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Electrical Distribution-
System Protection

A Textbook and Practical


Reference on Overcurrent and
Overvoltage Fundamentals,
Protective Equipment and
Applications

Copyright 2005
All rights reserved
Printed in the United States

""'
COOPER Power Systems

I
The information in this manual, while based on generally accepted fundamentals and practices, does not claim to cover all details or variations
in the requirements and problems relating to electrical distribution-system overcurrent and overvoltage phenomena, and in the methods and
equipment for dealing with such phenomena. Also, the examples ctted for achieving overcurrent and overvoltage protection are typical ones
presented for illustration only, and their solutions should not be applied to specific situations without full consideration of all appropriate factors.

II
A Guide to the Manual
The designer of an electrical distribution tors as well as by causing dangerous In this manual, prepared for system
system must anticipate a variety of sit- voltage transients ondistribution designers, protection engineers, and
uations that might interfere with normal circuits. students, the general subject of
operation of the system. Among the The primary cause of overloads is distribution-system protection is broken
most commonly encountered abnormal simply unforeseen or faster-than- into its two principal areas: overcurrent
conditions are line faults and their expected load growth, and equipment protection and overvoltage protection.
resultant overcurrents, transient over- malfunction or failure also might over- Within each of these sections are
voltages, and system overloads. tax a system. Equipment failure can be detailed discussions of fundamentals
Generally, atmospheric distur- caused by the improper design, manu- and theory, equipment characteristics,
bances-and, to a lesser extent, human facture, installation, or application of and applications. A third section then
and animal interference - are the under- the equipment itself, and by lightning, covers the special considerations that
lying causes of faults and over-volt- insulation deterioration, and system must be taken into account in protect-
ages. Line faults can be caused by faults. ing systems with industrial loads, with
strong winds that whip phase conduc- "Distribution-system protection" is dispersed generation, and with system
tors together and blow tree branches the composite of all the measures automation.
onto lines. In winter, freezing rain can taken on a given system to minimize To guide you into the manual, pre-
produce a gradual buildup of ice on a the effects of the abnormal conditions sented below is a general listing of the
circuit, causing one or more conduc- described above. All of the conditions three main sections, each of which
tors to break and fall to the ground. cannot be prevented from occurring at contains a detailed table of contents.
Squirrels and birds will sometimes all times, but they can be controlled
produce line or ground faults by placing and contained-by protecting equipment
themselves between energized portions and lines from damage to the fullest
of the circuit and/or ground. On under- extent that technology and economics
ground systems, the severing of cables permit, and by limiting any interrup-
by earth-moving equipment is tions of service to the smallest
a prevalent cause of faults. Lightning practical portions of the system and
strokes can fault a system by opening numbers of customers.
lines or initiating arcs between conduc-

Section A (Page 1) Section B (Page 167) Section C (Page 245)


OVERCURRENT PROTECTION OVER VOLTAGE PROTECTION SPECIAL SYSTEM
1. Fundamentals and Theory 1. Fundamentals and Theory CONSIDERATIONS
2. Protective Equipment 2. Insulation and Surge Arrester 1. Effects of Industrial Loads
Characteristics and General Characteristics and General 2. Protection of Systems with
Application Factors Application Factors Dispersed Storage and Generation
3. Protective Equipment Applications 3. Surge Arrester Applications and 3. Protection of Systems with
and Coordination Other Protection Details Automated Distribution
4. Summary of Protection for a 4. Summary of Protection for a
Complete Distribution System Complete Distribution System

III
Section A
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION
Table of Contents
Page Page
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY 2. PROTECTIVE .EQUIPMENT CHARACTER-
Introduction . .. . .... . . ..... .. . . ....... .. .. ...... 5 ISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS ... 51
Principles and Objectives .. . ..... . .. . ..... . .... ... 6 Introduction . .. . . . .. . ... . .......... . .. . ... . . .. .51
Distribution System Reliability . ................ ... . . .6 Fusing Equipment . . .. .. . .. ..... ... . . ...... . .... 52
Performance Indices .. ..... . ..... . ............ .. 6 Designs and Characteristics ........ . ......... . .... 52
Feeder Length as a Factor in Reliability .... . ... . .. .. 7 Fuse Links ... . .... . ............. . .... .. ...... 52
Protection Concerns and Practices ........ . ...... . .. .7 Fuse Cutouts . . ... .. .. . ..... .. .. . .. . ... . ... .. .53
Temporary vs. Permanent Faults ................ ... 7 Current-Limiting Fuses .. ............... . .... . .. 54
Protecting Feeder Segments and Taps ..............7 Fuse Application Factors .. . ....... . ............ . .. 59
"Protecting" and "Protected" Devices ... . ........... .8 Fuse Cutouts/Fuse Links ..... . ..... . .. . .. . .. . . . .59
Momentary Service Interruptions ..... . ... . ... . ...... 8 Fuse-Link Selection .. ..... . .... . ... . . .. .. . ... . .60
Tools for Fault Analysis ..... . ......... . ......... .9 Current-Limiting Fuse Selection ........... . ...... 61
Method of Symmetrical Components ......... ." ...... .9 Automatic Circuit Reclosers ... . ..... . ...... .. .. . .62
Simplifying the Approach to Recloser Classifications ... . .... .. ...... . .. .. .... . .62
Complicated Problems .. . ......................9 Single-Phase Reclosers . ... ... ... . .. . .. . . . .... .62
Balanced Systems in Symmetrical Components ..... .9 Three-Phase Reclosers . .. ................. . .... 64
Relationships Between Symmetrical Components and Triple/Single Reclosers ............ . .... . ....... 64
Phase Quantities . . . .. . ............ . ......... 10 Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers .. . . . . .. . .. . .... 65
Example of Symmetrical Components Method ....... 10 Electronically Controlled Reclosers . .. .. .. . ... . .... 65
Sequence Impedances ... ............ . ......... 11 Types of Interrupters ... . .. . .... . .. . ....... .. . . .65
The Per-Unit Method ...... . . .... . ................ 11 Types of Insulating Mediums ...... . . . ....... . . . .. 65
Single-Phase System Calculations . ...... ... . .. ... 12 Recloser Locations and Functions .. . . . . ........ . .. .66
Three-Phase System Calculations ................ 13 Pad-mounted Reclosers . .. .. ... . ............. . .66
Use of Impedances in Fault Calculations ............. 14 Recloser Application Factors . . ..... . .. . ....... . .. . .66
Types of Distribution Circuits .... .. ............... 14 System Voltage . .. .. . .. ...... . .. .. .... . ..... . .66
Impedances of Overhead Distribution Circuits ....... 14 Maximum Fault Current ........ . ... . ...... . . . . . .66
Impedances of Underground Distribution Cable ...... 19 Maximum Load Current ....... . .... . .. .. .. . ... . .66
Equations for Calculating Sequence Impedances Minimum Fault Current . . ........ . .............. 66
of Underground Concentric Neutral Cable .. . ....20 Coordination with Other Protective Devices . .. . . . . . .66
Effect of Cable Insulation . . ...... . ... ..........25 Dual Timing . . . .. . . .. .......... . ......... .. .67
Effect of Neutral Size ............ ... .... ......25 Ground-Fault Sensing .. . .... . ..... . . . ........ . .67
Effect of Earth Resistivity ... .. .. . . . .. . .. .. .. ... 25 Sectionalizers .. . .. . . . .. . . . ..... . ..... .. ........ 68
Effect of Interphase Spacing . . .. .. . . .......... .25 Sectionalizer Classifications ... . ... . .. . .. ... . ... ... 68
Skin Effect and Proximity Effect . . .. . . .. . .... .. . .26 Hydraulically Controlled Sectionalizers . ..... . . . .. . .68
Impedances of Transformers ............. .. . . ... .26 Electronically Controlled Sectionalizers ... . .... . .... 68
Impedances of Transmission Lines . . ........ . . ... .27 Sectionalizer Features .. .. .. . . ..... . .... . .... .. ... 68
Impedances of Generators ... .. .... . .. . ....... ..27 Sectionalizer Application Factors .. .. . ....... . . . ..... 68
Source Impedance ................ . ...... . .. . .29 System VoHage .. .......... .. ...... . . . .. . .. . .. 69
Methods for Finding Source Impedance ........ . .30 Maximum Load Current . . .... . ........ . ......... 69
Fault Impedance .. . .. . . . ... ... . . . . .. . .. . .. . .. .31 Maximum FauH Current . .. ......... . .. ... . . . . ... 69
System Faults . . .... . .. . .. . ...... . . . . . . . .... . .. 33 Coordination with Other Protective Devices ...... . .. 69
Types of Faults .. . ... . ... .. . . ............... . ....33 Circuit Breakers and Relays . .. . ..................70
Voltages at the Terminals of a Generator . .. ... . .. . .33 Circuit Breaker Characteristics and Classifications ...... 70
Equations for a Single Line-to-Ground Fault ... . .. . .. 34 Circuit Breaker Ratings . .... . . . .. . ......... . ...... 71
Sequence Networks ...... . ........... . . . ...... 35 Rated Maximum Voltage .. . ..... . .. . .... . .. .. ... 71
Equations for Other Fault Conditions . . .. . .... . .. . .36 Rated VoHage Range Factor, K . .......... .. .... . .71
Thevenin's Theorem . . . . ..... . ..... . ......... .36 Rated Withstand Test Voltage, Low Frequency . . ..... 71
Equations for Fault-Current Magnitudes ... . .. .. . .36 Rated Withstand Test Voltage, Impulse . .... .. ..... .71
Asymmetrical Fault Current . .. . . . .... .. .. .. . . .... . .38 Rated Continuous Current at 60Hz .. . . . ..........71
Definition and Significance . . .......... . ..... . . . .38 Rated Short-Circuit Current
Application of Current Asymmetry Information . ...... 39 (at Rated Maximum kV) . . . ... . . .. . .. . . .. ...... 71
Motor-Current Contributions ......... . ............ .42 Transient Recovery Voltage, Rated Time to Point P ... 71
Fault Calculation Procedures and Examples ...........43 Rated Interrupting Time ... . ..... . ...............71
Assumptions ............ . .......... . . . .. . .. . .43 Rated Permissible Tripping Delay .... . ....... .. . . .71
Basic Approach . . .. . ... .. . . . .. . . . ... . ... . . .. . .43 Rated Maximum Voltage Divided by K ... . ...... . . .72
Example of Source-Impedance Calculation ..... . ... 44 Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting Capability ....... 72
Example of Distribution-System Calculation ........ .45 Three-Second Short-Time Current-Carrying Capability 72
Computer Calculation of Fault Currents . ........ . .47 Closing-and-Latching Capability . . ..... . ....... . .. 72
Index of Figures and Tables . .. . . . ....... . ... . . . . .50 Types of Relays . .. . . .. .. . . ......... . .... . .. . . ...73
Overcurrent Relay . . .......... . .... . . . ... . .... : .. 73
Time-Current Characteristics ... . ... . ..... . ....... 73
Instantaneous Trip .. . ... . ... . ....... . .. .... .. ·. .75
Reset . ..... . .. . .. . ..... . . . . ... ...... . .... . .. 78

2
Section A
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

Page Page
Reclosing Relay .................................78 Using Time-Current Curves ....................... 125
Microprocessor Based Relay .....................78 Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers
Index of Figures and Tables ......................79 Coordination Basics ........................... 125
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND Smaller Reclosers (Series Coil Operated} ......... 125
COORDINATION Larger Recloser (High-Voltage Solenoid Closing) .... 126
Introduction ...................................81 Electronically Controlled Reclosers
Coordination Basics ............................82 Coordination Basics ........................... 126
Example of System Coordination ...................82 Example of Electronic Recloser Coordination ....... 127
Fuse-Fuse Coordination .........................83 Alternate Coordination Scheme ................. 128
TCC Coordination Method .........................83 Features and Accessories for Electronically
Use of Coordination Tables ........................ 84 Controlled Reclosers .......................... 128
Rules of Thumb .................................85 Sequence Coordination ........................ 128
Current-Limiting Fuse Coordination ...............87 Instantaneous Trip ............................ 128
Source-Side Current-Limiting Fuse and Load-Side Instantaneous Lockout ......................... 131
Expulsion Fuse ...............................87 Instantaneous Trip/Instantaneous Lockout
Load-Side Current-Limiting Fuse and Combination ............................... 131
Source-Side Expulsion Fuse ..................... 87 Reclosing Interval .............................. 131
Coordinating Two Current-Limiting Fuses ............. 88 Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers ............... 132
Backup Current-Limiting Fuse and Expulsion Fuse ..... 88 Electronically Controlled Reclosers ............... 132
Transformer Fusing .............................90 Examples of Reclosing Intervals ................. 132
Developing a Transformer Fusing Philosophy .......... 90 Recloser and Relay/Circuit Breaker Coordination ... 133
Types of Fuses for Transformer Protection ............ 90 Microprocessor Overcurrent Relay ................. 133
Capacitor Fusing ...............................98 Electro-Mechanical Overcurrent Relay .............. 133
General Criteria .................................98 Impulse Margin Time .......................... 133
Withstanding Steady-State and Transient Reset Time ................................. 134
Currents ...................................98 Methods for Checking Relay and Downline
Effectively Removing a Failed or Failing Capacitor Recloser Coordination ....................... 135
Unit .......................................98 Recloser and Relay/Circuit-Breaker
Summary of General Criteria ....................98 Coordination Analysis ....................... 137
Group Capacitor Fusing ..........................98 Calculation of Relay Travel
Continuous Current ............................98 During Recloser Operation .................... 137
Transient Currents .............................99 Sectionalizer Applications ...................... 138
Fault Current .................................99 Sectionalizer Coordination Principles ............... 138
Tank-Rupture Curve Coordination ................ 100 Recloser and Hydraulically Controlled
Voltage on Good Capacitors .................... 100 Sectionalizer Coordination ...................... 138
Coordination with Upline Overcurrent Devices ...... 100 Coil Sizes ................................... 139
Summary of Group Fusing ..................... 100 Memory Time ................................ 139
Individual Capacitor Fusing ....................... 100 Voltage Restraint ............................. 140
Continuous Current ........................... 100 Recloser and Electronically Controlled
Transient Currents ............................ 100 Sectionalizer Coordination ...................... 141
Fault Current ................................ 100 Selection of Actuating Levels .................. 141
Tank-Rupture Curve Coordination ................ 103 Sectionalizer Features ....................... 141
Voltage on Good Capacitors .................... 103 Count Reset .............................. 141
Energy Discharge into a Failed Unit .............. 104 Voltage Restraint .......................... 141
Outrush Current .............................. 104 Count Restraint ........................... 142
Coordination with Unbalance Detection Scheme .... 104 Current Inrush Restraint ..................... 142
Summary of Individual Fusing ................... 104 Ground-Fault Sensing ...................... 142
Recloser and Fuse-Link Coordination ............. 105 Recloser, Sectionalizer, and Fuse-Link Coordination ... 142
Recloser Coordination Principles* ................ 105 Recloser, Sectionalizer, and Recloser Coordination .... 143
Recloser Ratings* ............................ 105 Circuit Breaker and Sectionalizer Coordination ........ 143
*Pertain Also to Other Recloser Applications Automatic Load Transfer ........................ 144
Use of Time-Current Curves with Adjustments ...... 111 Switched Load Transfer Schemes .................. 144
Coordination with Source-Side Fuse Links ......... 111 Load Transfer Schemes Utilizing Reclosers .......... 144
Example of Source-Side Fuse and Load Transfer with Manual Return ................ 144
Recloser Selections ......................... 112 Load Transfer with Automatic Return ............. 145
Coordination with Load-Side Fuse Links ........... 112 Loop Sectionalizing ............................ 147
Example of Load-Side Fuse and Loop Sectionalizing Scheme with Three Reclosers .... 147
Recloser Selections ......................... 112 Loop Sectionalizing Scheme with Five Reclosers ...... 148
Relay-Fuse Coordination ....................... 117 Loop Sectionalizing Scheme with Three Reclosers
Relay and Source-Side Fuse Coordination ........... 117 and Two Sectionalizers ........................ 149
Total Accumulated Time Method ................. 117 Index of Figures and Tables ..................... 150
Cooling-Factor Method ........................ 117
Relay and Wad-Side Fuse Coordination ............. 121 4. SUMMARY OF PROTECTION FOR A
Approaches to Temporary Fault Protection ......... 121 COMPLETE DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Recloser-to-Recloser Coordination ............... 125 Introduction .................................. 153
3
Page Page
Preliminary Considerations .....................154
Review of Principles ............................ 154
System Configuration and Data .................... 154
Protective Equipment Selections and Applications .. 156
Substation Transformer Protection .................. 156
Main Circuit Protection .....................•.... 157
Recloser and Relay/Circuit Breaker Coordination .... 157
Feeder Protection ....•......................... 158
Recloser-Sectionalizer Coordination ..........•... 159
Recloser-Recloser Coordination .........•....... 159
Ground-Fault Protection .....................•....160
Branch Protection .............................. 160
Recloser-Fuse Coordination ...•................. 161
Capacitor Fusing ............................... 163
Summary .........................•...........165

* * *
REFERENCES AND CREDITS 264

4
Section A
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY

An Introduction
A thorough understanding of fundamentals and theory is of overcurrent protection, which will be repeated and
essential for effective handling of distribution-system protection enlarged upon, as appropriate, in subsequent sections dealing
problems. In order to minimize the undesirable effects an with specifics. Detailed discussions of tools the designer may
occasionally hostile environment can have on system per- use for fault analysis are followed by descriptions of the various
formance, the designer or protection engineer must know the types of faults that may be encountered, presentation of a
types of faults that can occur on the system and the nature of basic method for calculating the magnitude of overcurrent for
their cause, plus, of course, the probability and effects of different types of disturbances, and a discussion of the use of
lightning- and system-produced voltage surges (to be digital computers for analyzing complex systems. All of which
covered in Section B, Overvoltage Protection). is intended to provide a solid foundation for understanding
This section on fundamentals and theory begins with and use of the equipment and application information in
introductory comments about the principles and philosophy Sections A2 and A3.

