosers .......................... 128
Rules of Thumb .................................85 Sequence Coordination ........................ 128
CurrentLimiting Fuse Coordination ...............87 Instantaneous Trip ............................ 128
SourceSide CurrentLimiting Fuse and LoadSide Instantaneous Lockout ......................... 131
Expulsion Fuse ...............................87 Instantaneous Trip/Instantaneous Lockout
LoadSide CurrentLimiting Fuse and Combination ............................... 131
SourceSide Expulsion Fuse ..................... 87 Reclosing Interval .............................. 131
Coordinating Two CurrentLimiting Fuses ............. 88 Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers ............... 132
Backup CurrentLimiting Fuse and Expulsion Fuse ..... 88 Electronically Controlled Reclosers ............... 132
Transformer Fusing .............................90 Examples of Reclosing Intervals ................. 132
Developing a Transformer Fusing Philosophy .......... 90 Recloser and Relay/Circuit Breaker Coordination ... 133
Types of Fuses for Transformer Protection ............ 90 Microprocessor Overcurrent Relay ................. 133
Capacitor Fusing ...............................98 ElectroMechanical Overcurrent Relay .............. 133
General Criteria .................................98 Impulse Margin Time .......................... 133
Withstanding SteadyState and Transient Reset Time ................................. 134
Currents ...................................98 Methods for Checking Relay and Downline
Effectively Removing a Failed or Failing Capacitor Recloser Coordination ....................... 135
Unit .......................................98 Recloser and Relay/CircuitBreaker
Summary of General Criteria ....................98 Coordination Analysis ....................... 137
Group Capacitor Fusing ..........................98 Calculation of Relay Travel
Continuous Current ............................98 During Recloser Operation .................... 137
Transient Currents .............................99 Sectionalizer Applications ...................... 138
Fault Current .................................99 Sectionalizer Coordination Principles ............... 138
TankRupture Curve Coordination ................ 100 Recloser and Hydraulically Controlled
Voltage on Good Capacitors .................... 100 Sectionalizer Coordination ...................... 138
Coordination with Upline Overcurrent Devices ...... 100 Coil Sizes ................................... 139
Summary of Group Fusing ..................... 100 Memory Time ................................ 139
Individual Capacitor Fusing ....................... 100 Voltage Restraint ............................. 140
Continuous Current ........................... 100 Recloser and Electronically Controlled
Transient Currents ............................ 100 Sectionalizer Coordination ...................... 141
Fault Current ................................ 100 Selection of Actuating Levels .................. 141
TankRupture Curve Coordination ................ 103 Sectionalizer Features ....................... 141
Voltage on Good Capacitors .................... 103 Count Reset .............................. 141
Energy Discharge into a Failed Unit .............. 104 Voltage Restraint .......................... 141
Outrush Current .............................. 104 Count Restraint ........................... 142
Coordination with Unbalance Detection Scheme .... 104 Current Inrush Restraint ..................... 142
Summary of Individual Fusing ................... 104 GroundFault Sensing ...................... 142
Recloser and FuseLink Coordination ............. 105 Recloser, Sectionalizer, and FuseLink Coordination ... 142
Recloser Coordination Principles* ................ 105 Recloser, Sectionalizer, and Recloser Coordination .... 143
Recloser Ratings* ............................ 105 Circuit Breaker and Sectionalizer Coordination ........ 143
*Pertain Also to Other Recloser Applications Automatic Load Transfer ........................ 144
Use of TimeCurrent Curves with Adjustments ...... 111 Switched Load Transfer Schemes .................. 144
Coordination with SourceSide Fuse Links ......... 111 Load Transfer Schemes Utilizing Reclosers .......... 144
Example of SourceSide Fuse and Load Transfer with Manual Return ................ 144
Recloser Selections ......................... 112 Load Transfer with Automatic Return ............. 145
Coordination with LoadSide Fuse Links ........... 112 Loop Sectionalizing ............................ 147
Example of LoadSide Fuse and Loop Sectionalizing Scheme with Three Reclosers .... 147
Recloser Selections ......................... 112 Loop Sectionalizing Scheme with Five Reclosers ...... 148
RelayFuse Coordination ....................... 117 Loop Sectionalizing Scheme with Three Reclosers
Relay and SourceSide Fuse Coordination ........... 117 and Two Sectionalizers ........................ 149
Total Accumulated Time Method ................. 117 Index of Figures and Tables ..................... 150
CoolingFactor Method ........................ 117
Relay and WadSide Fuse Coordination ............. 121 4. SUMMARY OF PROTECTION FOR A
Approaches to Temporary Fault Protection ......... 121 COMPLETE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
ReclosertoRecloser Coordination ............... 125 Introduction .................................. 153
3
Page Page
Preliminary Considerations .....................154
Review of Principles ............................ 154
System Configuration and Data .................... 154
Protective Equipment Selections and Applications .. 156
Substation Transformer Protection .................. 156
Main Circuit Protection .....................•.... 157
Recloser and Relay/Circuit Breaker Coordination .... 157
Feeder Protection ....•......................... 158
RecloserSectionalizer Coordination ..........•... 159
RecloserRecloser Coordination .........•....... 159
GroundFault Protection .....................•....160
Branch Protection .............................. 160
RecloserFuse Coordination ...•................. 161
Capacitor Fusing ............................... 163
Summary .........................•...........165
* * *
REFERENCES AND CREDITS 264
4
Section A
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
An Introduction
A thorough understanding of fundamentals and theory is of overcurrent protection, which will be repeated and
essential for effective handling of distributionsystem protection enlarged upon, as appropriate, in subsequent sections dealing
problems. In order to minimize the undesirable effects an with specifics. Detailed discussions of tools the designer may
occasionally hostile environment can have on system per use for fault analysis are followed by descriptions of the various
formance, the designer or protection engineer must know the types of faults that may be encountered, presentation of a
types of faults that can occur on the system and the nature of basic method for calculating the magnitude of overcurrent for
their cause, plus, of course, the probability and effects of different types of disturbances, and a discussion of the use of
lightning and systemproduced voltage surges (to be digital computers for analyzing complex systems. All of which
covered in Section B, Overvoltage Protection). is intended to provide a solid foundation for understanding
This section on fundamentals and theory begins with and use of the equipment and application information in
introductory comments about the principles and philosophy Sections A2 and A3.
5
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
6
A1
Feeder Length as a factor in Reliability Maximum service reliability is achieved when the distribution
uany utilities have found that service reliability deteriorated system is designed and operated to minimize the effects
slgnifk:;antly when they converted to a higher distribution voltage of any fault that may occur. Given the high percentage of
,tor example, from 4 kV to 13 kV). The higher voltage allowed temporary faults, two basic rules of distribution protec,ion
bnger feeders and more customers per feeder, but each outage emerge:
aftected more customers, and longer feeders required more 1. All faults must be given a chance to be temporary by
patrol time to locate the fault and take corrective action. providing a reclosing operation for a fault anywhere on the
Even without a change to higher voltage, service reliability system.
can deteriorate as more customers are added to a feeder, 2.1n responding to that low percentage of faults found to
and the feeder itself may be extended. be permanent after the designated number of reclosing
To restore service reliability in such cases, an important operations has been performed, the protective devices
first step is to sectionalize each feeder into smaller segments, must remove from service only the smallest possible portion
thereby limiting the number of customers affected by a given of the system necessary for isolation of the faulted segment.
ootage and reducing the subsequent patrol time. Operating Protecting Feeder Segments and Taps
experience of a number of utilities that have adopted this To minimize the effects of faults on the main feeder, section
sectionalizing practice suggests that an optimum feeder alizing devices (reclosers or sectionalizers, or a combination
segment in terms of load is 3 to 5 MVA. As the load of a line of the two) can be used to divide the feeder into the desired
segment approaches 8 to 10 MVA, outage rates increase to smaller segments. All taps running off the feeder should have
unsatisfactory levels. a protective device (fuses for small taps, a recloser or section
alizer for large taps) where they connect to the main feeder.
PROTECTION CONCERNS AND PRACTICES Even on very small taps, a fuse should be used. The justifi
Temporary Versus Permanent Faults cation is that this type of fuse does not only protect the tap,
Most faults on overhead distribution systems are temporary  but rather protects the remainder of the distribution feeder
perhaps as high as 70 to 80 percent. Also, of those faults from a fault on the tap.
categorized as permanent, at least onethird had initially Regardless of the extent of sectionalizing for a particular
been temporary (that is, lasting only a few cycles to a few feeder, a combination of a recloser and fuses (Figure OA 1)
seconds). and/or sectionalizers is typically used to protect a feeder seg
A temporary fault is one whose cause is transitory in ment and its taps against both temporary and permanent
nature. Examples include momentary interruptions caused faults. The fast trip curve of the recloser is used to clear all
by two conductors being blown together, by a tree branch transient faults on the main feeder and taps. For permanent
faling across two conductors and then dropping clear, and by faults on the taps, the recloser timedelay curve allows the
a bird or small animal that briefly causes an arc from a live tap fuse to clear, resulting in an outage on the tap only.
terminal to ground. If the arc that results can be cleared Some additional steps that can be taken to minimize the
quickly, before it burns into a permanent fault, the cause of the effects of transient faults on sophisticated electronic and
fault is gone, no equipment damage has occurred, and the microprocessorcontrolled devices is discussed below under
circuit can be reenergized immediately, restoring service to "Momentary Service Interruptions."
the entire system. Since the "open" time between fault inter
ruption and reenergization is so brief, this type of incident
is classified as a momentary outage.
A permanent fault is one in which damage has occurred,
either from the cause of the fault or from the fault arc.
Examples include faults caused by a broken insulator, by a
broken conductor, and by an automobile knocking down a pole.
When a permanent fault occurs, the line must be deener
gized, and a line crew must travel to the site and repair the
damage. The time to restore service may range from 30 minutes
to several hours; accordingly, the incident results in a recorded Figure OA1.
Reclosers and fuses protect feeder segment and taps
sustained outage. against temporary and transient faults.
7
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Principles and Objectives (Continued)
•
jllo
jllo
A
PROTECTED
8
DEVICE
installing a recloser on the main feeder just downline from
the critical load. This reduces the fasttrip burden of the
1
~
OR BACKUP substation device and consequently the number of
DEVICE momentary interruptions experienced by the critical load.
C PROTECTING 4. Reclosers can be added to longer taps off main feeders to
DEVICE
relieve the main feeder from momentary interruptions
caused by downline faults on the tap.
Figure 1A1. In addition to taking whatever steps are deemed
Conventional definitions of protective devices based on
location. Fuse links are indicated for illustration. appropriate to limit the number of momentary interruptions,
electric power suppliers may want to consider communicating
with customers on the relative desirability of such interruptions
compared to longterm outages. Customers also might be
MOMENTARY SERVICE INTERRUPTIONS made aware that they can purchase appliances and products
In years past, momentary service interruptions as a result of with battery backup, or with circuitry that overrides brief
temporary faults caused little or no customer concerns or power interruptions. For industrial and commercial
inconvenience. In fact, when a brief power loss occurred and customers, the ideal solution may be an uninterruptible
the only result was a dimming of lights or a momentary loss power supply.
of service, there was a feeling of relief because there was no
longterm outage.
8
A1
9
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)
Vc,
{3)
Va = Va 1 + Va2 + Vao
10
A1
Expressing these results both graphically and numerically, Sequence Impedances
the positivesequence components are: In general usage, the phrase "positivesequence impedance"
does not mean the positivesequence component of an
unbalanced set of impedances ~a, ~ b, and ~c. such as
might be calculated from the expression(~ a+ a~ b + a2~ c)l3.
Ia 1 = .667 I 60°
Instead, the phrase means the impedance of a symmetrical
lb 1 = a 21a1 = .667 I 300° threephase circuit measured when energized by a positive
sequence voltage source. For example, if a symmetrical
lc 1 =ala 1 =.667 I 180° threephase line has all three phases shorted at one end and
is energized by a balanced threephase positivesequence
Ib1 voltage at the other end, then only positivesequence cur
rents will flow in the three phases of the line. The phase A
The negativesequence components are: linetoground voltage at the input to the line divided by the
phase A current will then be the positive sequence of the line.
Similarly, the phrases "negativesequence impedance" and
Ia2 = .333 I 120° "zerosequence impedance" are shortened expressions for
"impedance to negativesequence current" and "impedance
lb 2 = ala 2 = .333 I 240° to zerosequence current." The symbols normally used to
designate positive, negative, and zerosequence impedances
lc 2 = a 21a2 = .333 ~ are used here. These are, respectively, ~ 1, ~ 2, and ~ o.
This material will consider only symmetrical, or balanced,
circuits. For example, fully balanced distribution lines and
balanced sources of supply are assumed. These are reasonable
The zerosequence components are: assumptions, and results based on them are sufficiently
accurate for fault calculations. Also, these assumptions help
demonstrate the method of symmetrical components without
getting into the many complications of the method when
working with unsymmetrical systems. In unsymmetrical systems,
positivesequence currents will, in general, produce negative
and zerosequence voltage drops as well as positive
sequence voltage drop. This means that the mutual coupling
between the sequence networks must be defined. These
Once the symmetrical components are known, phase mutual sequence impedances can be calculated, but with
quantities can be determined by using Equations 2 or 1: considerable difficulty, and as a result, the method of sym
metrical components loses much of its usefulness. Most
applications of the method are in the analysis of unsymmetrical
I~ ~ / 1 Ia = Ia 1 + Ia 2 + Ia0
Ia faults, unbalanced loads, etc., on balanced systems.
~ = .667 I 60° +.333 I 120° + .333 L.Q: Therefore, the more involved aspects of symmetrical component
1 theory, such as the mutual impedances between sequence
J Iaa = ~ (.5 + j.866} + ~ (.5 + j.866} + ~ (1 + iO) networks, are not discussed. However, these are given con
siderable attention in some of the references, especially
= .5 + j.866 Edith Clarke (Reference 1).
11
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)
3. Manufacturers usually specify the impedance of apparatus and defining VAs, the base power, in volt amps as
in percent or perunit on the base of the nameplate rating.
In analyzing a system containing apparatus, it is conven VAa Eala
ient to use these perunit impedances either directly (if the
apparatus ratings are equivalent to the system voltage and provides VA .E......L (6)
kVA base) or suitably modified to conform to the system VAs = Ea Is
bases.
4. In studying the performance of a system, the comparative Thus, the perunit VA power is defined as
importance of the values of such factors as voltage and
current is more readily judged in the perunit system, espe VApu
cially when the system has a multiplicity of voltage levels.
For example, the significance of a 100ampere current may Therefore VApu = (7)
be different in one part of the system than in another.
Depending on the normal fullload currents of the circuits, Voltage, current, power, and impedance are so related
the 100 amperes may represent a severe overload if it (Equations 4 and 6) that selection of base values for any two
exists on one line and less than normal load on another determines the base values of the remaining two. Usually, base
line. In the perunit system, the base currents are fre power in kVA and base voltage in kV are the quantities
quently closely related to fullload conditions. So in the first selected to specify the base. In this case, Equations 4 and 6
case cited, 100 amperes might be equivalent to 1.6 per become
unit current (60 percent overload), and in the second case,
only 0.35 perunit current. For this purpose, the numbers
1000 Es Ia~= (8)
1.6 and 0.35 perunit are more meaningful measures of the kVA 8 = Esls (9)
significance of the current than 100 amperes.
Consider the simple voltagecurrentimpedance equation where Es =base voltage in kilo volts
Is =base current in amperes
E=lr
where the units of E, I, and r
are volts, amperes, and ohms, ra = base impedance in ohms
respectively. kVA 8 =base power in kilo voltamperes.
Dividing both sides of the above equation by the same
number does not destroy the equality. Call this number E8 ,
base voltage.
Similarly, the perunit definitions (Equations 35 and 37)
E Ir become
Es = Es
Epu = ~s
Defining a base current IB and a base impedance r B, I
subject to the condition lpu = Is
Ea = Isrs
then r
_§_ = _N_ rpu = rs
Es Isrs (4)
kVA
Finally, the following perunit (pu) quantities are defined: kVApu = kVAs {1 0)
2
rs = ~~;s = base impedance in ohms
1
(11)
12
A1
ThreePhase System Calculations If n is the transformer turns ratio, Ep and Es are the primary
In threephase circuits, data are usually given as total and secondary voltages in kV, respectively; Ip, and Is are
threephase kVA and linetoline kV, and the above formulas primary and secondary currents in amperes, respectively;
do not apply. Hence, if the linetoline voltage and total three and ~ is the load impedance in ohms, then the following
phase kVA are specified, the following formulas are used to relationships can be written:
find base quantities instead of Equations 11 :
Ep = nEs
kVAs = threephase base kVA
1
Ip = nis
E9 = linetoline base voltage in kV
= n2r
rpB
= rn 2kVAs
n:1 1000 Ep 2
B
Fagure 4A1.
= r pu viewed from secondary
Diagram of singlephase transformer with zero impedance
serving a load impedance. Therefore, by properly choosing the voltage and power
bases, the perunit value of an impedance on one side of a
transformer can be used directly on the other side.
13
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)
USE OF IMPEDANCES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS 5. Threewire system served from an ungrounded, wye
The impedance information necessary to conduct a fauH study connected transformer
includes the system sequence impedances viewed from each
of the fault points to be considered, and the value of fault
.A
impedance, ::Z: , associated with each type of fault. The
sequence impedances of the system are independent of the
type of fault.
To find system impedance, first identify the individual
components of the system: e.g., underground cable, overhead
lines, transformers, generators, etc. Next, the sequence e~c
impedances of the individual components are determined, Additional classifications of circuits involving various
normally through the use of tables and formulas. Finally, the combinations of one or two phase conductors and a neutral
component impedances are combined to produce the equivalent could be identified, but these exist in practice only as twophase
sequence impedances of the system, taking into account any or si~glephase laterals tapped off of one of the above systems.
seriesparallel connections and the various voltage levels So s1ngle or twophase laterals are not described here as
between the point being studied and the source. separate types of distribution circuits, but rather are referred
to in terms of the type of circuit from which they are supplied.
Types of Distribution Circuits For example, in studying a lateral consisting only of two
The impedance of a distribution circuit is markedly affected phase conductors, one must know whether it is served by a
not only by conductor material, size, and spacing, but also grounded system (Types 1, 2, and 3) or an ungrounded system
by such factors as the presence or absence of a neutral (Types 4 and 5), since both impedances and fault levels are
conductor, the nature of system grounding, and the transformer affected.
connection at the distribution substation. These factors are In the United States, the most common type of primary
what distinguishes one type of distribution circuit from another. distribution circuit is the multigrounded neutral system (Type 1).
Following are diagrams of the types of distribution circuits: This is true for both overhead and underground.
.In some .areas, however, some of the other circuit types are
1. Fourwire multigroundedneutral system still extenstvely used. For example, countries in the Far East
including Australia, predominantly utilize a threewir~
.A u.nigrounde:d system and can have distribution feeders many
kilometers 1n length. These systems are characterized by low
~8 fault currents and fuses cannot be used effectively for
groundfault protection; however, singlephase tap dropping
and load switching are minor considerations.
. In the future, as a greater share of the distribution system
eC 1s placed underground, dominance of the multigrounded
neutral system will increase, since most underground pri
2. Fourwire unigroundedneutral system
mary cable installations use bare neutral wire in continuous
rA contact with the ground.
14
A1
Tables 1A1, 2A1, and 3A1 present values of positiveand A few words are needed about the effect on :Z:. 1 and :Z:. 2 of
zerosequence impedance of overhead distribution circuits for the spacing of phase conductors. Tables 1A 1, 2A 1 and 3A 1
some typical conductor sizes and spacings of three varieties of are based on geometric mean spacing of 4.69 feet among
canductors: copper, ACSR (aluminum cable, steelreinforced), the threephase conductors. That is, the threephase conductors
and bare allaluminum. Negativesequence impedances of are assumed to have an average spacing of 4.69 feet, and
'!li!l:anSmission and distribution lines are equivalent to positive this average is a geometric mean, not an arithmetic mean.
sequence values. The tables give zerosequence impedances The term "equivalent delta spacing" is sometimes used instead
of 1hreephase, threewire circuits, and of threephase, fourwire of geometric mean spacing. For example, if the configuration
~undedneutral circuits. Thus, the sequence impedances of the phase conductors of an actual circuit is as shown in
of iour of the five types of distribution circuits described earlier Figure 5A 1, the impedance calculation is simplified (without
,can be obtained from these tables, assuming the various introducing significant error) if the spacing is assumed to be
spacing, temperature, and other factors are applicable. Of at the corners of an equilateral triangle, as in Figure 6A 1.
::::ourse, it would not be necessary to know the zerosequence This equivalent delta spacing is found by calculating the
mpedance of a threewire circuit if the source is ungrounded geometric mean of the three actual spacings:
:"""ypes 4 and 5). The only circuit type not adequately covered
Of these tables is the fourwire unigroundedneutral system Geometric Mean Spacing =
("Type 2). Even in this case, the tables are applicable in cai (3 X 2.67 x 5.67)1/3 = 3.57 feet
CUiiating threephase and linetoline faults, since those
n.ooNe only positivesequence impedance. Also, the tables The tables show how the tabulated reactances (X 1 and X2)
::an be used for calculating one class of singlephase faults can be changed if the geometric mean spacing of the circuit
on this type of circuit: that is, faults that involve a phase con under study is different from the 4.69 feet used in the calcu
ductor and ground but do not involve the neutral wire. In such lations. For example, three 4/0 copper conductors with the
::ases the return path for fault current is only through ground spacing shown in Figure 5A 1 would have a positive
and we have essentially a Type 3 circuit. The zerosequence sequence impedance, as
impedance for this type of circuit is included in the tables.
The data of principal importance in the tables are the :z:. = .0574 + j (.1294.0064)
~nee and reactance components of the sequence = .0574 + j.1230 ohms/1000 ft
i'npedances. The impedance magnitudes (columns labeled
=
Z 1 Z 2 and :Z:. o) are also given, but these will rarely be of where the reactance is modified by the .0064 ohms/1 000 ft to
use in fault calculations. Calculating fault current at a given account for the spacing change from 4.69 feet to approxi
location on a radial system can involve addition of many mately 3.5 feet.
irnlpedances between the location and the source. This must
be done by adding resistances and reactances independently;
1lha:t is, the rectangular coordinate form (R+jX) of the complex
1 '1• ""1•
runbers must be retained. Addition of impedance magnitudes
3 2
, :Z:. values in the tables) will, in general, give incorrect results,
since the angles of the polar coordinate form of the impedances
ot various system components will vary widely. The impedance
magnitudes are included in the tables, since they do permit a
qualitative evaluation of the effect of going from one conductor
•A 8 C
size to another or going from one type of distribution circuit to
another. For example, a comparison of Z O's in the tables
makes it clear that the magnitude of the zerosequence Figure 5A1.
impedance of a circuit is significantly reduced when a Actual configuration of phase conductors referred to in
l'1l'lllltigroundedneutral wire is added to a threewire Figure 6A1.
unigrounded system.
The positivesequence impedance of a circuit is usually a
iunction of the characteristics and configuration of the phase
conductors only. The type of grounding and the existence or
absence of neutral has, for most overhead circuits, a negligi
bie effect on positivesequence impedance. However, the
neutral conductor, the type of grounding, and the phase con
ductors all influence the value of zerosequence impedance.
This is implied by Tables 1A 1. 2A 1 and 3A 1, since separate
positivesequence values for the threewire unigrounded and
flourwire multigroundedneutral systems are not given and c
•
8
are not needed. This can be readily verified by the imped
ance equations used to develop such tables. (References Figure 6A1.
1.3,4.) Assumed configuration of phase conductors for simplified
impedance calculation.
15
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)
TABLE 1A1
Impedance of Copper Conductor in Ohms/ 1000 Feet
Threephase Geometric Mean Spacing: 4.69 feet* Lineto Neutral Spacing: 4.00 feet
Earth Resistivity: 100 meterohms Conductor Temperature: 50°C
Phase Positive and Negative Zero Sequence Phase Neutral ZeroSequence Impedance
Conductor Sequence Impedance Impedance Com&onents Conductor Wire Components for FourWire
Wire Components for ThreeWire ircults Wire Size MultiGrounded Neutral Circuits
Size Strands R1 =R2 x, =x 2 r, = r2 Ro Xo ro Size Ro Xo ro
500,000 CM 19 .0246 .1195 .1216 .0788 .5606 .5663 500,000 CM 2/0 .1053 .3451 .3598
450,000 19 .0273 .1206 .1252 .0814 .5617 .5682 500,000 1/0 .1254 .3553 .3741
400,000 19 .0307 .1220 .1258 .0848 .5631 .5691 500,000 1 .1311 .3672 .3905
350,000 19 .0348 .1235 .1284 .0892 .5646 .5701 450,000 2/0 .1081 .3462 .3627
300,000 19 .0407 .1254 .1318 .0949 .5665 .5739 450,000 1/0 .1205 .3564 .3769
250,000 19 .0487 .1275 .1364 .1028 .5686 .5777 450,000 1 .1337 .3684 .3920
4/0 19 .0574 .1294 .1415 .1116 .5705 .5795 400,000 2/0 .1114 .3475 .3646
3/0 12 .0723 .1309 .1494 .1265 .5720 .5862 400,000 1/0 .1239 .3580 .3778
2/0 7 .0911 .1360 .1640 .1453 .5771 .5947 400,000 1 .1371 .3697 .3943
1/0 7 .1150 .1386 .1799 .1691 .5795 .6023 350,000 2/0 .1157 .3491 .3665
1 7 .1449 .1413 .2027 .1991 .5824 .6155 350,000 1/0 .1282 .3598 .3826
2 7 .1809 .1434 .2301 .2350 .5845 .6307 350,000 1 .1413 .3712 .3968
3 3 .2280 .1460 .2708 .2822 .5871 .6496 300 ,000 2/0 .1216 .3511 .3722
4 1 .2847 .1506 .3220 .3388 .5917 .6818 300,000 1/0 .1341 .3614 .3854
6 1 .4527 .1559 .4792 .5068 .5970 .7831 300,000 1 .1472 .3733 .4006
8 1 .7197 .1612 .7405 .7739 .6023 .9820 250,000 1/0 .1419 .3633 .3902
250,000 1 .1551 .3752 .4053
250,000 2 .1669 .3922 .4261
4/0 1/0 .1506 .3652 .3949
4/0 1 .1638 .3771 .4110
4/0 2 .1754 .3828 .4205
3/0 1/0 .1653 .3667 .4019
3/0 1 .1786 .3786 .4186
3/0 2 .1902 .3956 .4390
2/0 1 .1973 .3837 .4347
2/0 2 .2089 .4008 .4527
2/0 3 .2205 .4212 .4777
1/0 2 .2328 .4034 .4659
1/0 3 .2443 .4239 .4905
1/0 4 .2477 .4455 .5080
1 2 .2629 .4061 .4848
*For geometric mean spacing of 4.0 ft. , subtract .0034 from X1 = X2 and 1 3 .2744 .4265 .5076
solve for r 1 = r 4 1 4 .2778 .4481 .5265
2 2 .2987 .4080 .5047
For geometric mean spacing of 3.5 ft. , subtract .0064 from X1 = X2 and 2 3 .3102 .4284 .5294
solve for r , = r2 2 4 .3155 .4500 .5511
3 3 .3574 .4313 .5606
For geometric mean spacing of 3.0 ft., subtract .0100 from X1 = X2 and 3 4 .3608 .4528 .5777
solve for r 1 = r 2 3 6 .3619 .4822 .6042
4 4 .4176 .4574 .6203
For geometric mean spacing of 5.0 ft., add .0017 to X1 = X2 and 4 6 .4188 .5057 .6553
solve for r, = r 2 6 6 .5879 .5108 .7784
r =v R2 + X2 8 8 .8420 .5580 1.0114
The error involved in using a representative spacing (such a portion of the total system impedance viewed from the fault
as 4.69 feet) instead of the geometric mean spacing of the point may have the 0.2 to 8.8 percent error. The error in the
actual circuit can be considerably damped out in the final fault fault current will be smaller than this, depending on the share
current calculation. For example, if the actual spacing is 3 feet of the total system impedance associated with the line sec
but 4.69 feet is assumed, an error in spacing of more than 50 tion whose spacing is in error, and also depending on the
percent is introduced. For the conductor sizes in Tables 1A1, zerosequence impedance and fault impedance, if any, used
2A 1 and 3A 1 , the error in impedance magnitude produced by in the fault calculation. Therefore, if the share of the total sys
this assumption ranges from 0.2 to 8.8 percent. This same tem impedance involved is small, there is no need to worry
percentage of error would be reflected in the faultcurrent about allowing, for example, a fiftypercent error in conductor
magnitudes if no other impedances were required in the fault spacing for a small portion of an overhead distribution circuit.
calculations, but generally this is not the case. A fault calculation But when all or a large portion of the circuit is involved, then
at a given location on a radial system must include the effect the tabulated impedances should be modified to agree with
of all impedances between the location and the source. Only the spacing of the actual circuit.
16
A1
DBLE 2A1
llnpedance of ACSR Conductor in Ohms/1 000 Feet
1'1nephase Geometric Mean Spacing: 4.69 feet* Lineto Neutral Spacing: 4.00 feet
Ealt1 Resistivity: 100 meterohms Conductor Temperature: sooc
I ......
1IWe
Positive and Negative
Sequence Impedance
Comoonents
Zero Sequence
Impedance Com~nents
for ThreeWire ircults
Phase
Conductor
Wire
Neutral
Wire
Size
ZeroSequence Impedance
Components for FourWire
MuHiGrounded Neutral Circuits
Size Strands R1 = R2 x, x
= 2 ~, = ~2 Ro Xo ~0 Size Ro Xo ~0
tns.ooo CM 26 .0244 .1108 .1138 .0786 .5871 .5928 795,000 CM 4/0 .1144 .3494 .3625
715.000 26 .0273 .11 19 .1153 .0814 .5883 .5938 795,000 310 .1233 .3617 .3807
&6..600 54 .0303 .1133 .1170 .0845 .5896 .5947 795,000 2/0 .1337 .3761 .3977
&36.000 26 .0307 .1133 .1172 .0848 .5896 .5947 715,000 4/0 .1172 .3506 .3703
lliD5_000 26 .0326 .1138 .1188 .0867 .5902 .5966 715,000 3/0 .1261 .3629 .3835
556..500 26 .0352 .1148 .1203 .0894 .5911 .5975 715 ,000 2/0 .1367 .3773 .4019
5DO.OOO 30 0390 .1150 .1214 .0932 .5913 .5994 666,600 4/0 .1203 .3519 .3722
.:rl,OOO 26 .0409 .1167 .1239 .0951 .5930 .6004 666,600 3/0 .1292 .3642 .3872
'31JT,500 26 .0491 .1188 .1284 .1032 .5951 .6023 666,600 2/0 .1398 .3786 4034
336,400 26 .0580 .1206 .1341 .1121 .5970 .6061 636,000 4/0 .1206 .3519 .3722
3DO,OOO 26 .0648 .1220 .1379 .1189 .5983 .6098 636,000 3/0 .1295 .3642 .3867
2&6,800 26 .0729 .1233 .1430 .1271 .5996 .6136 636,000 2/0 .1400 .3784 .4034
4oiD 6 .1121 .1453 .1833 .1663 .6216 .6420 605,000 4/0 .1225 .3525 .3722
:w 6 .1369 .1528 .2055 .1911 .6292 .6572 605,000 3/0 .1314 .3648 .3883
2)10 6 .1695 .1566 .2311 .2237 .6330 .6705 605,000 2/0 .1419 .3792 .4049
1A) 6 .2121 .1595 .2655 .2663 .6358 .6894 556,500 4/0 .1252 .3534 .3750
1 6 .2614 .1612 .3078 .3155 .6375 .7121 556,500 3/0 .1341 .3657 .3898
2 6 .3201 .1612 .3570 .3742 .6375 .7424 556,500 2/0 .1445 .3801 .4072
3 6 .3920 .1604 .4233 .4462 .6367 .7765 500,000 4/0 .1292 .3536 .3769
4 6 .4867 .1600 .5133 .5409 .6364 .8371 500,000 3/0 .1381 .3659 .3924
6 6 .7538 .1627 .7689 .8080 6390 1.0303 500,000 2/0 .1487 .3803 .4091
477,000 3/0 .1398 .3676 .3930
I 477,000 2/0 .1504 .3820 .3939
I
477,000 1/0 .1614 .4008 .4318
397,500 3/0 .1477 .3697 .3977
397,500 2/0 .1583 .3841 .4153
397,500 1/0 .1693 .4028 .4375
336,400 310 .1568 .3716 4025
336,400 2/0 .1672 .3860 .4195
336,400 1/0 .1784 .4047 .4428
300,000 2/0 .1742 .3873 .4244
300,000 1/0 .1852 .4061 .4470
300,000 1 .1943 .4248 .4661
I 266,800 2/0 .1822 .3886 .4545
266,800 1/0 .1934 .4074 .4492
I 266,800 1 .2023 .4261 .4706
4/0 1/0 .2324 .4294 .4879
!
I
4/0 1
2
.2415
.2447
.4481 .5085
.5246
4/0 .4652
I 3/0 1/0 .2574 .4369 .5076
I
I 310 1 .2665 .4557 .5275
I
I 310 2 .2697 .4727 .5445
I 2/0 1 .2989 .4595 .5483
:
I
2/0 2 .3021 .4765 .5610
I 2/0 3 .3025 .4970 .5814
I 1/0 2 .3447 .4794 .5909
1/0 3 .3451 .4998 .6117
, 1/0 4 .3443 .5214 .6241
*For geometric mean spacing of 4.0 ft. , subtract .0034 from X1 = X 2 and 1 2 .3941 .4811 .6222
solve for ~ 1 = ~ 4 1 3 .3945 .5015 .6383
1 4 .3938 .5231 .6534
For geometric mean spacing of 3.5 ft., subtract .0064 from X 1 = X 2 and 2 2 .4528 .4811 .6610
solve for ~ 1 = ~ 2 2 3 .4632 .5015 .6629
For geometric mean spacing of 3.0 ft., subtract .01 00 from X1 = X2 and 2 4 .4525 .5231 .6932
solve for ~ 1 = ~ 2 3 3 .5252 .5008 .7254
For geometric mean spacing of 5.0 ft., add .0017 to X 1 = X2 and 3 4 .5244 .5223 .7008
solve for ~ 1 = ~ 2 3 6 .5102 .5553 .7500
~ =v R2 + X2 4 4 .6193 .5220 .8068
4 6 .6051 .5549 .8210
6 6 .8722 .5576 1.0199
17
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)
TABLE 3A1
Impedance of Bare AllAluminum Conductor in Ohms/ 1000 Feet
Threephase Geometric Mean Spacing: 4.69 feet• Lineto Neutral Spacing: 4.00 feet
Earth Resistivity: 100 meterohms Conductor Temperature: sooc
Phase Positive and Negative Zero Sequence Phase Neutral ZeroSequence Impedance
Conductor Sequence Impedance Impedance Components Conductor Wire Components for FourWire
Wire Components for ThreeWire Circuits Wire Size MultiGrounded Neutral Circuits
Size Strands R1= R2 x1 =X2 ~1 = ~2 Ro Xo ~0 Size Ro Xo ~0
795,000 CM 37 .0248 .11 38 .1165 .0792 .5549 5597 795,000 CM 4/0 .1095 .3314 .3485
750,000 37 .0263 .1 146 .1174 .0805 .5555 5606 795,000 3/0 .1220 .3451 .3636
715,000 37 .0277 .1150 .1 184 .0818 .5561 .5625 795,000 210 .1237 .3604 .3807
700,000 61 .0282 .11 52 .1 186 .0824 .5563 .5634 750,000 4/0 .1110 .3322 .3504
636,000 37 .0309 .1163 .1199 .0850 .5574 .5644 750,000 3/0 .1235 .3958 .3665
600,000 61 .0328 .1169 .1216 .0869 .5580 .5653 750,000 210 .1366 .3610 .3866
556,500 37 0352 .1180 .1233 .0894 .5591 .5663 715,500 4/0 .1123 .3326 .3513
500,000 37 .0392 .11 89 .1250 .0934 .5600 .5682 715,500 3/0 .1254 .3462 .3684
477,000 37 .0411 .1 195 .1263 .0953 .5606 .5691 715,500 210 .1384 .3616 .3873
450,000 37 .0436 .1203 .1278 .0977 .5614 .5701 700,000 4/0 .1129 .3328 .3519
400,000 37 .0498 .1214 .1309 .1030 .5626 .5710 700,000 3/0 .1254 .3464 .3689
397,500 19 .0492 .1220 .1316 .1034 .5631 .5720 700,000 2/0 .1384 .3617 .3877
350,000 37 .0557 .1231 .1 347 .1098 .5642 .5739 636,000 4/0 .1155 .3339 .3532
336,400 37 .0580 .1237 .1366 .1121 .5648 .5758 636,000 3/0 .1280 .3475 .3712
300,000 37 .0650 .1252 .1407 .1191 .5663 .5795 636 ,000 210 .1411 .3629 .3902
266,800 37 .0731 .1265 .1460 .1273 .5676 .5814 600,000 410 .1172 .3345 .3542
250,000 37 .0778 .1271 .1489 .1320 .5682 .5833 600,000 3/0 .1299 .3481 .3722
4/0 19 .0920 .1 284 .1580 .1462 .5706 .5890 600,000 210 .1430 .3634 .3911
3/0 19 .1159 .1 311 .1744 .1703 .5720 .5956 556,500 4/0 .1197 .3356 .3551
210 19 .1466 .1347 .1989 .2008 .5758 .6117 556,500 3/0 .1324 .3492 .3741
1/0 19 .1845 .1377 .2301 .2386 .5788 .6307 556,500 2/0 .1455 .3646 3939
1 7 .2330 .1413 .2731 .2871 .5824 .6496 500,000 4/0 .1237 .3366 .3580
2 7 .2934 .1 428 .3263 .3475 .5839 .6970 500,000 310 .1364 .3502 .3759
3 7 .3701 .1466 .3981 .4242 .5877 .7254 500,000 210 .1494 .3655 .3958
4 7 .4661 .1 492 .4886 .5203 .5903 .7879 477,000 3/0 .1383 .3508 .3769
6 7 .7424 .1547 .7576 .7968 .5958 .9962 477,000 2/0 .1515 .3661 .3968
477,000 1/0 .1640 .3843 .4186
450,000 3/0 .1407 .3515 .3788
450,000 210 .1538 .3669 .3996
450,000 1/0 .1663 .3850 .4205
400,000 3/0 .1460 .3527 .3816
400,000 210 .1591 .3680 .4006
400,000 1/0 .1716 .3862 .4223
397,500 3/0 .1464 .3532 .3826
397,500 2/0 .1595 .3686 .4025
397,500 1/0 .1720 .3867 .4233
350,000 3/0 .1528 .3544 .3854
350,000 210 .1659 .3697 .4044
350,000 1/0 .1765 .3879 .4261
336,400 3/0 .1551 .3549 .3873
336,400 2/0 .1682 .3703 .4072
336,400 1/0 .1807 .3884 .4299
300,000 2/0 .1752 .3718 .4110
300,000 1/0 .1877 .3900 .4337
300,000 1 .1979 .4150 .4451
266,800 210 .1833 .3731 .4148
266,800 1/0 .1958 .3913 .4375
266,800 1 .2061 .4163 .4640
250,000 2/0 .1881 .3737 .4167
250,000 1/0 .2006 .3919 .4394
250,000 1 .2108 .4169 .4659
4/0 1/0 .2148 .3936 .4489
4/0 1 .2250 .4182 .4754
4/0 2 .2301 .4388 .4962
3/0 1/0 .2388 .3958 .4621
3/0 1 .2491 .4208 .4886
3/0 2 .2542 .4413 .5095
210 1 .2795 .4244 .5098
210 2 .2847 .4449 .5284
210 3 .2854 .4705 .5492
1/0 2 .3225 .4483 .5511
1/0 3 .3233 .4735 .5739
1/0 4 .3203 .4968 .5928
' 1 a dances of Underground Distribution Cable phase conductors and the three sets of neutral conductors.
Aft measing number of primary distribution circuits involve While the symmetrical component concept is intended to
a mixture of both overhead conductor and underground aid in the analysis of problems of threephase systems, it is