Table of Contents, Page 2


Index of Figures and Tables, Page 50

5
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY

Principles and Objectives


The overall objectives of overcurrent protection are the same Performance Indices
as for all areas of distribution-system protection: to prevent For discussion of outage rates, an outage is any complete
damage to equipment and circuits, to prevent hazards to the loss of electric service, even for a second or less.
public and utility personnel, and to maintain a high level of To measure reliability in terms of recorded outages,
service by preventing power interruptions when possible and performance indices frequently are used as described in
minimizing their effects when they do occur. IEEE 1366-1998 Guide for Power Distribution Reliability
Basic system planning for radial or network service, manual Indices. Use of these "standard" indices will permit compar-
or automatic sectionalizing, etc., obviously plays a major role in isons between utilities or between different divisions of a
achieving these objectives. The use of proper phase spacing given utility. More importantly, perhaps, it will allow
and conductor insulation also contribute, as do such practices evaluation of changes by a direct comparison of past and
as periodic tree trimming, inspections for other potential prob- future performance of a feeder or system. These indices are
lems, and equipment maintenance. These areas of planning typically calculated for a single feeder, an operating area, or
and operation are mostly outside the scope of this manual, the entire utility service territory. The several types of stan-
which focuses on the kinds of abnormal conditions that can dard indices are:
occur, the methods for recognizing and analyzing these 1. System Average Interruption Frequency Index (SAIFI)
undesirable conditions, and the selection and application of defines the average number of times a customer's service
protective equipment specifically designed to respond to them. is interrupted during a year for longer than 2 seconds. A
In coping with the increased currents associated with system customer interruption is defined as one interruption to one
faults and overloading, the system designer must provide customer.
adequate protection for all types of distribution apparatus SAIFI _ Total Number of Customer lnterr ions
(transformers, capacitors, voltage regulators, etc.) as well as - Total Number of Customers S
for all segments of the system itself. A variety of devices can
be used, ranging from single-action fuses to automatic circuit 2. System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAID I)
reclosers and relay-controlled circuit breakers. All must be defines the average interruption duration per customer
coordinated, with protective devices in many cases serving to served per year.
protect other protective devices that function as backup
guardians of equipment or circuits. The final system design SAlOl =Sum of Customer Interruption Durations
will be influenced by economic and environmental factors, Total Number of Customers
but the starting point for an effective system must be sound
technical analysis. 3. Momentary Average Interruption Frequency Index (MAIFI)
defines the average number of momentary interruptions
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM RELIABILITY (2 seconds or less) per customer interrupted per year.
All types of electric utility customers- residential, commer- MAl Fl =Total Number of Momentary Customer Interruptions
cial, institutional, and industrial -are heavily dependent on Total Number of Customers Served
the availability of electric power. For the residential customer, a
loss of service affects just about every function and major 4. Customer Average Interruption Duration Index (CAIDI)
device in the house, both those that are fully dependent defines the average interruption duration for those cus-
on electric power (lighting, refrigeration, microwave ovens, tomers interrupted during a year.
televisions, air conditioners, home security systems, personal CAIDI _ Sum of Customer Interruption Durations
computers) and those that may be only partially dependent - Total Number of Customer Interruptions
on electricity (furnaces, water heaters). Shopping centers
suffer loss of sales and may have serious problems when 5. Average Service Availability Index (ASAI) defines the ratio
outages occur during busy shopping periods. Schools may of the total number of customer hours that service was
cease to function. Patient care is affected at health institu- available during a year to the total customer hours
tions. Industrial customers experience immediate financial demanded (customer hours demanded = 24 hours/day x
loss as machines and processes shut down. =
365 days 8760 hours).
With all of this, the individual electric utility customer has
become very aware of and sensitive to any interruption of ASAI = 8760- SAID I
8760
electrical service. Customer perceptions of service reliability
are affected by both the frequency and duration of outages, For example, a SAlOl (see number 2, above) of 1.0 hours
and efforts to improve reliability must address both of these per year produces:
areas. Even momentary outages lasting less than 2 seconds
can be as troublesome as sustained outages for some
customers. Economics will of course be a factor in each ASAI = 87608760
- 1.0
= 99.989%
utility's approach to reliability.

6
A1
Feeder Length as a factor in Reliability Maximum service reliability is achieved when the distribution
uany utilities have found that service reliability deteriorated system is designed and operated to minimize the effects
slgnifk:;antly when they converted to a higher distribution voltage of any fault that may occur. Given the high percentage of
,tor example, from 4 kV to 13 kV). The higher voltage allowed temporary faults, two basic rules of distribution protec,ion
bnger feeders and more customers per feeder, but each outage emerge:
aftected more customers, and longer feeders required more 1. All faults must be given a chance to be temporary by
patrol time to locate the fault and take corrective action. providing a reclosing operation for a fault anywhere on the
Even without a change to higher voltage, service reliability system.
can deteriorate as more customers are added to a feeder, 2.1n responding to that low percentage of faults found to
and the feeder itself may be extended. be permanent after the designated number of reclosing
To restore service reliability in such cases, an important operations has been performed, the protective devices
first step is to sectionalize each feeder into smaller segments, must remove from service only the smallest possible portion
thereby limiting the number of customers affected by a given of the system necessary for isolation of the faulted segment.
ootage and reducing the subsequent patrol time. Operating Protecting Feeder Segments and Taps
experience of a number of utilities that have adopted this To minimize the effects of faults on the main feeder, section-
sectionalizing practice suggests that an optimum feeder alizing devices (reclosers or sectionalizers, or a combination
segment in terms of load is 3 to 5 MVA. As the load of a line of the two) can be used to divide the feeder into the desired
segment approaches 8 to 10 MVA, outage rates increase to smaller segments. All taps running off the feeder should have
unsatisfactory levels. a protective device (fuses for small taps, a recloser or section-
alizer for large taps) where they connect to the main feeder.
PROTECTION CONCERNS AND PRACTICES Even on very small taps, a fuse should be used. The justifi-
Temporary Versus Permanent Faults cation is that this type of fuse does not only protect the tap,
Most faults on overhead distribution systems are temporary - but rather protects the remainder of the distribution feeder
perhaps as high as 70 to 80 percent. Also, of those faults from a fault on the tap.
categorized as permanent, at least one-third had initially Regardless of the extent of sectionalizing for a particular
been temporary (that is, lasting only a few cycles to a few feeder, a combination of a recloser and fuses (Figure OA 1)
seconds). and/or sectionalizers is typically used to protect a feeder seg-
A temporary fault is one whose cause is transitory in ment and its taps against both temporary and permanent
nature. Examples include momentary interruptions caused faults. The fast trip curve of the recloser is used to clear all
by two conductors being blown together, by a tree branch transient faults on the main feeder and taps. For permanent
faling across two conductors and then dropping clear, and by faults on the taps, the recloser time-delay curve allows the
a bird or small animal that briefly causes an arc from a live tap fuse to clear, resulting in an outage on the tap only.
terminal to ground. If the arc that results can be cleared Some additional steps that can be taken to minimize the
quickly, before it burns into a permanent fault, the cause of the effects of transient faults on sophisticated electronic and
fault is gone, no equipment damage has occurred, and the microprocessor-controlled devices is discussed below under
circuit can be re-energized immediately, restoring service to "Momentary Service Interruptions."
the entire system. Since the "open" time between fault inter-
ruption and re-energization is so brief, this type of incident
is classified as a momentary outage.
A permanent fault is one in which damage has occurred,
either from the cause of the fault or from the fault arc.
Examples include faults caused by a broken insulator, by a
broken conductor, and by an automobile knocking down a pole.
When a permanent fault occurs, the line must be deener-
gized, and a line crew must travel to the site and repair the
damage. The time to restore service may range from 30 minutes
to several hours; accordingly, the incident results in a recorded Figure OA1.
Reclosers and fuses protect feeder segment and taps
sustained outage. against temporary and transient faults.

7
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Principles and Objectives (Continued)

"Protecting" and "Protected'' Devices Nowadays, however, a momentary service interruption


In order to provide safeguards against unwarranted service disrupts the operation of computers, digital clocks, video
interruption as just described as well as in other overcurrent recorders, microwave ovens, etc., and results in customer
protection situations, there must be a pairing or series of annoyance at having to reset and reprogram the equipment.
protective devices that have been selected to function in The impact is even more severe for businesses, manufactur-
coordinated fashion. By conventional definition, when two or ers, and other organizations that rely heavily on computers,
more protective devices are applied to a system, the device digital controls, and automatic systems.
nearest the fault on the supply side is the "protecting" device, Following are some of the steps that can be taken by electric
and the next nearest (that is, the closest device upline from utilities to control the number of momentary interruptions and
the "protecting" device) is the "protected" or "back-up" device. limit their effects.
See Figure 1A1. 1. The application of recloser-control coordination acces-
When properly coordinated, the protecting device will function sories on substation and midline reclosers can provide
before the protected device has an opportunity to do so, complete coordination of protection devices, thereby
thereby limiting power interruption to the area served by the reducing the number of both momentary and longer inter-
former. It should be noted that a protecting device might also ruptions experienced by the feeder's customers.
function as a protected device if there are additional devices 2. Momentary interruptions can be reduced on main feeders
downline from it. This will be discussed in detail in Section A3, by midpoint sectionalizing devices. By adding a midpoint
Protective Equipment Applications and Coordination. recloser and providing trip coordination with the source-
side recloser, temporary faults downline from the midpoint
recloser will not affect upline customers.
,.
SUBSTATION
PROTECTING

- 3. Critical industrial or commercial loads can be protected by


~


jllo

jllo
A

PROTECTED
-8
DEVICE
installing a recloser on the main feeder just downline from
the critical load. This reduces the fast-trip burden of the

1
~
OR BACKUP substation device and consequently the number of
DEVICE momentary interruptions experienced by the critical load.
C PROTECTING 4. Reclosers can be added to longer taps off main feeders to
DEVICE
relieve the main feeder from momentary interruptions
caused by downline faults on the tap.
Figure 1A1. In addition to taking whatever steps are deemed
Conventional definitions of protective devices based on
location. Fuse links are indicated for illustration. appropriate to limit the number of momentary interruptions,
electric power suppliers may want to consider communicating
with customers on the relative desirability of such interruptions
compared to long-term outages. Customers also might be
MOMENTARY SERVICE INTERRUPTIONS made aware that they can purchase appliances and products
In years past, momentary service interruptions as a result of with battery backup, or with circuitry that overrides brief
temporary faults caused little or no customer concerns or power interruptions. For industrial and commercial
inconvenience. In fact, when a brief power loss occurred and customers, the ideal solution may be an uninterruptible
the only result was a dimming of lights or a momentary loss power supply.
of service, there was a feeling of relief because there was no
long-term outage.

8
A1

Tools for Fault Analysis


The design engineer can approach the challenging task of Load impedances in the figure are assumed to include line
fault analysis with tools that have proved reliable in decades impedances. Note the distinction between balanced voltages
of application involving systems of all types and sizes. As and currents and balanced load. Load impedances in the
discussed later, computer technology has provided additional three phases are equal in both magnitude and angle, whereas
tools in the form of general and customized programs, but the voltages and currents have 120-degree phase separation.
there can be no substitute for a thorough understanding of the The virtue of working with balanced systems is that they can
basic methods and approaches that follow. be analyzed on a single-phase basis, since the current in any
phase is always the phase-to-neutral voltage divided by the
METHOD OF SYMMETRICAL COMPONENTS single-phase load impedance.
Under normal operating conditions, a distribution circuit is Separate calculation of currents in the two remaining phases
essentially a balanced three-phase system. So long as the is not necessary. This characteristic of balanced three-phase
circuit remains balanced, the single-phase equivalent circuit systems is the basis for the use of one-line diagrams in which
is a powerful tool for simplifying fault analysis, but in more a three-phase circuit is pictorially represented by a single line
cases than not, system disturbances or faults create an and standard symbols for transformers, switchgear, and
unbalanced circuit. The method traditionally used to solve other system components.
these problems of unbalanced three-phase systems has In a balanced circuit (Figure 2A 1), the currents and voltages
been the analysis of symmetrical components. In this manual, are not changed if neutral points NS and NL are grounded or
only the symmetrical component equations applicable to connected with a neutral wire, because no potential difference
three-phase power systems will be discussed. can exist between NS and NL. However, this lack of potential
difference will not, in general, hold true if the three-wire system
Simplifying the Approach to is unbalanced in some way. Therefore, system conditions in
Complicated Problems the unbalanced situation will be affected if points NS and NL
The usefulness of the method of symmetrical components are connected.
is that a complicated problem can be solved by vectorially Truly balanced three-phase systems exist only in theory.
summing the solution to three balanced network problems. In reality, many systems are very nearly balanced and, for
!ts success .lies in the ability to establish relatively simple practical purposes, can be analyzed as if they are truly balanced
systems. However, there also are situations (unbalanced
Interconnections between sequence networks at the point of
the fault for a limited number of unbalanced conditions. loads, unsymmetrical faults, open conductors, etc.) where
At any. given point in a balanced three-phase system, the the degree of unbalance cannot be neglected. Many of these
currents 1n the three-phase conductors are equal in magnitude situations involve a single point of unbalance on an otherwise
and separated by 120 degrees in phase angle. The same balanced system, and these are the cases in which the
holds true for the phase-to-neutral voltages and the phase- method of symmetrical components finds ready application.
to-phase voltages. (Figure 2A 1.) The method permits the phasors of the unbalanced three-
phase system to be resolved into three balanced systems of
phasors. The three balanced systems can then be solved
independently and the results combined in a manner that
Ia =II-¢
depends on the type of unbalance.
c A Ic = I LI1.Q:.Q_
Balanced Systems In Symmetrical Components
The balanced systems of phasors used in three-phase
symmetrical component analysis are (Figure 3A 1):
1. Positive-sequence components (denoted by the subscript 1),
lb=I~ consisting of three phasors of equal magnitude and
120-degree phase separation, and having the same phase
PHASE-PHASE VOLTAGES: sequence as the original phasors. (May be denoted by the
subscript p in other literature.)
Vab = Va-Vb= V3 V@
2. Negative-sequence components (denoted by the subscript 2),
Voc = Vb-Vc = V3 V /270 consisting of three phasors of equal magnitude and
Vca=Vc-Va=V3 V~
120-degree phase separation, and having a phase
sequence opposite to that of the original phasors. (May be
Agure 2A1. denoted by the subscript n in other literature.)
Diagram of balanced three-phase system showing con-
ductor and phase relationships. 3. Zero-sequence components (denoted by the subscript 0),
consisting of three phasors of equal magnitude and 360- or
0-degree phase separation. (May be denoted by the
subscript z in other literature.)
It is assumed that the reader is familiar with complex number
notation. Figure 2A 1 uses the polar form of this notation. The T~e p~asors illustrated in Figure 3A 1 are given voltage
magnitudes of the phase voltages and currents are V and I des1gnat1ons, but they could just as well be called currents.
respectively, and the magnitude of each phase-to-phas~ The subscripts correspond to the three phases of the system
voltage is the square root of 3 V. and show the differences among the three systems of com-
ponents. The positive-sequence components have the

9
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)

normal abc phase sequence, the negative-sequence compo-


nents have the opposite abc phase sequence, and the zero-
sequence components are in phase and have no phase
sequence.

Vc,

{3)

These equations permit converting any set of three-phase


voltage (or current) phasors into their equivalent symmetrical
components. Equations 2 and 3 are written in terms of voltage
phasors, but they also apply to currents if the V's are
NEGATIVE SEQUENCES replaced by l's.
POSITIVE SEQUENCES ZERO SEQUENCES
Example of Symmetrical Components Method
Figure3A1.
Consider a three-phase, four-wire circuit supplying a
Balanced systems of phasors used in three-phase sym-
metrical component analysis. wye-connected load. If an open conductor exists in one
phase, what are the symmetrical components of the currents
in the remaining phases?
Relationships Between Symmetrical
Components and Phase Quantities
To transform from symmetrical components to phase
quantities, the following relationships are used {References
1, 3, 4):

Va = Va 1 + Va2 + Vao

Vb =Vb 1 + Vb2 + Vb0 18 = 1 /60° =.5+j.866


Vc =Vc 1 + V~ + Vc0 (1) lb = 1 I -60° .5-j.866
Ic 0
But the quantities on the right side of these equations are not
all independent. For example:
From Equation 3:
Vb1 =a Va and Vc =aVa
2
1 1 1
1
where a =1 /120°, a2= 1 /240° Ia 1 =3 {Ia + alb + a2Ic}
Also, Vb 2 =aVa2 and Vc2 =a2Va2 =! {I 60° + (1/120° X 1 I -60°) + 0}
and Vb0 = Vao and Vc0 =Vao
!{2l..illt}
These relationships can be verified by an examination of
Figure 3A1.
Substituting into Equation 1 provides
=.667/60°
Va=Va 1 +Va2 +Va0
Ia2 =~ {Ia + a Ib + ale}
2

Vb =a2Va 1 + aVa2 + Va0 =! {1 {/ 60° + {1 /240° X 1/ -60°) + 0}


Vc =aVa 1 + a2Va 2 + Vao {2)
=! {(.5 + j.866) + (-1 + jO)}
These equations show that, once the symmetrical
components of the voltage (or current) of one phase of a system = ~ {-.5 + j.866}
are known, the phase voltages {or currents) for all three
phases can be found. =.333/120°
To transform from phase quantities to symmetrical
components, the following equations are used (References lao=! {Ia + Ib + Ic}
1, 3, 4):
=~ {1/60° + 1/60° + 0°}
=~ {1 ill:}
=.333ffi:

10
A1
Expressing these results both graphically and numerically, Sequence Impedances
the positive-sequence components are: In general usage, the phrase "positive-sequence impedance"
does not mean the positive-sequence component of an
unbalanced set of impedances ~a, ~ b, and ~c. such as
might be calculated from the expression(~ a+ a~ b + a2~ c)l3.
Ia 1 = .667 I 60°
Instead, the phrase means the impedance of a symmetrical
lb 1 = a 21a1 = .667 I 300° three-phase circuit measured when energized by a positive-
sequence voltage source. For example, if a symmetrical
lc 1 =ala 1 =.667 I 180° three-phase line has all three phases shorted at one end and
is energized by a balanced three-phase positive-sequence
Ib1 voltage at the other end, then only positive-sequence cur-
rents will flow in the three phases of the line. The phase A
The negative-sequence components are: line-to-ground voltage at the input to the line divided by the
phase A current will then be the positive sequence of the line.
Similarly, the phrases "negative-sequence impedance" and
Ia2 = .333 I 120° "zero-sequence impedance" are shortened expressions for
"impedance to negative-sequence current" and "impedance
lb 2 = ala 2 = .333 I 240° to zero-sequence current." The symbols normally used to
designate positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence impedances
lc 2 = a 21a2 = .333 ~ are used here. These are, respectively, ~ 1, ~ 2, and ~ o.
This material will consider only symmetrical, or balanced,
circuits. For example, fully balanced distribution lines and
balanced sources of supply are assumed. These are reasonable
The zero-sequence components are: assumptions, and results based on them are sufficiently
accurate for fault calculations. Also, these assumptions help
demonstrate the method of symmetrical components without
getting into the many complications of the method when
working with unsymmetrical systems. In unsymmetrical systems,
positive-sequence currents will, in general, produce negative-
and zero-sequence voltage drops as well as positive-
sequence voltage drop. This means that the mutual coupling
between the sequence networks must be defined. These
Once the symmetrical components are known, phase mutual sequence impedances can be calculated, but with
quantities can be determined by using Equations 2 or 1: considerable difficulty, and as a result, the method of sym-
metrical components loses much of its usefulness. Most
applications of the method are in the analysis of unsymmetrical
I~ ~ / 1 Ia = Ia 1 + Ia 2 + Ia0
-Ia faults, unbalanced loads, etc., on balanced systems.
~ = .667 I 60° +.333 I 120° + .333 L.Q: Therefore, the more involved aspects of symmetrical component
1 theory, such as the mutual impedances between sequence
J Iaa = ~ (.5 + j.866} + ~ (-.5 + j.866} + ~ (1 + iO) networks, are not discussed. However, these are given con-
siderable attention in some of the references, especially
= .5 + j.866 Edith Clarke (Reference 1).

= 1 I 60° THE PER-UNIT METHOD


Computations with power systems involving two or more voltage
levels are greatly simplified by the per-unit method. The value
of the method can best be judged by actual experience, but
some of the reasons for its usefulness are:
= .667 I 300° + .333 I 240° + .333 f.JJ':_ 1. When a circuit element in a system of several voltage levels,
= ~ (.5- j.866) + ~ (-.5 - j.866} + ~ (1 + jO)
such as a transmission line, has its impedance expressed
in ohms, the ohmic value will vary as the square of the ratio
of voltage levels as consideration moves from one level to
= .5- j.866
another. In other words, the value of the ohmic impedance
=11300°=11-60° will change as the point of view of the line is changed from
one side of a transformer to the other. So a problem in
developing an equivalent circuit of a system in actual units
is to select and identify a reference voltage and express all
impedance elements in ohms as viewed from the reference
voltage level. When impedances are expressed in per-unit
= .667 I 180° + .333 1...JL + .333 1...JL on the appropriate base, this problem is eliminated. The
per-unit impedance of the line viewed from one side of the
=0 transformer is the same as that viewed from the other side.
2. The per-unit impedances of machines of the same type
Note that, even though the actual current in phase C is and widely different rating usually lie within a narrow range,
zero, its symmetrical components are not zero. whereas their ohmic values can differ significantly.

11
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)

3. Manufacturers usually specify the impedance of apparatus and defining VAs, the base power, in volt amps as
in percent or per-unit on the base of the nameplate rating.
In analyzing a system containing apparatus, it is conven- VAa Eala
ient to use these per-unit impedances either directly (if the
apparatus ratings are equivalent to the system voltage and provides VA .E......L (6)
kVA base) or suitably modified to conform to the system VAs = Ea Is
bases.
4. In studying the performance of a system, the comparative Thus, the per-unit VA power is defined as
importance of the values of such factors as voltage and
current is more readily judged in the per-unit system, espe- VApu
cially when the system has a multiplicity of voltage levels.
For example, the significance of a 100-ampere current may Therefore VApu = (7)
be different in one part of the system than in another.
Depending on the normal full-load currents of the circuits, Voltage, current, power, and impedance are so related
the 100 amperes may represent a severe overload if it (Equations 4 and 6) that selection of base values for any two
exists on one line and less than normal load on another determines the base values of the remaining two. Usually, base
line. In the per-unit system, the base currents are fre- power in kVA and base voltage in kV are the quantities
quently closely related to full-load conditions. So in the first selected to specify the base. In this case, Equations 4 and 6
case cited, 100 amperes might be equivalent to 1.6 per- become
unit current (60 percent overload), and in the second case,
only 0.35 per-unit current. For this purpose, the numbers
1000 Es Ia~= (8)
1.6 and 0.35 per-unit are more meaningful measures of the kVA 8 = Esls (9)
significance of the current than 100 amperes.
Consider the simple voltage-current-impedance equation where Es =base voltage in kilo volts
Is =base current in amperes
E=lr
where the units of E, I, and r
are volts, amperes, and ohms, -ra = base impedance in ohms
respectively. kVA 8 =base power in kilo volt-amperes.
Dividing both sides of the above equation by the same
number does not destroy the equality. Call this number E8 ,
base voltage.
Similarly, the per-unit definitions (Equations 35 and 37)
E I-r become
Es = Es
Epu = ~s
Defining a base current IB and a base impedance r B, I
subject to the condition lpu = Is
Ea = Is-rs
then -r
_§_ = _N_ -rpu = -rs
Es Is-rs (4)
kVA
Finally, the following per-unit (pu) quantities are defined: kVApu = kVAs {1 0)

Equations 10 are general expressions applicable in converting


Epu E the per-unit calculations. Equations 8 and 9 apply only to
Es single-phase systems.

Ipu = is Single-Phase System Calculations


For single-phase systems or three-phase systems where line
current, voltage line-to-neutral, and kVA per phase are used,
-rpu =is formulas relating the various base quantities are readily
obtained, as follows:
Epu = lpu -rpu and hence
and hence (5)
Taking the power-voltage-current equation kVAs = base kVA per phase or single-phase base
kVA
VA= El
Es = line-to-neutral base voltage or single-
phase base voltage in kV

Is = kfss = base line current in amperes

2
-rs = ~~;s = base impedance in ohms
1
(11)

12
A1
Three-Phase System Calculations If n is the transformer turns ratio, Ep and Es are the primary
In three-phase circuits, data are usually given as total and secondary voltages in kV, respectively; Ip, and Is are
three-phase kVA and line-to-line kV, and the above formulas primary and secondary currents in amperes, respectively;
do not apply. Hence, if the line-to-line voltage and total three- and ~ is the load impedance in ohms, then the following
phase kVA are specified, the following formulas are used to relationships can be written:
find base quantities instead of Equations 11 :
Ep = nEs
kVAs = three-phase base kVA
1
Ip = nis
E9 = line-to-line base voltage in kV

Is = kVAs = base line current in amperes


V3Es
2
-r9 - 1000Es = base impedance in ohms
- kVA 9 (12)

Once the base quantities are selected, then the per-unit


quantities are immediately obtained from Equations 10, so
long as the units for E, I, -r, and kVA in a three-phase system and, therefore, -rviewed from primary= n2 -r (15)
calculation are line-to-line kV, amperes, ohms, and three-
phase kVA, respectively Now, choosing the base power kVAs the same for both
The per-unit impedance of a circuit element is: sides of the transformer and the base voltage EpB and EsB
so that they have the relationship
-r u = (actual impedance in ohms) X (base kVA) = -r kVAs
P (base voltage in kV)2 X 1,ooo 1,ooo Es EpB = nEsB
(13)
then the base impedances are (from Equation 11)
where base can be either line-to-neutral voltage and single-
phase kVA, or line-to-line voltage and total three-phase kVA.
To change from per-unit impedance on a given base to per-unit -rPs = 1OOOE~ 9
impedance on a new base, the following formula applies: kVAs (16)

~new= ~old (base kvold )


2
X (base kVAnew) and
pu pu base kvnew base kVAold
(14)
-r 1000E§ 1000(E~2
s9 = B = n
As noted initially, an advantage of the per-unit method is kVAs kVAs (17)
realized when the proper voltage and kVA bases are selected
on the two sides of a transformer. When the kVA bases are Using Equation 17, the per-unit value of load impedance
identical and the base voltages are chosen in the same ratio viewed from the secondary is
as the line-to-line voltage transformation ratio (which is the
same as the transformer turns ratio in delta-delta and wye-wye -r
connections), then the per-unit value of an impedance on one -rpu
viewed from secondary
=r
Ss
side of the transformer will not change when it is viewed from
the other side. This can be verified by considering a single-
phase ideal (zero-impedance) transformer serving a load
impedance, ~ (Figure 4A 1). =
1000 E~
B

and, from Equations 15 and 16, the per-unit value of ~

- Is viewed from the primary is


-r pu viewed from primary =
_,._ .
-r PB
.
L.vtewed from pnmary

= n2-r
-rpB

= -rn 2kVAs
n:1 1000 Ep 2
B
Fagure 4A1.
= -r pu viewed from secondary
Diagram of single-phase transformer with zero impedance
serving a load impedance. Therefore, by properly choosing the voltage and power
bases, the per-unit value of an impedance on one side of a
transformer can be used directly on the other side.

13
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)

USE OF IMPEDANCES IN FAULT CALCULATIONS 5. Three-wire system served from an ungrounded, wye-
The impedance information necessary to conduct a fauH study connected transformer
includes the system sequence impedances viewed from each
of the fault points to be considered, and the value of fault
.----------------------------------A
impedance, ::Z: , associated with each type of fault. The
sequence impedances of the system are independent of the
type of fault.
To find system impedance, first identify the individual
components of the system: e.g., underground cable, overhead
lines, transformers, generators, etc. Next, the sequence e------------------~----------c
impedances of the individual components are determined, Additional classifications of circuits involving various
normally through the use of tables and formulas. Finally, the combinations of one or two phase conductors and a neutral
component impedances are combined to produce the equivalent could be identified, but these exist in practice only as two-phase
sequence impedances of the system, taking into account any or si~gle-phase laterals tapped off of one of the above systems.
series-parallel connections and the various voltage levels So s1ngle- or two-phase laterals are not described here as
between the point being studied and the source. separate types of distribution circuits, but rather are referred
to in terms of the type of circuit from which they are supplied.
Types of Distribution Circuits For example, in studying a lateral consisting only of two
The impedance of a distribution circuit is markedly affected phase conductors, one must know whether it is served by a
not only by conductor material, size, and spacing, but also grounded system (Types 1, 2, and 3) or an ungrounded system
by such factors as the presence or absence of a neutral (Types 4 and 5), since both impedances and fault levels are
conductor, the nature of system grounding, and the transformer affected.
connection at the distribution substation. These factors are In the United States, the most common type of primary
what distinguishes one type of distribution circuit from another. distribution circuit is the multigrounded neutral system (Type 1).
Following are diagrams of the types of distribution circuits: This is true for both overhead and underground.
.In some .areas, however, some of the other circuit types are
1. Four-wire multigrounded-neutral system still extenstvely used. For example, countries in the Far East
including Australia, predominantly utilize a three-wir~
.----------------------------------A u.nigrounde:d system and can have distribution feeders many
kilometers 1n length. These systems are characterized by low
~---------------------------8 fault currents and fuses cannot be used effectively for
ground-fault protection; however, single-phase tap dropping
and load switching are minor considerations.
. In the future, as a greater share of the distribution system
e---------------------------------C 1s placed underground, dominance of the multi-grounded
neutral system will increase, since most underground pri-
2. Four-wire unigrounded-neutral system
mary cable installations use bare neutral wire in continuous
r-------------------------------------A contact with the ground.

~----~----------------------B Impedances of Overhead Distribution Circuits


The sequence impedances of an overhead primary circuit
)-----------------------N operating at a constant frequency are dependent on several
factors. Principal factors are the size, material, and spacing
._-----------------------------c or configuration of the phase and neutral conductors, and the
type of distribution circuit. Lesser factors include stranding of
3. Three-wire unigrounded system the conductors, conductor height above ground, conductor
.----------------------------------A temperature, and resistivity of the earth. The problem of
identify~n~ the impedances for ~ given circuit involves, first,
determ1n1ng values for these vanous factors, and then finding
the corresponding impedances in published tables or by
utilizing impedance equations.
The use of published tables is the most common approach to
e--------------------------------c this problem. Its degree of accuracy depends, of course, on
how close a match there is between the values of the various
4. Three-wire system served from an ungrounded, delta-con- factors for the circuit in question and the values of the factors
nected transformer used in preparing the tables. In many situations, the match is
close enough for the results to be considered sufficiently
accurate for fault calculations.
In other situations, a close match between all of the factors
i~ lacking and the amount of error introduced by the tables is
either large or unknown. In these cases, impedance formulas
must be used. Although the application of these formulas will
not be covered in this publication, the reader should be aware
of their. existence (References 1, 3, 4) and of their ready
adaptation to computer programs for calculating impedances
of overhead circuits.

14
A1
Tables 1A1, 2A1, and 3A1 present values of positive-and A few words are needed about the effect on :Z:. 1 and :Z:. 2 of
zero-sequence impedance of overhead distribution circuits for the spacing of phase conductors. Tables 1A 1, 2A 1 and 3A 1
some typical conductor sizes and spacings of three varieties of are based on geometric mean spacing of 4.69 feet among
canductors: copper, ACSR (aluminum cable, steel-reinforced), the three-phase conductors. That is, the three-phase conductors
and bare all-aluminum. Negative-sequence impedances of are assumed to have an average spacing of 4.69 feet, and
'!li!l:anSmission and distribution lines are equivalent to positive- this average is a geometric mean, not an arithmetic mean.
sequence values. The tables give zero-sequence impedances The term "equivalent delta spacing" is sometimes used instead
of 1hree-phase, three-wire circuits, and of three-phase, four-wire of geometric mean spacing. For example, if the configuration
~unded-neutral circuits. Thus, the sequence impedances of the phase conductors of an actual circuit is as shown in
of iour of the five types of distribution circuits described earlier Figure 5A 1, the impedance calculation is simplified (without
,can be obtained from these tables, assuming the various introducing significant error) if the spacing is assumed to be
spacing, temperature, and other factors are applicable. Of at the corners of an equilateral triangle, as in Figure 6A 1.
::::ourse, it would not be necessary to know the zero-sequence This equivalent delta spacing is found by calculating the
mpedance of a three-wire circuit if the source is ungrounded geometric mean of the three actual spacings:
:"""ypes 4 and 5). The only circuit type not adequately covered
Of these tables is the four-wire unigrounded-neutral system Geometric Mean Spacing =
("Type 2). Even in this case, the tables are applicable in cai- (3 X 2.67 x 5.67)1/3 = 3.57 feet
CUiiating three-phase and line-to-line faults, since those
n.ooNe only positive-sequence impedance. Also, the tables The tables show how the tabulated reactances (X 1 and X2)
::an be used for calculating one class of single-phase faults can be changed if the geometric mean spacing of the circuit
on this type of circuit: that is, faults that involve a phase con- under study is different from the 4.69 feet used in the calcu-
ductor and ground but do not involve the neutral wire. In such lations. For example, three 4/0 copper conductors with the
::ases the return path for fault current is only through ground spacing shown in Figure 5A 1 would have a positive-
and we have essentially a Type 3 circuit. The zero-sequence sequence impedance, as
impedance for this type of circuit is included in the tables.
The data of principal importance in the tables are the :z:. = .0574 + j (.1294-.0064)
~nee and reactance components of the sequence = .0574 + j.1230 ohms/1000 ft
i'npedances. The impedance magnitudes (columns labeled
=
Z 1 Z 2 and :Z:. o) are also given, but these will rarely be of where the reactance is modified by the .0064 ohms/1 000 ft to
use in fault calculations. Calculating fault current at a given account for the spacing change from 4.69 feet to approxi-
location on a radial system can involve addition of many mately 3.5 feet.
irnlpedances between the location and the source. This must
be done by adding resistances and reactances independently;
1lha:t is, the rectangular coordinate form (R+jX) of the complex

1 '1• ""1•
runbers must be retained. Addition of impedance magnitudes
3 2
, :Z:. values in the tables) will, in general, give incorrect results,
since the angles of the polar coordinate form of the impedances
ot various system components will vary widely. The impedance
magnitudes are included in the tables, since they do permit a
qualitative evaluation of the effect of going from one conductor
•A 8 C
size to another or going from one type of distribution circuit to
another. For example, a comparison of Z O's in the tables
makes it clear that the magnitude of the zero-sequence Figure 5A1.
impedance of a circuit is significantly reduced when a Actual configuration of phase conductors referred to in
l'1l'lllltigrounded-neutral wire is added to a three-wire Figure 6A1.
unigrounded system.
The positive-sequence impedance of a circuit is usually a
iunction of the characteristics and configuration of the phase
conductors only. The type of grounding and the existence or
absence of neutral has, for most overhead circuits, a negligi-
bie effect on positive-sequence impedance. However, the
neutral conductor, the type of grounding, and the phase con-
ductors all influence the value of zero-sequence impedance.
This is implied by Tables 1A 1. 2A 1 and 3A 1, since separate
positive-sequence values for the three-wire unigrounded and
flour-wire multigrounded-neutral systems are not given and c

8
are not needed. This can be readily verified by the imped-
ance equations used to develop such tables. (References Figure 6A1.
1.3,4.) Assumed configuration of phase conductors for simplified
impedance calculation.