CiiiJie.. Fault calculations for such circuits require a knowledge convenient on a distribution system to extend the concept to
al lhe sequence impedances of the underground as well as the singlephase portions of the circuit. This means finding
allhe overhead portions of the circuits. 2 1 and 2 o for the singlephase laterals so that they may be
Sequence impedances of overhead lines can readily be combined with the corresponding sequence impedances of
ablained from published equations (References 1, 3, and 4) the threephase system which supplies the laterals. To find
ar Tables 1A 1 through 3A 1. These references do not apply, 2 1 and 2 o for the singlephase circuit, an arbitrary interphase
IIIEMever, to concentric neutral cable, the type of cable most geometric mean spacing, Sab, must be used in finding 2 abg,
CDimlOflly used fo r underground distribution. To help fill this Equation U2. The value assumed for Sab does not matter in
gap. the following material discusses the use of equations the end result of a linetoground fault calculation, for example,
Cll!laEd specifically for calculation of the sequence impedances since 2 abg cancels out of the total system impedance for
of concentric neutral underground cable for both threephase this type of fault. The reader can verify this by examining
ani singlephase configurations. These cableimpedance Equations 41, U11, and U12, assuming 21 2 2 =
a:pllions, which are derived from equations in References 1 The solution of Equations U1 through U12 for some typical
and 2. and an explanation of their nomenclature are presented sizes of copper and aluminum 15 kV distribution cable produces
beginning on the following page. To help define some of the the sequence impedance values displayed in Tables 4A 1
ll!lms .. the equations, Figure 7A 1 shows the crosssectional through 7 A 1. Conductor resistances and most of the other
geomeby of three identical concentric neutral cables used for cable characteristics required to solve the sequence impedance
a beephase underground distribution circuit. equations were obtained from Reference 9. Values of GMR
The spacing of the three cables in Figure 7A 1 is arbitrarily (geometric mean radius) were obtained from Reference 5. An
sbolm as nonsymmetrical to illustrate the generality of the earth resistivity value of 100 meter ohms was assumed.
..,.afions, which are not confined to symmetrical arrange Tables 4A 1 and 5A 1 give the impedances of threephase
aaenls.. In practice, the three cables are frequently laid flat in cable such as might be used for underground primary mains.
lie bottom of a trench. In applying symmetrical components A 7.5, 7.5, 15 inch, flat cable spacing is assumed. Tables
ID an 011erhead system in which the three phase conductors 6A 1 and 7 A 1 cover singlephase cable commonly used for
.e nol symmetrically arranged in a delta configuration, an primary laterals.
eqni'«alent delta spacing (Figures 5A 1 and 6A 1) is assumed Some of the effects that various cable parameters and
iit c3culating the sequence impedances of the threephase other conditions have on the impedance of an underground
cilll:uil:  and the same is true for an underground circuit. cable are illustrated by Tables 4A 1 through 7A 1. Others are
~ the actual interphase spacings (Figure 7 A 1), an discussed in the text, which resumes on page 25.
equivalent delta spacing (i.e., geometric mean spacing) is
a*1Wed for use in finding average mutual impedances among
19
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)
rang
10
= [4.788 X 105 X 21tf]
  r~np
105 ~ (loge _ 1 _ + (N1) loge _ 1_)]
3
+ 6.096 X r 130  raag rabg r (U9)
nnp
GMRn KN~ (U3)
(U10)
rang = [ 4.788 X 105 X 21tfl + j 21tf [4.681 X 104
30
20
A1
Nomenclature for Equations U1 through U12: r abg r ang30, r ang10 =mutual impedance between two
D = diameter of the circle defined by the neutral strand conductors or two groups of conductors with earth return in
centers of one concentric neutral cable (see Figure 7A 1)  ohms/1 000 feet. Subscripts a and b denote phase conductors
feet. Values of D can be derived from information published and subscript n denotes a group of neutral conductors. In a
in cable manufacturer's catalogs. threephase circuit, there are actually three mutual impedances
among the threephase conductors: r abg, r beg. and rcag.
f = frequency in hertz. However, in Equation U2, the use of a geometric mean spac
ing Sab instead of the actual interphase spacing means that
GMRa, GMRn = geometric mean radius of the phase the resulting value of r abg is the arithmetic mean of the
conductor (subscript a) and a single neutral strand (subscript three actual values. In a similar sense, r ang30 is an average
n) in feet. GMRa is readily available from tables such as those of the three actual mutual impedances that exist between
in References 1, 3, and 5. GMRn can also be obtained from each of the threephase conductors and the entire group of
tables; but since each strand has a solid, circular crosssection, neutral conductors. (See page 376, Reference 1, and page 79,
it is readily calculated using GMRn = .3894dn, where dn is the Reference 2, for the material on which Equations U2, U4, and
diameter of a single neutral strand in feet (see Figure 7A1). U6 are based.}
i = the complex operator, 1~oo. r anp = positive sequence mutual impedance between the
phase conductors of the cable and their concentric neutrals
KN spacing factor which, when multiplied by D/2, gives the in ohms/1 000 feet. •
geometric mean spacing among the N neutral strands of one
concentric neutral cable. KN is obtained from the expression r nnp = positive sequence self impedance of the three
KN = (N)1/(N1); see page 32 of Reference 4. phase circuit formed by the concentric neutrals of the cables
in ohms/1 000 feet. •
N = number of neutral strands wrapped around the insulation
of one concentric neutral cable (see cable manufacturers' r 13 r 030 = positive and zero sequence impedance,
catalogs). respgctively, of a threephase concentric neutral circuit in
ohms/1000 feet. •
ra, rn = resistance of the phase conductor (subscript a) and a
single neutral strand (subscript n) in ohms/1 000 feet (see r 11 ' r 01 0 = positive and zero sequence impedance,
cable manufacturers' catalogs). These should be ac resistance respgctively, of a singlephase concentric neutral circuit in
values calculated for the expected operating temperatures of ohms/1 000 feet*
the phase and neutral conductors. They should include skin
effect and proximity effect, wherever these effects can be *When positivesequence currents flow in the phase conductors
readily determined. of a threephase concentric neutral circuit, induced currents
will circulate between each phase's neutral and the earth
p = earth resistivity in meter ohms. Representative values of return path. The magnitude of this current depends upon
;; for various parts of the country are given in Reference 3 neutral resistance, interphase spacing, and the diameter of
1pages 146 through 150), Reference 7 (pages 129 through the circle of centers of the concentric neutral strands. In turn,
131 ), and Reference 8 (page 306). the positive sequence impedance of the circuit is modified by
the magnitude of these neutral currents. r 2anp/ r nnp is the
Sab = geometric mean spacing of the threephase conductors factor that reflects the effect of neutral circulating current on
1n feet. Referring to Figure 7A1, Sab (dabddcdca) 113 • the positivesequence impedance of threephase concentric
neutral cable (Equation U9). On an overhead openwire transmis
r aag, r nng30, r nng10 = self impedance of a phase sion or distribution circuit, this effect is negligible for the close
conductor (subscript aa) and self impedance of a group of spacings associated with concentric neutral cable.
paralleled neutral strands (subscript nn) with earth return in
ohms/1 000 feet. (See pages 376 and 397, Reference 1, and
page 78, Reference 2, for the material on which Equations
U1. U3, and U5 are based.)
21
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)
dab
\L._f  _ _ ; .      
PHASE CONDUCTOR
dtx:
NEUTRAL STRAND
Figure 7A1.
Crosssectional geometry of concentric cables.
22
A1
TABLE 4A1
Impedance of 15kV, 3Phase, 175mil XLP Underground Cable in Ohms/1 000 Feet
Insulation: 175mil crosslinked polyethylene Conductor temperatures Phase: 90°C; Neutral: 70°C
Cable configuration: 3 identical singlephase concentric
neutral cables with 1/3 size neutrals and with 7.5 inches,
7.5 inches, 15 inches, flat spacing (geometric mean
spacing = 9.449 inches)
Earth resistivity: 100 meterohms Frequency: 60 Hz
Phase Neutral ~1 ~0
Concentric Strands Positive and ZeroSequence
NegativeSequence Impedance
I Size
AWG
or
MCM
No. of
Strands
(Copper)
No. I
:SIZe
AWG
Impedance Components
R1 = R2 I x1 = x2 1 1~11 = 1~21 Ro
Components
I Xo I 1~ 0 1
Aluminum Phase Conductor
1/0 19 6 14 .2182 .0955 .2382 .5215 .2906 .5970
210 19 7 14 .1782 .0926 .2008 .4697 .2463 .5303
3/0 19 9 14 .1433 .0893 .1688 .4049 .1825 .4441
4/0 19 11 14 .1181 .0858 .1460 .3497 .1402 .3767
250 37 13 14 .1038 .0827 .1327 .3085 .1114 .3280
350 37 11 12 .0837 .0761 .1131 .2315 .0691 .2416
500 37 16 12 .0680 .0674 .0958 .1653 .0428 .1708
750 61 15 10 .0550 .0581 .0800 .1188 .0305 .1227
1000 61 20 10 .0493 .0495 .0699 .0905 .0235 .0935
u Copper Phase Conductor
1/0 19 9 14 .1451 .0944 .1731 .4066 .1852 .4468
210 19 11 14 .1181 .0908 .1490 .3492 .1428 .3773
3/0 19 14 14 .0989 .0867 .1315 .2907 .1033 .3085
4/0 19 11 12 .0854 .0813 .1179 .2318 .0718 .2427
250 37 13 12 .Q785 .0770 .1100 .2008 .0578 .2090
350 37 12 10 .0657 .0685 .0949 .1495 .0408 .1550
500 37 17 10 .0554 .0574 .0798 .1060 .0289 .1098
750 61 25 10 .0463 .0446 .0643 .0724 .0216 .0756
1000 61 33 10 .0404 .0358 .0540 .0554 .0181 .0583
TABLE 5A1
Impedance of 15kV, 3Phase, 220mil XLP Underground Cable in Ohms/1 000 Feet
Insulation: 220mil crosslinked polyethylene Conductor temperatures  Phase: 90°C; Neutral: 70°C
Cable configuration: 3 identical singlephase concentric neutral cables with 1/3 size neutrals and with 7.5 inches,
7..5 inches, 15 inches, flat spacing (geometric mean spacing= 9.449 inches)
Earth resistivity: 100 meterohms Frequency: 60 Hz
Phase Neutral ~1 ~0
Concentric Strands Positive and ZeroSequence
I' (Copper) NegativeSequence Impedance
Size
AWG Impedance Components Components
1~~1l=l~21
or No. of Size
MCM Strands No. I AWG R1 =R2 IX1 =X2 Ro I Xo I l~ol
,I Aluminum Phase Conductor
1/0 19 6 14 .21 77 .0956 .2378 .5205 .2927 .5972
210 19 7 14 .1777 .0927 .2004 .4688 .2484 .5306
3/0 19 9 14 .1427 .0894 .1684 .4043 .1846 .4445
4/0 19 11 14 .1174 .0860 .1456 .3493 .1423 .3772
250 37 13 14 .1031 .0829 .1323 .3082 .1134 .3284
350 37 11 12 .0828 .0765 .1127 .2314 .0709 .2420
500 37 16 12 .0671 .0681 .0956 .1653 .0444 .1711
750 61 15 10 .0542 .0589 .0800 .1188 .0319 .1230
1000 61 20 10 .0486 .0504 .Q700 .0905 .0247 .0938
Copper Phase Conductor
1/0 19 9 14 .1444 .0946 .1726 .4060 .1876 .4472
210 19 11 14 .1173 .0911 .1485 .3488 .1451 .3777
3/0 19 14 14 .0980 .0870 .1310 .2904 .1055 .3090
4/0 19 11 12 .0844 .0818 .1175 .2316 .0738 .2431
250 37 13 12 .0774 .0777 .1097 .2007 .0597 .2094
350 37 12 10 .0647 .0694 .0948 .1494 .0425 .1554
500 37 17 10 .0545 .0585 .0800 .1059 .0304 .1102
750 61 25 10 .0456 .0459 .0647 .0724 .0229 .0759
1000 61 33 10 .0400 .0370 .0545 .0554 .0193 .0587
23
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)
TABLE 6A1
Impedance of 15kV, 3Phase, 175mil XLP Underground Cable in Ohms/1 000 Feet
Insulation: 175mil crosslinked polyethylene Conductor temperatures Phase: 90°C; Neutral: 70°C
Full size neutral Geometric mean interphase spacing assumed for i! 1 and i! 0 calculations = 1S
Earth resistivity: 100 meterohms Frequency: 60 Hz
TABLE 7A1
Impedance of 15kV, 1Phase, 220mil Conventional Underground Cable in Ohms/1000 Feet
Insulation: 220mil conventional low density thermoplastic polyethylene
Conductor temperatures  Phase: 75°C; Neutral: 50°C Full size neutral
Geometric mean interphase spacing assumed for i! 1 and i! 0 calculations = 1.5"
Earth resistivity: 100 meterohms Frequency: 60 Hz
Phase Neutral i!1 i!o
Concentric Strands PosHive and ZeroSequence
Size (Copper) NegativeSequence Impedance
AWG Impedance Components Components
Size
or
MCM
No. of
Strands No. I AWG R1 = R2 Ix1 = x2
Aluminum Phase Conductor
=
lri! 11 11! 21 Ro I Xo I 11! 01
24
A1
EFFECT OF CABLE INSULATION Fullsize neutral (25 #12 wires):
For the 15 kV class of concentric neutral underground cable, Z 1 = .1 023 + j.0618 ohms/1 000 ft
which is in predominant use today, the two most common o
Z = .1685 + j.0320 ohms/1000 ft
types of insulation are conventional and highmolecular
weight polyethylene, although the latter has been the prevailing Cable insulation, cable spacing, earth resistivity, and other
choice in UD cable insulation for many years. Both are available parameters are the same in these two cases. The only change
in 175 and 220 mils. is in the neutral. As can be seen, the effect of going to the fullsize
In general, changing the thickness of cable insulation from neutral is significant for both positiveand zerosequence
175 to 220 mils has only a minor effect on cable impedances. impedance components. On an overhead circuit, the neutral
In the impedance equations, only the value of D (diameter of conductor has negligible effect on Z 1. This is not true for URD
the circle of neutral strand centers) is affected by a change in concentric neutral cable. When positivesequence currents
~nsulation thickness, and this in turn, will change Z nng, Z ang,
flow in the phase conductors of this type of circuit, circulating
Znnp, Z anp, Z 13p, Z o3 , and Zo1p (Equations U3 through currents are induced in the nearby concentric neutrals which
U10, and U12). Numerically, the effect of changing insulation modify the Z 1 of the circuit. As the neutral size is increased,
thickness is illustrated by comparing Tables 4A 1 and 5A 1, the effect becomes greater. In general, this means both Z 1
where the only difference is the thickness of cable insulation. and Z oshould be recalculated for situations calling for three
Insulation thickness affects the values of both Z 1 and Z o, phase cable with fullsize neutrals.
::>ut only to a minor extent.
In contrast, changing the type of insulation has a major EFFECT OF EARTH RESISTIVITY
effect on cable impedance. The reason is that the increase in The value of earth resistivity used in calculating the impedances
maximum phaseconductor temperature made possible by of Tables 4A 1 through 7 A 1 was 100 meterohms. Since there
'tie use of newer insulations, such as crosslinked polyethylene, can be a wide variation in this system parameter from one
n turn creates greater impedance under full load conditions. geographic area to another, it is of interest to estimate its
The Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association (IPCEA) effect on impedance. Again, using 250mcm aluminum cable
sets the maximum conductor temperature rating for continuous with 175mil XLP insulation as the reference, the effect is as
~JIIIoad operation for conventional polyethylene insulation at follows:
:so C, and the rating for crosslinked polyethylene at goo C.
The effect this higher permissible operating temperature For p = 10 meterohms:
'"laS on the impedance of cable insulated with crosslinked Z 1 = .1038 + j.0827 ohms/1000 ft
::lOiyethylene under fullload conditions can be seen by com Z 0 .2980 + j. 1181 ohms/1 000 ft
oaring Tables 6A 1 and 7A 1. Table 6A 1 shows sequence
mpedances of singlephase cable with 175 mil crosslinked For p = 100 meterohms:
:JOiyethylene (XLP) insulation, and Table 7 A 1 shows the Z 1 = .1 038 + j.0827 ohms/1 000 ft (Table 4A 1)
smaller impedances that result from the lower operating Z 0 = .3085 + j.1114 ohms/1 000 ft (Table 4A 1)
:emperature of 220 mil conventional polyethylene cable.
Tables 4A 1 and 5A 1 are both confined to crosslinked For p = 1000 meterohms:
::olyethylene insulated cable, since the higher currentcarrying Z 1 .1 038 + j.0827 ohms/1 000 ft
:apacity of this cable makes it the likely choice for three Z o = .3165 + j.1051 ohms/1000 ft
::lhase applications.
Cable spacing, cable insulation, neutral size, and all other
EFFECT OF NEUTRAL SIZE parameters except earth resistivity are the same in these three
'Is illustrated by Figure 7A1, the neutral conductor of this cases. A change in earth resistivity does not affect the positive
:"fpe of cable consists of equally spaced strands of wire sequence impedance, but does affect Z o. An increase or
;~~~ped spirally around the outside of the cable insulation.
decrease in the value of p from 100 meterohms by a factor
nese are generally #14, 12 or 10 AWG copper wires. The size of ten produces approximate changes in Ro and Xo of three
3l1d number of wires are selected to provide approximately and six percent, respectively, and an approximate change of
;qual conductivity to that of the central phase conductor for two percent in the magnitude of Z o. For the given cable, a
sa1Qiephase applications (taking into account the increased large change in p has a relatively small effect on Z o and its
ength of the neutral strands due to spiraling). However, for components.
tlreephase applications, a reducedsized neutral is available Thus, using a value of 100 meterohms for earth resistivity
'or the larger phaseconductor sizes, the circular mil area of should give impedances sufficiently accurate for most situations.
11e group of neutral wires being approximately onethird that
:i the copper equivalent of one phase conductor. Since Tables EFFECT OF INTERPHASE SPACING
~1 and 7 A 1 give impedances for singlephase applications, An examination of Equations U1 through U14 shows that the
rey are based on fullsize neutrals. Tables 4A 1 and 5A 1, for geometric mean spacing of the phase conductors, Sab,
:treephase applications, are based on reducedsize neutrals. affects the values of both the positive and zerosequence
In some threephase applications, where fullsize neutral impedances of the cable. Since threephase cable spacing
:able is used, it is helpful to know the effect on cable impedance. practices will vary from one utility to another, the question of
~~effect is illustrated by the following impedances of 250 mcm how spacing affects impedance is a logical one. This effect is
aluminum cable with 175 mil XLP insulation. illustrated by the following, using the 250 mcm aluminum
=educedsize neutral (13 #14 wires): cable of the earlier examples.
Z 1 = .1 038 + j.0827 ohms/1 000 ft (Table 4A 1)
Z 0 = .3085 + j.1114 ohms/1 000 ft (Table 4A 1)
25
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)
For Sab = 9.449 inches: The sensitivity of the results to changes in such cable parameters
~ 1 = .1038 + j.0827 ohms/1000 ft (Table 4A1) as insulation, neutral size, and spacing has been described,
~
0 .3085 + j.1114 ohms/1000 ft (Table 4A1) and in some specific situations the tabulated impedances will
not be applicable. In those cases where the cable parameters
For Sab = 1.5 inches: are significantly different from those on which Tables 4A 1
~ = .0909 + j.0439 ohms/1 000 ft through 7 A 1 are based, the impedance equations must be
1
~ = .3170 + j.1047 ohms/1000 ft resorted to, and the results will be of great importance. While
0
solving the equations by hand for a large variety of cable
Neutral size, earth resistivity, cable insulation, and other parameters would be a tedious task, the equations are easi
parameters except interphase spacing are the same in these ly solved on a computer. A McGrawEdison Power Systems
two cases. In this one example, it is apparent there can be a service to perform this task is available. Also available: addi
sizable effect on both positive and zerosequence reactance tional work showing how the formulas may be rearranged in
when the cable spacing is changed. In view of this, whenever groups of terms that can be precalculated into "building
the cable spacing in use is significantly different from the blocks" permitting desk calculation for practical cases; and
9.449 inches used for Tables 4A 1 and 5A 1, some calculation comparisons of typical results, to show the effects of spacing
checks for the actual spacing are advisable to determine if the and other factors.
tabulated impedances should be revised. In a more precisely
calculated example, the large decrease in spacing would Impedances of Transformers
also produce some increase in resistance as a result of In moving from any given point on a primary distribution sys
increased proximity effect. In the numerical example shown, tem back toward the source, either overhead line impedance
the change in proximity effect is not included. or underground cable impedance is the first encountered. On
most systems, the next major impedance element will be the
SKIN EFFECT AND PROXIMITY EFFECT distribution substation transformer. This section briefly covers
Skin effect and proximity effect are phenomena associated the sequence impedance representation of transformers
with the nonuniform current distribution over the cross section (References 2 and 4).
of a conductor. In the case of proximity effect, the nonuniform
current distribution is unsymmetrical and is caused by a variation
of current in one or more neighboring conductors. Detailed
descriptions of both effects are given in References 2 and 11.
Skin effect and proximity effect influence both the resistance
and reactance of a circuit. Generally, the effect on reactance
PRIMARY R~+<> SECONDARY
is much less than it is on resistance and the reactance effect
is neglected. However, the combined effect of skin and proximity
effect on resistance is not always negligible. It depends on
many factors, such as frequency, conductor material and size,
circuit configuration (interphase spacing and phaseneutral
spacing), and the relative magnitudes and phases of currents (a.) SHUNT IMPEDANCE INCLUDED
in the various conductors. For example, for a given threephase
circuit, proximity effect is not the same with zerosequence
currents in the conductors as it is with positivesequence
currents. This means proximity effect modifies positive
sequence impedance in a different way than it does zero
sequence impedance. While some work has been done on
the calculation of positivesequence proximity effect, little has
been done on zerosequence proximity effect. In contrast to PRIMARY SECONDARY
proximity effect, skin effect does not depend on the sequence
of the currents flowing.
There is need for a thorough study of proximity effects in
underground concentric neutral cable. Based on the work that
has been done on other types of circuits and cables, the (b.) SHUNT IMPEDANCE NEGLECTED
effects of proximity upon reactance are negligible at 60 hertz.
However, the effects upon resistance are probably not negligible Figure8A1.
in the larger cable sizes. Perunit equivalent circuit for a twowinding trans
In the calculation of the sequence impedances displayed in former.
Tables 4A 1 through 7A 1, both skin and proximity effects upon
reactance were assumed negligible. The resistance values
include skin effect but not proximity effect. When more is
known about proximity effects in this type of cable, the values A perunit equivalent circuit for a twowinding transformer is
of phase and neutral conductor resistances {ra and rn) can shown in Figure 8A 1, a. The terms primary and secondary
be suitably modified to account for these effects. here refer to the high and lowvoltage windings of the trans
Equations U1 through U12 are general expressions for former, not to primary and secondary distribution. Rp and Rs
finding the sequence impedances of concentric neutral cable are resistances, and Xp and Xs are leakage reactances in the
of any stated size, material, and spacing. The results of solv primary and secondary windings, respectively. Rh+e is the
ing these equations for some cable sizes and configurations resistance required to account for hysteresis and eddy cur
in common use are presented in Tables 4A1 through 7A1. rent losses in the iron core and Xm is the mutual
26
A1
reactance between the two windings, also called the
magnetizing reactance. The current flowing through the parallel POSITIVE SEQUENCE REFERENCE BUS
combination of Rh+e and Xm is the transformer exciting current.
That portion of the exciting current flowing through Xm is the
magnetizing current. The total exciting current of a transform~r SOURCE LOAD
is usually small in comparison to its full load current. For th1s r,
reason, the exciting impedance branch is usually neglected ~ r2=rps
and the equivalent circuit becomes as shown in Figure 8A 1,b.
Equivalent circuits similar to Figure 8A 1 could be drawn for
actual units instead of using the perunit basis. However, in NEGATIVE SEQUENCE REFERENCE
this situation, the square of the transformer turns ratio would
enter the picture, and two sets of equivalent circuits would
have to be drawnone showing the circuit elements as viewed SOURCE LOAD
from the primary, and another as viewed from the secondary. ~2
The perunit system (described earlier) avoids these compli ~ r2=r,
cations. The simplified perunit equivalent circuit for a trans
former (Figure 8A 1,b) is suitable for most faultcurrent calcu
Figure 9A1.
lations. The term ~ ps is the leakage impedance of the trans Positive and negativesequence perunit equivalent
former. It is also called the transformer's shortcircuit imped circuits of a transformer.
ance, since it can be measured by applying a voltage to one
winding with the other winding short circuited.
Generally, for threephase transformers rated 1500 kVA and Impedances of Transmission Lines
below and for singlephase transformers rated 500 kVA and The circuit parameters that influence the sequence impedances
below, the resistive component of the leakage impedance is of an overhead transmission line are the same as those that
significant and should not be neglected. In larger units, however, influence the impedances of an overhead distribution circuit.
the transformer reactance dominates and the resistance is The principal parameters are conductor size, material, and
usually negligible (Reference 4). In these cases, the perunit spacing, plus the type of grounding. In general, the previous
leakage reactance of the transformer is assumed equal to remarks on the effects of these parameters on impedances of
the nameplate percent impedance divided by 100, provided overhead distribution lines apply also to overhead transmission
the kVA base for the perunit calculations is the transformer lines.
kVA rating on which the nameplate percent impedance is based. However, the circuit parameters of transmission lines can have
For fault calculations on a threephase system involving a different range of values than the parameters of a distribution
transformers, the sequence impedances of the transformers line. Transmissionline interface spacings are much larger;
must be included in the overall systemsequence impedances. therefore, positivesequence reactance is larger than for typical
The positivesequence impedance of a balanced threephase distribution circuits. Zerosequence impedances also are
transformer or three identical singlephase transformers is affected by spacing changes, but in this case differences in
1he impedance presented to positivesequence currents. In the type of grounding, number of ground wires, etc., can have
other words, if the transformer is shortcircuited on one side a more significant effect.
and energized by a positive sequence on the other, the phase Transmissionline impedance information is usually needed
A linetoground voltage on the supply side of the transformer in distributionsystem fault studies only for determination of
tivided by the phase A supply current will be the positive the equivalent source impedance of the system supplying the
sequence impedance. If both the applied voltage and the current distribution circuit. More will be said about source impedance
are expressed in perunit on the appropriate bases, then the calculations in later sections. On many systems, transmission
positivesequence impedance will be in perunit. Since one line impedances are readily available, since they are needed
phase of a shortcircuited threephase transformer is being in a variety of transmissionsystem studies: load flow, short
!iscussed, the positivesequence impedance is equivalent to circuit, transient stability, system planning, etc. If such impedance
1he leakage impedance of the transformer. Also, since a data is not available, it must be calculated from appropriate
1Jansformer is a passive element, its positive and negative equations (References 1, 3, 4, and 5).
sequence impedances are identical. Figure 9A 1 shows the
positive and negativesequence perunit equivalent circuits Impedances of Generators
af a transformer. In moving away from the distribution system, the final impedance
The zerosequence equivalent circuit of a threephase element encountered is the generator. For most distribution
1ransformer depends on the transformer connection. Figure circuits, several voltage levels are interposed between
10A 1 shows equivalent circuits for some of the more common distribution and generation, and it is not unusual for the net
,connections. Of the transformer connections illustrated, a generator impedance to be small compared to the line and
cadside path for zerosequence current exists only for con transformer impedances on a perunit basis. In the case of a
oaections 3 and 5. In connections 3 and 5, if ~ n, is zero, the large interconnected transmission and subtransmission system
zerosequence impedance is equal to the positivesequence supplied by a number of generators, it is safe, for distribution
impedance. In theory, this is not strictly true for all transformer fault calculations, to assume the impedance of the equivalent
designs, especially threephase coretype units, but it is suf generator to be zero. This is frequently referred to as a "stiff"
fciently accurate for most applications. For autotransformers system. The concept of the Thevenin equivalent, discussed
and transformers with three or more windings, Figure 1OA 1 is after the development of faultcurrent equations in the follow
oot applicable and other sources must be referred to for zero ing section ("System Faults"), handles this automatically. In
sequence equivalent circuits (References 5 and 12). the stiff system, the generator portion of the equivalent series
impedance will be negligible.
27
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)
~ y SOURCE
ZEROSEQUENCE REFERENCE
~
~0 LOAD
0
~oL =CO
2
::y ~ s 0 ~
i:!o
i:!o L = CO
~~ i:!o
S~L
i:!ol =j!,
i
~~ .~ OL
i:!ol =CO
5
~~~. s 0
~.c;:, i:!o L = 1:! • + ~N
~~
6 i:!oL =CO
i:!o
s 0 ~L
7 ::y ~ s
i:!o
of'VV"\.. OL
i:!o L '= C()
~~ so
i:!o
f'V'VV"'\.. OL
i:!o L = C()
Figure 1OA1.
Transformer connections and zerosequence equivalent circuits.
A1
However, since there are systems where the generator should be used. This value would apply for times beyond
impedance is not an insignificant portion of the overall system 40 to 60 cycles following the fault, or whatever time period is
impedance, the sequence impedance representation of required for the initial transients to decay to negligible levels.
generators will be discussed briefly. A reactance value applicable for the period from three to
approximately 40 cycles after the fault is called the directaxis
transient reactance X'd. A third value used for the first two or
POSITIVESEQUENCE REFERENCE BUS three cycles following the fault is the directaxis subtransient
reactance X"d. The time periods indicated are only approxi
mate and can vary considerably from one generator to another.
e Generally, subtransient reactance is used to determine the
initial rms current value following the occurrence of a fault;
POSITIVE SEQUENCE therefore, X"d is of most interest in fault studies.
In the past, transient reactance has been used in some cases
to determine currents that must be interrupted by a breaker,
and in making stability studies. However, with the availability
of higher speed breakers, it has become more common to
use subtransient reactance or more detailed generator models
in such studies.
In most fault studies, the value used for Xg1 (Figure 11 A 1)
will be the subtransient reactance X'd. Ranges of typical perunit
values of X"d are 0.07 to 0.14 for two pole turbine generators
NEGATIVE•SEQUENCE REFERENCE BUS
and 0.12 to 0.17 for fourpole turbine generators.
The negativesequence reactance Xg2 of a synchronous
machine is that met by a current whose phase sequence is
opposite to that of the generated voltage. For this reason, Xg2 is
usually taken as the average between the direct and quadrature
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE axis subtransient reactances, X"d and X"q. For turbine gener
ators, X"d is nearly equal to X"q, and the ranges of values
cited above for X"d may be used for Xg2 as well as for Xg1 .
The zerosequence reactance Xgo of a generator varies
with the armature winding pitch and is usually from 10 to 70
percent of the direct axis subtransient reactance. For turbine
generators, a range of typical values for Xgo would be from
0.01 to 0.14 per unit. It should be that these values do not
include any impedance ~ N that may be deliberately inserted
ZEROSEQUENCE REFERENCE BUS between the neutral of the wyeconnected generator and
ground. As shown in Figure 11A1, the neutral impedance is
independent of the generator's zerosequence impedance. To
account for the presence of the neutral impedance, 3 ~ N
must appear in the zerosequence equivalent circuit.
ZERO SEQUENCE For most systems, there will be one or more transformers
separating the distribution circuit from the generator. If there
is no way the distribution circuit can be supplied except
through a transformer with a deltaconnected main winding,
as is usually the case, then the generator's zerosequence
impedance has no effect on the zerosequence impedance
Figure 11A1. seen by a distribution system fault This can be deduced from the
Sequence equivalents of a generator. zerosequence equivalent circuit of a deltawye transformer
bank (Figure 1OA 1). As a result, on most presentday systems,
generator zerosequence impedance is of no significance in
the calculation of distribution system faults.
The positive, negative, and zerosequence equivalent References 3 and 4 provide more thorough treatment of
c:in::uits for a generator are illustrated in Figure 11 A 1. Since a generator impedances. Also, in a specific situation, the typical
generator is designed to supply a balanced threephase voltage, values cited for Xg1, Xg2 and Xgo may not apply. Wherever
lie equivalent circuits show an ideal voltage source (zero the generator impedance is not negligible in distributionsystem
IIEmal impedance) in the positivesequence diagram, and fault studies, it is best to use specific impedance values
., sources in the negative and zerosequence diagrams. provided by the generator manufacturer.
Senerator resistances are usually small, so only reactances
are shown in the equivalent circuits. The value used for Source Impedance
positivesequence reactance Xg1 depends upon which time One convenient approach to distributionsystem fault
period is being studied fault or other system disturbance. If calculations is to begin at the lowvoltage (LV) bus of the
llle sustained, steadystate fault current is being calculated, distribution substation, calculate the currents for the various
laen what is called the directaxis synchronous reactance Xd possible types of fault at that point, and, moving away from
29
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)
LOAD
LOAD
LOAD
LOAD
~ LQAO
DISTRIBUTiOtj
} SUBSTATION B
DISTRIBUTION
} SUBSTATION A
PRIMARY
P, DI.STR.· IBUTION
PRIMARY } CIRCUITS
DISTRIBUTION
CIRCUITS {
Figure 12A1.
Diagram of a distribution system.
the substation, repeat the calculation procedure at each point the source impedance can be calculated by hand. Using the
of interest on the circuit. To do this, one must first know the perunit system, the source positivesequence impedance is
value of the source impedance at the substation lowvoltage the sum of the positivesequence impedances of all system
bus. This is the impedance looking back into the system components from the distribution substation lowvoltage bus
supplying the distribution circuit, as illustrated in Figure 12A 1. up to and including the generator. The negativesequence
At point P1, for example, the source impedance is the source impedance is found in a similar fashion. The zero
equivalent impedance of the network of transformers, trans sequence source impedance is usually not the sum of the
mission lines, and generators supplying the lowvoltage (LV) component zerosequence impedances because of the effect
bus in substation A. The source impedance used for other of the transformer connections. An example of the calculation
distribution circuits served by the same bus in substation A of source impedance using Method A is presented below
will be identical to that seen at point P1. In general, however, under "Fault Calculation Procedures and Examples."
in moving to another substation in the system, the source
impedance will change. Thus, the impedance looking back Method B
into the system at point P2 in substation 8 may be much less From a shortcircuit study of the transmission system, obtain
than it is at P1 if substation 8 is electrically closer to the system the perunit values of fault current for a threephase fault
generation than is substation A. {It30) a linetoline fault (ltLL), and linetoground fault {ltLG)
at the highvoltage bus of the distribution substation.
METHODS FOR FINDING SOURCE IMPEDANCE Preferably, these perunit fault currents should be complex
Depending on the information available, several methods for numbers. Also, if the perunit value of V, the voltage at the
finding source impedance may be used. substation highvoltage bus used to calculate the fault currents,
was any value other than 1 + jO, it is important to know the
Method A perunit value used. Then the sequencesource impedances
In cases where the distribution system is fed through a simple at the highvoltage bus (HV) can be found as follows:
radial transmission system with a generator at the other end,
30
A1
Method C
In some cases, only the threephase fault kVA available at the
(18)
highvoltage bus is given. This is similar to the faultcurrent
approach outlined in Method B, except that only threephase
fault information is provided. In this situation, a value for
magnitude of 2: s1 is calculated by converting the fault kVA
(19) to a perunit fault current magnitude. Then, use Equation 21,
assuming a nominal system voltage if the actual value of V
at the highvoltage (HV) bus is unknown. Or, the perunit
magnitude of 2: s1 can be found directly from the following:
(20)
V2
2: S1, 2: S2, and 2: so are the sequencesource impedances I r 81 1= k_V._'A_30"FAU_l_T_Ik_V._'A_B
kVA3111 FAULTPU
at the highvoltage (HV) bus of the distribution substation, and
~ 1 is the fault impedance used in the shortcircuit study
Jsually, only bolted faults are calculated in transmissionsystem where
shortcircuit studies, and 2: 1 is zero and can be omitted from
Equations 18 through 20. Also, it is common to calculate only I 2: s 1 I = magnitude of positivesequence source impedance
threephase and linetoground faults. If these are the only in perunit,
faultcurrent values available, then assume 2: S2 = 2: S1. In
11ost situations, Equations 18 through 20 would be replaced V = linetoline voltage at highvoltage (HV) bus of substation
':JY the following: in perunit,
31
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)
means that a fault study should result in both maximum and By now it is probably apparent that fault impedance is a
minimum values of faultcurrent magnitude at each node of nebulous quantity. Selecting an appropriate value for ~ f is by
the circuit. far the weakest link in the procedure for finding minimum fault
Generally, on a radial system the conditions that produce currents on a system. Therefore, some engineers elect not to
maximum faultcurrent levels are: maximum voltage, source calculate minimum fault currents at all. Instead, they pick a
impedances for maximum generation conditions, and zero value such as the currentcarrying ability of the conductor at
values of fault impedance. Conversely, the usual conditions the given point on the circuit as the minimum fault current at