15
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)

TABLE 1A1
Impedance of Copper Conductor in Ohms/ 1000 Feet
Three-phase Geometric Mean Spacing: 4.69 feet* Line-to- Neutral Spacing: 4.00 feet
Earth Resistivity: 100 meter-ohms Conductor Temperature: 50°C

Phase Positive- and Negative- Zero Sequence Phase Neutral Zero-Sequence Impedance
Conductor Sequence Impedance Impedance Com&onents Conductor Wire Components for Four-Wire
Wire Components for Three-Wire ircults Wire Size Multi-Grounded Neutral Circuits
Size Strands R1 =R2 x, =x 2 r, = r2 Ro Xo ro Size Ro Xo ro
500,000 CM 19 .0246 .1195 .1216 .0788 .5606 .5663 500,000 CM 2/0 .1053 .3451 .3598
450,000 19 .0273 .1206 .1252 .0814 .5617 .5682 500,000 1/0 .1254 .3553 .3741
400,000 19 .0307 .1220 .1258 .0848 .5631 .5691 500,000 1 .1311 .3672 .3905
350,000 19 .0348 .1235 .1284 .0892 .5646 .5701 450,000 2/0 .1081 .3462 .3627
300,000 19 .0407 .1254 .1318 .0949 .5665 .5739 450,000 1/0 .1205 .3564 .3769
250,000 19 .0487 .1275 .1364 .1028 .5686 .5777 450,000 1 .1337 .3684 .3920
4/0 19 .0574 .1294 .1415 .1116 .5705 .5795 400,000 2/0 .1114 .3475 .3646
3/0 12 .0723 .1309 .1494 .1265 .5720 .5862 400,000 1/0 .1239 .3580 .3778
2/0 7 .0911 .1360 .1640 .1453 .5771 .5947 400,000 1 .1371 .3697 .3943
1/0 7 .1150 .1386 .1799 .1691 .5795 .6023 350,000 2/0 .1157 .3491 .3665
1 7 .1449 .1413 .2027 .1991 .5824 .6155 350,000 1/0 .1282 .3598 .3826
2 7 .1809 .1434 .2301 .2350 .5845 .6307 350,000 1 .1413 .3712 .3968
3 3 .2280 .1460 .2708 .2822 .5871 .6496 300 ,000 2/0 .1216 .3511 .3722
4 1 .2847 .1506 .3220 .3388 .5917 .6818 300,000 1/0 .1341 .3614 .3854
6 1 .4527 .1559 .4792 .5068 .5970 .7831 300,000 1 .1472 .3733 .4006
8 1 .7197 .1612 .7405 .7739 .6023 .9820 250,000 1/0 .1419 .3633 .3902
250,000 1 .1551 .3752 .4053
250,000 2 .1669 .3922 .4261
4/0 1/0 .1506 .3652 .3949
4/0 1 .1638 .3771 .4110
4/0 2 .1754 .3828 .4205
3/0 1/0 .1653 .3667 .4019
3/0 1 .1786 .3786 .4186
3/0 2 .1902 .3956 .4390
2/0 1 .1973 .3837 .4347
2/0 2 .2089 .4008 .4527
2/0 3 .2205 .4212 .4777
1/0 2 .2328 .4034 .4659
1/0 3 .2443 .4239 .4905
1/0 4 .2477 .4455 .5080
1 2 .2629 .4061 .4848
*For geometric mean spacing of 4.0 ft. , subtract .0034 from X1 = X2 and 1 3 .2744 .4265 .5076
solve for r 1 = r 4 1 4 .2778 .4481 .5265
2 2 .2987 .4080 .5047
For geometric mean spacing of 3.5 ft. , subtract .0064 from X1 = X2 and 2 3 .3102 .4284 .5294
solve for r , = r2 2 4 .3155 .4500 .5511
3 3 .3574 .4313 .5606
For geometric mean spacing of 3.0 ft., subtract .0100 from X1 = X2 and 3 4 .3608 .4528 .5777
solve for r 1 = r 2 3 6 .3619 .4822 .6042
4 4 .4176 .4574 .6203
For geometric mean spacing of 5.0 ft., add .0017 to X1 = X2 and 4 6 .4188 .5057 .6553
solve for r, = r 2 6 6 .5879 .5108 .7784
r =v R2 + X2 8 8 .8420 .5580 1.0114

The error involved in using a representative spacing (such a portion of the total system impedance viewed from the fault
as 4.69 feet) instead of the geometric mean spacing of the point may have the 0.2 to 8.8 percent error. The error in the
actual circuit can be considerably damped out in the final fault- fault current will be smaller than this, depending on the share
current calculation. For example, if the actual spacing is 3 feet of the total system impedance associated with the line sec-
but 4.69 feet is assumed, an error in spacing of more than 50 tion whose spacing is in error, and also depending on the
percent is introduced. For the conductor sizes in Tables 1A1, zero-sequence impedance and fault impedance, if any, used
2A 1 and 3A 1 , the error in impedance magnitude produced by in the fault calculation. Therefore, if the share of the total sys-
this assumption ranges from 0.2 to 8.8 percent. This same tem impedance involved is small, there is no need to worry
percentage of error would be reflected in the fault-current about allowing, for example, a fifty-percent error in conductor
magnitudes if no other impedances were required in the fault spacing for a small portion of an overhead distribution circuit.
calculations, but generally this is not the case. A fault calculation But when all or a large portion of the circuit is involved, then
at a given location on a radial system must include the effect the tabulated impedances should be modified to agree with
of all impedances between the location and the source. Only the spacing of the actual circuit.

16
A1

DBLE 2A1
llnpedance of ACSR Conductor in Ohms/1 000 Feet
1'1ne-phase Geometric Mean Spacing: 4.69 feet* Line-to- Neutral Spacing: 4.00 feet
Ealt1 Resistivity: 100 meter-ohms Conductor Temperature: sooc

I ......
1IWe
Positive- and Negative-
Sequence Impedance
Comoonents
Zero Sequence
Impedance Com~nents
for Three-Wire ircults
Phase
Conductor
Wire
Neutral
Wire
Size
Zero-Sequence Impedance
Components for Four-Wire
MuHi-Grounded Neutral Circuits
Size Strands R1 = R2 x, x
= 2 ~, = ~2 Ro Xo ~0 Size Ro Xo ~0
tns.ooo CM 26 .0244 .1108 .1138 .0786 .5871 .5928 795,000 CM 4/0 .1144 .3494 .3625
715.000 26 .0273 .11 19 .1153 .0814 .5883 .5938 795,000 310 .1233 .3617 .3807
&6..600 54 .0303 .1133 .1170 .0845 .5896 .5947 795,000 2/0 .1337 .3761 .3977
&36.000 26 .0307 .1133 .1172 .0848 .5896 .5947 715,000 4/0 .1172 .3506 .3703
lliD5_000 26 .0326 .1138 .1188 .0867 .5902 .5966 715,000 3/0 .1261 .3629 .3835
556..500 26 .0352 .1148 .1203 .0894 .5911 .5975 715 ,000 2/0 .1367 .3773 .4019
5DO.OOO 30 0390 .1150 .1214 .0932 .5913 .5994 666,600 4/0 .1203 .3519 .3722
.:rl,OOO 26 .0409 .1167 .1239 .0951 .5930 .6004 666,600 3/0 .1292 .3642 .3872
'31JT,500 26 .0491 .1188 .1284 .1032 .5951 .6023 666,600 2/0 .1398 .3786 4034
336,400 26 .0580 .1206 .1341 .1121 .5970 .6061 636,000 4/0 .1206 .3519 .3722
3DO,OOO 26 .0648 .1220 .1379 .1189 .5983 .6098 636,000 3/0 .1295 .3642 .3867
2&6,800 26 .0729 .1233 .1430 .1271 .5996 .6136 636,000 2/0 .1400 .3784 .4034
4oiD 6 .1121 .1453 .1833 .1663 .6216 .6420 605,000 4/0 .1225 .3525 .3722
:w 6 .1369 .1528 .2055 .1911 .6292 .6572 605,000 3/0 .1314 .3648 .3883
2)10 6 .1695 .1566 .2311 .2237 .6330 .6705 605,000 2/0 .1419 .3792 .4049
1A) 6 .2121 .1595 .2655 .2663 .6358 .6894 556,500 4/0 .1252 .3534 .3750
1 6 .2614 .1612 .3078 .3155 .6375 .7121 556,500 3/0 .1341 .3657 .3898
2 6 .3201 .1612 .3570 .3742 .6375 .7424 556,500 2/0 .1445 .3801 .4072
3 6 .3920 .1604 .4233 .4462 .6367 .7765 500,000 4/0 .1292 .3536 .3769
4 6 .4867 .1600 .5133 .5409 .6364 .8371 500,000 3/0 .1381 .3659 .3924
6 6 .7538 .1627 .7689 .8080 6390 1.0303 500,000 2/0 .1487 .3803 .4091
477,000 3/0 .1398 .3676 .3930
I 477,000 2/0 .1504 .3820 .3939
I
477,000 1/0 .1614 .4008 .4318
397,500 3/0 .1477 .3697 .3977
397,500 2/0 .1583 .3841 .4153
397,500 1/0 .1693 .4028 .4375
336,400 310 .1568 .3716 4025
336,400 2/0 .1672 .3860 .4195
336,400 1/0 .1784 .4047 .4428
300,000 2/0 .1742 .3873 .4244
300,000 1/0 .1852 .4061 .4470
300,000 1 .1943 .4248 .4661
I 266,800 2/0 .1822 .3886 .4545
266,800 1/0 .1934 .4074 .4492
I 266,800 1 .2023 .4261 .4706
4/0 1/0 .2324 .4294 .4879
!
I
4/0 1
2
.2415
.2447
.4481 .5085
.5246
4/0 .4652
I 3/0 1/0 .2574 .4369 .5076
I
I 310 1 .2665 .4557 .5275
I
I 310 2 .2697 .4727 .5445
I 2/0 1 .2989 .4595 .5483
:
I
2/0 2 .3021 .4765 .5610
I 2/0 3 .3025 .4970 .5814
I 1/0 2 .3447 .4794 .5909
1/0 3 .3451 .4998 .6117
, 1/0 4 .3443 .5214 .6241
*For geometric mean spacing of 4.0 ft. , subtract .0034 from X1 = X 2 and 1 2 .3941 .4811 .6222
solve for ~ 1 = ~ 4 1 3 .3945 .5015 .6383
1 4 .3938 .5231 .6534
For geometric mean spacing of 3.5 ft., subtract .0064 from X 1 = X 2 and 2 2 .4528 .4811 .6610
solve for ~ 1 = ~ 2 2 3 .4632 .5015 .6629
For geometric mean spacing of 3.0 ft., subtract .01 00 from X1 = X2 and 2 4 .4525 .5231 .6932
solve for ~ 1 = ~ 2 3 3 .5252 .5008 .7254
For geometric mean spacing of 5.0 ft., add .0017 to X 1 = X2 and 3 4 .5244 .5223 .7008
solve for ~ 1 = ~ 2 3 6 .5102 .5553 .7500
~ =v R2 + X2 4 4 .6193 .5220 .8068
4 6 .6051 .5549 .8210
6 6 .8722 .5576 1.0199

17
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)

TABLE 3A1
Impedance of Bare All-Aluminum Conductor in Ohms/ 1000 Feet
Three-phase Geometric Mean Spacing: 4.69 feet• Line-to- Neutral Spacing: 4.00 feet
Earth Resistivity: 100 meter-ohms Conductor Temperature: sooc

Phase Positive- and Negative- Zero Sequence Phase Neutral Zero-Sequence Impedance
Conductor Sequence Impedance Impedance Components Conductor Wire Components for Four-Wire
Wire Components for Three-Wire Circuits Wire Size Multi-Grounded Neutral Circuits
Size Strands R1= R2 x1 =X2 ~1 = ~2 Ro Xo ~0 Size Ro Xo ~0
795,000 CM 37 .0248 .11 38 .1165 .0792 .5549 5597 795,000 CM 4/0 .1095 .3314 .3485
750,000 37 .0263 .1 146 .1174 .0805 .5555 5606 795,000 3/0 .1220 .3451 .3636
715,000 37 .0277 .1150 .1 184 .0818 .5561 .5625 795,000 210 .1237 .3604 .3807
700,000 61 .0282 .11 52 .1 186 .0824 .5563 .5634 750,000 4/0 .1110 .3322 .3504
636,000 37 .0309 .1163 .1199 .0850 .5574 .5644 750,000 3/0 .1235 .3958 .3665
600,000 61 .0328 .1169 .1216 .0869 .5580 .5653 750,000 210 .1366 .3610 .3866
556,500 37 0352 .1180 .1233 .0894 .5591 .5663 715,500 4/0 .1123 .3326 .3513
500,000 37 .0392 .11 89 .1250 .0934 .5600 .5682 715,500 3/0 .1254 .3462 .3684
477,000 37 .0411 .1 195 .1263 .0953 .5606 .5691 715,500 210 .1384 .3616 .3873
450,000 37 .0436 .1203 .1278 .0977 .5614 .5701 700,000 4/0 .1129 .3328 .3519
400,000 37 .0498 .1214 .1309 .1030 .5626 .5710 700,000 3/0 .1254 .3464 .3689
397,500 19 .0492 .1220 .1316 .1034 .5631 .5720 700,000 2/0 .1384 .3617 .3877
350,000 37 .0557 .1231 .1 347 .1098 .5642 .5739 636,000 4/0 .1155 .3339 .3532
336,400 37 .0580 .1237 .1366 .1121 .5648 .5758 636,000 3/0 .1280 .3475 .3712
300,000 37 .0650 .1252 .1407 .1191 .5663 .5795 636 ,000 210 .1411 .3629 .3902
266,800 37 .0731 .1265 .1460 .1273 .5676 .5814 600,000 410 .1172 .3345 .3542
250,000 37 .0778 .1271 .1489 .1320 .5682 .5833 600,000 3/0 .1299 .3481 .3722
4/0 19 .0920 .1 284 .1580 .1462 .5706 .5890 600,000 210 .1430 .3634 .3911
3/0 19 .1159 .1 311 .1744 .1703 .5720 .5956 556,500 4/0 .1197 .3356 .3551
210 19 .1466 .1347 .1989 .2008 .5758 .6117 556,500 3/0 .1324 .3492 .3741
1/0 19 .1845 .1377 .2301 .2386 .5788 .6307 556,500 2/0 .1455 .3646 3939
1 7 .2330 .1413 .2731 .2871 .5824 .6496 500,000 4/0 .1237 .3366 .3580
2 7 .2934 .1 428 .3263 .3475 .5839 .6970 500,000 310 .1364 .3502 .3759
3 7 .3701 .1466 .3981 .4242 .5877 .7254 500,000 210 .1494 .3655 .3958
4 7 .4661 .1 492 .4886 .5203 .5903 .7879 477,000 3/0 .1383 .3508 .3769
6 7 .7424 .1547 .7576 .7968 .5958 .9962 477,000 2/0 .1515 .3661 .3968
477,000 1/0 .1640 .3843 .4186
450,000 3/0 .1407 .3515 .3788
450,000 210 .1538 .3669 .3996
450,000 1/0 .1663 .3850 .4205
400,000 3/0 .1460 .3527 .3816
400,000 210 .1591 .3680 .4006
400,000 1/0 .1716 .3862 .4223
397,500 3/0 .1464 .3532 .3826
397,500 2/0 .1595 .3686 .4025
397,500 1/0 .1720 .3867 .4233
350,000 3/0 .1528 .3544 .3854
350,000 210 .1659 .3697 .4044
350,000 1/0 .1765 .3879 .4261
336,400 3/0 .1551 .3549 .3873
336,400 2/0 .1682 .3703 .4072
336,400 1/0 .1807 .3884 .4299
300,000 2/0 .1752 .3718 .4110
300,000 1/0 .1877 .3900 .4337
300,000 1 .1979 .4150 .4451
266,800 210 .1833 .3731 .4148
266,800 1/0 .1958 .3913 .4375
266,800 1 .2061 .4163 .4640
250,000 2/0 .1881 .3737 .4167
250,000 1/0 .2006 .3919 .4394
250,000 1 .2108 .4169 .4659
4/0 1/0 .2148 .3936 .4489
4/0 1 .2250 .4182 .4754
4/0 2 .2301 .4388 .4962
3/0 1/0 .2388 .3958 .4621
3/0 1 .2491 .4208 .4886
3/0 2 .2542 .4413 .5095
210 1 .2795 .4244 .5098
210 2 .2847 .4449 .5284
210 3 .2854 .4705 .5492
1/0 2 .3225 .4483 .5511
1/0 3 .3233 .4735 .5739
1/0 4 .3203 .4968 .5928

18 (Continued on Next Page)


A1
TABIL.E 3A1 (continued)
~ce of Bare All-Aluminum Conductor in Ohms/ 1000 Feet

I Phase Positive- and Negative-


Sequence Impedance
Zero Sequence Phase Neutral
Impedance Components Conductor Wire
Zero-Sequence Impedance
Components for Four-Wire
~ ~or Strands Components for Three-Wire Circuits Wire Size Multi-Grounded Neutral Circuits
Size R1 = R, 1 X1 = X2 1~ 1 = ~ Ro I Xn I ~n Size Ro Xn ~n
•For geometric mean spacing of 4.0 ft., subtract .0034 from X1 = X2 and 1 2 .3710 .4513 .5824
solve for ~ 1 = ~ 2 1 3 .3718 .4771 .6051
1 4 .3688 .5004 .6231
For geometric mean spacing of 3.5 ft., subtract .0064 from X1 = X2 and 2 2 .4324 .4530 .6250
solve for ~ 1 = ~ 2 2 3 .4331 .4786 .6458
2 4 .4301 .5000 .6591
For geometric mean spacing of 3.0 ft., subtract .01 00 from X1 = X2 and 3 3 .5085 .4824 .6989
solve for ~ 1 = ~ 2 3 4 .5057 .5057 .7131
3 6 .4886 .5403 .7273
For geometric mean spacing of 5.0 ft., add .0017 to X1 = X2 and 4 4 .6017 .5083 .7841
solve for~ 1 = ~ 2 4 6 .5847 .5430 .7992
I ~=v'R2+X2 6 6 .8614 .5485 .7814

' 1 a dances of Underground Distribution Cable phase conductors and the three sets of neutral conductors.
Aft measing number of primary distribution circuits involve While the symmetrical component concept is intended to
a mixture of both overhead conductor and underground aid in the analysis of problems of three-phase systems, it is
CiiiJie.. Fault calculations for such circuits require a knowledge convenient on a distribution system to extend the concept to
al lhe sequence impedances of the underground as well as the single-phase portions of the circuit. This means finding
allhe overhead portions of the circuits. 2 1 and 2 o for the single-phase laterals so that they may be
Sequence impedances of overhead lines can readily be combined with the corresponding sequence impedances of
ablained from published equations (References 1, 3, and 4) the three-phase system which supplies the laterals. To find
ar Tables 1A 1 through 3A 1. These references do not apply, 2 1 and 2 o for the single-phase circuit, an arbitrary interphase
IIIEMever, to concentric neutral cable, the type of cable most geometric mean spacing, Sab, must be used in finding 2 ab-g,
CDimlOflly used fo r underground distribution. To help fill this Equation U2. The value assumed for Sab does not matter in
gap. the following material discusses the use of equations the end result of a line-to-ground fault calculation, for example,
Cll!laEd specifically for calculation of the sequence impedances since 2 ab-g cancels out of the total system impedance for
of concentric neutral underground cable for both three-phase this type of fault. The reader can verify this by examining
ani single-phase configurations. These cable-impedance Equations 41, U11, and U12, assuming 21 2 2 =
a:pllions, which are derived from equations in References 1 The solution of Equations U1 through U12 for some typical
and 2. and an explanation of their nomenclature are presented sizes of copper and aluminum 15 kV distribution cable produces
beginning on the following page. To help define some of the the sequence impedance values displayed in Tables 4A 1
ll!lms .-. the equations, Figure 7A 1 shows the cross-sectional through 7 A 1. Conductor resistances and most of the other
geomeby of three identical concentric neutral cables used for cable characteristics required to solve the sequence impedance
a bee-phase underground distribution circuit. equations were obtained from Reference 9. Values of GMR
The spacing of the three cables in Figure 7A 1 is arbitrarily (geometric mean radius) were obtained from Reference 5. An
sbolm as nonsymmetrical to illustrate the generality of the earth resistivity value of 100 meter ohms was assumed.
..,.afions, which are not confined to symmetrical arrange- Tables 4A 1 and 5A 1 give the impedances of three-phase
aaenls.. In practice, the three cables are frequently laid flat in cable such as might be used for underground primary mains.
lie bottom of a trench. In applying symmetrical components A 7.5-, 7.5-, 15 inch, flat cable spacing is assumed. Tables
ID an 011erhead system in which the three phase conductors 6A 1 and 7 A 1 cover single-phase cable commonly used for
.e nol symmetrically arranged in a delta configuration, an primary laterals.
eqni'«alent delta spacing (Figures 5A 1 and 6A 1) is assumed Some of the effects that various cable parameters and
iit c3culating the sequence impedances of the three-phase other conditions have on the impedance of an underground
cilll:uil: - and the same is true for an underground circuit. cable are illustrated by Tables 4A 1 through 7A 1. Others are
~ the actual interphase spacings (Figure 7 A 1), an discussed in the text, which resumes on page 25.
equivalent delta spacing (i.e., geometric mean spacing) is
a*1Wed for use in finding average mutual impedances among

19
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)

EQUATIONS FOR CALCULATING SEQUENCE


IMPEDANCES OF UNDERGROUND CONCENTRIC rnn-g
10
=[ ~ + 4.788 X 10-5 X 2m] + j 2:f [4.681
NEUTRAL CABLE
The following equations* are the basic expressions needed
for calculating positive- and zero-sequence impedances of
both three-phase and single-phase concentric neutral cable. X 10-4 + 6.096 X 10-5 1oge ( _1_ '1/ p/f) + (N-1) 4.681
GMRn
For a three-phase array of cables such as in Figure 7A 1,
Equations U1 through U4 and U7 through U1 0 are used. For
a single-phase circuit Equations, U1, U2, US, U6, U11 , and
U12 are used.

raa-g = [ ra + 4.788 X 10-5 X 21tf] + j 2m [4.681 X 10-4

ran-g
10
= [4.788 X 10-5 X 21tf]

+ 6.096 x 10-5 1oge (_1_ ..JP/f)] (U1)


GMRa
+ j 21tf [ 4.681 X 10-4 + 6.096 X 1o- 5 1oge (_g {/)lf)] (U6)
D
rab-g =[ 4.788 X 10-5 X 2m] + j 21tf [4.681 X 10-4

+ 6.096 x 10-5 1oge (_1_ {0/f)] (U2)


Sab
1 loge ---loge-
+- 1 1 l
N GMRn Sab (U7)
rnn-g
30
= [_!n_
3N
+ 4.788 X 10-5 X 2m] + j 21tf [4.681 X
4
10-

_1_ r an-p = j 21tf X 6.096 X 10-5 [ loge 6- loge s:b l (U8)


+ 6.096 x 10-5 1oge {Pit+ 6.096 x 10-5 1oge ~b

- - r~n-p
10-5 ~ (loge _ 1 _ + (N-1) loge _ 1_)]
3
+ 6.096 X r 130 - raa-g -rab-g r (U9)
nn-p
GMRn KN~ (U3)

(U10)
ran-g = [ 4.788 X 10-5 X 21tfl + j 21tf [4.681 X 10-4
30

+ 6.096 X 1o-5 loge 1 "J


( ~ Jri'ct' - 'P,.,lf>]
..
'Vg. Sab (U4)
2 (U1 2)

* The assistance of Dr. W. A. Lewis in including the effect of neutral


circulating currents on positive-sequence impedance (Equations
U7 through U9) is gratefully acknowledged.

20
A1
Nomenclature for Equations U1 through U12: r ab-g r an-g30, r an-g10 =mutual impedance between two
D = diameter of the circle defined by the neutral strand conductors or two groups of conductors with earth return in
centers of one concentric neutral cable (see Figure 7A 1) - ohms/1 000 feet. Subscripts a and b denote phase conductors
feet. Values of D can be derived from information published and subscript n denotes a group of neutral conductors. In a
in cable manufacturer's catalogs. three-phase circuit, there are actually three mutual impedances
among the three-phase conductors: r ab-g, r be-g. and rca-g.
f = frequency in hertz. However, in Equation U2, the use of a geometric mean spac-
ing Sab instead of the actual interphase spacing means that
GMRa, GMRn = geometric mean radius of the phase the resulting value of r ab-g is the arithmetic mean of the
conductor (subscript a) and a single neutral strand (subscript three actual values. In a similar sense, r an-g30 is an average
n) in feet. GMRa is readily available from tables such as those of the three actual mutual impedances that exist between
in References 1, 3, and 5. GMRn can also be obtained from each of the three-phase conductors and the entire group of
tables; but since each strand has a solid, circular cross-section, neutral conductors. (See page 376, Reference 1, and page 79,
it is readily calculated using GMRn = .3894dn, where dn is the Reference 2, for the material on which Equations U2, U4, and
diameter of a single neutral strand in feet (see Figure 7A1). U6 are based.}

i = the complex operator, 1~oo. r an-p = positive sequence mutual impedance between the
phase conductors of the cable and their concentric neutrals
KN spacing factor which, when multiplied by D/2, gives the in ohms/1 000 feet. •
geometric mean spacing among the N neutral strands of one
concentric neutral cable. KN is obtained from the expression r nn-p = positive sequence self impedance of the three-
KN = (N)1/(N-1); see page 32 of Reference 4. phase circuit formed by the concentric neutrals of the cables
in ohms/1 000 feet. •
N = number of neutral strands wrapped around the insulation
of one concentric neutral cable (see cable manufacturers' r 13 r 030 = positive and zero sequence impedance,
catalogs). respgctively, of a three-phase concentric neutral circuit in
ohms/1000 feet. •
ra, rn = resistance of the phase conductor (subscript a) and a
single neutral strand (subscript n) in ohms/1 000 feet (see r 11 ' r 01 0 = positive and zero sequence impedance,
cable manufacturers' catalogs). These should be a-c resistance respgctively, of a single-phase concentric neutral circuit in
values calculated for the expected operating temperatures of ohms/1 000 feet*
the phase and neutral conductors. They should include skin
effect and proximity effect, wherever these effects can be *When positive-sequence currents flow in the phase conductors
readily determined. of a three-phase concentric neutral circuit, induced currents
will circulate between each phase's neutral and the earth
p = earth resistivity in meter ohms. Representative values of return path. The magnitude of this current depends upon
;; for various parts of the country are given in Reference 3 neutral resistance, interphase spacing, and the diameter of
1pages 146 through 150), Reference 7 (pages 129 through the circle of centers of the concentric neutral strands. In turn,
131 ), and Reference 8 (page 306). the positive sequence impedance of the circuit is modified by
the magnitude of these neutral currents. r 2an-p/ r nn-p is the
Sab = geometric mean spacing of the three-phase conductors factor that reflects the effect of neutral circulating current on
1n feet. Referring to Figure 7A1, Sab (dabddcdca) 113 • the positive-sequence impedance of three-phase concentric
neutral cable (Equation U9). On an overhead openwire transmis-
r aa-g, r nn-g30, r nn-g10 = self impedance of a phase sion or distribution circuit, this effect is negligible for the close
conductor (subscript aa) and self impedance of a group of spacings associated with concentric neutral cable.
paralleled neutral strands (subscript nn) with earth return in
ohms/1 000 feet. (See pages 376 and 397, Reference 1, and
page 78, Reference 2, for the material on which Equations
U1. U3, and U5 are based.)

21
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)

-dab-

\L._f- - _ _ ; . - - - - - -

PHASE CONDUCTOR

dtx:

NEUTRAL STRAND

Figure 7A1.
Cross-sectional geometry of concentric cables.

22
A1
TABLE 4A1
Impedance of 15-kV, 3-Phase, 175-mil XLP Underground Cable in Ohms/1 000 Feet
Insulation: 175-mil cross-linked polyethylene Conductor temperatures- Phase: 90°C; Neutral: 70°C
Cable configuration: 3 identical single-phase concentric
neutral cables with 1/3 size neutrals and with 7.5 inches,
7.5 inches, 15 inches, flat spacing (geometric mean
spacing = 9.449 inches)
Earth resistivity: 100 meter-ohms Frequency: 60 Hz
Phase Neutral ~1 ~0
Concentric Strands Positive- and Zero-Sequence
Negative-Sequence Impedance
I Size
AWG
or
MCM
No. of
Strands
(Copper)

No. I
:SIZe
AWG
Impedance Components

R1 = R2 I x1 = x2 1 1~11 = 1~21 Ro
Components

I Xo I 1~ 0 1
Aluminum Phase Conductor
1/0 19 6 14 .2182 .0955 .2382 .5215 .2906 .5970
210 19 7 14 .1782 .0926 .2008 .4697 .2463 .5303
3/0 19 9 14 .1433 .0893 .1688 .4049 .1825 .4441
4/0 19 11 14 .1181 .0858 .1460 .3497 .1402 .3767
250 37 13 14 .1038 .0827 .1327 .3085 .1114 .3280
350 37 11 12 .0837 .0761 .1131 .2315 .0691 .2416
500 37 16 12 .0680 .0674 .0958 .1653 .0428 .1708
750 61 15 10 .0550 .0581 .0800 .1188 .0305 .1227
1000 61 20 10 .0493 .0495 .0699 .0905 .0235 .0935
u Copper Phase Conductor
1/0 19 9 14 .1451 .0944 .1731 .4066 .1852 .4468
210 19 11 14 .1181 .0908 .1490 .3492 .1428 .3773
3/0 19 14 14 .0989 .0867 .1315 .2907 .1033 .3085
4/0 19 11 12 .0854 .0813 .1179 .2318 .0718 .2427
250 37 13 12 .Q785 .0770 .1100 .2008 .0578 .2090
350 37 12 10 .0657 .0685 .0949 .1495 .0408 .1550
500 37 17 10 .0554 .0574 .0798 .1060 .0289 .1098
750 61 25 10 .0463 .0446 .0643 .0724 .0216 .0756
1000 61 33 10 .0404 .0358 .0540 .0554 .0181 .0583

TABLE 5A1
Impedance of 15-kV, 3-Phase, 220-mil XLP Underground Cable in Ohms/1 000 Feet
Insulation: 220-mil cross-linked polyethylene Conductor temperatures - Phase: 90°C; Neutral: 70°C
Cable configuration: 3 identical single-phase concentric neutral cables with 1/3 size neutrals and with 7.5 inches,
7..5 inches, 15 inches, flat spacing (geometric mean spacing= 9.449 inches)
Earth resistivity: 100 meter-ohms Frequency: 60 Hz
Phase Neutral ~1 ~0
Concentric Strands Positive- and Zero-Sequence
I' (Copper) Negative-Sequence Impedance
Size
AWG Impedance Components Components

1~~1l=l~21
or No. of Size
MCM Strands No. I AWG R1 =R2 IX1 =X2 Ro I Xo I l~ol
,I Aluminum Phase Conductor
1/0 19 6 14 .21 77 .0956 .2378 .5205 .2927 .5972
210 19 7 14 .1777 .0927 .2004 .4688 .2484 .5306
3/0 19 9 14 .1427 .0894 .1684 .4043 .1846 .4445
4/0 19 11 14 .1174 .0860 .1456 .3493 .1423 .3772
250 37 13 14 .1031 .0829 .1323 .3082 .1134 .3284
350 37 11 12 .0828 .0765 .1127 .2314 .0709 .2420
500 37 16 12 .0671 .0681 .0956 .1653 .0444 .1711
750 61 15 10 .0542 .0589 .0800 .1188 .0319 .1230
1000 61 20 10 .0486 .0504 .Q700 .0905 .0247 .0938
Copper Phase Conductor
1/0 19 9 14 .1444 .0946 .1726 .4060 .1876 .4472
210 19 11 14 .1173 .0911 .1485 .3488 .1451 .3777
3/0 19 14 14 .0980 .0870 .1310 .2904 .1055 .3090
4/0 19 11 12 .0844 .0818 .1175 .2316 .0738 .2431
250 37 13 12 .0774 .0777 .1097 .2007 .0597 .2094
350 37 12 10 .0647 .0694 .0948 .1494 .0425 .1554
500 37 17 10 .0545 .0585 .0800 .1059 .0304 .1102
750 61 25 10 .0456 .0459 .0647 .0724 .0229 .0759
1000 61 33 10 .0400 .0370 .0545 .0554 .0193 .0587