for minimum fault currents are minimum voltage, source that point. Then, by selecting a recloser or other protective
impedances during times of minimum generation, and some device on the source side of this point so that it will operate
nonzero value of fault impedance. (In most practical situations, to clear a current of at least this magnitude in a sufficiently
these conditions are valid for maximum and minimum short time, they prevent damage to the conductor. A disad
magnitudes of current for threephase, linetoline, and line vantage to this approach is that fault currents below the ther
toground faults. However, there are actual circuits where the mal limit of the conductor may not be detected.
current magnitude in one phase of a double linetoground Other engineers calculate minimum fault currents using
fault will increase when going from a zero to a nonzero value some stated value of ~ t. Generally, it is assumed to be a
of fault impedance. This is covered briefly under "Basic pure resistance. If ~ f could be measured in a large variety of
Approach" in the section titled "Fault Calculation Procedures fault situations, the value would be found to be statistically
and Examples:') distributed over a wide range. A study of this type was
In many fault studies, it is customary to use a nominal system conducted in the 1930s on various 26 to 220 kV systems. An
voltage in the faultcurrent equations. Frequently, no distinction EEl and Bell System report (Reference 13) of the analysis of
is made between circuit loading conditions that produce 1375 faults on these systems states the most frequently
maximum and minimum voltages. Also, it is assumed that the occurring values of apparent fault resistance ranged from
voltage at an end of the circuit has the same magnitude as 5 to 25 ohms. An IEEE Committee Report (Reference 14)
the voltage at the substation. Furthermore, in many studies, states that fault impedance was used in calculations by three
maximum and minimum generationsource impedances are of the 26 companies surveyed. Two of the three companies
assumed to be equal. The validity of these assumptions used 20 ohms and one used 40 ohms. Of the remaining 23
varies from one circuit to another. But if they are reasonable companies, seven reported they used zero fault impedance and
assumptions for a given circuit, then only fault impedance 16 gave no response. A Rural Electrification Administration
permits a distinction to be made between maximum and mini Bulletin (Reference 15) recommends using 40 ohms for ~ f in
mum faults. minimum linetoground fault calculations, but does not give
Fault impedance (~f) is simply the impedance in the fault the basis for the recommendation.
(Figure 20A 1, Page 37). It is not positive or zerosequence Whatever value is chosen for ~ f in a given situation, the
impedance, which are system characteristics. It is not neces minimum fault currents resulting from calculations should not
sarily related to any ground impedance or any socalled be used indiscriminately. A 40ohm fault at the end of a long
ground effects. Earth resistivity and mutual impedance circuit may produce a calculated current in some sourceside
between an overhead conductor and a conducting ground device that appears to be less than normal load current.
plane are examples of ground effects. Both of these affect the Conversely, if nothing other than zero is used for ~ t, then a
values of ~ 1 and ~ o, but not ~ t, which is a highly variable fault midway on a feeder or close to the substation may produce
item, depending on the cause of the fault, the type of fault, and a calculated minimum fault current that is too large, and the
the environment. A linetoline fault on an overhead circuit result might be selection of a sourceside device setting or
caused by a dry or dead tree branch can be a highimpedance rating that prevents detection of fault currents smaller than
fault and ground is not involved at all. A fallen conductor will those calculated. Thus, judgment is required in the use of
be a low ~ f fault if the conductor drops into a stream or calculated minimum faultcurrent values, no matter what
ground water, but it can be a high ~ f fault if it drops onto a value of fault impedance is used in the calculations. It is
dry pavement where groundcontact resistance is high. desirable to arrive at a minimum fault current that establishes
Also, in any specific fault situation, ~ f is a time variable. A with reasonable confidence the lower end of the faultcurrent
fault may begin as a highimpedance, lowcurrent fault and range at each point of a circuit. The goal is to make the
progress to a lowimpedance, highcurrent fault. Conversely, probability of occurrence of faults with currents below this
a fault may start out with some fault impedance that increases range as low as possible, recognizing that there is always the
to infinity if the fault is selfclearing, such as a fault caused by possibility of highimpedance faults occurring that cannot be
an animal that positions itself between a phase conductor detected by the protection system.
and ground.
32
A1
System Faults
TYPES OF FAULTS
The type of fault that can occur depends on the distribution
system. Linetoground, linetoline, and double linetoground
faults are common to single, two, and threephase systems.
Threephase faults are, of course, characteristic only of
threephase systems.
Linetoground faults result when one conductor falls to
grou nd or contacts the neutral wire. Possible points along a
<istribution system where such faults can occur are shown in
Figure 13A 1.
\vv
!'J ~
>
~
~ "
...
~,.,.,. ,,. (\
Figure 14A1.
Figure 13A1. Linetoline faults.
Unetoground faults.
33
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)
..
Ia
.~•v.
V ao = In r n + Eao  lao r 9o
= 3 lao rn + Eao  lao rgo
= Ea0  Ia0 {3r n + rg 0 ) (28)
Comparing Equations 28 with 26 shows
~•vc
..
lc Va1 = Ea Ia1 r1
Va2 = Ia2 r2
(30)
(31)
is done as follows:
By Kirchoff's Law, the current in the neutral is
In= Ia+lb+Ic
Substituting the symmetrical component equivalents of the
phase currents:
34
A1
(such as sequence impedances of lines, transformers, etc.) and solving for
and the character of the dissymmetry, analytical expressions
are developed for any unknown symmetrical components. Ia1
These then are transformed back into phase quantities using
expressions similar to Equation 2 (page 10). Ia1 = Ea (35)
This analytical transformation from phase quantities into r 1 + r 2+ r + 3rn + 3rt
90
symmetrical components and back again is employed only in Figure 18A1 illustrates that the phase A current due to the
1lle development of the equations. The equations express the fault equals the current in the generator neutral, since this is
unknown phase quantities in terms of known phase quanti the only return path. Since Ia = 3Ia1 and In = 3Iao
ties and known sequence impedances. The purpose here is = 3Ia 1, the fault current It is
ID illustrate analytical transformation for one particular type of
It = Ia = In = 3Ea
dssymmetry, and to show how faultcurrent equations using r 1 + r 2+ r + 3rn + 3rt (36)
symmetrical components are developed. 90
Frequently, the terms in the denominator involving generator
neutral impedance and generator zerosequence impedance
are all lumped together as
(37)
..
form as
lb=O
L....'e Vb (38)
35
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)
procedure is to obtain the sequence impedances of the various networks. If the system under study is radial, as most distribution
system components and then combine these into the circuits are, then sequence networks are not as useful as
sequence networks representing the entire system. Next, if they are with looped systems. However, even with radial systems,
faults, for example, are being calculated, each sequence network there are situations where drawing the sequence network
is reduced until an equivalent sequence impedance, as representation of the problem is beneficial.
viewed from the fault point, is obtained. Any generators in the
positivesequence system can be replaced by a single Equations for Other Fault Conditions
Theveninequivalent generator representing the voltage at The development of the equation for the current in a lineto
the fault point prior to the fault. (This is described in the next ground fault (Equation 38) involved only a fault at the terminals
section, "Equations for Other Fault Conditions.") Doing this of an unloaded generator. However, the form of the equation
would produce sequence network equivalents somewhat is valid for any complicated system that has been reduced to
similar to those in Figure 19A1. The networks could then be its Thevenin equivalent.
interconnected to permit the study of various fault conditions
or to permit the direct use of faultcurrent equations such as THEVENIN'S THEOREM
Equation 38. Thevenin's theorem states that a linear network terminating
Again, it should be noted that the discussion here is confined on two points, a and b, and containing any number of voltage
to linetoground faults. The sequence network connections sources may be replaced by a single voltage source and a
for other types of faults are given ample treatment in series impedance between a and b. The series impedance is
References 1, 3, 4, 5. the impedance of the network measured between a and b
The preceding is only a brief sketch of the use of sequence with the internal voltage shortcircuited. The single voltage
Ea
+ v., POSITIVESEQUENCE NETWORK
 Ia,

la,= la,

la,= Ia,
Figure 19A1.
Interconnection of sequence networks for phase Atoground faults.
36
A1
source is equal to the opencircuit voltage measured 2
between a and b. This is the Theveninequivalent generator 1I 1= j+jf3v, 1 ro + 3rt a r2 1
mentioned earlier. r 1 r 2 + (r 1 +r 2 )(ro +3rt) (43)
It should be noted that Thevenin's theorem applies only to In these equations, I is the rms value of the steadystate
linear networks: that is, to those networks in which the resist symmetrical ac phase current flowing into the fault; Vt is the
ances, inductances, and capacitances are constant and are rms value of the steadystate ac voltage to ground at the
independent of the current and voltage. Examples of nonlinear fault prior to the occurrence of the fault; :Z:: 1, :Z:: 2. and :Z:: o are
elements are skineffect resistance and transformer magnetizing the positive, negative, and zerosequence impedances of
inductance. These elements have important effects in transient the system viewed from the fault; and :Z:: t is the fault imped
overvoltage studies and, generally, Thevenin's theorem cannot ance associated with a given type of fault (see Figure 20A 1).
oe applied in studies involving them to simplify any part of the The vertical line notation ([I]) means that the magnitude of
network containing the nonlinear elements. However, for the the complex number within the lines is to be taken; i.e.:
purposes of most steadystate load and faultcurrent calcula
bons, R, L, and C values are constant, and Thevenin's theo if I = A + jB, then II I= .V A2 + B2
rem is applicable.
Any consistent set of units may be used for these variables
Thus, assuming linearity, an extensive power system with
in the faultcurrent equations. For example, they all may be
many generators and closed loops can be reduced to the
expressed in perunit, or in amperes, volts, and ohms. They
simple system shown in Figure 16A1. From this viewpoint,
also may be expressed in some other set of units, provided
me symbols in Equation 38 can be given a new meaning. Ea
appropriate scale factors are introduced. The nomenclature
s the Theveninequivalent opencircuit voltage at the fault above associates rms values with I and Vt, since these are
point: that is, the linetoground voltage prior to the fault. The
the values normally used in steadystate fault calculations.
sequence impedances are no longer confined to generator
However, the equations are more general than this. If, instead
and neutral impedances, but now represent the equivalent
of an rms voltage, the crest value of the steadystate ac voltage
mpedances of the entire system as viewed from the fault
to ground is used for Vf, then the resulting current value will
::JOint with all voltage sources shorted. On a large interconnected
be a crest value also.
rransmission system, the series impedance equivalent is
found for each of the sequence networks by systematically
reducing the network of impedances (by means of deltawye
and wyedelta transformations) until single values of :Z:: 1, :Z:: 2,
and :Z:: o are obtained. On a radial distribution system, this
:an be a relatively simple procedure. On a large interconnected
network, it can be a laborious task, especially if the calculations
are done by hand. This is one reason for the initial success of
ac network analyzers, now replaced by the more accurate
and more powerful digital loadflow and shortcircuit programs
,see Computer Programs section).
So far, only single linetoground fault conditions on a
oower system have been discussed. The procedure followed
1n developing the linetoground faultcurrent equation can THREEPHASE FAULT LINELINE FAULT
easily be duplicated for other types of faults. These equations
are derived in References 1, 3, 4, and 5, or can be developed
oy the reader.
LinetoGround Fault
Some points of interest should be noted about Equations
I I I= I 3Vt I 39 through 43. In most shortcircuit studies, only threephase
r 1 + r 2 + r 0 + 3rt (41) and single linetoground faults are calculated. The reason for
this is that a threephase fault usually, but not always,
Double LinetoGround Fault produces the maximum fault current. (On some distribution
1I I= lif3V, 1 ro +3rt ar2 1 circuits, a linetoground fault near the substation can produce
rr 2 + (r 1 +r 2 )(ro +3rt) (42) fault current exceeding that produced by a threephase fault
1
at the same point.) And the single linetoground fault is the
And, in the other phase associated with this fault, most common type of fault.
37
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)
The other two types of faults, however, should not be Observing the behavior of current in a singlephase circuit
completely ignored. For example, double linetoground faults (Figure 21 A 1) provides some guidance on this type of informa
are difficult to calculate by hand, but there is little justification tion. The circuit consists of an ideal sinusoidal voltage source
for omitting them from a computer program for shortcircuit and a series combination of resistance, an inductance, and a
studies. In finding maximum fault currents, it is customary to switch.
assume a zero value for fault impedance r t, because it is The dotted portion of Figure 21 A 1 serves as a reminder
apparent from Equations 39 through 41 that, with practical that a circuit in which a fault occurs may normally be carrying
r
values of system impedances, any values of f greater than some load. If the fault is represented by the closing of the
zero will reduce the resulting fault current. This is not apparent switch, then the load is shorted and, in the steady state, the
from Equations 42 and 43, since r t appears in the numerator, fault current is unaffected by the load. However, before the
as well as the denominator, of these expressions. On some fault occurs, i(t) is affected by the load, so in theory, the
actual systems, it has been demonstrated that introducing a behavior of i(t) in the period after the fault in which transients
r
small resistive value of f makes the magnitude of the fault exist is influenced by the prefault load current. But in most
current in one phase of a double linetoground fault greater practical situations, the fault current is the dominant factor
r
than the fault magnitude with zero f. In fact, in these cases, and load current is ignored.
it was surprising that a double linetoground fault with fault The determination of how the fault current behaves as a
impedance produced a current magnitude in one of the faulted function of time involves the solution of the following differential
phases roughly ten percent greater than the current magni equation:
tudes of both threephase and singlephase faults with zero
fault impedance. Thus, the current magnitudes produced by Ri + Lffi= E sin (wt +e)
double linetoground faults can be significant. It cannot be (44)
said that they are always less than the magnitudes of three where R and L are the circuit resistance and inductance,
phase or linetoground faults. respectively; i is the instantaneous current in the circuit
Also, linetoline faults cannot always be ignored, especially (Figure 21 A 1) after the switch is closed; E is the crest value
if the circuit has singlephase laterals consisting of two phase of the sinusoidal voltage source; w is the source generator's
conductors. In general, in situations such as the development angular frequency; and 4> is the angle separating the voltage
of computer programs for fault calculations, there are argu zero and the time at which the fault occurs (t=O).
ments in favor of calculating all types of faults. The details of the solution of Equation 44 are well covered
in Reference 16 and other textbooks, so only the result is
ASYMMETRICAL FAULT CURRENT* stated here. Assuming the prefault current to be zero (i.e.,
Definition and Significance load current = 0) then the solution is
Some knowledge of the behavior of the actual current waveform
in a circuit following a fault is important in the application of ·Rwt
devices such as fuses, sectionalizers, reclosers, and breakers i = Ae X+ 8 sin (w+ eo)
for distributionsystem overcurrent protection.
The faultcurrent equations, 39 through 43, are applicable A= E sin (0e)
only for steadystate conditions. They calculate the rms values where
,f R2 + X2
of fault currents that have persisted for periods sufficiently
long so that all initial transients have disappeared. They tell E
nothing about either the rms or the instantaneous values of B = r,f:;;R:;;:2:::+:::;:X;:;;:2
current in the time immediately following the fault.
()=tan · 1 ~)
R L
~~~~, and X =wl (45)
I
I
,L. The first term in Equation 45 is the transient part of the
SWITCH solution, since it is decaying exponential whose value disappears
I LOAD I
=E sin (wt + ¢] 'r' eventually. The second term is the steadystate part of the
I solution. These are also the de and ac components, respec
....__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___. _____ .JI tively. The second term is a sinusoidal function of time whose
crest value is simply the crest value of the supply voltage
divided by the magnitude of the system impedance as viewed
from the fault. The phase difference 0 between the supply
Figure 21 A1. voltage (E sin(wt+ 4>)) and the steadystate fault current
Singlephase circuit for study of current behavior depends only on the X/R ratio of the circuit impedance.
immediately following a fault. The significance of the transient and steadystate components
of the fault current is best illustrated by considering an actual
example. Figure 22A 1 shows a specific circuit with an X/R
ratio of 5. The circuit is supplied by a 60hertz source
(W=377), with the fault arbitrarily occurring (switch closes) at
20 degrees on the voltage wave. The numbers obtained from
the general solution, Equation 45, are given in the figure.
* Portions adapted from material in Reference 17.
38
A1
E= 100VOLTS X= 100HMS
R X w =377 RADIANS/SECOND R=20HMS
Figure 22A1.
illustration of significance of transient and steadystate faultcurrent components.
Figure 23A 1, however, graphically illustrates the interaction This is where the significance of current asymmetry lies. In
:i the terms of the equations. The curves were plotted from designing and applying devices that will be exposed to fault
ne specific example of Figure 22A1 and the time base is currents, transient as well as the steadystate fault currents
;raduated for that solution. The curves themselves are must be considered, since both thermal effects and mechanical
abeled with the general equation symbols, so that the interaction forces can be greatly magnified in the initial transient period.
:i curves and equations is clearly shown. The upper curve
snows the voltage waveform. The fault is assumed to occur Application of Current Asymmetry Information
~=0) at a point on the ascending voltage wave 20 degrees The maximum magnetic forces produced in a device occur at
after a voltage zero. The lower graph shows the total fault current the instant the current is maximum. In Figure 23A1 for example,
solid curve) and its transient and steadystate components the total current has peaks at approximately 7, 15, 24, and 32
jotted curves) plotted on a time scale identical to that of the milliseconds for the time range displayed. A protective
..oltage waveform. The solid current curve, which is the wave· device, such as a recloser, in a circuit where this fault current
shape that would be observed on an oscilloscope connected is flowing will experience peak magnetic forces at the same
nto the circuit, is the sum of the two dotted curves. Although times. From the equipment design and application viewpoint,
"'$ither of the two current components could be recorded in the largest of the peaks is of interest, since it subjects equipment
his transient period by an oscilloscope, the dotted curves are to the severest test with respect to magnetic forces. For certain
still of interest since they provide a better perspective of values of the voltage phase angle ( c/>) (Equation 44), the
asymmetry. largest peak will occur in the first current loop, as shown in
Asymmetry in an a·c power system is the phenomenon Figure 23A1. However, there are other values of 4> for which
whereby the symmetrical current oscillations about the zero the largest peak will not occur until the second loop. Figure
ine are shifted so that they oscillate around some transient 24A 1 shows a current waveform of this type.
eference line that is neither straight nor zero. In Figure 23A 1, The larger of these peaks can be found mathematically by
:Tie total current is oscillating around the decaying exponential differentiating the current expression in Equation 45 with
:;urve, which means that the exponential curve is the new respect to its two independent variables t and cf>. (The other
eference "zero" line for the sine wave. This will make the total variables, E, R, X, and w, are fixed for any given circuit).
:urrent wave asymmetric with respect to the true zero line, When this is done, it is found that the larQer of the two
since the positive loops of current reach different crest "largest" peaks occurs for zero voltage angle cp. which places
'Tlagnitudes than the negative loops. it in the first current loop. The current waveform thus resembles
Now that asymmetry has been defined, what is its significance that shown in Figure 23A 1 rather than that in Figure 24A 1
n dealing with fault currents? The answer lies in two important This 4> = 0 condition is called the condition of maximum
aspects of the problem: first, the magnetic force exerted on asymmetry.
carts due to the current, and, secondly, the thermal or joule References 17, 18, and 19 provide a thorough treatment of
content of the fault current. Both the thermal and magnetic the mathematics of analyzing current under the condition of
lorce characteristics are a function of the square of the current. maximum asymmetry, and the details are well worth studying
In Figures 22A 1 and 23A 1, the first peak of the asymmetrical for a clear understanding of the implications of asymmetry.
Naveform has a magnitude approximately 1.5 times the crest They show that some of the effects of asymmetry are
value of the steadystate waveform. For example, at this point dependent only on the X/R ratio of the circuit; also, that the
::he magnetic forces on interrupting equipment are about 2.25 effects on the peak value and the energy content of the first
jmes the forces caused by the steadystate fault current. In current loop are much greater than the effect on the rms
:he same fashion, if the first loop is not only greater in ampli· value. For the condition of maximum asymmetry, the rms
:ude but is above the zero line for longer than half a cycle (as value of the first current loop can be as great as 1.7492 times
:n Figure 23A 1), then the i2t content of the current (that is, its the rms value of its steadystate symmetrical component
::hermal or heating effect) is much greater. Both of these (References 17, 18).
affect the design and application of the protective equipment
used on a power system.
39
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)
+ 100
e (t) 100 Sin (377t + .349)
VOLTAGE
5 20
100
754
I (t) = 9.8 Sin (377t 1.024) + 8.37e'
+15 7
..,.,.,.......... ,
TOTAL
CURRENT
/ ClJRRENT
,.."" '
w
w
a:
r .' """ '\
\
'\
·~ 1/ ·   ..
I
{
I
1 I I
2 0
w I 20
a: 5 I
,gj TIME(ms) · I
0 I
5 /
I
/
10
'' ...... _.....,,. /
15
Figure 23A1.
Interaction of terms of equations in Figure 22A1.
40
A1
is the same as maximizing I'll, since I is constant. The
condition for maximum i is a zero voltage angle </>, as
described earlier. But for maximum I', the value of </> is
always greater than zero. If I' is calculated for the first current
loop, the maximum value of I'll is 1. 7662. It occurs at an X/R
ratio of 200 and an angle</> of 12 degrees.) The result of plot
ling the maximums of I'll is shown in Figure 25A 1.
While the integration time interval T for finding I, the rms
value of a symmetrical waveform, is constant n, the interval
for finding I' varies with X/R and 0. The T used to find I' in
Figure 25A 1 is not constant, but it is always the time to the
first current zero of the asymmetrical waveform.
At a point of fuse application on a specific circuit  if for
example, the rms symmetrical fault current for a linetoground
fault is known (Equation 41)  the singlephase equivalent
Figure 24A1. X/R ratio can be found from the total system impedance used
Current waveform with largest magneticcurrent peak in in the fault calculation. For a linetoground fault with zero
the second loop. fault impedance, this would be (221 + 2 o)/3. The reactive
part of this impedance divided by the real part is the single
phase equivalent X/R ratio. An I'll value can be found from
However, the peak of the first current loop can be as great as Figure 25A 1 for this value of X/R. This multiplied by the
two times the peak of the steadystate component, and this calculated rms symmetrical fault current will produce the
energy content can be six times that of the first loop of the greatest rms asymmetrical value possible for that type of
symmetrical ac component (Reference 17). From the viewpoint fault.
of equipment design and application, these peak current and The same procedure is used for all types of faults possible at
energy comparisons are more meaningful than a comparison the fuse location. Then, the largest rms symmetrical and
of rms values. asymmetrical values can be used for selecting the fuse cutout
The discussion here is confined, however, to rms relationships, with the proper interrupting ratings. (Since Figure 25A 1 is based
since this is the way equipment is now rated and standards on the analysis of current in a simple R, X series circuit, the pro
are written. The rootmeansquare (rms) value of an arbitrary cedure described is not precisely correct for finding the RMS
current is of the asymmetrical current in a double linetoground fault or
in any system whose symmetrical component equivalent circuit
involves parallel paths. More study of the transient behavior
(46) of fault current for various types of faults and various systems
needs to be made. However, the procedure described is
where i = a current function of time more precise for linetoline and single linetoground faults
t =time than simply using the X1/R1 ratio, which, strictly speaking, is
T = time interval specified for the rms valid only for threephase faults.)
determ in at ion. This, briefly, illustrates the application of current asymmetry
information of the type provided by Figure 25A 1, which, as
If i = B sin wt, where B is the crest value of a sinusoidal noted, is based on the first current loop. This is especially
current, Equation 46 shows that I = B/{2 so long as T is an useful in the application of fuses, since many fuses interrupt
integral multiple of a half cycle. From a physical viewpoint, a at the current zero following the initial loop. It is also useful in
sinusoidal current with a crest value of B will have the same checking the momentary ratings of switches, sectionalizers,
effect on p loss in a conductor as a de current whose and breakers. However, the use of Figure 25A 1 for selecting
value is B/ or this reason, I is sometimes called the effec breakers or reclosers with adequate interrupting capacity can
tive value of i, but this {2 relationship does not in result in the selection of ratings much higher than necessary.
general hold for an asymmetrical waveform. Applying In this instance, the rms value of the first current loop is too
Equation 46 to Equation 45 results in a detailed expression conservative for comparison with the interrupting ratings of
for the rms value of the asymmetrical waveform, and the time breakers and reclosers, since these devices do not usually
interval for the integration or averaging process definitely interrupt for a number of cycles after fault initiation. For many
influences the outcome (References 17, 18). Identifying the practical values of X/R ratio, this means much of the asymmetry
rms value of the steadystate ac component of current in
has disappeared, and the device is interrupting essentially a
Equation 45 as I and the rms value of the total current as 1',
symmetrical current. The procedure to follow in selecting
then a useful measure of an asymmetrical waveform is the
ratio I'll. Faultcurrent calculations (Equations 39 through 43) breakers and reclosers with adequate interrupting ability for
produce values of I. If an appropriate value for the ratio I'll is a specific circuit is given in industry standards (References
known, it can be multiplied by the calculated I value to obtain 20, 21).
the rms value of the asymmetrical waveform.
Gross and Thapar (Reference 19) cite an expression that
is a function only of X, R, and </>. For any given value of X/R,
the value of I'll with respect to </>can be maximized and then
plotted as a function of X/R. (For the reader who has gone
into the details of asymmetry calculations, Hshould be noted
that this procedure involves maximizing 1', not i. Maximizing I'
41
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)
., •i ,·
1.8 "'
1.7
~ ·· ,_,
.. ·
/
,JJ/
1.6 '
1.2
/ "
,.
/~
1.1
1.0  ~
v "
.2 .5 2 5 10
' 20 50 100
42
A1
TABLE 8A1
Rotating Machine Reactance (or Impedance) Multipliers
Type of Rotating FirstCycle Interrupting
Machine Network Network
All turbine generators; all hydrogenerators with amortisseur windings; all condensers 1.0 Xd" 1.0 Xd"
Hydrogenerators without amortisseur windings 0.75 Xd" 0.75 Xd"
All synchronous motors 1.0 Xd" 1.5 Xd"
Induction motors
Above 1000 hp at 1800 r/min or less 1.0 Xd" 1 .5 Xd"
Above 250 hp at 3600 r/min 1.0 Xd" 1.5 Xd"
All others, 50 hp and above 1.2 Xd" 3.0 Xd"
All smaller than 50 hp Neglect Neglect
From ANSI/IEEE C37.0101979 (2) and ANSI/IEEE C37.51979 (3)
1. Xd"of synchronous rotating machines is the ratedvoltage (saturated) directaxis subtransient reactance.
2. Xd"of synchronous rotating machines is the ratedvoltage (saturated) directaxis transient reactance.
3. Xd" of induction motors equals 1.00 divided by perunit lockedrotor current at rated voltage.
FAULT CALCULATION PROCEDURES For each identified type of overhead and underground line,
AND EXAMPLES use Tables 1A 1 through 7 A 1 to find its positive and zero
This section outlines a procedure for finding fault currents on sequence impedances in ohms/1 000 feet. In some situations,
a distribution system and includes some numerical examples. the tabulated impedances may not be applicable, and it will
be necessary to resort to calculations using impedance
Assumptions equations.
lin the following fault calculation examples, the underlying 4. Determine linesection sequence impedances in ohms. For
assumptions are: each line section of the circuit diagram, multiply the section
1. System frequency is 60 hertz. length in thousands of feet by the ~ 1 and ~ o values from
2. Distribution feeders radiate from only one substation. There Step 3 in ohms/1000 feet.
is no other source of power feeding into the distribution 5. Select fault impedance.
circuits. In general, faultcurrent calculations are made both with
3. The supply system is represented by the source impedance and without a fault impedance. Also, it is important to note
at the substation lowvoltage bus. This is the impedance that, in some cases, the maximum fault current corresponds
looking back into the system supplying the distribution to a double linetoground fault with impedance (see pages
circuit. 37 and 38).
4. The current prior to the fault is neglected: that is, all shunt
connections (loads, line charging, etc.) are neglected. 6. Calculate total sequence impedances at point of fault.
Thus, the voltage at each node of the circuit will be Add the positivesequence impedances from Step 4 of all line
assumed to be the nominal distribution voltage. sections connecting the point of fault to the source, including
the positivesequence source impedance determined in
Basic Approach Step 2. Repeat the procedure for the negative and
This section describes an effective and readily usable proce zerosequence impedances, with the negativesequence
dure for calculating fault currents in a radial distribution sys impedance of a line section being equal to its positive
tem. An example of its application to a simple system is pro sequence impedance.
'iided in the next section. Also, since much of the procedure
IS easily programmable and many faultcurrent calculations 7. Find symmetrical fault currents.
today are done on a computer, results from a computer study Use the formulas developed under ''Types of Faults" to calcu
are included. late the following currents:
The procedure consists of the following steps: A. Threephase fault
1. Draw circuit diagram.
A. Label the points on diagram where fault currents are to (39)
be calculated.
B. Linetoline fault
B. Identify the different types of overhead circuit and under
ground cable used.
C. For each line section, write on the diagram the circuit (40)
type of the section and its length in feet.
C. Linetoground fault
2. Calculate sequencesource impedances.
Depending on what information is available on the supply
I I I= I 3Vt I
system, use one of the methods outlined previously to
calculate the positive, negative, and zerosequence
r 1 +r 2+r 0 + sr t (41 )
impedances. An example illustrating the use of method A D. Double linetoground fault
begins on the next page.
3. Determine linesection sequence impedances by type in
III=Iif3V, ra+3rtar2 I
ohms/1000 feet.
r 1 r 2+ <r1 +r 2)(ro +3rt) (42)
And, in the other phase associated with this fault,
43
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)
~ GENERATION
+ TRANSMISSION
+ DISTRIBUTION
1
.6."]_
... .6.~
~ T1 T2
8 ~
12.47 kV
i
6.9kV 138kV 51.6MILES 31/0cu
0
p
6.9kV 50mVA ~~ = 31.3 + j 37.8.0 10mVA
40mVA X=10% DJ = 46.1 + j 157.9.0 X=7%
l<d= 15%
Xg= 5%
Figure 26A1.
Perunit calculation of sequencesource impedances.
44
A1
Percent transformer impedance is based on the transformer 1. Draw circuit diagram.
rating. The stated impedances of the transformers cannot be A singleline diagram of the system used in the example is
used directly, since their ratings differ from the base kVA. To shown in Figure 27A 1. The system consists of an overhead
convert the impedances of T1 and T2 to the new base, apply circuit and an underground circuit at 12.47 kV. Nodes at
Equation 14 (page 13). which fault currents will be calculated are numbered, and line
lengths and types are identified. Examples of faultcurrent
ForT1 r1 = j0.10 X ~gggg = j0.08 pu calculations are given for node 5. The same procedure can
be repeated for any other point.
2. Calculate sequence source impedances.
ForT2 r1 = j0.07 x ~gggg = j0.28 pu The sequencesource impedances calculated previously
are used for this example:
These values apply whether the transformers are viewed
from their high or lowvoltage terminals. However, because r1 = r 2 = .255 + j2.291 ohms
the transformers are connected deltagrounded wye, the r 0 = o + j1.089 ohms
zerosequence impedances will change from one side to the
other (see Figure 1OA 1 ). This will be taken into account later. 3. Determine sequenceline impedances by type in
For the transmission line, impedances are stated in ohms. To ohms/1 000 feet.
get perunit values, apply Equations 12 and 5. Between the fault at points and the source, one type of
overhead line (Type 1) and one type of underground cable
r 8 = 1000E~ = 1000 (138) 2 =4761 ohms
(Type 3) are used. Their respective sequence impedances
kVA 8 400000 .
in ohms/1 000 feet are obtained from Tables 1A 1 and 4A 1,
and are as follows:
r 1 = _1_ (31.3 + j37.8) = .0657 + j.0794 pu Type 1, 31/0 CU (phase) and 1No. 2 CU (neutral), from
476.1
Table 1A1:
ro = _1_ (46.1 + j158.) = .0968 + j.3317 pu r 1 = .1150 + j.1386, ro = .2328 + j.4034
476.1
Type 3,3780 MCM AL, 175mil XLP cable with 1/3 size con
Keeping in mind the transformer connections and the fact centric neutral, from Table 4:
that zerosequence impedance cannot be reflected through a
deltaconnected winding (Figure 1OA 1), the sequencesource r 1 = .0550 + j.0581, ro =.1188 + j.0305
impedances of the system viewed from point P on the distribution
circuit then become:
4. Determine linesection sequence impedances in ohms.
r1 = r2 The sequence impedances of each section of line or cable
Generator 0 + j0.15 0 between the source and the fault can be calculated by
T1 0 + j0.08 0 multiplying the impedance in ohms/1 000 feet by the length
Transmission 0.0657 + j0.0794 0 of the section in 1000 feet. In this example, impedance values
T2 0 + j0.28 0 + j0.28 will be given with only three decimal places.
Total 0.0657 + j0.5894 pu 0 + j0.28 pu Section Type Length ~ 1 (ohms) ~ o (ohms)
12 3 8.448 .465 + j .491 1.004+j .258
To express these source impedances in ohms on a 12.47 kV 23 1 4.224 .486 + j .588 .983+j1.704
base, first find the base impedance at this voltage from 35 1 21.278 2.447 + j2.949 4.953 + j8.584
Equation 12:
2 5. Select fault impedance.
r = 1000 ( 12.47) = 3 8875 ohms
B 40000 . In the computer results presented later, fault impedances
of 0 and 20 ohms are used in the overhead portion of the
Then the source impedances in ohms as viewed from the system. On the underground portions, only a zero fault
lowvoltage bus of the substation are: impedance is used.
r1 = r2 = {0.0657 + j0.5894) 3.8875 6. Calculate total sequence impedances at point of fault. The
total system sequence impedances at the faulted node 5
= .255 + j2.291 ohms are the sum of the sequence impedances of the sections
between the source and node 5.
r 0 = {O + j0.28) 3.8875 Total positive and negativesequence impedances:
= .0 + j1.089 ohms .255 + j2.291 source
+ .465 + j.491 section 12
Example of DistributionSystem Calculation + .465 + j.585 section 23
The distribution system used in this example is typical from +2.447 + j2.949 section 35
the standpoint of commonly encountered conductor sizes r1 = r2  3.653 + j6.316 ohms at node 5
and configurations. Fault currents at one point of the system
are calculated in detail following the procedure outlined in the
previous section. The results of a computer study giving the
fault currents at every specified point of the system also are
included.
45
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)
138~
SOURCE IMPEDANCES
at 12.47 kV {Node #1):
i! 1 .256 + i 2.291 ohms
i!0 0 + j 1.089 ohms
12.47kV LINE TYPES
17
OVERHEAD
{ (1)31/0CU& 1#2CU
(2) 1#2CU & 1#4CU . II
422'
14)
¥
;
~· UND!=RGROUND
{ (3)3750MCMAL.XLPCABLES
WITH 1/3 SIZE CONCENTRIC NEUTRAL
I
1
+ 2 3 (4)1·1/0AL.XLPCABLEWITH I
16 0+++f*tt1~ttIHQ+flf+fo++11++++'10a FULL SIZE CONCENTRIC NEUTRAL :
4699' 4224'
+
528':
13) t
t
1320'
(1)
14) 6 3960'
(3)
(4)
.3168'
18 ~ 11)
9
3326'
(3)
+++++0 14 5
475'
14)
6 oo;....0
10660' 14098'
.8
I
(1) I 12)
I
I 13411'
3PHASE 3PHASE II 121
11111111 I
13 OVERHEAD UNDERGROUND I

· 1PHASE
+t++++
1·PHASE
0
7
Figure 27A 1.
Circuit diagram for sample case.
47
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)
TABLE 9A1
Results of ComputerProgram Calculation of Fault Currents
Fault Currents (Amps) and X/R Ratios
Column**: See Explanation in Text, Previous Page
48
A1
The circuit diagram of Figure 28A 1 includes current values
obtained from the program results displayed in
Table 9A1.
3PHASE 3PHASE
111111111
OVERHEAD UNDERGROUND
17 ++++++
¥
+
1PHASE 1PHASE
+ 2 L.....=....:'=.....1 3
16~~H+~~~~+H~~HOo
+
+
+
0
18
.+++++015
+++++0 14
o9oS
I
I
I
12387l:141
I
I
I
I
124~~:.261 b 7
figure 28A1.
Cin:uit diagram with faultcurrent ranges.
49
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
50
Section A
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
An Introduction
This section bridges the gap between fundamentals and theory, The overcurrent protection equipment covered ranges from
and application specifics. Now that the previous section (A1) singleaction devices requiring replacement of at least a key
nas supplied the basis for understanding and analysis of component after each operation (fusing equipment) to apparatus
overcurrent phenomena, we present a discussion of the designed for repeated operation over many years (reclosers,
equipment available for reducing or eliminating the potential circuit breakers). Each has its place in presentday electrical
dangers of overcurrent to distribution systems and their distribution systems. Each is discussed in the following pages
:omponent feeders and apparatus. The following overcurrent as to function and characteristics, available types, and general
protection section (A3) contains specific examples of how this selection and application factors.
equipment is used, with particular emphasis on the
coordination of devices to achieve the desired balance
between protection and continuity of service.
51
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Fusing Equipment
Fuses are the most basic protective devices available for for overload protection. Switch links, on the other hand, have
overcurrent protection on the distribution system. Their primary no element, but are used to convert the fuselink holder into
function is to serve as inexpensive weak links in the circuitlinks a disconnect switch, if required.
that open to clear (interrupt) overcurrents and protect equipment The characteristics of an expulsion fuse link are defined by
against overloads and short circuits. They can also be used its timecurrent characteristics (TCC). On TCC graphs
for line sectionalizing. (Figure 2A2), the minimummelt curve is the average melt
Fuses are available in a variety of types offering a wide less the manufacturer's tolerance, approximately 10 percent,
selection of operating characteristics. The basic types include with positive variations. The total clearing time is the average
expulsion fuses (covered under "fuse links" and "fuse cutouts" melt plus manufacturer's tolerance plus arcing time, with vari
in the following discussions), vacuum fuses, and currentlimiting ations in the negative direction. All curves are developed at
fuses. 25° C with no preloading.
Expulsion fuse links are covered under ANSI standard
DESIGNS AND CHARACTERISTICS C37.43, which defines characteristics for the following types
Fuse Links of links.
Fuse links serve as expendable, inexpensive "weak links" in The "N"rated link was the first attempt at standardizing
expulsiontype protective devices, the most common of which fuselink characteristics. The standard dictated that it would
are cutouts. That is, fuse links are the components replaced carry 100 percent of its rated current continuously and would
after providing the desired protection, just as blown household melt at less than 230 percent of its rating in five minutes.
fuses are replaced without disturbing the fuse box. From this, an upper limit for the TCC at five minutes is
The principal component of a fuse link is a fusible element defined. Since only the lowcurrent end was standardized,
of various materials and dimensions that determine the time the actual TCC shape was determined by fuse manufacturers
current characteristics. In parallel with the element is a strain and was highly variable.
wire to remove tension from the fuse link. The construction K and T links  "fast" and "slow" types, respectively  were
(Figure 1A2) utilizes a button head and a leader designed to also defined by standards in the early 1950's. For the Klink,
allow mechanical interchangeability in the cutouts or other a speed ratio of 6 to 8 is defined and for a T link, 10 to 13.
devices in which fuse links are used. Surrounding the fusible The speed ratio is the ratio of minimummelt current at 0.1
element is an auxiliary tube that aids in the extinguishing of second to minimummelt current at 300 or 600 seconds,
lowcurrent faults. depending on the fuselink current rating.
Some links make use of dual elements that reduce the Using this system, three points are established to
longtime minimummelt currents without reducing shorttime adequately describe the fuse curve: 0.1 second, 10 seconds,
minimummelt currents. These types have special application and 300 seconds (600 seconds for 140 and 200amp links).
BUTIONHEAD
STRAIN WIRE
ation.
FERRULE
L
Provides exceptional ten Copper construction for
sion relief in excess of better soldering, conduc
standards. tivity, and strength.
BUTIONHEAD
Figure 1A2.
Fuselink construction, single and dual element.
52
A2
Fuse Cutouts
300 As stated earlier, distribution expulsion fuses must be used in
conjunction with another device for proper operation. The
200
most typical devices are cutouts, available in openlink, open,
and enclosed design (Figure 4A2).
100 These devices operate on the "expulsion" principle by
80
60 means of a fuse link and an arcconfining tube with a deionizing
fiber liner. When the fusible element of the fuse link melts, the
40 fiber liner melts, thereby emitting deionizing gases, which
30 accumulate within the tube. The arc is stretched, compressed,
20 and cooled within the tube, and gas escaping at the tube
ends carries away a portion of the arcsustaining particles.
10 Reestablishment of the arc after current zero is reached is
8 prevented by the deionizing gases, and by extreme gas pressure
6 and turbulence, which increase the dielectric strength of the air
a; 4 \ gap in the tube. Highpressure gases then expel arcsupporting
g 3 \
ions remaining in the tube.
i
w
2
1\1\
\ '
Openlink cutouts, the simplest design, rely only on the
fuse auxiliary tube for arc confinement and to clear currents.
~ 1\1\ MAXIMUM CLEARING TIME In both opentype and enclosed cutouts, however, the fuse link
~ 1
.8 \ / is inserted in a bonefiber tube or fuseholder that enhances
v
\'rv v
.6 faultclearing capability. Enclosed cutouts have terminals,
.4 fuse clips, and fuseholder mounted completely within an
.3 \ insulating enclosure, whereas open cutouts, as the name
.2 1\ indicates, have these parts completely exposed .
\ Expulsion cutouts are covered by ANSI standard C37.42.
\ They have maximum voltage ratings of 5.2 kV through 38 kV
.1 and, as a result of testing, have defined symmetrical inter
.08
.06 7 \ rupting ratings. (Asymmetrical values also are provided in the
.04
v·.V \ \ standards "for information only.") Table 2A2 summarizes the
ratings most commonly used. In addition to continuous current,
.03 f _
.02
MINIMUM
MELTING TIME
\
\ "' maximum voltage, and interrupting current, ANSI C37.42
states that distributioncutout ratings also shall include
.01
I I
I I \"' frequency, basic impulse insulation level (BIL), loadbreak
current, and shorttime current.
g 8 88 gr 80 0
0
0
0
0
g
N C"l VLC'l
~ g LC'l
TABLE 2A2
CURRENT (amperes) )
Summary of Available Ratings for Distribution Cutouts
Figure 2A2. (Expulsion Type)
Typical timecurrent curves for 10K link. Max Design Cont. Current Interrupting
Voltage Type Ratings Sym.Amps
(kV) (amps) (kA)
Typically, in addition to these points, the longtime continuous 5.2 Enclosed 50,100 & 200 1.6 through 12.5
current of a fuse link also is specified. This would generally 7.8 Enclosed 50, 100 1 .4 through 8.0
be 150 percent of rating for tin links and 100 percent of 7 .8 Open Unk 50 1 .2
7.8/13.5 Open 100,200 3 .6 through 12.5
rating for silver links. 15.0 Open Unk 50 1.2
The standard also specifies preferred and nonpreferred 15.0 Open 100,200 2.8 through 10.0
ratings. (Table 1A2.) "Basic" and "intermediate" might be better 15/26 Open 100, 200 1.8 through 5.6
terms, since the categories were established primarily to 18 Open Unk 50 .75
27 Open 100 1.1 through 8.0
facilitate ruleofthumb coordination, and neither group is 38 Open 100 1.3 through 8.0
actually preferred. ..
See manufacturers ' catalogs for spec1f1c rat1ngs.
Typical fuse curves of various types of links are shown in
Rgure 3A2. It should be noted that there are several types of
fuse links  not all recognized by standards  other than
those described here.
TABLE 1A2
Standard FuseLink Ratings
"NonPrefferred"
Preferred Ratinas Ratinas
6, 10, 15, 25, 40, 8, 12, 20, 30,
I 65,100,140,200 50, 80
53
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Fusing Equipment (Continued)
1000
CURRENT {amps)
Figure 3A2.
Comparison of various fuselink timecurrent characteristics.
54
A2
MOUNTING
BRACKET
LINE
TERMINAL
LINE
TERMINAL
Open OpenLink
Enclosed
Rlgure 4A2.
J!'stributiontype fuse cutouts.
CLIP STYLE
Figure 6A2.
Currentlimiting fuse.
Figure 5A2.
Loadbreak fuse cutout.
55
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Fusing Equipment (Continued)
A currentlimiting fuse, as shown in Figure 7A2, consists of main element continues to arc, it now must do so in three
a fusible element of silver wire or ribbon. The ribbon is wound locations, thereby tripling the arc length and the area avail
around a supporting member ("spider") which may or may not able to dissipate the circuit energy (Example C). During the ini·
produce ionizing gas to aid in clearing. The fuse is filled with tial arc period, sufficient heat is generated to decompose the
sand and installed in an insulating tube, typically of glass spider in that area, and the blast of gas evolving from the spi
porcelain or epoxy der cools the fulgurite and reduces the length of arc needed to
The operation of the fuse is dependent on its type. For all achieve fault interruption.
types, highfault current clearing is basically the same. A flow With other types of fuses, such as the Cooper NXC@
of current melts the full length of the element and the resulting capacitor fuse, the melting of the M spot ignites a squib at the
arc causes the element to explode, thereby vitrifying the sand end of the fuse that operates similarly to an expulsion fuse
and forming a glass tunnel which confines the arc. This glass and cutout to provide lowcurrent clearing.
tunnel, known as fulgurite, restricts the arc by increasing the For currentlimiting fuses, important factors to consider
resistance. Current is reduced and forced to an early current include letthrough current, the melt l2t, the letthrough l2t,
zero. and peakarc voltage. Letthrough current (Figures 9A2 and
In partialrange and fullrange fuses, provision must be 10A2) depends on the point of fault initiation in the X/R of the
made for intermediate and lowcurrent clearing. In Cooper fault current. The minimummelt 121 measures the fuse's ability
currentlimiting fuses, for example, an "M spot" (a bit of tin to withstand transients without being damaged. The letthrough
lead alloy) is placed in the center of the main fusible element 121 measures the fuse's ability to reduce destructive effects on
to lower its initial melting temperature (Figure 8A2, Example faults. Peakarc voltage is related to available fault current,
A). As soon as the element melts at the M spot, current is trans the point on the cycle at which fault interruption occurs, or
ferred to an auxiliary element, a small wire wound adjacent system voltage, depending on the type of element. Silver wire
to the main element and gapped closely to the main element elements have a uniform crosssectional area, and the peakarc
about onequarter of the distance from each end. A voltage voltage is a function of available fault current and the voltage
gradient appears across the arc at the M spot and across rating of the fuse (Figure 11 A2). Ribbon elements have notches
both auxiliary element gaps (Example B). Therefore, if the or cutouts which provide arcvoltagegeneration control; as a
Figure 7A2.
Basic components of Cooper NX® currentlimiting fuse.
56
A2
result, peakarc voltage is mainly a function of system voltage
(Figure 12A2).
The ability to reduce the energy available to the protective
equipment, as shown in the preceding figures, is the biggest
advantage of currentlimiting fuses.
MAIN ELEMENT
MSPOT\.. \
INDICATOR
WIRE
AUX. ELEMEN~ f \
GAP ELECTRODES
.....::INITIAL ARC
B~\==~====~~c===~==~f
___ /f K
GAPS FIRE
v AUXILIARY ELEMENT
BURNING OPEN
Figure 8A2.
Lowcurrent operation of Cooper NX currentlimiting
fuse.
100
_,
~.