23
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)

TABLE 6A1
Impedance of 15-kV, 3-Phase, 175-mil XLP Underground Cable in Ohms/1 000 Feet
Insulation: 175-mil cross-linked polyethylene Conductor temperatures- Phase: 90°C; Neutral: 70°C
Full size neutral Geometric mean interphase spacing assumed for i!- 1 and i!- 0 calculations = 1S
Earth resistivity: 100 meter-ohms Frequency: 60 Hz

Phase Neutral i!-, i!-o


Concentric Strands Positive- and Zero-Sequence
Size (Copper) Negative-Sequence Impedance
AWG Impedance Components Components
or
MCM
No. of
Strands No. I Size
AWG R1 =R2 Ix, = X2 lli!-11 = 11!- z1
Aluminum Phase Conductor
Ro I Xo I 11!- ol

4 7 6 14 .5350 .0662 .5391 .8580 .5888 1.0406


2 7 10 14 .3360 .0609 .3415 .7191 .4375 .8417
1 19 13 14 .2680 .0569 .2740 .6558 .3443 .7407
1/0 19 16 14 .2100 .0543 .2169 .5864 .2709 .6459
210 19 13 12 .1690 .0516 .1767 .5043 .1728 .5331
3/0 19 16 12 .1320 .0490 .1408 .4317 .1209 .4483
4/0 19 20 12 .1050 .0463 .1148 .3635 .0779 .3717
250 37 25 12 .0890 .0440 .0993 .3071 .0461 .3106
300 37 20 10 .0750 .0419 .0859 .2647 .0307 .2665
350 37 24 10 .0650 .0402 .0764 .2269 .0170 .2276
Copper Phase Conductor
4 7 10 14 .3260 .0662 .3327 .7122 .4387 .8365
2 7 16 14 .2050 .0609 .2139 .5846 .2692 .6437
1 19 13 12 .1630 .0569 .1727 .5001 .1710 .5285
1/0 19 16 12 .1260 .0543 .1372 .4271 .1186 .4432
2/0 19 20 12 .1010 .0516 .1134 .3604 .0752 .3682
3/0 19 25 12 .0810 .0490 .0947 .2997 .0437 .3028
4/0 19 32 12 .0640 .0463 .0790 .2417 .0200 .2425

TABLE 7A1
Impedance of 15-kV, 1-Phase, 220-mil Conventional Underground Cable in Ohms/1000 Feet
Insulation: 220-mil conventional low density thermoplastic polyethylene
Conductor temperatures - Phase: 75°C; Neutral: 50°C Full size neutral
Geometric mean interphase spacing assumed for i!- 1 and i!- 0 calculations = 1.5"
Earth resistivity: 100 meter-ohms Frequency: 60 Hz
Phase Neutral i!-1 i!-o
Concentric Strands PosHive- and Zero-Sequence
Size (Copper) Negative-Sequence Impedance
AWG Impedance Components Components
Size
or
MCM
No. of
Strands No. I AWG R1 = R2 Ix1 = x2
Aluminum Phase Conductor
=
lri!- 11 11!- 21 Ro I Xo I 11!- 01

4 7 6 14 .5100 .0662 .5143 .8410 .5734 1.0179


2 7 10 14 .3200 .0609 .3257 .7040 .4158 .8176
1 19 13 14 .2550 .0569 .2613 .6384 .3216 .7148
1/0 19 16 14 .2000 .0543 .2072 .5677 .2498 .6202
2/0 19 13 12 .1600 .0516 .1681 .4911 .1717 .5202
3/0 19 16 12 .1250 .0490 .1343 .4204 .1208 .4374
4/0 19 20 12 .1000 .0463 .1102 .3544 0785 .3630
250 37 25 12 .0850 .0440 .0957 .2993 .0486 .3033
300 37 20 10 .0710 .0419 .0825 .2522 .0306 .2541
350 37 24 10 .0610 .0402 .0730 .2154 .0180 .2162
Copper Phase Conductor
4 7 10 14 .3100 .0662 .3170 .6967 .4171 .8120
2 7 16 14 .1950 .0609 .2043 .5652 .2493 .6177
1 19 13 12 .1550 .0569 .1651 .4877 .1703 .5166
1/0 19 16 12 .1200 .0543 .1317 .4166 .1189 .4333
2/0 19 20 12 .0970 .0516 .1099 .3522 .0762 .3604
310 19 25 12 .0770 .0490 .0913 .2919 .0455 .2954
410 19 32 12 .0610 .0463 .0766 .2355 .0223 .2365
1:

24
A1
EFFECT OF CABLE INSULATION Full-size neutral (25- #12 wires):
For the 15 kV class of concentric neutral underground cable, Z 1 = .1 023 + j.0618 ohms/1 000 ft
which is in predominant use today, the two most common o
Z = .1685 + j.0320 ohms/1000 ft
types of insulation are conventional and high-molecular-
weight polyethylene, although the latter has been the prevailing Cable insulation, cable spacing, earth resistivity, and other
choice in UD cable insulation for many years. Both are available parameters are the same in these two cases. The only change
in 175 and 220 mils. is in the neutral. As can be seen, the effect of going to the full-size
In general, changing the thickness of cable insulation from neutral is significant for both positive-and zero-sequence
175 to 220 mils has only a minor effect on cable impedances. impedance components. On an overhead circuit, the neutral
In the impedance equations, only the value of D (diameter of conductor has negligible effect on Z 1. This is not true for URD
the circle of neutral strand centers) is affected by a change in concentric neutral cable. When positive-sequence currents
~nsulation thickness, and this in turn, will change Z nn-g, Z an-g,
flow in the phase conductors of this type of circuit, circulating
Znn-p, Z an-p, Z 13p, Z o3 , and Zo1p (Equations U3 through currents are induced in the nearby concentric neutrals which
U10, and U12). Numerically, the effect of changing insulation modify the Z 1 of the circuit. As the neutral size is increased,
thickness is illustrated by comparing Tables 4A 1 and 5A 1, the effect becomes greater. In general, this means both Z 1
where the only difference is the thickness of cable insulation. and Z oshould be recalculated for situations calling for three-
Insulation thickness affects the values of both Z 1 and Z o, phase cable with full-size neutrals.
::>ut only to a minor extent.
In contrast, changing the type of insulation has a major EFFECT OF EARTH RESISTIVITY
effect on cable impedance. The reason is that the increase in The value of earth resistivity used in calculating the impedances
maximum phase-conductor temperature made possible by of Tables 4A 1 through 7 A 1 was 100 meter-ohms. Since there
'tie use of newer insulations, such as cross-linked polyethylene, can be a wide variation in this system parameter from one
n turn creates greater impedance under full load conditions. geographic area to another, it is of interest to estimate its
The Insulated Power Cable Engineers Association (IPCEA) effect on impedance. Again, using 250-mcm aluminum cable
sets the maximum conductor temperature rating for continuous with 175-mil XLP insulation as the reference, the effect is as
~JII-Ioad operation for conventional polyethylene insulation at follows:
:so C, and the rating for cross-linked polyethylene at goo C.
The effect this higher permissible operating temperature For p = 10 meter-ohms:
'"laS on the impedance of cable insulated with cross-linked Z 1 = .1038 + j.0827 ohms/1000 ft
::lOiyethylene under full-load conditions can be seen by com- Z 0 .2980 + j. 1181 ohms/1 000 ft
oaring Tables 6A 1 and 7A 1. Table 6A 1 shows sequence
mpedances of single-phase cable with 175 mil cross-linked For p = 100 meter-ohms:
:JOiyethylene (XLP) insulation, and Table 7 A 1 shows the Z 1 = .1 038 + j.0827 ohms/1 000 ft (Table 4A 1)
smaller impedances that result from the lower operating Z 0 = .3085 + j.1114 ohms/1 000 ft (Table 4A 1)
:emperature of 220 mil conventional polyethylene cable.
Tables 4A 1 and 5A 1 are both confined to cross-linked For p = 1000 meter-ohms:
::olyethylene insulated cable, since the higher current-carrying Z 1 .1 038 + j.0827 ohms/1 000 ft
:apacity of this cable makes it the likely choice for three- Z o = .3165 + j.1051 ohms/1000 ft
::lhase applications.
Cable spacing, cable insulation, neutral size, and all other
EFFECT OF NEUTRAL SIZE parameters except earth resistivity are the same in these three
-'Is illustrated by Figure 7A1, the neutral conductor of this cases. A change in earth resistivity does not affect the positive
:"fpe of cable consists of equally spaced strands of wire sequence impedance, but does affect Z o. An increase or
;~~~ped spirally around the outside of the cable insulation.
decrease in the value of p from 100 meter-ohms by a factor
nese are generally #14, 12 or 10 AWG copper wires. The size of ten produces approximate changes in Ro and Xo of three
3l1d number of wires are selected to provide approximately and six percent, respectively, and an approximate change of
;qual conductivity to that of the central phase conductor for two percent in the magnitude of Z o. For the given cable, a
sa1Qie-phase applications (taking into account the increased large change in p has a relatively small effect on Z o and its
ength of the neutral strands due to spiraling). However, for components.
tlree-phase applications, a reduced-sized neutral is available Thus, using a value of 100 meter-ohms for earth resistivity
'or the larger phase-conductor sizes, the circular mil area of should give impedances sufficiently accurate for most situations.
11e group of neutral wires being approximately one-third that
:i the copper equivalent of one phase conductor. Since Tables EFFECT OF INTERPHASE SPACING
~1 and 7 A 1 give impedances for single-phase applications, An examination of Equations U1 through U14 shows that the
rey are based on full-size neutrals. Tables 4A 1 and 5A 1, for geometric mean spacing of the phase conductors, Sab,
:tree-phase applications, are based on reduced-size neutrals. affects the values of both the positive- and zero-sequence
In some three-phase applications, where full-size neutral impedances of the cable. Since three-phase cable spacing
:able is used, it is helpful to know the effect on cable impedance. practices will vary from one utility to another, the question of
~~effect is illustrated by the following impedances of 250 mcm how spacing affects impedance is a logical one. This effect is
aluminum cable with 175 mil XLP insulation. illustrated by the following, using the 250 mcm aluminum
=educed-size neutral (13- #14 wires): cable of the earlier examples.
Z 1 = .1 038 + j.0827 ohms/1 000 ft (Table 4A 1)
Z 0 = .3085 + j.1114 ohms/1 000 ft (Table 4A 1)

25
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)

For Sab = 9.449 inches: The sensitivity of the results to changes in such cable parameters
~ 1 = .1038 + j.0827 ohms/1000 ft (Table 4A1) as insulation, neutral size, and spacing has been described,
~
0 .3085 + j.1114 ohms/1000 ft (Table 4A1) and in some specific situations the tabulated impedances will
not be applicable. In those cases where the cable parameters
For Sab = 1.5 inches: are significantly different from those on which Tables 4A 1
~ = .0909 + j.0439 ohms/1 000 ft through 7 A 1 are based, the impedance equations must be
1
~ = .3170 + j.1047 ohms/1000 ft resorted to, and the results will be of great importance. While
0
solving the equations by hand for a large variety of cable
Neutral size, earth resistivity, cable insulation, and other parameters would be a tedious task, the equations are easi-
parameters except interphase spacing are the same in these ly solved on a computer. A McGraw-Edison Power Systems
two cases. In this one example, it is apparent there can be a service to perform this task is available. Also available: addi-
sizable effect on both positive- and zero-sequence reactance tional work showing how the formulas may be rearranged in
when the cable spacing is changed. In view of this, whenever groups of terms that can be precalculated into "building
the cable spacing in use is significantly different from the blocks" permitting desk calculation for practical cases; and
9.449 inches used for Tables 4A 1 and 5A 1, some calculation comparisons of typical results, to show the effects of spacing
checks for the actual spacing are advisable to determine if the and other factors.
tabulated impedances should be revised. In a more precisely
calculated example, the large decrease in spacing would Impedances of Transformers
also produce some increase in resistance as a result of In moving from any given point on a primary distribution sys-
increased proximity effect. In the numerical example shown, tem back toward the source, either overhead line impedance
the change in proximity effect is not included. or underground cable impedance is the first encountered. On
most systems, the next major impedance element will be the
SKIN EFFECT AND PROXIMITY EFFECT distribution substation transformer. This section briefly covers
Skin effect and proximity effect are phenomena associated the sequence impedance representation of transformers
with the nonuniform current distribution over the cross section (References 2 and 4).
of a conductor. In the case of proximity effect, the nonuniform
current distribution is unsymmetrical and is caused by a variation
of current in one or more neighboring conductors. Detailed
descriptions of both effects are given in References 2 and 11.
Skin effect and proximity effect influence both the resistance
and reactance of a circuit. Generally, the effect on reactance
PRIMARY R~+<> SECONDARY
is much less than it is on resistance and the reactance effect
is neglected. However, the combined effect of skin and proximity
effect on resistance is not always negligible. It depends on
many factors, such as frequency, conductor material and size,
circuit configuration (interphase spacing and phase-neutral
spacing), and the relative magnitudes and phases of currents (a.) SHUNT IMPEDANCE INCLUDED
in the various conductors. For example, for a given three-phase
circuit, proximity effect is not the same with zero-sequence
currents in the conductors as it is with positive-sequence
currents. This means proximity effect modifies positive-
sequence impedance in a different way than it does zero-
sequence impedance. While some work has been done on
the calculation of positive-sequence proximity effect, little has
been done on zero-sequence proximity effect. In contrast to PRIMARY SECONDARY
proximity effect, skin effect does not depend on the sequence
of the currents flowing.
There is need for a thorough study of proximity effects in
underground concentric neutral cable. Based on the work that
has been done on other types of circuits and cables, the (b.) SHUNT IMPEDANCE NEGLECTED
effects of proximity upon reactance are negligible at 60 hertz.
However, the effects upon resistance are probably not negligible Figure8A1.
in the larger cable sizes. Per-unit equivalent circuit for a two-winding trans-
In the calculation of the sequence impedances displayed in former.
Tables 4A 1 through 7A 1, both skin and proximity effects upon
reactance were assumed negligible. The resistance values
include skin effect but not proximity effect. When more is
known about proximity effects in this type of cable, the values A per-unit equivalent circuit for a two-winding transformer is
of phase and neutral conductor resistances {ra and rn) can shown in Figure 8A 1, a. The terms primary and secondary
be suitably modified to account for these effects. here refer to the high- and low-voltage windings of the trans-
Equations U1 through U12 are general expressions for former, not to primary and secondary distribution. Rp and Rs
finding the sequence impedances of concentric neutral cable are resistances, and Xp and Xs are leakage reactances in the
of any stated size, material, and spacing. The results of solv- primary and secondary windings, respectively. Rh+e is the
ing these equations for some cable sizes and configurations resistance required to account for hysteresis and eddy cur-
in common use are presented in Tables 4A1 through 7A1. rent losses in the iron core and Xm is the mutual