50
' ~
/
~ v ,.....,. 200
!50
"'
 ~ ::::
i"" 130
~ 20 .... 100
~ ~ ~ ;..... 75
~ ~ ~ .,.
::::. ......
~ 65
lij 10 ~~ 50
45
40
!
1
z
~
a:
:::>
(,)
5
 
~
L. ~ ~ .....
::,.....
"""'
~~ ...:::: ;....
~
.,...,.. ......::
.,...,.. ~ .....
;.....
......
~ ¥~&20.
12
10
30&35
 
~ """' ~ ~ .......
J:

(!l
2
...... ....... ~ 68
:::>
..... ......... ......... ...... 1"""" ~r""'
0
"""' .....
a:
J:
1
._!.
w
~~ k t::: .,...,.. .......
.,...,..
AMPERE RATINGS
v
...J
::!
~
,., .... .....
OF FUSES
.5
1/: ....... .... r
~ / .... .......
::!
~
.2
.1
.1 .2 .5 2 5 10 20 50 100
Figure 9A2.
Maximum Jetthrough current for NX currentlimiting fuses  4.3 and 5.5 kV.
57
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Fusing Equipment (Continued)
100
/
50
/
/ ,.... ~"'!~
0
~
Q) 20 k t;:: ::::;:. ;;;
::;...
,.... ~~~88065
~~
0.
E
"'
.Q
:i2 10
~~F' ~ """"
~
......... ::.I" 50
40

"

30
"'
Q)
8
1
z
w
a:
a:
::J
5
~~
1/"
~~ ~
 ::> 
1 ,.,..
 ~
~ ~ ::;;..
....:: ....
....
25
20
12 & 18
10
8

~ .........
0
I
2 .... ~ f::::: 1 1 .... 6
(!)
:.. ~ ~ 1"" .........
::J
0
a:
I ~~ ~
 ~.'"'
1"" ... ~ .... 3:ij
_
1

1.5
t!.
w
....1 / ... ....
:;
::J .5 .... AMPERE RATINGS
/ ~
:; ..... ,.. OF FUSES

x ~~ I"'
<(
:; v ~"' ""' ... ,.. ~
.2
l..,.....
"""" ... ""'
.1 ............ 1
.1 .2 .5 2 5 10 20 50 100
AVAILABLE CURRENT (rms symmetrical kiloamperes)
Figure 1OA2.
Maximum letthrough current for NX currentlimiting fuses 8.3, 15.5, and 23 kV.
120
100
38 KV FUSES 6 THRU 12 AMP
c>
w
<!) 80
~
:..J
§2 27 KV FUSES 6 THRU 12 AMP
{)
a: 60
< I_ I I_
~ 23 KV FUSES 6 THRU 12 AMP
<
w !_ I I
a. 15.51KV FUSE~ 1.5 THRU 12 AMP
:::!!: 40
::::> I I I I I I
:::!!: 8 3 KV FUSES 1.5 THRU 12 AMP
~ ·
5.~ KV FUS~S
1
6THRU 12 AMP
I I ~
:::!!:
20
0
.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .7 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70
AVAILABLE CURRENT (rms symmetrical kiloamperes)
Figure 11 A2.
Maximum peakarc voltage for currentlimiting fuses as related to available current.
58
A2
phasetophase fault when one fuse operates before the second
·oo has a chance to melt.
For ungrounded systems, the maximum voltage rating of the
I cutout should equal or exceed the maximum system phase
90
80
v tophase voltage. For grounded systems on singlephase
taps, the maximum voltage rating should equal or exceed the
maximum phasetoground voltage of the system, provided
the BIL rating is compatible. For threephase applications, a
>
=
·
70 / cutout should be used with its maximum voltage rating equal
to or greater than the maximum phasetophase voltage. On
threephase systems, however, faults that produce conditions
~
':::: I for which a single cutout must interrupt against phasetophase
> 60
:i
< 50 I
v voltage are relatively rare, so that slantrated cutouts may
commonly be used. Table 3A2 lists typical cutout applications.
v
TABLE 3A2
"'~ Typical OpenType Cutout Applications
::i: Recommended EC~u,\~ion
/I
::; 40
::i: Svstem Voltage (kV) Cutout Ratin kV *
X FourWire
<: Nominal Maximum Multigrounded Delta
::i: 30
Neutral

20 / 2.4
2.4/4.16
4.16
2.54
2.54/4.4
4.4
7.8/15

7.8/15

7.8/15
/
I 4.8
4.8/8.32
5.1
5.1/8.8

7.8/15
7.8/15

10 6.9 7.26  7.8/15
0 /
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
6.93/12
7.2
7.2/12.47
7.62
7.3/12.7
7.62
7.62113.2
8.1
7.8/15
7.8/15


7.8/15

7.8/15
CIRCUIT VOLTAGE (kv) 7.62/13.2 8.1/14.0 15 
7.97 8.4  7.8/15
Figure 12A2. 7.97/13.8 8.4/14.5 15
Maximum peakarc voltage for currentlimiting fuses as 8.32 8.8  7.8/15
related to circuit voltage. 8.32/14.4 8.8/15.2 15
12/20.8 12.7/22 15/27 
12.47 13.2  7.8/15
FUSE APPLICATION FACTORS
13.2/22.9 14/24.2 15/27 
13.2 14  7.8115
.Fuse CutoutS/Fuse Links 13.8 14.5  7.8/15
3ecause fuse links are used primarily in expulsionfuse 14.4/24.9 15.2/26.4 15/27 
14.4 15.2 15
:utouts, the first step in their application is selection of the 
19.9134.5 21.1/36.5 27/38
appropri~te fu~ cutout rating. To determine this rating, system 34.5 36.5  27/38
<'Oitage, msulat1on level, maximum available fault current at
application point, X/R ratio, and maximum load current must
.For mulllph~;~se il!ults not mvolvtng ground, slantrated units rely on two
cutouts tn senes to mte!"'upt the tault and share the recovery voltage. In systems
all be known. From this, the fuse cutout can be selected wtth an ?~er/underbutld of the same voltage or a situation where the line
~tonalizmg cutouts are spaced apart on diftarent spans, conditions could
:lased on continuous current, voltage, and interrupting capacity. extst where one cutout would be required to interrupt at phasetophase
The rated continuous current of the fuse cutout should be voltage. In such applications, lullrated cutouts must be used.
;;reater than the maximum continuous load current the cutout
11ould be required to carry, including normal currents overload
The symmetrical interrupting rating of a fuse should be
currents, sustained harmonic currents, etc. '
equal to or greater than the maximum fault current at the fuse
Voltage selection is made based on the phasetophase or
location. Cutout interrupting ratings are based on X/R values
ohasetoground v?lta~~· depending on the system grounding
that are equal to or greater than those encountered on the
and whether the c1rcu1t 1s three phase or single phase. Either
majority of distribution systems. Close to substations where
X/R ratios may be particularly high, cutouts may ha~e to be
a fullrated cutout or a slantrated cutout can be used.
. By standards, ~ fullrated cutout, which is designated by a
derated as shown in Figure 13A2.
s1ngle voltage rat1ng (such as 15 kV), must be able to interrupt
Where system fault currents are known, it is a simple matter
any ~ault curr~nt up to its maximum interrupting rating at its
to choose a cutout whose symmetrical and asymmetrical
max1mum des1gned voltage.
interrupting ratings are greater than the symmetrical and
. T~e rating of a slantrated cutout (for example, 15/27 kV)
asymmetrical values of fault current. For example, Table 4A2
1mphes that one cutout i~ capa~le of i~terrupting its full rating
lists both types of interrupting ratings for a cutout with
when the lower voltage IS applied to 1t. It also is implied that
100 ampere fuse holder, and such information is available
two cutouts in series will interrupt the full rating when the
from cutout manufacturers. Also, asymmetrical fault current
higher number is applied (representing a highmagnitude
can be calculated by multiplying the symmetrical value by a
phasetophase fault). The cutout must also be able to inter
factor obtained from the curve shown in Figure 13A2.
rupt low currents .(typicE~:IIY up to 5001000 amperes) at the
h1gher voltage rat1ng. Th1s would represent a lowmagnitude
59
A2
Generally, singlephase circuits may be protected by current
limiting fuses whose ratings are greater than the lineto
(/)
w 120· ground voltage, whereas threephase circuits require fuses
>
cr: ~, with suitable linetoline ratings. In certain cases, lineto
3 115 ·.....t/1\1 ground ratings may be applied on threephase systems,
:::i
::l
:l. 110 '' provided the postinterruption voltage impressed across the
fuse does not exceed the maximum design voltage. For this
 ' .. '....'........'~ , .. __
5 condition, it is assumed that two currentlimiting fuses in
f
JJ
105 ~llVEA series will share the impressed voltage for the given fault
:2 condition. Table 5A2 shows the recommended voltage ratings
 100 and applications of currentlimiting fuses.
:,)
~
:::; 95
' ,., For equipment protection, the interrupting requirement of
the currentlimiting fuse must coordinate with the equipment
...J
2
90
40 30 20 10 0 10
'' .........
it is protecting. The timecurrent characteristic must also
coordinate with other protective devices on the system, par
20 30 40 50 ticularly when there are backup fuses and an expulsion fuse
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE DEGREES CENTIGRADE
must be relied on for lowcurrent clearing. These points will
be discussed in more detail in later sections.
Figure 15A2.
Ambient temperature derating factors for fuse links. Like fuse links, currentlimiting fuses must be derated
under certain ambient temperature conditions. The derating
factors for various applications are shown in Figure 16A2.
CurrentLimiting Fuse Selection
:::;,mentlimiting fuses are selected primarily on the basis of
:'leir voltage rating. Factors to consider in determining suit 140
::.Die ratings are the type of system, maximum system volt
:;.ge, transformer winding conditions if fuses are to protect a 130
::ansformer, neutral grounding, and type of loading. 120
""'
I I I
Recommended CurrentLimiting Fuse Voltage Ratings a: 100
ecce
System Voltage (kV) Recommended NX Fuse Rating (kV) 125 90
... l'...... I IN TRANSFORMER
BUSHING
FourWire ~!:;j
u.;W ~~ I
Multigrounded Delta (!l:::E 80
/
"' " "
Nominal Maximum Neutral ?;:::E
!;(:::) 70
Single Three Single Three a:!!] FREE AIR
Phase Phase Phase Phase wz ~
o 60
2.4 2.54   4.3 4.3 1:::E
z..J "
2.4/4.16 2.54/4.4 4.3 5.5* w<C 50
4.16 4.4  4.3 4.3 a:?;
CC:::E
4.8 5.1  5.5 5.5 :>a 40
4.8/8.32 5.1/8.8 5.5 8.3*   Uz
lL
6.9 7.26   8.3 8.3 0 30 DERATING FACTOR FOR NX FUSES
6.93/12 7.3/12.7 8.3 15.5*  e3
7.2 7.62   8.3 8.3 20
7.2112.47 7.62/13.2 8.3 15.5*   10
7.97 8.4  8.3 8.3
7.97/13.8 8.4/14.5 8.3 15.5* 
8.32 8.8   8.3 8.3 0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175
8.32/14.4 8.8/15.2 8.3 15.5*  
12120/8 12.7/22 15.5 23*   FREE AIR OR TOP OIL TEMPERATURE
12.47 13.2   15.5 15.5
13.2122.9 14/24.2 15.5 23*   Figure 16A2.
13.2 14.5  15.5 15.5 Ambient temperature derating factors for NX current
14.4/24.9 15.2/26.4 15.5 27*   limiting fuse applications.
14.4 15.2  15.5 15.5
19.9/34.5 21.1/36.5 23 38* 
34.5 36.5  38 38
61
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
s
27 400 8000 Vacuum Oil Electronic VXE
400
800
8000
125000
Vacuum
Vacuum ~ic
S ric
NOVA1
NOVA1
35 560 8000 Oil Oil r DV
rhrAB·Phase
100 2000* Oil Oil Hydraulic 6H
200 2000* Oil Oil Hydraulic V6H
560 10000* Oil Oil Hydraulic w
560*** 10000* Oil Oil Electronic WE
560 12000 Vacuum Oil Hydraulic PWH**
15 560 12000 Vacuum Oil Hydraulic vw I
560 12000 Vacuum Oil Electronic PWE***
560*** 12000 Vacuum Oil Electronic VWE
630 12500 Vacuum Solid Dielectric Electronic NOVA
800 12500 Vacuum Solid Dielectric Electronic NOVA
800 16000 Vacuum Solid Dielectric Electronic NOVA
560*** 12000 Vacuum Air Electronic VSA12
560 16000 Vacuum Air Electronic VSA16
800 16000 Vacuum Air Electronic VSA16
1 ~o~
8
~g~og ~:g~um
uum ~~~ ~~~ronic
tronic
VSA,~~
VSA2 A
560 12000 Vacuum Oil Hydraulip VWV27
27 560*** 12000 Vacuum Oil VWVE27
560 12000 Vacuum Oil PWVH**
560 12000 Vacuum Oil nic PWVE**
Vacuum So~~~ Dielectric
~5~ 12~gp0 Electronic NOVA
8 0 125 Vacuum Soli Dielectric Electronic NOVA
560 8000 Oil Oil Hydraulic wv
560*** 8000 Oil Oil Hydraulic WVE
35 560 12000 Vacuum Oil Hydraulic VWV38
560*** 12000 Vacuum Oil Electronic VWVE38
560*** 12000 Vacuum Oil Electronic VS012
560 16000 Vacuum Oil Electronic VS016
ITrlple Single
I&R!I
15 400 12500 Vacuum f<.!QYA
800 12500 Vacuum NOVA
27 400 12500 Vacuum NOVA
800 12500 Vacuum NOVA
* Interrupting rating Will be higher at lower voltage.
•• Padmounted reclosers. All others are overhead or substationtype
••• Continuous current rating can be extended to 800 amps with an accessory . .
t NOTE: Recloser type designations are assigned by the manufacturer and are not universal. Cooper Power Systems type des1gnabons are the most complete
listing of reclosers in the industry, and are used in this manual for convenience in identifying recloser groupings and ratings.
62
A2
Figure 17A2.
Poletop installation of singlephase recloser.
Figure 18A2.
Singlephase recloser.
~19A2.
•~Type NOVATS TripleSingle Recloser.
63
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Automatic Circuit Reclosers (Continued)
Threephase Reclosers
Threephase reclosers (Figures 20A2 and 21A2) are used
where lockout of all three phases is required for any permanent
fault, to prevent single phasing of threephase loads such as
large threephase motors.
Figure 21 A2.
Threephase NOVA electronically controlled recloser.
64
A2
Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers proportional to the minimum trip current programmed, (3) the
1ydraulic control is used in singlephase reclosers and three leveldetection and timing logic is activated. After a time
:::~ase reclosers listed in Table 6A2. This type of control, which delay, as determined by the programmed timecurrent char
s an integral part of the recloser, senses an overcurrent by acteristic, (4) the trip circuit is energized, sending a trip sig
neans of a series trip coil connected in series with the line. nal to the recloser. (5) A sequence counter then operates, (6)
Nhen current in excess of the coil's minimum trip rating flows causing the reclosing and reset logic to begin timing and
·'irough the coil, a plunger is drawn into the coil to trip open advancing the control program to its next preset operation.
::1e recloser contacts. Timing and sequencing are accom After the programmed reclosing time expires, (7) a close
::Jiished by the "pumping" of oil through separate hydraulic signal is sent to the recloser and the current sensing begins
:1ambers. again. When the reset time expires, the sequence counter
One of two contact closing methods is used in hydraulically resets the control program to its starting position.
::ontrolled reclosers. In singlephase reclosers rated 280 The control will lock out immediately following a trip signal
a11peres and below, and in threephase reclosers rated 200 after the programmed number of trip operations occur. When
amperes and below, contacts are closed by springs loaded locked out, the control does not reset or send a close signal
':!Y movement of the seriestripcoil plunger during the over until the closing operation is manually activated from the control
:;ment opening operation. On 560ampere singlephase panel or by a remote signal.
·eclosers and threephase reclosers rated 400 amperes and Electronically controlled reclosers utilized solenoids, motors
.., igher, closing power is provided by a separate closing solenoid or magnetic actuators to open and close interrupters.
::!"!ergized from the line potential on the source side of the
·ecloser. (An optional closing solenoid arrangement can be ~sol Interrupters
Jsed for closing from ex1ernal120 or 240Vac power.) Reclosers utilize either oil or vacuum as the interrupting
medium. When oil is used, the same oil is used for both arc
Electronically Controlled Reclosers interruption and basic insulation. Some reclosers with
,e electronic method of recloser control is more flexible, hydraulic control also utilize the same oil for the timing and
~10re easily adjusted and tested, and more accurate than counting functions.
··ydraulic control. The electronic control conveniently permits Use of vacuum as an interrupting medium provides the
::1anging the timecurrent characteristics, trip current levels, advantages of reduced maintenance and minimum external
3.!1d recloser operation sequences without deenergizing or reaction. Some recloser types are available with either an oil
Jntanking the recloser. A wide range of programming options interrupter or a vacuum interrupter. Vacuum reclosers may
3.llow the operation of the control to be modified to solve many utilize either oil or air as the basic insulating medium.
:: fferent application problems.
Electronic controls are available utilizing microprocessor Types of Insulating Mediums
ogic. Greatly simplied, the operation of the logic is illustrated Reclosers insult those components at line potential with any
'1 Figure 21A2. (1) Line current is sensed by three bushing one of the following materials:
:Jpe sensing transformers inside the recloser. Secondary • Mineral Oil
:urrents from these transformers are carried to the control by • Air
a rnulticonductor cable that also carries tripandclose signals • High dielectric gas, such as SFa
:::;ack to the recloser. When these secondary currents, (2) • Solid dielectric, such as polymers.
"towing through sensing circuits in the control, exceed a level
CLOSEINITIATING CIRCUIT
RECLOSER
TRIPINITIATING CIRCUIT
I (~)
/1"~
,.._:_.. "~":
: SENSING
LEVEL DETECTION
SEQUENCE RECLOSE
TRIP
BUSHING r CIRCUIT r AND
r CIRCUIT : COUNTER r TIMING
CT's
r
TIMING CIRCUIT
.... r
~ PHASETRIP NETWORK t
~1  I
I I I I
l!
1
SENSING
ciRCUIT
I _ _ _ __.JI
I
~1
I LEVEL DETECTION
TIMIN~~?RcUIT
I      I
I
r
I
 RESET
TIMING

GROUNDTRIP NETWORK
Figure 22A2.
Block diagram of electronic recloser control.
65
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Automatic Circuit Reclosers (Continued)
66
A2
RECLOSER
LOCKOUT
(CONTACTS OPEN)

T IME
RECLOSING INTERVALS (CONTACTS OPEN)
Figure 24A2.
Typical recloser operating sequence to lockout.
•
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Sectionalizers
A sectionalizer is a protective device that automatically isolates
faulted sections of line from a distribution system. Normally
applied in conjunction with a backup recloser or breaker, a
sectionalizer does not have any faultinterrupting capability of
its own. Rather, it counts the operations of the backup device
during fault conditions and, after a preselected number of
currentinterrupting operations and while the backup device
is open, the sectionalizer opens to isolate the faulted section
of line. This allows the backup device to reclose into the
remaining unfaulted sections, thus restoring them to service.
If the fault is temporary, however, it will be cleared by the
backup device prior to the sectionalizer count to lockout, and
the sectionalizer will remain closed. The sectionalizer mechanism
then automatically resets to prepare for another complete
cycle of operations should a new fault occur.
Compared to fuse cutouts, which do, of course, have full
interrupting capability, sectionalizers provide several advantages
that, depending on the application and the particular utility's
approach to overcurrent protection, can offset a higher initial
cost. These advantages include application flexibil ity,
convenience, and safety.
After a permanent fault, for example, the faultclosing
capability of a sectionalizer greatly simplifies testing of the
circuit, and if the fault is still present, interruption takes place Figure 25A2.
safely at the backup recloser. Since replacement fuse links Typical electronically controlled sectionalizer.
are not required, the line can be tested and restored to service
with far more speed and convenience. Also, the possibility of
error in selecting the size and type of fuse link is eliminated.
In addition to providing the general advantages just cited, Electronically Controlled Sectionalizers
sectionalizers are particularly suitable for two applications The electronic control used with larger threephase sectionalizers
where timecurrent characteristics (which sectionalizers do is more flexible and more easily adjusted than the hydraulic
not have) might pose coordination problems: control. It conveniently permits changing actuating current
1. They can be used between two protective devices with levels, shots to lockout, and memory time without deenergizing
operating curves that are close together. This is a vital or untanking the sectionalizer. A wide range of accessories is
feature in locations where additional coordination steps are available to modify the basic operation and solve many
impractical or impossible. different application problems.
2. They can be used on closein taps where high fault Line current is detected by sensing current transformers in
magnitude prevents coordination of fuses with the backup the sectionalizer. Intelligence from the current transformers is
recloser or breaker. sent to an electronic cirruit that counts the nurroer of operations
of the backup interrupting device and then sends a trip signal
when necessary to activate an electromechanical release of
SECTIONALIZER CLASSIFICATIONS
the contact opening springs. Some electronically controlled
Sectionalizers are available in single and threephase versions sectionalizers are motor operated and may be closed either
controlled by hydraulic or electronic counting mechanisms: electrically or manually; others must be manually closed.
Table 7A2 lists representative ratings. Figure 24A2 shows an
electronically controlled unit. SECTIONALIZER FEATURES
Sectionalizer features include count reset, groundfault sensing,
Hydraulically Controlled Sectionalizers
and various restraints that prevent unnecessary or undesirable
Hydraulic control, as used in all singlephase sectionalizers
operation and lockout (for example, by distinguishing
and in smaller threephase units, is an integral part of the between the operation of loadside and sourceside inter
sectionalizer. This type of control senses overcurrent by
rupting devices). These features are covered in detail in the
means of a coil connected in series with the line. When over
discussions of sectionalizer applications in Section A3.
current flows through the coil, a plunger is drawn into the coil
to arm the counting mechanism. When the overcurrent dis
SECTIONALIZER APPLICATION FACTORS
appears, a count is accomplished by "pumping" oil through
hydraulic chambers. After a preselected number of pumping The following factors must be considered when applying
operations, a latch is released to allow preloaded springs to sectionalizers:
open the contacts. Hydraulically controlled sectionalizers 1. System voltage.
must be manually closed. 2. Maximum load current.
3. Maximum fault current available.
4. Coordination with other protective devices.
68
A2
System Voltage greater than the maximum available fault current. The maxi
The system voltage will be known and the sectionalizer must mum fault timing of the backup device must not exceed the
have a voltage rating equal to or greater than the system voltage. shorttime rating of the sectionalizer.
TABLE 7A2
Typical Sectionalizer Ratings
Hydraulically Controlled 14.4 and 24.9 kV
ThreePhase
SinglePhase, Type GN3:14.4 kV, 110kV BIL
Type GH: 95 or 125kV BIL Type GN3V: 24.9 kV, 125kV BIL
Continuous Symmetrical Actuating
Current Interrupting Current ShortTime Current Ratinas lamoeresl
Rating (loadbreak Rating Momentary Momentary
(amperes) amperes) (amperes) and Making One Ten and Making One Ten
Current Second Second Current Second Second
(asymmetric) (symmetric)
5 1Phase 3Phase 8 800 200 60 800 200 60
10 Units Units 16 1600 400 125 1600 400 125
15 24 2400 600 190 2400 600 190
25 40 4000 1000 325 4000 1000 325
35 56 6000 1500 450 6000 1500 450
50 308 440 80 6500 2000 650 7000 2000 650
70 112 6500 3000 900 8000 4000 900
100 160 6500 4000 1250 8000 4000 1250
140 224 6500 4000 1800 8000 4000 1800
160 256    9000 4000 2600
185
200
296
320






9000
9000
5700
5700
2600
2600
Electronically Controlled, ThreePhase14.4, 24.9, and 34.5 kV
14.4kV, 24.9kV, 110kV 34.5kV and 150kV BIL
and 125kV BIL
Continuous Symmetrical Actuating
Current Interrupting Current ShortTime Current Ratinas lamoeres)
Rating (loadbreak Rating Momentary Momentary
(amperes) amperes) (amperes) and Making One Ten and Making One Ten
I 16
Current
(asymmetric)
Second Second Current
(symmetric)
Second Second
24
40
56
80
200* 440 112
160
9000 5700 2600   
224
256
296
320
16
24
40
56
80
400** 880 112 15000 10000 3500 15000 10000 3500
160
224
320
448
640
• Type GN3E: 14.4 kV; Type GN3VE: 24.9 kV.
 Type GV: 14.4 kV; Types GW : 34.5 kV.
NOTE: Sectionalizer type designations are assigned by the manufacturer and are not universal. Cooper type designations are used in this manual for CCliMliWn:e
in identifying sectionalizer groupings and ratings.
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Figure 26A2.
Kyle Type VSA20B airinsulated, electronicallycontrolled
vacuum circuit breaker.
70
A2
TABLE 8A2
Preferred Ratings for Outdoor Oil Circuit Breakers
Related Required Capabilities
Current Values
Rated Values Max 3Second Closing
I Symmet Short and
I Current rical Time Latching
Voltage Insulation Level Rated Transient Inter Current Capability
Rated Short Recovery Rated rupting Carrying 1.6 K
Rated Withstand Continuous Circuit Voltage Per Rated Capability Capability Times
Rated Test Voltage Current Current Rated Rated missible Max Rated
Rated Voltage at at Time to Inter Tripping Voltage K Times Rated Short
Max Range Low 60Hz Rated Point P rupting Delay Divided ShortCircuit Circuit
'lloltage Factor, Frequency Impulse (Amperes, Max kV T2 Time y byK Current Current
{llV, rms) K (kA, rms) (kV, Crest) rms) (KA,rms (ps) (Cycles) (Seconds) (kA, rms) (kA, rms) (kA, rms) (kA, rms)
Col. 1 Col. 2 Col.3 Col.4 Col. 5 Col. 6 Col. 7 Coi.S Col.9 Col.10 Col.11 Col.12 Col.13
15.5 2.67 600 8.9 36 5 2 5.8 24 24 38
15.5 1.29 1200 18 33 5 2 12 23 23 37
25.8 2.15 See Discussion 1200 11 52 5 2 12 24 24 38
38 1.65 in Text 1200 22 63 5 2 23 36 36 58
48.3 1.21 1200 17 80 5 2 40 21 21 33
72.5 1.21 1200 19 106 5 2 60 23 23 37
CIRCUIT BREAKER RATINGS amperes. The continuous load current of the system including
~EMA SG4 preferred ratings for alternatingcurrent high
load transfer and contingenciesplus allowances for load
dage circuit breakers are listed in Table 8A2 (a slightly growth dictate the continuous current rating required.
evised version ofTable 3 in ANSI C37.061979). The ratings Rated ShortCircuit Current
and their applications are explained below in accordance (at Rated Maximum kV) (Col. 6)
rih the ANSI standards. Note that headings in the text relate To obtain the required symmetricalcurrent interrupting capability
1D table column headings.
of a circuit breaker at an operating voltage between 1/K times
Rated Maximum Voltage (Col. 1) rated maximum voltage and rated maximum voltage, the
The wltage rating is based on ANSI C84119n, voltage ratings following formula shall be used:
b electric power systems and equipment (60 Hz), where Rated SymmetricalCurrent Interrupting Capability =
applicable. It is the maximum voltage for which the breaker is
designed and the upper limit for operation. . . (Maximum Voltage}
Rated ShortC1rcu1t Current Rated Operating Voltage
Rated Voltage Range Factor, K (Col. 2)
K is the ratio of maximum rated voltage to the lower limit of the For operating voltages below 1/K times rated maximum
'31Qe of operating voltage, in which the required symmetrical voltage, the required symmetricalcurrent interrupting capability
cni asymmetrical current interrupting capabilities vary in of the circuit breaker shall be equal to K times rated shortcircuit
nverse proportion to the operating voltage. current.
1R ated Withstand Test Voltage, Transient Recovery Voltage,
Low Frequency (Col. 3) Rated Time to Point P (Col. 7)
The rated lowfrequency withstand voltage (dry) is the test At its rated maximum voltage, each circuit breaker must be
dage that a new circuit breaker, when tested dry and under capable of interrupting threephase ungrounded terminal
specified conditions, must be capable of withstanding for one faults at rated shortcircuit current in any circuit in which the
"'''inute without puncture or flashover. When tested wet and threephase ungroundedcircuit transient recovery voltage
mer specified conditions, a new outdoor circuit breaker and does not exceed the rated transient recoveryvoltage envelope.
edernal components shall be capable of withstanding the For circuit breakers rated 72.5 kV and below, the envelope Is
low frequency for ten seconds without flashover or puncture. defined by the rated values of E2 and T 2 from ANSI C37.06
1979. E2 = 1.88 times rated maximum voltage, and T2 is the
IR ated Withstand Test Voltage, rated time to point P given in Table 8A2, Column 7.
.,ulse (Col. 4)
The rated withstand impulsetest voltage consists of fullwave Rated Interrupting Time (CoL 8)
IPlplllse and a choppedwave impulse. A new circuit breaker The rated interrupting time of a circuit breaker is the maximum
n.~st be capable of withstanding each without flashover or permissible interval between the energizing of the trip current
puncture when tested under specified conditions. The fullwave at rated control voltage and the interruption of the main current
mpulse voltage is the crest value of a standard 1.2 x 50 in all poles on an opening operation. The current interrupted
mpulse voltage wave. The rated choppedwave impulse with must be within the required interrupting capabilities and
stmd test voltages shall consist of 129 percent of rated full equal to 25 percent or more of the required asymmetrical
rcrve impulse withstand voltage chopped at a minimum time interrupting capability at rated maximum voltage.
of two microseconds and 15 percent chopped at a
"'linimum time of three microseconds. Rated Permissible Tripping Delay (Col. 9)
The rated permissible tripping delay is the maximum value of
Rated Continuous Current at 80Hz {Col. 5} time for which the circuit breaker is required to carry K times
~ is the maximum 60Hz current the circuit breaker can rated shortcircuit current after closing on this current and
any continuously without exceeding allowable temperature before interrupting. K is the rated voltage range factor of
'IISieS. Standard values are 800, 1200, 2000, and 3000 Column 2.
71
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Circuit Breakers and Relays (Continued)
Rated Maximum Voltage Divided by K (Col. 1 OJ The following conditions must be observed:
Throughout most of a circuit breaker's voltage range, the 1. A duty cycle shall not contain more than five openings.
interrupting rating increases as the voltage decreases 2. A period between opening operations greater than 15 minutes
reflecting, of course, the established relationship between shall be considered a new operating cycle.
voltage and current. The figures in this column indicate the In addition, asymmetry in the fault current at the time of
lowest voltages at which this relationship applies, which contact parting must be considered. This magnitude is
means that the interrupting rating does not change at lower between the symmetrical faultcurrent value and the maximum
voltages. asymmetrical faultcurrent value.
Figure 28A2 (which is Figure A12 in ANSI C37.0101972)
Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting tabulates multiplying factors for this consideration  based
Capability (Col. 11) upon X/R of the circuit, contact parting time, and interrupting
For polyphase and phasetophase faults, the required time of the breaker. Thus, symmetrical fault current is multiplied
symmetrical interrupting capability is the highest value of the by the appropriate factor and compared to the standard or
symmetrical component of the shortcircuit current  in rms modified maximum symmetrical interrupting rating as
amperes at the instant of primary arcingcontact separation  appropriate.
that the circuit breaker shall be required to interrupt at a
specified operating voltage on the standard operating duty ThreeSecond Short·Time CurrentCarrying
and irrespective of the directcurrent component of the total Capability (Col. 12)
shortcircuit current. The numerical value at an operating voltage The shorttime currentcarrying capability is that value of rms
between 1/K times rated maximum voltage and rated maxi shortcircuit current that the circuit breaker shall be capable
mum voltage shall be determined by the following formula: of carrying for three seconds. This rms value, determined
from the envelope of the current wave at the time of the maximum
Rated Symmetrical _ Rated Short crest, does not exceed 1.6K times rated shortcircuit current;
Interrupting Capability  Circuit Current or, its maximum crest value does not exceed 2. 7K times the
X Rated Maximum Voltage rated shortcircuit current, and the rms value determined
Operating Voltage over the complete threesecond period does not exceed K
times rated shortcircuit current.
In no case shall the required symmetrical interrupting
capability exceed K times shortcircuit current. Closing·and·Latching Capability (Col. 13)
For distributionvoltagelevel breakers (i.e., breakers rated The circuit breaker shall be capable of closing and, immediately
below 72.5 kV and having a continuouscurrent rating 1200 thereafter, latching any normalfrequency making current thai
amperes and below), the duty cycle is CO+ 15s + CO as does not exceed 1.6K times the rated shortcircuit current or
defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.041979; which means that the whose maximum crest (peak making current) does not
breaker must be capable of closing into its maximumrated exceed 2.7K times the rated shortcircuit current. This corre
interrupting capability, interrupting, remaining open for sponds to an X/R ratio of approximately 20. Higher X/R values
15 seconds, reclosing, and interrupting again. Breakers with may require the use of a circuit breaker with a higher inter
continuous current rating above 1200 amperes are not rupting rating and thus a higher closeandlatch rating. This
intended for reclosing service applications. When such rating should be compared to the maximum asymmetricai
applications arise, the manufacturer should be consulted for fault current as calculated in Section A1 (see "System
capability factors. Faults").
Whenever a circuit breaker is applied on a duty cycle having Note that for outdoor circuit breakers rated at 121 kV and
either more operations or a shorter time interval between above, the rated voltage range factor K was changed to unity.
operations, its rated shortcircuit current and rated interrupting 1.0, to simplify rating and testing procedures.
capabilities must be modified by the reclosing capability factor R.
ANSI/IEEE C37.04·1979 defines R as
R = 1OO·D (percent)
 d•=3

and ';? KA=OT018.
0 = d1 (n2) + d1 (15t1) + d1 (15t2) 0 ...
15 15 d, = 1/6KA
KA=18T075

where D = total reduction factor in percent
72
A2
130
120
110
100
90
80
a: 70
><
0 60
~
a:
50
10~+~~~4~~1
CONTACT PAFlTiNG 2CYCLE
TIME BREAKER
o~~~~~~~
1.0 . 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1,0 u 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.2 1;3 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
MULTiPLYiNG FACTORS FOR E/XAMPERES
Figure 28A2.
Multiplying factors for threephase and linetoground faults fed predominantly through two or more transformations.
TYPES OF RELAYS
Flelays provide the intelligence for identifying fault currents,
u timing and reclosing, and, in general, for controlling the
operation of a circuit breaker. They are an externally applied
apparatus, in that the breaker by itself has no faultsensing
capability. There are many varieties of relays for sensing and
responding to a multitude of system conditions and quantities,
n:luding overcurrent, overvoltage, differential, impedance,
phase sequence, etc. The types most applicable to distribution
system protection are the overcurrent relay (Figure 29A2}
and the reclosing relay, and both are used in most applications.
OVERCURRENT RELAY
TuneCurrent Characteristics
The timecurrent characteristics of an overcurrent relay are
represented by a family of curves as shown in Figure 30A2.
The position of the curve is determined by the choice of tap
and adjustment of the time lever. The tap setting determines
1he minimum value of secondarycurrent input reached by
progressive increases that will cause pickup of the relay. The
system current at which the relay picks up is defined as minimum
1rip and is determined by lhe following:
73
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Circuit Breakers and Relays (Continued)
1' 1\'
6
,\ l\ i\
1\1
\' ' \ l
TYPICAL TIME CURVES
TYPECQ8
OVERCURRENT RELAY
5060 CYCLES
5 \
~' .\1\
'~ \~ ~,~
l
"Ni I,
,\ \ ~·,1\ ~ 1\ Ill
(/)
0
z
0
()
4
'
I' ~ ' ~
~
~ ~ 1\ ~ i\ 1\
\I\
.\
1\ 11
TIME DIAL SETTING
~'\ i\\'~~r.~
w ~
(/) 10 '\
3 1\ 8 ~
9 '~ ~
....
I' ' ~ "' ~
'~ ~ ~ I'
7 •'
1\ 6~ !' r h.
I\,4~ 1\~ f\ "' "
~ ""
~
,,
l'\. 1\ ' f\ ~" ~ ~ r ,.... .... r.
" f' ~ ~~
~ ~'t ~'""~
ttJ
~
1'1
~
""',.._ f' ""
~ ..._,
I'
~ ~ r.. ~ ~ ~ """"
~~
~
I"" r
1111
,.}':1 ..........
"' ~ r ...... ~
"··,'"
~
'fi"
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20
MULTIPLES OF TAP VALUE CURRENT
Figure 30A2.
Timecurrent characteristics of a typical overcurrent relay on the same
There are many different shapes of timecurrent characteris capability after an extended outage. Inverse and moderately
tics available, and the type chosen is dependent upon the inverse relays are generally applied where faultcurrent
application. Figure 31A2 shows the relationship among the magnitude is primarily a function of generation condition at
various families of curves when set on the same tap. the time of fault. Inverse shorttime relays are applied for
In general, the very inverse and extremely inverse relays are protection of equipment such as power rectifiers, where fast
used for distributionsystem protection, since faultcurrent tripping is desirable, but tripping not as fast as would be
magnitude is usually a function of fault location and only provided by an instantaneous element. Inverse longtime
slightly a function of generation and voltage conditions. These relays provide protection for motors against overloads where
relays provide excellent coordination with fuses and good thermal devices are not applicable.
recloser coordination in addition to providing load pickup
A2
100
0.030
60
~
30 1\ 0
z
rJl
0 0.020
0.025
\ 1\..
"'
u
10 1\ ~
w
rJl
w
I O.Q15
:::!: '' " MAX
r....
!'.t
~ 0.010 r..... MIN ~
\
""'
:::>
6 :.<:
LONGTIME
~ 0.005
3 '\ 0
'\I\" 0
rJl 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 10
Cl
z
~
MULTIPLES OF PICKUP
0
u
w
rJl 1.0
r...... ..... Figure 32A2. . . .
~ t'INVERSE Typical instantaneous tnp charactenst1c.
.......
~ o.e ..... 1~VERY
i=
0.3
1\.
~HORT
\ INVERSE First, assume the following relay and settings have been
chosen:
.....__
IME ~ COB Relay
EXTREMELY
0.1
r...... INVERSE
BOO : 5 CT Ratio
Tap5
0.06 Time Lever 1.5
IT Tap 12
' Refer to Figure 30A2 for the family of curves for the COB
inverse relay, and proceed as follows:
1.5 5 10 20 50
MULTIPLES OF TAP VALUE CURRENT
1. Minimum Trip = 1 x tap value = CT Ratio x Tap Setting
=BOOx 5
Rgure 31A2. 5
Relationship of various families of overcurrent relay
curves. =BOOA
When plotting on loglog TCC paper:
1X = BOOA
lftstantaneous Trip
rn addition to a timecurrent characteristic, which is a function 2X = 1600A, etc.
of induction disk movement, overcurrent relays also have an 2. To select the correct curve using the 1.5 time lever setting,
nslantaneoustrip mechanism, which operates magnetically. we must interpolate between the 1 and 2 settings at:
lllnimum value of trip current is determined by adjusting the
position of a plunger inside a solenoid. Different continuously
For 2X =
1600A, T = 2.1 + (42.1) X 112 = 3.05 s
~ustable ranges are available by inserting different instan
For 3X = 2400A, T = .7B + (1.6B .7B} X 112 = 1.23s, etc.
llaneous elements.Tap settings are indicated, and the
These points are plotted on TCC paper and the result is
nnmum trip is a function of secondary input current and the
setting chosen. This is expressed as: shown in Figure 33A2. To this curve should be added the circuit
breaker interrupting time.
fT Minimum Trip = CT Ratio x Instantaneous Tap Setting
3. The instantaneous element characteristics are shown in
Figure 32A2. Using the maximum curve:
Figure 32A2 shows a typical instantaneous trip character
sic plotted as a multiple of pickup current. When transferred Minimum Trip = 1 x Tap value = CT Ratio X Tap Setting
til standard loglog paper, the curves plot as straight lines.
=B00x12
As stated, inputs to both instantaneous and time trips are 5
pEMded by secondary CT current. The CT ratio should be
!1l!f so that the continuous current (including emergency con = 1920A
dlons} does not exceed the rating of the CT. Often a ratio of For 2X = 3B40A, T = .03 s
1:JS to 1.50 times peak load current is selected to allow for For 3X = 5760A, T = .022 s
energency loadgrowth conditions. etc.
In order to coordinate the relay with other devices, it is
aJnWOOn to represent the relay curve on loglog paper on a
The curve is added to the time characteristics and the
pTal of time versus primary CT current  a procedure best
combination curve is shown in Figure 34A2. If breaker oper
iiEtrated by an example.
ating time is added to the instantaneous curve, it would move
upwards slightly.
75
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Circuit Breakers and Relays (Continued)
60 3600
50 3000
40 2400
. 30 1800
20 1200
COS RELAY
800:5CT
TAP5
TL 1.5
10 600
8 480
6 360
5 300
4
'\ \ I I I
240
3 180
2 ' ~ 120
\
'\ 60
~ .8
' 48 ....,
['.
z
~
8
~
.6
.5
' ~
36
30 z
~ .4
24 g
~
i= .3 ' ' I" r
~
.2 ~ ._."'
12
0.1 6.0
.08 4.8
.06 3.6
.05 3.0
.04 2.4
.03 1.8
.02 1.2
8 888 8§
CURRENT IN AMPERES
Figure 33A2.
Time characteristics of C08 relay using the 1.5 timelever setting.
76
A2
60 3600
50 3000
40 2400
30 1800
6 360
5 300
4 \ 240 .
_1_
3 \ 180
2
' ~ 120
\
~ 60
~ .8
' 1' 48
:::j
z
~
8
:.:
.6
.5
' !\ 36
30 z
~ .4 24 ~
~
~ .3 ' ~
f"
18 (/)
"~~~~~..
~:X:
.2 12 m
~
 .............
~
§
0.1 6.0
.08 4.8.
.06 3.6
.05 3.0