26
A1
reactance between the two windings, also called the
magnetizing reactance. The current flowing through the parallel POSITIVE SEQUENCE REFERENCE BUS
combination of Rh+e and Xm is the transformer exciting current.
That portion of the exciting current flowing through Xm is the
magnetizing current. The total exciting current of a transform~r SOURCE LOAD
is usually small in comparison to its full load current. For th1s -r,
reason, the exciting impedance branch is usually neglected ~ r2=rps
and the equivalent circuit becomes as shown in Figure 8A 1,b.
Equivalent circuits similar to Figure 8A 1 could be drawn for
actual units instead of using the per-unit basis. However, in NEGATIVE SEQUENCE REFERENCE
this situation, the square of the transformer turns ratio would
enter the picture, and two sets of equivalent circuits would
have to be drawn-one showing the circuit elements as viewed SOURCE LOAD
from the primary, and another as viewed from the secondary. ~2
The per-unit system (described earlier) avoids these compli- ~ r2=-r,
cations. The simplified per-unit equivalent circuit for a trans-
former (Figure 8A 1,b) is suitable for most fault-current calcu-
Figure 9A1.
lations. The term ~ ps is the leakage impedance of the trans- Positive- and negative-sequence per-unit equivalent
former. It is also called the transformer's short-circuit imped- circuits of a transformer.
ance, since it can be measured by applying a voltage to one
winding with the other winding short circuited.
Generally, for three-phase transformers rated 1500 kVA and Impedances of Transmission Lines
below and for single-phase transformers rated 500 kVA and The circuit parameters that influence the sequence impedances
below, the resistive component of the leakage impedance is of an overhead transmission line are the same as those that
significant and should not be neglected. In larger units, however, influence the impedances of an overhead distribution circuit.
the transformer reactance dominates and the resistance is The principal parameters are conductor size, material, and
usually negligible (Reference 4). In these cases, the per-unit spacing, plus the type of grounding. In general, the previous
leakage reactance of the transformer is assumed equal to remarks on the effects of these parameters on impedances of
the nameplate percent impedance divided by 100, provided overhead distribution lines apply also to overhead transmission
the kVA base for the per-unit calculations is the transformer lines.
kVA rating on which the nameplate percent impedance is based. However, the circuit parameters of transmission lines can have
For fault calculations on a three-phase system involving a different range of values than the parameters of a distribution
transformers, the sequence impedances of the transformers line. Transmission-line interface spacings are much larger;
must be included in the overall system-sequence impedances. therefore, positive-sequence reactance is larger than for typical
The positive-sequence impedance of a balanced three-phase distribution circuits. Zero-sequence impedances also are
transformer or three identical single-phase transformers is affected by spacing changes, but in this case differences in
1he impedance presented to positive-sequence currents. In the type of grounding, number of ground wires, etc., can have
other words, if the transformer is short-circuited on one side a more significant effect.
and energized by a positive sequence on the other, the phase Transmission-line impedance information is usually needed
A line-to-ground voltage on the supply side of the transformer in distribution-system fault studies only for determination of
tivided by the phase A supply current will be the positive- the equivalent source impedance of the system supplying the
sequence impedance. If both the applied voltage and the current distribution circuit. More will be said about source impedance
are expressed in per-unit on the appropriate bases, then the calculations in later sections. On many systems, transmission-
positive-sequence impedance will be in per-unit. Since one line impedances are readily available, since they are needed
phase of a short-circuited three-phase transformer is being in a variety of transmission-system studies: load flow, short
!iscussed, the positive-sequence impedance is equivalent to circuit, transient stability, system planning, etc. If such impedance
1he leakage impedance of the transformer. Also, since a data is not available, it must be calculated from appropriate
1Jansformer is a passive element, its positive- and negative- equations (References 1, 3, 4, and 5).
sequence impedances are identical. Figure 9A 1 shows the
positive- and negative-sequence per-unit equivalent circuits Impedances of Generators
af a transformer. In moving away from the distribution system, the final impedance
The zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a three-phase element encountered is the generator. For most distribution
1ransformer depends on the transformer connection. Figure circuits, several voltage levels are interposed between
10A 1 shows equivalent circuits for some of the more common distribution and generation, and it is not unusual for the net
,connections. Of the transformer connections illustrated, a generator impedance to be small compared to the line and
cad-side path for zero-sequence current exists only for con- transformer impedances on a per-unit basis. In the case of a
oaections 3 and 5. In connections 3 and 5, if ~ n, is zero, the large interconnected transmission and subtransmission system
zero-sequence impedance is equal to the positive-sequence supplied by a number of generators, it is safe, for distribution
impedance. In theory, this is not strictly true for all transformer fault calculations, to assume the impedance of the equivalent
designs, especially three-phase core-type units, but it is suf- generator to be zero. This is frequently referred to as a "stiff"
fciently accurate for most applications. For autotransformers system. The concept of the Thevenin equivalent, discussed
and transformers with three or more windings, Figure 1OA 1 is after the development of fault-current equations in the follow-
oot applicable and other sources must be referred to for zero- ing section ("System Faults"), handles this automatically. In
sequence equivalent circuits (References 5 and 12). the stiff system, the generator portion of the equivalent series
impedance will be negligible.

27
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)

CONNECTION DIAGRAM ZERO.SEQUENCE ~VIEWED


SOURCE LOAD EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT FROM LOAD SIDE
i