.04
"" "" i"'lll
2.4
.03 1.8
8 8 88 8 § '~
CURRENT IN AMPERES
::;gure 34A2.
nstantaneous trip characteristic combined with time characteristic from Figure 32A2.
77
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Circuit Breakers and Relays (Continued)
RECLOSING RELAY
The reclosing relay's only function is to begin counting the
instant the circuit breaker (in response to the overcurrent
relay) opens and to send a "close" signal back to the breaker
at prescribed times. There are generally two types of reclos
ing relays: synchronousmotor timed and electronically
timed.
455
Figure 36A2.
Edison® Relay.
Figure 35A2.
Diagram of relay reclose settings of 2, 15, and 45 seconds.
78
A2
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
An Introduction
;).ercurrent protection encompasses two overlapping areas service interruption to the fewest possible customers and the
concern: protection of specific feeder sections or apparatus, shortest possible time. Weighed against this ideal are cost
and protection of the overall feeder or distribution system. It considerations, discussed in general terms in the preceding
s principally the latter that is involved in the "coordination" of section (A2).
~ive equipment, but even protection designed primarily Throughout the application and coordination recommenda
iJr a single transformer or other apparatus might require the tions that follow, consideration is given to the need for an
:::o::lfdination of two or more devices to assure the desired overcurrent protection philosophy, both in regards to specific
·esponses to different types of faults and to avoid potential equipment areas and for the overall distribution system.
ll&nger to adjacent equipment and lines. Readers not already working with an established protection
The application and coordination of overcurrent protection philosophy may find it helpful, if questions arise, to review the
iQ.ipment obviously will have considerable effect on continuity appropriate discussions in Section A2 on equipment charac
r:l service, which ideally means limiting any faultinduced teristics and application factors.
81
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Coordination Basics
Before the application of overcurrent protective devices can Protective devices are located at the coordinating points.
be discussed in detail, the fundamentals for coordinating Device A is at the substation, C and H are in the feeder, B is in
devices installed in series must be established. Some of what the branch tap off the feeder, D is on the distribution trans
follows will sound familiar, as it is partly a review of principles former primary, and E, F, and G are service entrance fuses
stated previously, in Section A 1. on the distribution transformer secondary. All devices must
First, those series devices whose zones of protection overlap be selected to carry normal load current and respond prop
must be coordinated so that the device nearest the fault (the erly to a fault, as follows:
"protecting" device) will operate before the upline device next • With respect to C, the protecting device is H, which means
closest to the fault (the "protected" or "backup" device) can that, for a fault at point 1 , device H must interrupt and C
function. The relative locations of "protecting" and "protected" must not open.
devices in a simple overcurrent protection scheme are • With respect to A, the protecting device is C, which must
shown in Figure 1A3. interrupt permanent fault current at point 2 before A operates
to lockout.
• Device B also is a protecting device for A and must operate
1
SUBST~TION A PROTECTING similarly to C for a fault at point 3.
DEVICE • Only device A functions for a fault between A and C, such
~
as at point 4.
> PR;ECTED • For a transformer fault at point 5, device D interrupts current
OR BACKUP and permits normal load current to flow in the rest of the
DEVICE
C ) PROTECTING system.
DEVICE • For an overload on the transformer secondary at point 6,
device E interrupts that circuit only, so that power to the
transformer may be continued and customers on the other
Figure 1A3. secondary taps will receive service.
Conventional definition of protective devices based on
location. Fuse links are indicated for illustration.
Figure 2A3.
Typical example of system coordination.
82
A3
FuseFuse Coordination
The first step in establishing a fusefuse coordination philosophy the feeder.
is strict adherence to the justdescribed fundamentals for Even more difficult to quantify are the effects of predamage
ax>rdinating series protective devices. All faults should be  the degree to which fuse clearing characteristics may be
given a chance to be temporary, lockout should occur only for affected when currents approach the minimum melt of the
permanent faults, and when lockout does occur, only the timecurrent characteristic. To avoid the effects of predamage,
smallest possible portion of the line should be removed. in no case should the protected link be allowed to experience
For seriescoordinated devices, the trip zones of protection a current within 90 percent of its minimummelt curve.
owertap. An accepted rule for coordinating fuse links is that Example of fuselink coordination based on TCC comparisons:
!he maximum clearing time of the protecting link should not Figure 3A3 shows a typical study for part of a system with
aceed 75 percent of the minimum melting time of the pro feeder fuse A and branchline fuses B and C. Known maximum
tected link. This assures that the protecting link will interrupt available fault current in symmetrical amperes and normal
n clear the fault before the protected link is damaged in any load current are shown at each coordination point. Type T tin
way, as further explained below. links will be used in all protective devices.
Three methods that may be used in coordinating fuses are
1he application of timecurrent curves (TCCs), the use of
____3~:~0+J~'OJS_A_~_P_E_RESr~
mordination tables, and rules of thumb. The TCC method,
fhe most accurate, must be used for critical coordination
areas. Tables, which are derived from TCC coordination, are
ll!latively accurate and can be used in repetitive situations. jr sar ~L
~=~des of thumb, the least accurate, will achieve satisfactory SUBSTATION A ~~~
toofdination in limited applications where fuses are used all
il one series, in either preferred or nonpreferred ratings.
36AMPERES' @
TCC COORDINATION METHOD 21 AMPERES
....,__ ,....15T
ID most cases, the entire system coordination is based on
TCCs for one particular fuse type (K, T, N, etc.) throughout
!he system. If so, coordination is somewhat simplified. Figure 3A3.
In applying fuse links as the protective devices in Figure Diagram for study of TCC fuse coordination method.
1A3, coordination should assure that the sourceside protect
ed ink (A) is not damaged when a fault occurs in the zone of
eiher loadside protecting link (B or C). Factors to consider in
a:complishing this are: Figure 4A3 shows maximum clearingtime and minimum
1. Tolerances. meltingtime curves for possible links to be used at points A,
2.. Ambient temperature. B or C on the system. The 15T link, rated 23 amperes
1 Preloading effects. continuous, will meet the 21 ampere load current and provide
4. Predamage effects. a maximum clearing time of 0.021 second for 1550 amperes
at point C. Minimum melting time is not a critical factor if no
In practice, rather than going through a detailed analysis of other devices need be coordinated with the last fuse link on
~lEse factors (they are discussed below), a derating factor of the branch.
75 percent can be used. This will achieve the desired coordi
'111fion (and prevent damage to the protected link) by assuring
'hal the maximum clearing time of the protecting link is no
peater than 75 percent of the minimum melting time of the
praected link. .16
\
15T 25T 30T
'~"
\
BOT
...............
~\
2
15
As previously stated, the tolerance in timecurrent
c:haracteristics is automatically taken into account in standard
TCCs. Simply overlaying the curves and comparing maximum
\\ 1\ ,~,,
' ...
'\.
j\ ',
'\. 08
\. \. 07
dearing of protecting links to minimum melt of protected links !\. 1\ '~ \. \.
,_. account for tolerance. ll 1\ ~
oorg
Published TCCs are based on a 25° C ambient temperature.
~r temperatures will reduce the melt time and lower
.05 1
\
r.. \.. \. I\ \.
~ '~ 1'\. \ \
' 05
04hl
z
0
.02 11,
~
can be developed based on maximum and minimum yearly .016 ' ·   r 1\1 ·, '· \
~\ \
02
015
83
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
FuseFuse Coordination (Continued)
A link must now be found to carry 36 amperes continuous which employ the 75 percent ratio in indicating the maximum
current, interrupt 1630 amperes at point B, and coordinate faultcurrent values at which various types of fuse links will
with the 15T link. The 20T link is unsatisfactory, because it coordinate. Additional coordination tables are available from
can carry only 30 amperes continuously. The next choice, the your Cooper Power Systems representative.
25T link, carries 3B amperes continuously. Minimum melting The example cited under "TCC Coordination Method" can
time of the 25T link at 1550 amperes is 0.016 second. also be solved by using coordination tables. Again, select the
Because the 25T link melts before the 15T link clears, this 15T link as the protecting device at location C in Figure 3A3,
combination is undesirable for coordination. Minimum melting based on loadcurrent considerations; protected links at B
time of the 30T link at 1550 amperes is 0.031 second. The and A can be chosen by referring to Table 3A3. First, locate
maximum clearing time/minimum melting time ratio for the 15T in the "Protecting Fuse Link Rating" column at the left,
30T and 15T combination is 0.021/0.031, or 6B percent. This and then follow horizontally to the right to the "Maximum Fault
is satisfactory, as the ratio for desirable coordination should Current" entry that is greater than the 1550 amperes available
not exceed 75 percent. at location C. That value, 1700 amperes, corresponds to a
An BOT link will satisfactorily interrupt 1BOO amperes at protected link rating of 30T at location B, and since the 30T
point A, carry 105 amperes continuously, and coordinate with link can carry 36 amperes continuously, it is an appropriate
the 30T link at point B. The CT/MT ratio for the BOT30T com choice.
bination is 0.051/0.16, or 32 percent. When the procedure is repeated with 30T as a protecting
The results of this study are shown in Table 1A3. link at location B, Table 3A3 indicates that a fuselink rating of
65T at location A will coordinate with the 30T link up to a fault
USE OF COORDINATION TABLES current of 3100 amperes and satisfy the faultcurrent range.
When, as in many situations, the choice of fuselink coordination However, the load current at A is 105 amperes and, since the
is a repetitive process, overlaying TCCs lends itself nicely to 65T link can carry only 97 amperes continuously, it will not
a tabular representation. If a suitable multiplying factor is chosen satisfy the continuous current rating. The next larger size link,
as representative of the system and the fault current can BOT, is therefore checked and found to be appropriate.
be determined over a range for which two fuse links will As can be seen, use of the coordination tables makes fuse
coordinate, tables can be developed and used. For ANSI fuse coordination relatively easy to accomplish while satisfying
standard links, this is relatively straightforward, since the the 75 percent criterion.
links do not vary from one manufacturer to another.
Examples of this are shown in Tables 2A3 through 6A3,
TABLE 1A3
Study Results, Coordination of 25T  15T FuseLink Coordination
Protected Link Protecting Link
Location of Protected Protecting Maximum Load Maximum Minimum Percent
Protected Link* Link Link Current Fault Current Clearing Time Melting Time CTIMT
c 15T   21   
1550 .021 .0165 128
B** 25T 15T 36 (.021/.0165)
B 30T 15T 1550 36 .021 .031 68
(.021/.031)
A SOT 30T 1630 105 .051 .160 32
(.0511/.160)
• See F1gure 1A3
•• No Coordination for 25T15T combination.
TABLE 2A3
EEINEMA Type K Fuse Links
Protecting Protected Link Rating  Amperes
FuseLink 8K 10K 12K 15K 20K 25K 30K 40K 50K 65K 80K 100K 140K 200K
Rating
Amperes Maximum FaultCurrent Protection Provided by Protecting Link  Amperes
6K 190 350 510 650 840 1060 1340 1700 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
SK 210 440 650 840 1060 1340 1700 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
10K 300 540 840 1060 1340 1700 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
12K 320 710 1060 1340 1700 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
15K 430 870 1340 1700 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
20K 500 1100 1700 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
25K 660 1350 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
30K 850 1700 2800 3900 5800 9200
40K 1100 2200 3900 5800 9200
50K 1450 3500 5800 9200
65K 2400 5800 9200
SOK 4500 9200
100K 2400 9100
140K 4000
ThiS table shows max1mum values of fault currents at which EEINEMA Type K fuse links w1ll coordinate w1th each other. The table IS based on max1mum clear
ingtime curves FL2B for protecting links and 75 percent of minimum meltingtime curves FL 1 B for protected links.
B4
A3
RULES OF THUMB times the rating of the protecting link. Such applications ~
Simple rules of thumb have been formulated for coordinating vide a safety factor of 75 percent or more.
EEINEMA fuse links of the same type and category  for Preferred T ratings are 6, 10, 15, 25, 40, 65, 100, 140, 200;
example, using preferred T links with preferred T, or nonpreferred nonpreferred T ratings are 8, 12, 20, 30, 50, 80. As in lhe
K links with nonpreferred K. example in the preceding section, a 15T link will coordinate
K links can be satisfactorily coordinated between adjacent with a 25T link up to 24 times 15, or 375 amperes The rules
ratings in the same series up to current values of 15 times the of thumb cannot be extended further, and thus are limited in
rating of the protecting link. T links can be satisfactorily coor application.
dinated between adjacent ratings up to a current value of 24
TABLE 3A3
EEINEMA Type T Fuse Links
t ABLE 4A3
Type K Fuse Links
Protecting Protected Link Rating  Amperes
FuseLink 8K 10K 12K 15K 20K 25K 30K 40K 50K 6SK 80K 100K 140K 200K
Rating
Amperes Maximum Faultcurrent Protection Provided by Protecting Link  Amperes
5K 22 150 280 400 490 640 1250 1450 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
8K 175 350 490 640 1250 1450 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
10K 200 370 640 1250 1450 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
15K 200 450 1250 1450 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
20K 175 1250 1450 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
25K 900 1450 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
30K 1300 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
40K 1300 2500 3500 4950 8900 10000
50K 1700 3200 4950 8900 10000
60K 2000 4950 8900 10000
75K 3700 8900 10000
85K 8900 10000
100K 6000 10000
150K 3000
"11115 1atlle shows max1mum value of fault currents at which Type N fuse links Will coordinate with each other. The table is based on maximum clearingtime curves
IR..iB br protecti ng links and on 75 percent of minimum meltingtime curve FL7B for protected links.
85
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
FuseFuse Coordination (Continued)
TABLE 5A3
Type K Fuse Link Coordination
Protecting
(D) 20 25 30 40 50 65 80 100 140 200
1 500 750 1000 1300 1700 2200 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
1.5 500 750 1000 1300 1700 2200 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
2 325 670 900 1250 1650 2200 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
3 325 670 900 1250 1650 2200 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
4 620 1050 1500 2100 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
5 620 1050 1500 2100 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
7 620 1050 1500 2100 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
10 620 1050 1500 2100 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
15 620 1050 1500 2100 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
20 620 1050 1500 2100 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
Max1mum fault current to wh1ch protected and protecting fuse Will cooradmate
TABLE 6A3
Type T Fuse Link Coordination
Protecting
(D) 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 65 80 100 140 200
1 5BO BOO 1150 1400 2000 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
1.5 5BO BOO 1150 1400 2000 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
2 730 1050 1400 1900 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
3 730 1050 1400 1900 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
4 BOO 1200 1BOO 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
5 BOO 1200 1BOO 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
7 BOO 1200 1BOO 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
10 BOO 1200 1BOO 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
15 1200 1BOO 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
20 1200 1BOO 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
Max1mum fault current to wh1ch protected and protecting fuse w111 cooradmate
TABLE 7A3
EEINEMA Type K Fuse Link Coordination
Protecting Protected Link rating  Amperes
Fuse Link
Rating A 8 10 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 65 80 100 140 200
6K 190 350 510 650 840 1060 1340 1700 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
BK 210 440 650 B40 1060 1340 1700 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
10K 300 540 710 1060 1340 1700 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
12K 320 430 1050 1340 1700 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
15K B70 1340 1700 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
20K 500 1100 1700 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
25K 660 1350 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
30K B50 1700 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
40K 1100 2200 3900 5BOO 9200
50K 1450 3500 5BOO 9200
65K 2400 5BOO 9200
BOK 4500 9200
100K 2000 9100
140K 4000
ThiS table shows max1mum values of fault currents at which EEINEMA type K fuse links Will coordinate With each other. The table IS based on max1mumcleanng
time curves FL2B for protecting links and 75 percent of minimummelting time curves FL1B for protected links.
86
A3
60 3600
50 I \
3000
40 2400
30 1800
1\
20
\ .. ,. 7.2/12.47 KV
1200
10
~t ""l\.,
65C
v
25K
~
 600
8 480
6 360
5 300
4 240
65C
3 MINIMUM 180
\
MELT
_\ 25K 120
2
\ MAXIMUM
CLEAR
rJ)
1\\ 60~
(j)
0 .8 48 ID
z \. N
0 .6
(..)
\ 36 ~
w 30w
rJ) .5 :I:
~ .4 24 ~
w .3 18 rJ)
:::!; w
\ \
~ ..J
.2
' ~I' I\
12 >
(..)
(..)
~
~ ~I\
25K w
0.1 rM INIMUM 6.0 ~
1
.08 r MELT 4.8
1'\.
.06 3.6
.05 3.0
.04 2.4
.03 1\ 1.8
'\
~
.02 1.2
.75X65C ~
\1 ~
.01
MINIMUM MELT
I I I I II ~ l\
8 88888§ § §§§§§~
CURRENT IN AMPERES
Figure 5A3.
TCC for coordinating sourceside currentlimiting fuse and loadside expulsion fuse.
87
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
CurrentLimiting Fuse Coordination (Continued)
88
A3
2 I
I I I
I I I I I
FOR8.3KV
CRATED NX FUSES
108 X 1
8
6
4 t
1
1
2 t
105 X 1 t t t
t
8 I= I=
t t
r
t
6 t t t
t t r
4 t t t
t t r
2 t r
104 X 1
~ f.= I= I= f.= I=
? 8 t t t t t r
~
~
6
t t t t r
u I' t t t t
w t t t t t
en
>< 4 t t t t t
a.. ~
::!: t t t t t
<
2 t t t t t t r
103 X 1
8
f.= f.=
t
I=  ~
f.= r r I=
~
I=
t
6
t 
t 
t
t
  t
t
t
t
,.
t
t
t
  t   t t t t
4   t   r t t t
  t   t t t t
2 MAX.
TOTAL
t  ,.   t t ' t
   r=
102 X 1
8 =
  == f::t
t
=
 =

I=
r
t
I=
t
f::
t t
t
t
t
6  ' r  ~
r r r t
f t  t t t  r r r. t
4 t t  t t  : r
t   
t t t
 . t t
"
t. t
2 f f  t t   t t t t
MIN.
MELT
10x 1 ~.
1.5 3
.......
4.5 6
'
8
'
10
'
12 18
'
20
'
25 30
'
40 
50 60 65 80
' '
90 100 130 160 200
' ....._
Figure 6A3.
Bar graph for coordination of currentlimiting fuses.
89
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Transformer Fusing
A total overcurrent protection scheme for transformers must Inrush currents are the transient currents that occur when
accomplish these things: a transformer is energized. They are greatly dependent on
1. Protect the system from transformer faults. the residual flux in the core at the point on the voltage wave
2. Protect the transformer from severe overloads. when closing occurs. To withstand inrush currents, a fuse
3. Remove the transformer from the system as quickly as should typically be able to withstand 25 times the fullload
possible and limit the energy available to it. current for 0.01 second, and 12 times the fullload current for
4. Withstand harmless shorttime overloads. 0.1 second.
5. Withstand inrush and coldload pickup. Coldload pickup occurs when reenergizing after an outage.
6. Resist damage from lightning surges. It can vary, depending on the system, and the fuse curve
The devices available for transformer overcurrent protection selected should be slower than the inrush curve, if known.
include fuses, circuit switchers, reclosers, fault interrupters, Lightning discharge voltages can saturate the core of the
and circuit breakers. Normally, the choice is likely to be the least transformer, producing inrush currents. Field experience is
expensive device or combination that will provide appropriate the best guide, as the analysis is quite complex. In general, if
protection in recognizing the type of loadand in most appli lightning damage is a problem, larger fuse sizes are best
cations that choice will involve fusing. For a more complete used.
understanding of the overall subject of transformer protection,
it is recommended that the following discussion of transformer TYPES OF FUSES FOR TRANSFORMER
fusing be read in conjunction with later sections on recloserfuse PROTECTION
link coordination and relayfuse link coordination. There are numerous types of fusing possibilities for distribution
transformers, beginning with an internal (inside the trans
DEVELOPING A TRANSFORMER former) weak link.This provides lowcost installation but has
FUSING PHILOSOPHY limited interrupting capacity. It is not field replaceable and
The first step in protecting transformers with fuses is to develop must often be used with a secondary breaker or Cooper
a fusing philosophy. In general, a fusing ratio can be calculated MagneX® Interrupter.
by dividing the fuse minimummelt current by the transformer An external expulsion cutout, the next option, also is relatively
fullload current. If a high ratio is used, it protects the system economical and has the advantage of being easily refused.
from a damaged transformer but provides limited overload It will not, however, provide currentlimiting protection against
protection. A low fusing ratio provides maximum overload catastrophic transformer failure.
protection, but the fuse is subject to damage by inrush and A currentlimiting fuse in the bushing or externally mounted
surge currents. is the most expensive option, and the fuse must be replaced
Tradeoffs to be considered in developing a fusing philosophy after all faults. This fuse, however, does the whole job with no
include service continuity, transformer failures due to over danger of miscoordination or replacement of incorrect links,
loading, coordinating transformer fuses with sectionalizing and it provides protection against transformer catastrophic
devices, effects of inrush and coldload pickup, etc. failure.
If the transformer characteristics are known, the fuse can Combining a currentlimiting fuse with an expulsion fuse
be coordinated simply by making sure the time characteristic has a higher initial installation cost, but since only the expulsion
falls within the confines of the transformer inrush curve and the fuse needs to be replaced as a result of lowcurrent faults, it
transformer damage curve. A development of these curves is is a more desirable option.
defined by standards but may not always be available. These options are available in various configurations for
Therefore, the fuse may have to be selected by considering both overhead and underground applications. Figures 7A3,
the various factors. 8A3 and 9A3 show typical TCC examples for a specific
transformer rating, and Tables 9A3 through 12A3 provide fusing
guides for proper transformer protection. Table 13A3 compares
the ratings and characteristics of applicable expulsion fuses
and currentlimiting fuses.
90
A3
60 3600
50
I l I II II I I 3000
40 2400
30 TRANSFORMER 1800
F0 DAMAGE
20
1\
i\ " .~
~ CURVE 1200
~
10 600
8 480
6
5
4
'\
360
300
240
1. .
~ 180
3 : TRANSFORMER
INRUSH CURVE ,...!!!!"
2 I
l\ 120
en
~ 60 Ci5
<
c;;
0 .8 48 Ill
z N
0 .6 36\i:
(,)
w 30 ~
en .5
~ .4 24 ~
w .3 18 en
::E w
i= _J
.2 12 ~
z
~
w
0.1 6.0 ~
1
.08 4.8
\ 3.6
.06
1 3.0
.05
.04 2.4
.03
.02
'\
_1
1.8
1.2
.01 0.6
C1l a> CD c.> ~
8_..
(11
0 0 0
88888§ § §§§§§§ 0
§0 8 8
88
CURRENT IN AMPERES X 10'
Figure 7A3.
TCCs showing transformer inrush current and transformer damage current for a specific transformer size.
91
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Transformer Fusing (Continued)
60 3600

50 3000
40 2400
l 1800
30 \ TRANSFORMER
\ \ ,.
20
tt11 ' 1\
~
DAMAGE
CURVE
Ill
1200
m
10 600
8 480
6 360
5 sop
4 240.
I
'\.
3 TRANSFORMER,...
INRUSH CURVE "' 180
2
1\l\ ~ 120
\
(/) 1
\. \ 60
Ci)
~
0
z .8 48 :e
0
0 .6 ssb:
ift 30~
w .5
(/)
~ .4 24 g
w .3
::::E
i=
.2
1\
' l\~
\
... 8T
tt m
18
12
;n
w
..J
l20
z
0.1
1\\ 6.0 ~
w
.08 4.8
.08 1\ MIN. 3.6
\ \
.05
.04 ' MELT
MAX.
3.0
2.4
.03 '\ 1.8
(!LEAR
.02 \ 1\ 1.2
\. '\
\ 1\
8 88888§ § §§§§§~
CURRENT IN AMPERES X 101
Figure 8A3.
TCCs showing characteristics of appropriate expulsion fuse for transformer protection.
92
A3
8
6
5
4
3
(/) 1
Cl
z .8
0 .6
(..)
w .5 TRANSFORMER
(/) INRUSH CURVE
~ .4
w
:::E .3
i=
.2
0.1
.08
.06
.05
.04
.03
.02
=igure 9A3.
"r'CCs showing characteristics of expulsion and currentlimiting fuse combinations for transformer protection.
93
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Transformer Fusing {Continued)
TABLE 9A3
Suggested Primary Fusing for Distribution nansformers
Fuse Ratings Based on Use of Type "N" Fuse Links and HighSurge Type "H" Links
(Protection Between 200% and 300% of Rated Load)
TWMTWm
Figure A Figure B Figure C FigureD Figure E Figure F
i
2400 Delta 2400/4160Y 4800 Delta 4800/8320Y
Figures A and B FigureC Figures D, E and F Figures A and B Figure C Figures D, E and F;
Transformer
Size Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link
(kVA) Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating
3 1.25 2H 2.16 3H 1.25 2H .625 1H* 1.08 1H .625 1H*
5 2.08 3H 3.61 5H 2.08 3H 1.042 1H 1.805 3H 1.042 1H
10 4.17 8 7.22 15 4.17 8 2.083 3H 3.61 5H 2.083 3H
15 6.25 10 10.8 20 6.25 10 3.125 5H 5.42 8 3.125 5H
25 10.42 20 18.05 30 10.42 20 5.21 8 9.01 20 5.21 8
37.5 15.63 25 27.05 40 15.63 25 7.81 15 13.5 20 7.81 15
50 20.8 30 36.1 60 20.8 30 10.42 20 18.05 30 10.42 20
75 31.25 50 54.2 85 31.25 50 15.63 25 27.05 40 15.63 25
100 41.67 60 72.2 100 41.67 60 20.83 30 36.1 60 20.83 30
167 69.4 100 119.0 150 69.4 100 34.7 50 60.1 100 34.7 50
250 104.2 150 180.5 200 104.2 150 52.1 85 90.1 150 52.1 85
333 138.8 200 238.0 138.8 200 69.4 100 120.1 150 69.4 100
500 208.3 361.0 208.3 104.2 150 180.5 200 104.2 150
94
A3
TABLE 10A3
Suggested Primary Fusing for Distribution Transformers
Fuse Ratings Based on Use of EEINEMA Type "K" or "T" Fuse Links and HighSurge Type "H" Links
(Protection Between 200% and 300% of Rated Load)
Transformer Figures A and 8 Figure C Figures D, E and F Figures D, E and F Figure A and 8 Figures C
Size Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link
(kVA) Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating
3 .227 1H* .394 1H* .208 1H* .361 1H* .208 1H*
5 .379 1H* .656 1H* .347 1H* .594 1H* .374 1H*
10 .757 1H* 1.312 2H .694 1H* 1.20 2H .694 1H* .50 1H*
15 1.114 1H 1.97 3H 1.04 1H 1.80 3H 1.04 1H .75 1H*
25 1.89 3H 3.28 SH 1.74 2H 3.01 5H 1.74 2H 1.25 2H
37.5 2.84 5H 4.92 8 2.61 3H 4.52 6 2.61 3H 1.875 2H
50 3.79 6 6.50 10 3.47 SH 5.94 8 3.47 5 2.50 3H
75 5.68 6 9.84 20 5.21 6 9.01 12 5.21 6 3.75 5H
100 7.57 8 13.12 20 6.94 8 12.01 15 6.94 8 5.00 6
167 12.62 15 21.8 30 11.6 12 20.1 25 11.6 12 8.35 10
250 18.94 25 32.8 50 17.4 20 30.1 40 17.4 20 12.5 15
333 25.23 30 43.7 60 23.1 30 40.1 50 23.1 30 16.65 20
500 37.88 50 65.6 100 34.7 40 60.0 80 34.7 40 25.00 30
~· ~ce th1s 1s the smallest link ava1lable and 1t does not protect for 300% of load, secondary protectiOn IS des1rable.
95
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Transformer Fusing (Continued)
TABLE 11A3
Overload Protection of Oilinsulated, SelfCooled, and DryType Transformers@
SinglePhase Application Using CurrentLimiting Fusing
~
~
...Cll
...E
.e
Ul
t:
co
F
r
1.5 18 6 6 6
r
3 18 18 1.5 6 6 6
5
7.5
10
15
@
18
18
18
18
@
18
18
18
18
·(! 6
·(!
6
@ 1.5
1.5
3
3
@
6
6
6
6
@
6
6
6
6
@
6
6
6
6
25 18 18 8 6 3 3 6 6 6
37.5 25 18 18 12 10 6 6 6 6
50 25 45 18 25 20 18 12 8 6 6 6
75 75 25 18 10 10 8 6 6
100 25 40 25 12 12 10 8 6
150 40 65 40 18 25 18 20 12 10 8
167 50 20 30 25 12 18 10
200 65 25 40 30 12 20 12 12
250 80 30 50 40 18 25 15 12
333 40
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1667
2000
2500
3000
1. Recommendations are based on fuse melting characteristics at an ambient temperature of 40 C.
2. To prevent fuse blowing on transformer inrush, DO NOT USE FUSES SMALLER THAN RECOMMENDED without specific approval of the manufacturer.
3. Fuses allow in excess of 300% of load.
4. Fuses allow less than 140% of load.
5. Ratings in red area are for parallelfuse combinations.
96
A3
TABLE 12A3
Overload Protection of Oilinsulated, SelfCooled, and DryType TransformersQ)
ThreePhase Application Using CurrentLimiting Fusing
Nominal SlngleoPIIase Voltage Across Transformer Terminals (kVj
i~ I 7.27.96" I ti1'"2114.4 I 3~5
.. 2A I 4.1& 4.8 8.32
Recommended Fuse Volt&Qe (M:V)
12,47 I 2D8 I 22.!1i'l4..9
..
G)
E 4,3 I .4.3 I 5 .5 I 5.5 I s.s I 15.5 I 1S.!i I 15.5
Recommended FuseCurrent Ratings (amperes) •bill
I 23 J 21 I 38
~c: Column A 140200% of Transformer Rating
lll Column B 200300% of Transformer RiJling
~ A B B A B A A B B A B A B A 9
A. B A B B A A
15 1.5 1.5 ®1.5 ®1.5 6
® (~ ® (~
22.5 Q) 18
r8
("
18 3 3 1.5 1.5 6
l
18 8 4.5 4.5 ®3 6
30
45
18
18
Q)
18 10
6
10 6 6
3
3 3 ®(! 0
6
75 25 35 18 12 20 12 18 10 10 6 6 6· Q)
6
100 35 50 25 20 25 12 18 25 18 12 10 8 6 6
112.5 45 65 25 25 30 12 18 30 18 12 10 10 6 6 6
150 50 100 25 45 25 40 18 25 40 25 18 12 12 8 8 6
200 65 100 45 65 40 65 20 30 18 50 30 25 18 12 18 10 10 8
225 75 39 45 75 40 75 25 40 20 30
65 40 18 12 20 10 10 8
300 100 200 50 100 50 7.5 75 ' 30 50 25 50 20 50 25 18 25 12 12 10
500 200 100 150
. 100 150 00 50 75 50 80 30 100 50 30 50 20 25 18 25 15
200 iao ~SQ 80 30 65 130 40 80 40 80 25 40 25 40 18 25
~=
750 2Q[JJI
1000 ,.150• 150 100 160 100 Ulll 65 100 65 lOQ 30 30 &') 25 30
1500 1!W 200 130 200 100 16'0 80 ·1160 4()0 50 80 30 50
2000
2500
:D)()
I~ ,~ 2IXt , ZOO 13o '2()()
D
: ~ocr· tell MO
;Zr;)()
faD'
~~
0 eo
Bel
00
,'fOD
II
40
.!SO
e~
60•
00
00
3500 200 16tfV 1QP ae
~: I ~ :~ ~00
t ~..,
3750 i '~
4000
5000 l ~:~iir I~~
1. Recommendations are based on fuse melting characteristics at an ambient temperature of 40 C.
2. To prevent fuse blowing on transformer inrush, DO NOT USE FUSES SMALLER THAN RECOMMENDED without specific approval of the manufacturer.
3. Fuses allow in excess of 300% of load.
4.. Fuses allow less than 140% of load.
5.. Ratings in red area are for parallelfuse combinations.
TABLE 13A3
Comparison of Expulsion Fuses and
CurrentLimiting Fuses
Fuse Type
Rating Expulsion CurrentLimiting
\titage Ratings (kV): 8.3,15,23 8.3,15,23
Current Ratings (ANSI): 1 through 100 12 through 65
Fault Current
Clearing Capacity (kA): Determined by Through 50 kA
cutout rating symme~ic
Discharge Interrupting
Capacity (kilojoules): 15 50100
• A currentlimiting fuse, when operating, changes the circuit X/R radically.
lherefore, no asymmetric ratings are normally assigned, as the fuse will
+andle any current.
97
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Capacitor Fusing
GENERAL CRITERIA are capacitorbank switching and lightning surges. Switching
The basic objectives in selecting capacitor fuses are: is typically of concern only when capacitor banks are
1. The fuse must be capable of withstanding steadystate switched on the same bus: i.e., backtoback switching. This
and transient currents in order to avoid spurious fuse oper is seldom the case for polemounted, groupfused capacitors.
ations. However, the fuses in such applications are subject to high
frequency transients due to lightning surges, which are more
2. The fuse should effectively remove a failed or failing likely to damage lowcurrentrated links.
capacitor unit from service without causing further dam Individually fused applications involve an additional transient
age or disruption to the system. consideration. When a capacitor unit fails that is, goes to a
These objectives are accomplished through two different short circuit  the remaining good capacitors will discharge
protection methods: group fusing and individual fusing. into the failed capacitor. Fuses on the good capacitors should
In group protection, one fuse protects more than one be able to withstand this highfrequency outrush current to
capacitor usually with a single fuse on each phase protecting avoid multiple fuse operations.
all the capacitors on that phase (Figure 1OA3). Group fusing
is generally used for protecting polemounted distribution Effectively Removing a Failed or
capacitor racks. In such applications, the fuse links are Failing Capacitor Unit
installed in cutouts and mounted on a crossarm above the A failed or failing capacitor unit should be removed from service
capacitor rack. without causing any further damage or disruption to the system.
It is important, therefore, that the clearing fuse and the
capacitor unit be able to withstand the available 60Hz current
and the highfrequency energy discharge from the parallel
capacitors. In addition, the fuse must clear fast enough to
limit the duration of voltage on the remaining good capacitors
and to coordinate with upline overcurrent devices or an
unbalance detection scheme.
TABLE 15A3
=autt Current Limitation (50.. to 400kvar AllFilm Capacitors)*
Maximum Link Rating
Maximum Symmetric Fault Current that Coordinates with
Cutout Rating (RMS amps) When XIR Is: Available Fault Current
(kV) 0 5 10 15 KTin TTin
Up to 25 12,000 8,500 7,400 7,100 100 80
38 8,200 5,700 5,000 4,700 100 EK 80 ET I
I
.a::x:er Power Systems EX line of capacitors or equivalent.
3:A PROTECTIVE
Overcurrent Protection
EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Capacitor Fusing (Continued)
TankRupture Curve Coordination the delta, but in that case the system voltage must be made
The maximumclearing TCC curve for the fuse link must equal to the capacitor unit voltage in order _to follow the
coordinate with the tankrupture curve for the capacitor recommendations in the table. Recommendations for delta
{Figure 12A3). This coordination is necessary to insure that fusing at 2400 volts are given in Table 17A3, but for all other
the fuse will clear the circuit before tank rupture can occur. system voltages use Table 16A3 as directed.
The fuse's maximumclear TCC must fall to the left of the
tankrupture TCC at and below the level of available fault current. INDIVIDUAL CAPACITOR FUSING
Jn the case of high fault currents, the tankrupture curve The following considerations are involved in selecting a
should be compensated for asymmetry. In general, the largest fuse for individual capacitor protection:
fuse sizes that coordinate with the tankrupture curve for • Continuous current.
modern allfilm capacitors such as McGrawEdison's EX line • Transient current.
are 100K and SOT tin links. See Table 15A3 for details. • Fault current.
• Tankrupture curve coordination.
Voltage on Good Capacitors • Voltage on good capacitors.
For ungroundedwye capacitor banks, the voltage on the • Energy discharge into a failed unit.
good capacitor units, when o~e is ~hort~d, is equal syste~ !o • Outrush current.
linetoline voltage: i.e., 1. 73 t1mes 1ts rat1ng. If the fa1led u~1! IS • Coordination with unbalance detection scheme:
not cleared from the circuit quickly, this high overvoltage condition
could lead to a second capacitor failure in another phase, Continuous Current
resulting in a phasetophase fault. For ~hi:> ~ason, it is d~~i~able The fuse's continuouscurrent capability is chosen to be
to use a fastclearing fuse so as to mtmm1ze the poss1b1llty of equal to or greater than 135 percent of the capacitor's rated
a second unit failure. Note that this criterion calls for a fast current. This overrating takes into account the effects of over
clearing fuse, such as a Klink, while the criterion for transient voltage conditions (ten percent), capacitance t<:l~rance (15
current calls for a slowclearing fuse, such as aT link. percent), and harmonics (ten percent). The mrmmums1ze
fuse link is calculated as follows:
Coordination with Upline Overcurrent Devices
When a capacitor unit fails, it is desirable that the capacitor . _ 1 35 X kvarunit
fuse clear the capacitor without any other overcurrent 1link · kV .
un1t
devices on the feeder having operated; that is, the capacitor This calculation is based on the link's being 100 percent
fuse must coordinate with the upline overcurrent devices. rated. In the case of NEMA type T & K tin links, which are 150
This criterion may dictate the maximumsize capacitor rack to
percent rated, the value must be divided by 1.50.
be used on a given feeder or adjusting the source device setting
upward. It is particularly important. to note the coordination Transient Currents
with source ground relays when usmg groundedwye racks.
Unlike polemounted capacitor racks, individ~ally fuse? s~~sta
tion capacitor banks generally are not subJect to s1gn1f1cant
Summary of Group Fusing highmagnitude, highfrequency lightning surges: The reason:
Group fusing recommendations for the EX line of all:film good substation shielding and enough fuses 1n parallel to
capacitors are listed in Table 16A3. These recommendatl?ns share the transient current.
assume a typical level of lightning incidence; therefore, t1n T Transient currents due to switching also are of little concern
links are listed for linecurrent ratings of 25 amperes and
unless capacitor banks are switched backtoback, and even
below (see earlier discussion under "Transient ~urrents"),
then, if the switchgear is applied within .the ANSI standards
and tin K links for ratings above 25 amperes. Available fault
for inrushcurrent frequency and magmtude, the fuse duty
current levels are assumed to be within the limitations listed
usually is acceptable in such applications, switch~l~sing
in Table 15A3. resistors or inrushcurrentlimiting reactors generally llmrt the
It is recognized that, in specific cases, utilities r:night. elect transient currents to acceptable levels.
to use different link ratings or types than those g1ven m the
tables because of such considerations as lightning incidence Fault Current
rates, fuse stocking requirements, and feeder coo~dination. Just as in group fusing, the fuse link and individually protected
For example, when fusing ungroundedwye racks w1th a very
capacitor must be able to handle the available f~ult cu.rrent.
low probability of lightning transients, Type K tin links might
When capacitors are connected grou.nded:wye 1n a .smgle
be considered over the entire range of ratings. Or, rather than series group substation bank, a capac1tor fa1lure (termmal~to
fusing groundedwye racks with relatively lowcurrentrated T
terminal) will cause system fault current to flow. Th~ capacitor
links, higherrated T links might be considered to reduce spu must be able to withstand the fault current until the fuse
rious fuse blowings due to lightning. With ungroundedwye
interrupts the circuit, and the fuse must be able to su?C~ss!ully
racks the user can choose between Type T and K links but interrupt the available fault current. The faultcurrent llm1tat1ons
usualiy cannot select a different rating. However, in making are the same as for group fusing (Table 15A3).
any adjustments in the recommendations it is important to In substation banks with multiple series groups, system
take into account all of the criteria discussed above. fault current will not flow through a failed unit unless other
Generally, groupfused racks are connected in wye. At tir:nes
units experience simultaneous fa~lures or extern~! flashovers
it may be advantageous to connect racks in delta, es~ec1ally occur in other parts of the capaci1or bank. For th1s reason, 1t
on 2400volt systems or to minimize the number of d1fferent
usually is assumed that fault current will not flow in capac~tor
spare units kept in stock. The group fusings reco.mme~dations banks of more than one series group. Therefore, expuls1on
in Table 16A3 can be adjusted for delta configurations, as fuses rather than currentlimiting fuses are commonly used.
explained by the note in the table, by making the capacitor
unit voltage equal to the system voltage. Larger kvarrated
deltaconnected racks are possible if the fuses are put inside
100
A3
N
CURRENT (ampsl
(II _,. C.O 01 CD 0 "' 0~ 80 0g~0 0~
0 g "' 00... 00,. 00'""'
0
0
0
0 8§
IOOOOU. c, iD  "' "' _,. C.O 01 CD 0 0 000000 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0600000
8000 480000
2HR
6000 360000
!1000 300000
4000
Ill 240000
IHR I HR
3000 80000
2000 I I I'
1/z HR
I 20000
1/z HR
1000
l/4 HR
II II
1/4HR
60000
800 48000
SAFE ZONE UNSAFE ZONE
600 36000
SAFE FOR MOST APPLICATIONS; UNSAFE FOR MOST 30000
!100 USUALLY NO GREATER DAMAGE APPLICATIONS;
400 THAN SLIGHT SWELLING OF CASE. CASE MAY RUPTURE. 24000
300 I 8000
200 I 2000
100 6000
80 4800
60 3600
50 3000
40 2400
30 I 800
20 I 200
\ 600
480
360
300
240
I 80
\ I 20 ·:
;;
...
\ N
:1:
6
I 60 co
;;
.8 48 ~
.6 36 !
1\.
~~
.!I
.4 FOR TIMES SHORTER
.3
THAN 0.1 SECOND •
USE ASYMMETRICAL
\ I8
RMSAMPS.
.2 \ I2
0. I 6.0
.08 4.8
.06 THE MINIMUM J2T RATING FOR THE EX' LINE OF SINGLEPHASE 3.6
.05 CAPACITORS IS 2,000,000 AMP2 SECONDS FOR FAULT 3.0
.04 CURRENTS OF 10,000 AMPS OR LESS . 2.4
.03 I .8
.02 I .2
MINIMUM CLEARING TIME (0.8 CYCLEI FOR SAFE COORDINATION WITH EXPULSION FUSES.
""'""'CD 0.6
~ ~~82:~8 ~0 0~ 0~g~ ~8
CURRENT (ampsl 00 0 0 § cs88
~ oo 88
o0
0
Figure 12A3.
Capacitor tankrupture curve.
101
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Capacitor Fusing (Continued)
TABLE 16A3
Group Fusing Recommendations for AII·Film Capacitors, Using EEI·NEMA Tin Expulsion Links*
Three Rated Line Recommended Three Rated Line Recommended
System Capacitor Phase Current Link Size System Capacitor Phase Current Link Size
linetoLine Unit Bank in Grounded Ungrounded LinetoLine Unit Bank in Grounded Ungrounded
Voltage Voltage** kvar Amperes Wyet Wyet Voltage Voltage• • kvar Amperes Wyet Wyet
4160 2400 150 20.8 20T 20T 16500 9540 150 5.2 5T 5T
300 41.6 40 K 40 K 300 10.3 10T 10T
450 62.5 65 K 65 K 450 15.7 15T 15 T
600 83.3 80 K 80 K 600 21 .0 20T 20T
4800 2770 150 18.0 20T 15 T 900 31.4 30 K 30 K
300 31 .6 40 K 30 K 1200 41 .9 40 K 40 K
450 54.2 50 K 50K 1350 47.2 50 K 40 K
600 72.2 65 K 65 K 1800 62.9 65 K 65 K
900 108.3 100 K 100K 2400 83.8 80 K 80 K
2700 94.3 100 K 80 K
7200 4160 150 12.0 12T 10T
300 24.0 25T 20T 17250 9960 150 5.0 5T 5T
450 36.0 40 K 30 K 300 10.0 10T 10T
600 48.1 50 K 40 K 450 15.0 15 T 15T
900 72.1 65 K 65 K 600 20.1 20T 20T
1200 96.2 100 K 80 K 900 30.1 30 K 25T
1350 108.2 100 K 100 K 1200 40.2 40 K 40 K
1350 45.2 40 K 40 K
8320 4800 150 10.4 10T 10 T 1800 60.2 65 K 50 K
300 20.8 20T 20 T 2400 80.3 80 K 80 K
450 31 .2 30 K 30 K 90.4 80 K
2700 80 K
600 41.7 40 K 40 K
900 62.5 65 K 65 K
3600 120.5  100 K
1200 83.3 80 K 80 K 21600 12470 300 8.0 8T 8T
1350 93.8 80 K 80 K 450 12.0 12T 10 T
600 16.0 15 T 15 T
12470 7200 150 6.9 8T 6T 900 24.0 25T 20T
300 13.9 15T 12 T 1200 32.1 30 K 30 K
450 20.8 20T 20T 1350 36.1 40 K 30 K
600 27.8 25 T 25T 1800 48.1 50 K 40 K
900 41 .7 40K 40 K 2400 64.2 65 K 65 K
1200 55.6 50 K 50K 2700 72.2 65 K 65 K
1350 62.5 65 K 65 K 3600 96.2 100 K 80 K
1800 83.3 80 K 80 K
2400 111.1 100 K 100 K 22860 13200 300 7.6 8T 8T
450 11.4 10T 10T
13200 7620 150 6.6 6T 6T 600 15.2 15 T 15 T
300 13.1 12T 12T 900 22.7 20T 20T
450 19.7 20T 20T 1200 30.3 30 K 25T
600 26.2 25T 25T 1350 34.1 30 K 30 K
900 39.4 40K 40K 1800 45.4 40 K 40 K
1200 52.5 50 K 50 K 2400 60.6 65 K 50 K
1350 59.0 65 K 50 K 2700 68.2 65 K 65 K
1800 78.7 80 K 65 K 3600 90.9 80 K 80K
2400 105.0 100 K 100 K
2700 118.1  100 K 23900 13800 300 7.2 8T 6T
450 10.9 10T 10T
13800 7960 150 6.3 6T 6T 600 14.5 15 T 12T
300 12.6 12T 12T 900 21.7 20T 20T
450 18.8 20T 20T 1200 29.0 30 K 25T
600 25.1 25T 25T 1350 32.6 30 K 30 K
900 37.7 40 K 40K 1800 43.5 40 K 40 K
1200 50.2 50 K 50 K 2400 58.0 65 K 50K
1350 56.5 50 K 50 K 2700 65.2 65 K 65K
1800 75.4 80 K 65 K 3600 87.0 80 K 80K
2400 100.5 100 K 100 K
2700 113.1  100 K 24900 14400 300 6.9 8T 6T
450 10.4 10T 10T
14400 8320 150 6.0 6T 5T 600 13.9 15 T 12T
300 12.0 12T 10T 900 20.8 20T 20T
450 18.0 20T 15 T 1200 27.8 25 T 25T
600 24.0 25T 20 T 1350 31.2 30 K 30 K
900 36.0 40K 30 K 1800 41 .7 40 K 40 K
1200 48.1 50 K 40 K 2400 55.6 50K 50K
1350 54.1 50 K 50 K 2700 62.5 65 K 65 K
1800 72.1 65 K 65 K 3600 83.3 80 K 80 K
2400 92.2 100 K 80 K (Continued on Next Page)
2700 108.2 100 K 100 K
• General Notes:
1. See fault current limitations in Table 14A3.
2. Fusing recommendations are for the Cooper Power Systems EX line of capacitors or equ ivalent.
•• This column applies to wyeconnected capacitor racks. To use these recommendations for deltaconnected racks, make the capacitor unit voltage equal to the
system voltage given in the first column and use the recommendations for groundedwye racks. (See Table 16A3 for group fusing recommendations for delta
connected racks on 2400volt systems.)
t If spurious fuse blowing is a problem w1th groundedwye racks, it is possible to go to higher fu se ratings as limited by the ratings in Table 14A3 and by coordi
nation with upline devices.
102
A3
TABLE 16A3 (Continued)
Group Fusing Recommendations for AllFilm Capacitors, Using EEINEMA Tin Expulsion Links*
Three Rated Line Recommended Three Rated Line Recommended
System Capacitor Phase Current Link Size System Capacitor Phase Current Link Size
LiRetoLine Unit Bank in Grounded Ungrounded LinetoLine Unit Bank in Grounded Ungrounded
Voltage Voltage•• kvar Amperes Wyet Wyet Voltage Voltage•• kvar Amperes Wyet Wyet
34500 19920 300 5.0 5 ET 5 ET 37400 21600 450 6.9 8 ET 6 ET
450 7.5 8 ET 8 ET 600 9.2 10 ET 8 ET
600 10.0 10ET 10 ET 900 13.2 15 ET 12 ET
900 15.1 15 ET 15 ET 1200 18.5 20 ET 20 ET
1200 20.1 20 ET 20 ET 1350 20.8 20 ET 20 ET
1350 22.6 20 ET 20 ET 1800 27.8 25 ET 25 ET
1800 30.2 30 EK 25 ET 2400 37.0 40 EK 40 EK
2400 40.2 40 EK 40 EK 2700 41.7 40 EK 40 EK
2700 45.2 40 EK 40 EK 3600 55.6 50 EK 50 EK
3600 60.3 65 EK 50 EK
• General Notes:
1. See fault current limitations in Table 14A3.
2. Fusing recommendations are for the Cooper Power Systems EX line of capacitors or equivalent.
 This column applies to wyeconnected capacitor racks. To use these recommendations for deltaconnected racks, make the capacitor unit voltage equal to the
system voltage given in the first column and use the recommendations for groundedwye racks. (See Table 17A3 for group fusing recommendations for delta
connected racks on 2400volt systems.)
t If spurious fuse blowing is a problem with groundedwye racks, it is possible to go to higher fuse ratings as limited by the rating s In Table 14A3 and by coordi
nation with upl ine devices.
TABLE 17A3
ELF Fuse Selection for Capacitor Bank Protection
Capacitor
Bank Data
Cap. Bank
ThreePhase
kVAR
of these overvoltages does not exceed the limitations defined in possible solutions: reconnect the bank to reduce the amount
ANSI/IEEE Standard 18. of parallelstored energy, or use currentlimiting fuses.
TABLE 19A3 Outrush Current
PerUnit Voltage on Unfailed Capacitors with a Series When a capacitor failure occurs, the remaining good capacitors
Group Shorted on Phase A will discharge into the failed unit, and the fuses for the good
Grounded Ungrounded Split capacitor units must be capable of withstanding this highfre
No. of
Series Wye Wye Ungrounded Wye quency I 2t discharge to avoid multiple fuse operations. Extensive
Groups Va Vb Vc Va Vb Vc Va Vb Vc analysis and testing have been conducted on capacitor units
1  1.00 1.00  1.73 1.73  1.73 1.73 and typical block arrangements to determine these duties.
2 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.15 1.15 1.71 1.08 1.08 Coordination with Unbalance Detection Scheme
3 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.29 1.08 1.08 1.30 1.04 1.04
4 1.33 1.00 1.00 1.20 1.05 1.05 1.26 1.03 1.03 When a fuse operates in a capacitor bank, an increase in the
5 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.15 1.04 1.04 1.20 1.02 1.02 fundamental frequency voltage occurs on the remaining units
in that series group. An unbalance detection scheme is
Energy Discharge into a Failed Unit employed to monitor such conditions and to take action as
The fuse and the capacitor must be capable of handling the required . Its settings should be coordinated with fuse TCCs
available parallelstored energy, since all of the stored energy so that the fuses will be allowed to clear a failed capacitor
of the parallelconnected capacitors can discharge through the unit before the unbalance detection scheme trips the capac
failed capacitor and its fuse (Figure 13A3). Therefore, to pre itor bank. If the bank is tripped before the fuse operates,
vent probable fuse failure and rupture of the capacitor tank, the there will be no visible indication of the cause of the bank
total calculated parallelstored energy should not exceed the tripping.
energy capability or joule rating of the capacitor unit and fuse. Summary of Individual Fusing
In selecting the best fuse for a given application, it sometimes
is not reasonably possible to meet all of the above criteria. In
such cases, tradeoffs must be made among the criteria and
some risks taken in regard to the conditions when fuses and
capacitors may not operate in a desirable manner.
Table 20A3 lists individual fusing recommendations, using
either expulsion or currentlimiting fuses, for the EX line of all
film capacitors applied in outdoor substation banks.These
recommendations will meet most of the criteria described
Figure 13A3. above for most typical capacitorbank configurations.
Diagram of energy discharge into failed capacitor unit.
For metalenclosed applications, it is recommended that
currentlimiting fuses be used, even if the available parallel
The calculated value of energy should not exceed 15,000 energy in some cases indicates an expulsion fuse could
joules (i.e., 4650 kvar in parallel) for conventional allfilm serve. A currentlimiting fuse will minimize any gassing that
capacitors and 10,000 joules (i.e., 3100 kvar in parallel) for might occur in the enclosure during fuse operation.
paper/film capacitors. When the EX line of capacitors is used Excessive gases can cause flashovers in the enclosure.
with the recommended fusing, the available energy can be The recommendation in Table 20A3 are applicable for ambient
allowed to be as high as 30,000 joules (i.e., 9300 kvar in par temperatures up to 40° C. if higher ambient temperatures are
allel). When the calculated value of the parallel energy expected, especially in enclosures, the capacitor manufacturer
exceeds the limitation of the expulsion fuse, there are two should be consulted for appropriate fuse recommendations.
TABLE 20A3
Individual Fusing Recommendations for AllFilm Capacitors,t
Using EEINEMA Tin Expulsion Links or CurrentLimiting** Fuses
Capacitor Unit kvar
Capacitor Fuse Voltage sott 200 400
Unit Rating (kV) I 100 150 I 300 I
Voltage Recommended Expulsion Link or CurrentLimiting Fuse
Rating Exp. CL Exp. CL Exp. CL Exp. CL Exp. CL Exp. CL Exp. CL
2400 8.7 8.3 20T 30 40K 65 65K 90* 80K     
2770 8.7 8.3 20T 25 40K 65 50K so· 65K     
4160 8.7 8.3 12T 18 25T 40 40T 65 50K 65    
4800 8.7 8.3 12T 18 20T 30 30T 45 40T 65    
6640 8.7 8.3 12T 18 1ST 25 25T 40 30T 45 SOT 65 65K 90*
7200 8.7 8.3 10T 18 1ST 25 20T 30 25T 40 40T 65 SOT 90*
7620 8.7 8.3 10T 18 1ST 18 20T 30 25T 40 40T 65 SOT 90*
7960 8.7 8.3 10T 18 1ST 18 20T 30 25T 40 40T 65 SOT 80*
8320 8.7 15.5 10T 10 1ST 18 20T 25 25T 35 40T 50* SOT 70*
9960 15.0 15.5 8T 10 1ST 18 20T 25 25T 30 30T so· 40T 60*
12470 15.0 15.5   12T 12 1ST 18 20T 25 25T 35 30T 50*
13280
13800
15.0
15.0
15.5
15.5
 

12T
12T
12
10
1ST
1ST
18
18
20T
20T
25
25
25T
25T
35
30
30T
30T
50*
50*
14400 15.0 15.5   10T 10 15T 18 20T 25 25T 30 30T 50*
19920 23.0 23.0   8T 12 12T 12 1ST 18 20T 25 25T 36*
21600 23.0 23.0   8T 12 10T 12 1ST 18 20T 25 25T 25
t Fus1ng recommendations are for the Cooper Power Systems EX line of capac1tors or equ1valent.
tt For 50kvar capacitors, it is difficult to choose reasonably sized fuses that will withstand the 12t outrush. This is due to the fact that 12t withstand goes down
exponentially with fuselink rating rather than linearly. Consequently, 50kvar capacitor fusing recommendations cover only units with voltages up to 9960 volts.
• Indicates two fuses in parallel.
•• Currentlimiting fuse ratings are for Cooper Power Systems NXC capacitor fuses.
104
A3
TABLE 21A3
SinglePhase, Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers
Max
Cont TrioCoil
Nominal Current Inter Rating MinTrip
Aecloser Voltage BIL Rating ruptlng (cont Ratlnij Interrupting Rating Catalog
Type (kV) (kV) (amps) Medium amps) (amps (rms sym amps) Section
At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
5 10 125
10 20 250
H 2.414.4 95 50 Oil 15 30 375 28010
25 50 625
35 70 975
50 100 1250
At 4.8 kV At 8.32 kV At 14.4 kV
5 10 200 200 200
10 20 400 460 400
15 30 600 600 600
4H 2.414.4 110 100 Oil 25 50 1000 1000 1000 28010
35 70 1400 1400 1400
50 100 2000 2000 2000
70 140 2800 2500 2000
100 200 3000 2500 2000
5 10 200 200 200
10 20 400 400 400
15 30 600 600 600
25 50 1000 1000 1000
V4H 2.414.4 110 200 Vacuum 35 70 1400 1400 1400 28010
50 100 2000 2000 2000
70 140 2800 2500 2000
100 200 3000 2500 2000
140 280 3000 2500 2000
200 400 3000 2500 2000
(contmued on next page)
105
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Recloser and FuseLink Coordination (Continued)
106
A3
TABLE 22A3
ThreePhase, Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers
Max
Cant TrioColi
Nominal Current Inter Rating MinTrip
Recloser Voltage BIL Rating rupting (cant Rating Interrupting Rating Catalog
Type (kV) (kV) (amps) Medium amps) (amps) (rms sym amps) Section
At 4.8 kV At 8.32 kV AT 14.4 kV
5 10 200 200 200
10 20 400 400 400
15 30 600 600 600
6Ht 2.414.4 110 100 Oil 25 50 1000 1000 1000 28010
35 70 1400 1400 1460
50 100 2000 2000 2000
70 140 2800 2500 2000
100 200 3000 2500 2000
5 10 200 200 200
10 20 400 400 400
I
15 30 600 600 600
25 50 1000 1000 1000
V6Ht 2.414.4 110 200 Vacuum 35 70 1400 1400 1400 2801 0
50 100 2000 2000 2000
70 140 2800 2500 2000
100 200 3000 2500 2000
I 140
200
280
1400
3000
3000
At 4.8 kV
2500
12500
At 8.32 kV
2000
2000
At 14.4 kV
100 200 6000 6000 6000
140 280 8400 8400 8400
160 320 9600 9600 9600
185 370 11 100 10000 10000
w 2.414.4 110 560 Oil 225 450 12000 10000 10000 28030
280 560 12000 10000 10000
400 800 12000 10000 10000
400X 560** 12000 10000 10000
560 1120 12000 10000 10000
560X 750** 12000 10000 10000
At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
50 100 3000
I 70 140 4200
100 200 6000
140 280 8400
160 320 9600
185 370 11100
PWH* 2.414.4 95 560 Vacuum 225 450 12000 28570
280 560 12000
400 800 12000
400X 560** 12000
560 1120 12000
! 56 0X 750** 12000
' 50
70
100
140
At 24.4 thru 14.4 kV
3000
4200
100 200 6000
140 280 8400
160 320 9600
185 370 11100
vw 2.414.4 110 560 Vacuum 225 450 12000 28030
280 560 12000
400 800 12000
400X 560** 12000
560 1120 12000
56 0X 750** 12000
t ..
Phases tnp 1nd1v1dually on overcurrent, but trip and lockout all three phases at the final step in sequence; other threephase reclosers operate all three phases
simultaneously under all conditions.
• For padmounted installation.
 Trip rating is 140% of X coil ratings; all others are 200%.
107
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Recloser and FuseLink Coordination (Continued)
108
A3
TABLE 23A3
llweePhase, Electronically Controlled Reclosers
I, Max
Cont
Nominal Current Inter MinTrip
Recfoser Voltage BIL Rating ruptlng Rating Interrupting Rating Catalog
Type (kV) (kV) (amps) Medium (amps) (rms sym amps) Section
At 4.8 kV At 8.32 kV At 14.4 kV
200 12000 10000 10000
2BO 12000 10000 10000
WE 2.414.4 110 560** Oil 400 12000 10000 10000 2B040
560 12000 10000 10000
BOO 12000 10000 10000
1120 12000 10000 10000
I! At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
I 100
140
12000
12000
200 12000
PWE* 2.414.4 95 560 Vacuum 2BO 12000 2B571
400 12000
560 12000
BOO 12000
1120 12000
At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
100 12000
140 12000
200 12000
2BO 12000
I VWE 2.414.4 110 560** Vacuum 560 12000 2B040
400 12000
560 12000
BOO 12000
l 1120 12000
At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
I 100
140
12000
12000
200 12000
VSA12 2.414.4 11 0 560** Vacuum 2BO 12000 2B045
400 12000
560 12000
BOO 12000
I 1120 12000
At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
I 100 16000
140 16000
200 16000
VSA16 2.414.4 110 560** Vacuum 2BO 16000 2B045
400 16000
560 16000
BOO 16000
u 1120 16000
I 100
140
12000
12000
200 12000
VSAT 2.414.4 95 560 Vacuum 2BO 12000 2B046
400 12000
560 12000
BOO 12000
1120 12000
• For padmounted installation.
 Continuous current rating can be extended to 800 amps with an accessory.
109
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Recloser and FuseLink Coordination (Continued)
110
A3
Example of SourceSide Fuse and Selective fuse sectionalizing of a faulted section of line
Recloser Selections beyond a recloser is not possible with allfast or alldelayed
The example of fuserecloser coordination in Figure 14A3 recloser sequences. An allfast sequence does not allow time
shows a 2500 kVA transformer with 46/12.47 kV transformation. for the fuse to clear, and an alldelayed sequence results in
A primary fuse size of 50 Amp Type S has been selected to pro fuse operation on the first overcurrent.
vide proper transformer protection. The rated secondary current Two selection rules govern the use of fuse links as protecting
is 116 amperes, so a 140 ampere coil size has been selected. devices on the load side of reclosers:
For the recloser type (ACRE1 ), either three singlephase 1. For all values of fault current possible at the fuse link, the
reclosers or a threephase recloser can be used, depending minimum melting time of the link must be greater than the
on requirements. If the loads are predominantly single phase, clearing time of the reclosers fast operation, times a multi
three singlephase reclosers would provide individual clearing plying factor. Multiplying factors provide a safety margin
for singlephase faults. Selection of a threephase recloser between the clearing time of the recloser's fast curve and
would permit use of groundfault sensing, thereby providing the melting time of the fuse link to prevent damage or
more sensitive tripping for ground faults and increasing the fatigue of the fuse link. The magnitude of the multiplying
recloser "reach." With threephase operation, however, all factor varies with the number of fast operations and the
three phases would be interrupted for any singlephase fault. reclosingtime intervals between fast operations. These
For this example, three singlephase reclosers will be loadside multiplying factors are tabulated in Table 24A3
selected. Although either Type V4H or Type L reclosers would for reclosing intervals of 30, 60, 90, and 120 cycles and
satisfy the requirements of a 140 ampere coil and the 1650 sequences with one fast and two fast operations. As can
ampere maximum fault current, the Type L will be used since be seen in the table, the shorter the reclosing interval, the
the 4000 ampere interrupting capability and 280 ampere higher multiplying factor, since the fuse link has less time
maximum continuous current rating will allow for future up rating in which to cool.
of the substation. 2. For all values of fault current possible on the section
The 2A2C sequence has been selected: two A operations protected by the fuse link, the maximum clearing time of
for transient fault clearing, while the C curve will provide the the fuse should be no greater than the delayed clearing
maximum time delay to allow for downline recloser and fuse time of the recloser, provided the recloser sequence is set
coordination. for two or more delayed operations. If the curves are very
Curves selected for this application are shown in Figure 15A3. close the recloser may trip when the fuse operates, but it
As indicated in Table 24A3, the delayed curve is raised by a fac will reclose, returning service to the remaining system.
tor of 1.7 because a 2A2C sequence with 120 cycle reclosing Coordination range between the recloser and fuse link is
intervals is used. The minimummelt curve for the 50 Amp S fuse fixed by the above two selection rules. Rule 1 establishes the
link on the primary of the transformer, must be transposed to the maximum coordinating current, while Rule 2 establishes the
right by a factor of 3.2 because coordination is based on minimum coordinating current. The maximum current is the
secondary fault current. current shown where the fuselink minimum melting curve
Since the adjusted delayed C curve intersects the transformed intersects the reference curve obtained from the product of
50 Amp S curve at 2300 amperes, the maximum coordination the recloser's fast clearingtime curve and the multiplying factor.
point is above the maximum 1650 amperes of available fault The minimum current is at the intersection of the fuselink
current and is therefore satisfactory. If the fuse and recloser maximum clearing curve and the delayed curve of the recloser.
curves had intersected below 1650 amperes, the fuse might If the link maximum clearing does not intersect and lies below
operate unnecessarily during the second timedelay operation the recloser's delayed curve, the minimum coordination point
for a phasetophase fault. For this situation, coordination could is the minimumtrip current of the recloser.
be improved by changing the recloser to either a 2A2E or
2A28 sequence. Example of LoadSide Fuse and
Recloser Selections
COORDINATION WITH LOADSIDE FUSE LINKS Figure 16A3 shows a system requiring selection of fuse links
Maximum coordination between reclosers and loadside fuse at location ABC/29. Available fault currents at the fuse locations
links is generally obtained by setting the recloser for two fast and at the end of each threephase feeder are indicated on the
operations followed by two delayed operations. What this diagram. The load currents shown are present peakload cur
accomplishes can best be explained by citing percentages rents. Three singlephase Type L reclosers, with 140 ampere
that are largely hypothetical, since what actually occurs can series coils and 2A2C sequence, are located in the substation.
vary greatly, depending on types of faults, system characteristics, Fuselink groups F1 and F2 are to be located in each three
etc. For illustration, therefore, let us assume the first recloser phase feeder at point ABC/29. The fuse links and reclosers
opening allows approximately 70 percent of temporary faults must be coordinated so that, for any faults between points
to clear, and the second opening, about 10 percent more. If ABC/29 and ABC/30, the circuit is first interrupted by the
faults are persistent or permanent, the fuse link melts to clear recloser on its fast curve, after which, if the fault persists, it is
them before the recloser operates a third or fourth time. cleared by the fuse in group F2. Similarly, the recloser must
Coordination is achieved to a lesser degree with one fast clear any fault between ABC/29 and ABC/31 on its fast curve,
followed by three delayed operations. This sequence also and permit the fuse in group F1 to clear the fault if it persists.
should clear about the same percentage of faults during the The recloser must be capable of interrupting any faults occurring
first recloser opening, but is most likely to be used when between points ABC/27 and ABC/29.
automatic sectionalizers are installed at intermediate points
between recloser and fuse.
112
A3
60 3600
50 3000
40 50 Amp Type S *3.2 2400
50 Amp TypeS
30 1800
20 1200
1\ \
\
10 \ 600
8 480
6 360
5 300
4 240
3
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