~ y SOURCE
ZERO-SEQUENCE REFERENCE

~
~0 LOAD
0
~oL =CO

2
::y ~ s 0 ~
i:!o
i:!o L = CO

~~ i:!o
S~L
i:!ol =j!,
i

~~ .~ OL
i:!ol =CO

5
~~~. s 0
~.c;:, i:!o L = 1:! • + ~N

~~
6 i:!oL =CO
i:!o
s 0 ~L

7 ::y ~ s
i:!o
o-f'VV"\..--- OL
i:!o L '= C()

~~ so
i:!o
----f'V'VV"'\.. OL
i:!o L = C()

oi'!o = transformer zero-sequence impedance


;i'!1 transformer positive-sequence impedance

oi'!N =neutral impedance


oi'!oL = transformer
equivalent zero-sequence impedance of the three-phase
connection viewed from the load side

Figure 1OA1.
Transformer connections and zero-sequence equivalent circuits.
A1
However, since there are systems where the generator should be used. This value would apply for times beyond
impedance is not an insignificant portion of the overall system 40 to 60 cycles following the fault, or whatever time period is
impedance, the sequence impedance representation of required for the initial transients to decay to negligible levels.
generators will be discussed briefly. A reactance value applicable for the period from three to
approximately 40 cycles after the fault is called the direct-axis
transient reactance X'd. A third value used for the first two or
POSITIVE-SEQUENCE REFERENCE BUS three cycles following the fault is the direct-axis subtransient
reactance X"d. The time periods indicated are only approxi-
mate and can vary considerably from one generator to another.
e Generally, subtransient reactance is used to determine the
initial rms current value following the occurrence of a fault;
POSITIVE SEQUENCE therefore, X"d is of most interest in fault studies.
In the past, transient reactance has been used in some cases
to determine currents that must be interrupted by a breaker,
and in making stability studies. However, with the availability
of higher speed breakers, it has become more common to
use subtransient reactance or more detailed generator models
in such studies.
In most fault studies, the value used for Xg1 (Figure 11 A 1)
will be the subtransient reactance X'd. Ranges of typical per-unit
values of X"d are 0.07 to 0.14 for two pole turbine generators
NEGATIVE•SEQUENCE REFERENCE BUS
and 0.12 to 0.17 for four-pole turbine generators.
The negative-sequence reactance Xg2 of a synchronous
machine is that met by a current whose phase sequence is
opposite to that of the generated voltage. For this reason, Xg2 is
usually taken as the average between the direct and quadrature
NEGATIVE SEQUENCE axis subtransient reactances, X"d and X"q. For turbine gener-
ators, X"d is nearly equal to X"q, and the ranges of values
cited above for X"d may be used for Xg2 as well as for Xg1 .
The zero-sequence reactance Xgo of a generator varies
with the armature winding pitch and is usually from 10 to 70
percent of the direct axis subtransient reactance. For turbine
generators, a range of typical values for Xgo would be from
0.01 to 0.14 per unit. It should be that these values do not
include any impedance ~ N that may be deliberately inserted
ZERO-SEQUENCE REFERENCE BUS between the neutral of the wye-connected generator and
ground. As shown in Figure 11A1, the neutral impedance is
independent of the generator's zero-sequence impedance. To
account for the presence of the neutral impedance, 3 ~ N
must appear in the zero-sequence equivalent circuit.
ZERO SEQUENCE For most systems, there will be one or more transformers
separating the distribution circuit from the generator. If there
is no way the distribution circuit can be supplied except
through a transformer with a delta-connected main winding,
as is usually the case, then the generator's zero-sequence
impedance has no effect on the zero-sequence impedance
Figure 11A1. seen by a distribution system fault This can be deduced from the
Sequence equivalents of a generator. zero-sequence equivalent circuit of a delta-wye transformer
bank (Figure 1OA 1). As a result, on most present-day systems,
generator zero-sequence impedance is of no significance in
the calculation of distribution system faults.
The positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence equivalent References 3 and 4 provide more thorough treatment of
c:in::uits for a generator are illustrated in Figure 11 A 1. Since a generator impedances. Also, in a specific situation, the typical
generator is designed to supply a balanced three-phase voltage, values cited for Xg1, Xg2 and Xgo may not apply. Wherever
lie equivalent circuits show an ideal voltage source (zero the generator impedance is not negligible in distribution-system
IIEmal impedance) in the positive-sequence diagram, and fault studies, it is best to use specific impedance values
., sources in the negative- and zero-sequence diagrams. provided by the generator manufacturer.
Senerator resistances are usually small, so only reactances
are shown in the equivalent circuits. The value used for Source Impedance
positive-sequence reactance Xg1 depends upon which time One convenient approach to distribution-system fault
period is being studied fault or other system disturbance. If calculations is to begin at the low-voltage (LV) bus of the
llle sustained, steady-state fault current is being calculated, distribution substation, calculate the currents for the various
laen what is called the direct-axis synchronous reactance Xd possible types of fault at that point, and, moving away from

29
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)

LOAD

LOAD

LOAD

LOAD
~ LQAO

DISTRIBUTiOt-j
} SUBSTATION B
DISTRIBUTION
} SUBSTATION A
PRIMARY
P, DI.STR.· IBUTION
PRIMARY } CIRCUITS
DISTRIBUTION
CIRCUITS {

Figure 12A1.
Diagram of a distribution system.

the substation, repeat the calculation procedure at each point the source impedance can be calculated by hand. Using the
of interest on the circuit. To do this, one must first know the per-unit system, the source positive-sequence impedance is
value of the source impedance at the substation low-voltage the sum of the positive-sequence impedances of all system
bus. This is the impedance looking back into the system components from the distribution substation low-voltage bus
supplying the distribution circuit, as illustrated in Figure 12A 1. up to and including the generator. The negative-sequence
At point P1, for example, the source impedance is the source impedance is found in a similar fashion. The zero-
equivalent impedance of the network of transformers, trans- sequence source impedance is usually not the sum of the
mission lines, and generators supplying the low-voltage (LV) component zero-sequence impedances because of the effect
bus in substation A. The source impedance used for other of the transformer connections. An example of the calculation
distribution circuits served by the same bus in substation A of source impedance using Method A is presented below
will be identical to that seen at point P1. In general, however, under "Fault Calculation Procedures and Examples."
in moving to another substation in the system, the source
impedance will change. Thus, the impedance looking back Method B
into the system at point P2 in substation 8 may be much less From a short-circuit study of the transmission system, obtain
than it is at P1 if substation 8 is electrically closer to the system the per-unit values of fault current for a three-phase fault
generation than is substation A. {It30) a line-to-line fault (ltLL), and line-to-ground fault {ltLG)
at the high-voltage bus of the distribution substation.
METHODS FOR FINDING SOURCE IMPEDANCE Preferably, these per-unit fault currents should be complex
Depending on the information available, several methods for numbers. Also, if the per-unit value of V, the voltage at the
finding source impedance may be used. substation high-voltage bus used to calculate the fault currents,
was any value other than 1 + jO, it is important to know the
Method A per-unit value used. Then the sequence-source impedances
In cases where the distribution system is fed through a simple at the high-voltage bus (HV) can be found as follows:
radial transmission system with a generator at the other end,

30
A1
Method C
In some cases, only the three-phase fault kVA available at the
(18)
high-voltage bus is given. This is similar to the fault-current
approach outlined in Method B, except that only three-phase
fault information is provided. In this situation, a value for
magnitude of -2: s1 is calculated by converting the fault kVA
(19) to a per-unit fault current magnitude. Then, use Equation 21,
assuming a nominal system voltage if the actual value of V
at the high-voltage (HV) bus is unknown. Or, the per-unit
magnitude of -2: s1 can be found directly from the following:
(20)
V2
-2: S1, -2: S2, and -2: so are the sequence-source impedances I r 81 1= k_V._'A_30-"-F-AU_l_T_Ik_V._'A_B
kVA3111 FAULT-PU
at the high-voltage (HV) bus of the distribution substation, and
~ 1 is the fault impedance used in the short-circuit study
Jsually, only bolted faults are calculated in transmission-system where
short-circuit studies, and -2: 1 is zero and can be omitted from
Equations 18 through 20. Also, it is common to calculate only I -2: s 1 I = magnitude of positive-sequence source impedance
three-phase and line-to-ground faults. If these are the only in per-unit,
fault-current values available, then assume -2: S2 = -2: S1. In
11ost situations, Equations 18 through 20 would be replaced V = line-to-line voltage at high-voltage (HV) bus of substation
':JY the following: in per-unit,

kVA3r;,FAULT =available three-phase fault kVA,


(21)
kVAs = base kVA, and

kVA30 FAULT-PU = available three-phase fault kVA in


(22) per-unit.

As in Method B, assume I -2: S2 I = I -2: 81 I if no further


3V information is provided. If a value of -2: so is needed at the
rso = - - 2rs1 (23)
IfLG high-voltage bus, it must be estimated based on prior experience
with the system under study, since it cannot ·be obtained
Note that Equations 18 through 20 and 21 through 23 involve knowing only the three-phase fault kVA. Here again, the
::omplex number calculations and will lead to source impedances substation transformer connection should be determined
:ontaining both resistance and reactance terms. However, if, first. For many connections, -2: so at the high-voltage bus is
from the short-circuit study, only the magnitudes of the fault not needed for fault calculations on the distribution system.
:urrents and the magnitude of the per-unit voltage V are
known, then the equations can only provide the magnitudes Method D
of the source impedances. In this event, it would be necessary Another possible origin of sequence-source impedance
either to assume the source impedances are pure reactances information is the bus-impedance matrix data used in some
or to assign some reasonable resistance and reactance values transmission-system short-circuit studies. In these studies,
that combine to give the proper magnitude. Generally, since the following conditions prevail: each generator is represented
resistances are normally omitted in transmission-system by a constant voltage behind the machine reactance (usually
short-circuit studies, it is appropriate to assume the impedances transient or subtransient reactance), the shunt connections
produced by solution of Equations 21 through 23 are pure (for example, line capacitances to ground) are neglected, all
reactances. the transformers are set at nominal taps, and ground is taken
The -2: s1, -2: S2, and -2: so values obtained from the above as a reference. In the bus-impedance matrix, the diagonal
equations are high-voltage bus values and must be appropri- elements are the impedances seen from each bus looking
ately combined with the per-unit sequence impedances of the back into the system. These diagonal elements are also
substation transformer to give the desired source-sequence called the driving-point impedances. If the high-voltage bus of
impedances at the low-voltage bus of the substation. Also, it the distribution substation is represented in the bus-impedance
-nay be necessary to calculate -2: so at the high-voltage bus matrix, then the diagonal element corresponding to the high-
Equation 20 or 23) if the substation transformer connection voltage bus in the positive-sequence bus-impedance matrix
IS such that the zero-sequence system impedance viewed is the desired value of -2:81. The similar diagonal element in
from the low-voltage side of the substation is unaffected by the zero-sequence bus-impedance matrix is the desired
j'je value of -2: so. For example, of the eight transformer value of -2: so. As in Method B, these values must then be
connections shown in Figure 1 OA 1, only in the case of appropriately combined with the substation transformer per-unit
connection 3 (wye-wye grounded) will -2: so be added to the sequence impedances to produce the source-sequence
:ransformer zero-sequence impedance and therefore affect impedances at the low-voltage bus of the substation.
'dhe zero-sequence source impedance seen from the low-voltage
bus. With each of the other seven connections, the low-voltage Fault Impedance
zero-sequence source impedance is independent of -2: so In the application of overcurrent protective equipment to
seen at the high-voltage bus. distribution systems, it is important to have a knowledge of
minimum as well as maximum fault-current levels. This

31
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
Tools for Fault Analysis (Continued)

means that a fault study should result in both maximum and By now it is probably apparent that fault impedance is a
minimum values of fault-current magnitude at each node of nebulous quantity. Selecting an appropriate value for ~ f is by
the circuit. far the weakest link in the procedure for finding minimum fault
Generally, on a radial system the conditions that produce currents on a system. Therefore, some engineers elect not to
maximum fault-current levels are: maximum voltage, source calculate minimum fault currents at all. Instead, they pick a
impedances for maximum generation conditions, and zero value such as the current-carrying ability of the conductor at
values of fault impedance. Conversely, the usual conditions the given point on the circuit as the minimum fault current at
for minimum fault currents are minimum voltage, source that point. Then, by selecting a recloser or other protective
impedances during times of minimum generation, and some device on the source side of this point so that it will operate
non-zero value of fault impedance. (In most practical situations, to clear a current of at least this magnitude in a sufficiently
these conditions are valid for maximum and minimum short time, they prevent damage to the conductor. A disad-
magnitudes of current for three-phase, line-to-line, and line- vantage to this approach is that fault currents below the ther-
to-ground faults. However, there are actual circuits where the mal limit of the conductor may not be detected.
current magnitude in one phase of a double line-to-ground Other engineers calculate minimum fault currents using
fault will increase when going from a zero to a non-zero value some stated value of ~ t. Generally, it is assumed to be a
of fault impedance. This is covered briefly under "Basic pure resistance. If ~ f could be measured in a large variety of
Approach" in the section titled "Fault Calculation Procedures fault situations, the value would be found to be statistically
and Examples:') distributed over a wide range. A study of this type was
In many fault studies, it is customary to use a nominal system conducted in the 1930s on various 26 to 220 kV systems. An
voltage in the fault-current equations. Frequently, no distinction EEl and Bell System report (Reference 13) of the analysis of
is made between circuit loading conditions that produce 1375 faults on these systems states the most frequently
maximum and minimum voltages. Also, it is assumed that the occurring values of apparent fault resistance ranged from
voltage at an end of the circuit has the same magnitude as 5 to 25 ohms. An IEEE Committee Report (Reference 14)
the voltage at the substation. Furthermore, in many studies, states that fault impedance was used in calculations by three
maximum and minimum generation-source impedances are of the 26 companies surveyed. Two of the three companies
assumed to be equal. The validity of these assumptions used 20 ohms and one used 40 ohms. Of the remaining 23
varies from one circuit to another. But if they are reasonable companies, seven reported they used zero fault impedance and
assumptions for a given circuit, then only fault impedance 16 gave no response. A Rural Electrification Administration
permits a distinction to be made between maximum and mini- Bulletin (Reference 15) recommends using 40 ohms for ~ f in
mum faults. minimum line-to-ground fault calculations, but does not give
Fault impedance (~f) is simply the impedance in the fault the basis for the recommendation.
(Figure 20A 1, Page 37). It is not positive- or zero-sequence Whatever value is chosen for ~ f in a given situation, the
impedance, which are system characteristics. It is not neces- minimum fault currents resulting from calculations should not
sarily related to any ground impedance or any so-called be used indiscriminately. A 40-ohm fault at the end of a long
ground effects. Earth resistivity and mutual impedance circuit may produce a calculated current in some source-side
between an overhead conductor and a conducting ground device that appears to be less than normal load current.
plane are examples of ground effects. Both of these affect the Conversely, if nothing other than zero is used for ~ t, then a
values of ~ 1 and ~ o, but not ~ t, which is a highly variable fault midway on a feeder or close to the substation may produce
item, depending on the cause of the fault, the type of fault, and a calculated minimum fault current that is too large, and the
the environment. A line-to-line fault on an overhead circuit result might be selection of a source-side device setting or
caused by a dry or dead tree branch can be a high-impedance rating that prevents detection of fault currents smaller than
fault and ground is not involved at all. A fallen conductor will those calculated. Thus, judgment is required in the use of
be a low ~ f fault if the conductor drops into a stream or calculated minimum fault-current values, no matter what
ground water, but it can be a high ~ f fault if it drops onto a value of fault impedance is used in the calculations. It is
dry pavement where ground-contact resistance is high. desirable to arrive at a minimum fault current that establishes
Also, in any specific fault situation, ~ f is a time variable. A with reasonable confidence the lower end of the fault-current
fault may begin as a high-impedance, low-current fault and range at each point of a circuit. The goal is to make the
progress to a low-impedance, high-current fault. Conversely, probability of occurrence of faults with currents below this
a fault may start out with some fault impedance that increases range as low as possible, recognizing that there is always the
to infinity if the fault is self-clearing, such as a fault caused by possibility of high-impedance faults occurring that cannot be
an animal that positions itself between a phase conductor detected by the protection system.
and ground.

32
A1

System Faults
TYPES OF FAULTS
The type of fault that can occur depends on the distribution
system. Line-to-ground, line-to-line, and double line-to-ground
faults are common to single-, two-, and three-phase systems.
Three-phase faults are, of course, characteristic only of
three-phase systems.
Line-to-ground faults result when one conductor falls to
grou nd or contacts the neutral wire. Possible points along a
<istribution system where such faults can occur are shown in
Figure 13A 1.

\-vv-
!'J ~
>
~
~ "
...
~,.,.,. ,,. (\
Figure 14A1.
Figure 13A1. Line-to-line faults.
Une-to-ground faults.

Line-to-line faults result when conductors of a two-phase


or three-phase system are short-circuited as shown in Figure
14A1. They can occur anywhere along a three-phase wye or
delta system, or along a two-phase branch.
Double line-to-ground faults result when two conductors
Bl and are connected through ground, or when two conductors
contact the neutral of a three-phase or two-phase grounded
system. Figure 15A1 shows a typical faulted circuit.
This section covers some of the principles underlying the
development of equations for the calculation of currents
leSUiting from power-system faults. The derivation of the
~ation for single line-to-ground faults is given in detail,
beginning with the equations for the symmetrical components
ol the line-to-ground voltage of phase A at the terminals of a
symmetrical three-phase, wye-connected, synchronous
onachine with balanced generated voltages. Equations for
alher types of faults are stated without derivation, since the
Figure 15A1.
procedure followed is similar to that for single line-to-ground Double line-to-ground faults.
faults.

Yollages at the Terminals of a Generator


Figure 16A1 shows a wye-connected synchronous generator Va1 = Ea1- Ia1 r1 (24)
with its neutral grounded through an impedance ~ n.
For a generator that is loaded, the currents Ia, lb, and Ic
Va2 = Ea2- Ia2 r2 (25)
are non-zero. In is the current in the neutral connection. The
Vs represent terminal voltages and the E's are generated
(26)
dages. Voltage equations for the three balanced symmetrical
CXliTlponent representations of this machine's phase A terminal
dage are written:

33
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)

..
Ia

.-------------------------~----------•v.
V ao =- In r n + Eao - lao r 9o
= -3 lao rn + Eao - lao rgo
= Ea0 - Ia0 {3r n + rg 0 ) (28)
Comparing Equations 28 with 26 shows

ro= 3rn+ -r 90 (29)


..____________• vb
Remembering that, for balanced generator voltages,
= = =
Ea2 Eao 0, and Ea 1 Ea, Equations 24 through 26
now become

~--------------------•vc
..
lc Va1 = Ea- Ia1 r1

Va2 = -Ia2 r2
(30)

(31)

Figure 16A1. Va0 = -Ia0 (3rn + r 90 ) (32)


Wye-connected synchronous generator.
These are the general equations for the symmetri
components of the line-to-ground voltage of phase A at th
For balanced generated voltages, Ea2 = Ea0 , = 0, and Ea1 is terminals of a symmetrical three-phase, wye-connected, sy
simply Ea. Also, ~ 1 and ~ 2 are the positive- and negative- chronous machine with balanced generated voltages. Th
sequence impedances, respectively, of the generator. The can be used as the basis for the symmetrical compone
value of r 1 depends on whether sub-transient, transient, or analysis of a variety of dissymmetries. In the followin
steady-state conditions are being studied. The value of r 2 does discussion, they are used to investigate a line-to-ground fau
not vary with these conditions. Generally, for turbine-generators on an unloaded generator.
and salient-pole machines, r 2 equals the subtransient value
of~ 1.
The value of ~ o in Equation 26 is not just the zero-
sequence impedance of the generator. It also must include
the effect of r n, the impedance between N and ground. This
...-------------------------. v.,
.. Ia,

is done as follows:
By Kirchoff's Law, the current in the neutral is

In= Ia+lb+Ic
Substituting the symmetrical component equivalents of the
phase currents:

In = Ia1 + Ia2 + lao + Ib1 + Ib2 + Ibo


+ Ic1 + Ic2 + leo
lc.
Since both the positive- and negative-sequence components
of current form balanced phasor diagrams (Figure 3A 1), note •
' - - - - - - - - -.... Vc,
that
Figure 17A1.
Generator diagram considering only zero-sequence
components.
Also, since the zero-sequence currents are in phase and
equal in magnitude,
Equations for a Single Line-to-Ground Fault
First, the symmetrical, wye-connected generator previou
Therefore, described is considered to determine the value of fault curre
produced if one of the phase terminals is grounded through
(27) a fault impedance when the generator is operating unloaded
This involves a symmetrical three-phase system with dissym-
Thus, considering only zero-sequence components, the metry at only one point in the system. Here, the dissymmetry
generator diagram becomes that shown in Figure 17A 1, is a line-to-ground fault, but it could also be a line-to-line or a
where r go is the zero-sequence impedance per phase of the double line-to-ground fault, or even one or two open phases..
generator. Based on this diagram, the zero-sequence compo- The general procedure in developing equations for these
nent of phase A terminal voltage to ground can be written as situations is to replace analytically the phase currents and
voltages at the point of dissymmetry by their symmetrical
components.Then, utilizing what is known about the system

34
A1
(such as sequence impedances of lines, transformers, etc.) and solving for
and the character of the dissymmetry, analytical expressions
are developed for any unknown symmetrical components. Ia1
These then are transformed back into phase quantities using
expressions similar to Equation 2 (page 10). Ia1 = Ea (35)
This analytical transformation from phase quantities into r 1 + r 2+ r + 3rn + 3rt
90
symmetrical components and back again is employed only in Figure 18A1 illustrates that the phase A current due to the
1lle development of the equations. The equations express the fault equals the current in the generator neutral, since this is
unknown phase quantities in terms of known phase quanti- the only return path. Since Ia = 3Ia1 and In = 3Iao
ties and known sequence impedances. The purpose here is = 3Ia 1, the fault current It is
ID illustrate analytical transformation for one particular type of
It = Ia = In = 3Ea
dssymmetry, and to show how fault-current equations using r 1 + r 2+ r + 3rn + 3rt (36)
symmetrical components are developed. 90
Frequently, the terms in the denominator involving generator
neutral impedance and generator zero-sequence impedance
are all lumped together as

(37)

so that Equation 36 may be rewritten in its more common

..
form as
lb=O
L....--'----e Vb (38)

If desired, expressions for voltage conditions (both phase-


ground and phase-phase) at the fault can be found in a similar
fashion.

lc=O Sequence Networks


L....------..:•---· Vc As mentioned, a balanced three-phase system can be analyzed
on a single-phase basis. This is also true for each of the three
F~gure 18A1. symmetrical component systems that result from the application
Diagram for line-to-ground case study. of the method of symmetrical components to unbalanced
three-phase systems. This means, for example, that the
three-phase positive-sequence network can be replaced for
purposes of calculation by an equivalent single-phase network
Figure 18A1 illustrates the case under study. The only new and can be represented by a one-line impedance diagram. The
symbol introduced is r t, the impedance of the fault from terms positive-sequence network, negative-sequence network,
phase A to ground. and zero-sequence network apply to these single-phase net-
First, look at the conditions at the generator terminals that works. The currents and voltages shown in the one-line dia-
describe this one type of dissymmetry. They are: grams of these networks are those of phase A, the phase
lb=O lc=O Va=Ia~ normally chosen for reference.
The three sequence networks are interconnected in different
ways, depending on the type of unsymmetrical condition. An
By using the above value for lb and Ic in the current equations, example of the interconnection of the sequence networks for
which correspond to the voltage Equation 3 (page 10), the a phase A-to-ground fault at the terminals of an unloaded
symmetrical components of the phase currents are: wye-connected generator is given in Figure 19A1, which
reveals that the interconnection diagram is the graphic equivalent
Ia1 = (Ia +alb + a2Ic) /3 = Ia/3 of Equation 35.
The use of sequence networks is not always essential for
Ia2 = (Ia + a2Ib + ale) /3 = Ia/3
the application of the method of symmetrical components
Ia0 = (Ia + Ib + lc) /3 = Ia/3 (33) but, in many cases, it also provides a better understanding of
the relationships involved. Having drawn the diagram in
Therefore, Ia1 = Ia2 = lao (34) Figure 19A1, for example, one could write the equation for Ia1
(Equation 35) by inspection. Also, if the neutral of the gener-
Since Va = Iart ator is not grounded, the zero-sequence network will be open
circuited and it will be clear from Figure 19A1 that no path
and since Va=Va1 +Va2+Vao exists for the flow of current. However, it will be equally clear
from an examination of Equations 35, 36, or 38, since an
we find, using Equations 30, 31, and 32 ungrounded neutral means r n and r o are both infinite.
Iart= Ea - Ia1 r 1 - Ia2 ~ -lao (3m+ rg 0 ) In considering more complicated systems than the single
unloaded generator used for an initial example, the sequence
But since Ia = 3Ia1 and la1 = la2 = lao this becomes network concept becomes more important. In analyzing con-
ditions on an interconnected system of generators, trans-
3Ia 1rt = Ea - Ia1 r 1 - Ia1r 2 - Ia1 (3rn + r 90 ) formers, and transmission and distribution lines, the normal

35
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)

procedure is to obtain the sequence impedances of the various networks. If the system under study is radial, as most distribution
system components and then combine these into the circuits are, then sequence networks are not as useful as
sequence networks representing the entire system. Next, if they are with looped systems. However, even with radial systems,
faults, for example, are being calculated, each sequence network there are situations where drawing the sequence network
is reduced until an equivalent sequence impedance, as representation of the problem is beneficial.
viewed from the fault point, is obtained. Any generators in the
positive-sequence system can be replaced by a single Equations for Other Fault Conditions
Thevenin-equivalent generator representing the voltage at The development of the equation for the current in a line-to-
the fault point prior to the fault. (This is described in the next ground fault (Equation 38) involved only a fault at the terminals
section, "Equations for Other Fault Conditions.") Doing this of an unloaded generator. However, the form of the equation
would produce sequence network equivalents somewhat is valid for any complicated system that has been reduced to
similar to those in Figure 19A1. The networks could then be its Thevenin equivalent.
interconnected to permit the study of various fault conditions
or to permit the direct use of fault-current equations such as THEVENIN'S THEOREM
Equation 38. Thevenin's theorem states that a linear network terminating
Again, it should be noted that the discussion here is confined on two points, a and b, and containing any number of voltage
to line-to-ground faults. The sequence network connections sources may be replaced by a single voltage source and a
for other types of faults are given ample treatment in series impedance between a and b. The series impedance is
References 1, 3, 4, 5. the impedance of the network measured between a and b
The preceding is only a brief sketch of the use of sequence with the internal voltage short-circuited. The single voltage

POSITIVE-SEQUENCE REFERENCE BUS

Ea
+ v., POSITIVE-SEQUENCE NETWORK

- Ia,

NEGATIVE-SEQUENCE REFERENCE BUS

v., NEGATIVE-SEQUENCE NETWORK

-
la,= la,

ZERO-SEQUENCE REFERENCE BUS

Va, ZERO-SEQUENCE NETWORK

-
la,= Ia,

Figure 19A1.
Interconnection of sequence networks for phase A-to-ground faults.

36
A1
source is equal to the open-circuit voltage measured 2
between a and b. This is the Thevenin-equivalent generator 1I 1= j+jf3v, 1 ro + 3rt -a r2 1
mentioned earlier. r 1 r 2 + (r 1 +r 2 )(ro +3rt) (43)
It should be noted that Thevenin's theorem applies only to In these equations, I is the rms value of the steady-state
linear networks: that is, to those networks in which the resist- symmetrical a-c phase current flowing into the fault; Vt is the
ances, inductances, and capacitances are constant and are rms value of the steady-state a-c voltage to ground at the
independent of the current and voltage. Examples of nonlinear fault prior to the occurrence of the fault; :Z:: 1, :Z:: 2. and :Z:: o are
elements are skin-effect resistance and transformer magnetizing the positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence impedances of
inductance. These elements have important effects in transient the system viewed from the fault; and :Z:: t is the fault imped-
overvoltage studies and, generally, Thevenin's theorem cannot ance associated with a given type of fault (see Figure 20A 1).
oe applied in studies involving them to simplify any part of the The vertical line notation ([I]) means that the magnitude of
network containing the nonlinear elements. However, for the the complex number within the lines is to be taken; i.e.:
purposes of most steady-state load and fault-current calcula-
bons, R, L, and C values are constant, and Thevenin's theo- if I = A + jB, then II I= .V A2 + B2
rem is applicable.
Any consistent set of units may be used for these variables
Thus, assuming linearity, an extensive power system with
in the fault-current equations. For example, they all may be
many generators and closed loops can be reduced to the
expressed in per-unit, or in amperes, volts, and ohms. They
simple system shown in Figure 16A1. From this viewpoint,
also may be expressed in some other set of units, provided
me symbols in Equation 38 can be given a new meaning. Ea
appropriate scale factors are introduced. The nomenclature
s the Thevenin-equivalent open-circuit voltage at the fault above associates rms values with I and Vt, since these are
point: that is, the line-to-ground voltage prior to the fault. The
the values normally used in steady-state fault calculations.
sequence impedances are no longer confined to generator
However, the equations are more general than this. If, instead
and neutral impedances, but now represent the equivalent
of an rms voltage, the crest value of the steady-state a-c voltage
mpedances of the entire system as viewed from the fault
to ground is used for Vf, then the resulting current value will
::JOint with all voltage sources shorted. On a large interconnected
be a crest value also.
rransmission system, the series impedance equivalent is
found for each of the sequence networks by systematically
reducing the network of impedances (by means of delta-wye
and wye-delta transformations) until single values of :Z:: 1, :Z:: 2,
and :Z:: o are obtained. On a radial distribution system, this
:an be a relatively simple procedure. On a large interconnected
network, it can be a laborious task, especially if the calculations
are done by hand. This is one reason for the initial success of
a-c network analyzers, now replaced by the more accurate
and more powerful digital load-flow and short-circuit programs
,see Computer Programs section).
So far, only single line-to-ground fault conditions on a
oower system have been discussed. The procedure followed
1n developing the line-to-ground fault-current equation can THREE-PHASE FAULT LINE-LINE FAULT
easily be duplicated for other types of faults. These equations
are derived in References 1, 3, 4, and 5, or can be developed
oy the reader.

EQUATIONS FOR FAULT-CURRENT MAGNITUDES


The equations for fault-current magnitudes for all of the vari-
ous types of faults are:
Three-phase Fault V
I I I= Ir1 ~ rr I (39)
LINE-TO-GROUND FAULT DOUBLE LINE-TO-GROUND FAULT
Line-to-Line Fault
Figure 20A 1.
I I I=l±i Fault-impedance convention for Equations 39 through 43.
(40)

Line-to-Ground Fault
Some points of interest should be noted about Equations
I I I= I 3Vt I 39 through 43. In most short-circuit studies, only three-phase
r 1 + r 2 + r 0 + 3rt (41) and single line-to-ground faults are calculated. The reason for
this is that a three-phase fault usually, but not always,
Double Line-to-Ground Fault produces the maximum fault current. (On some distribution
1I I= l-i-f3V, 1 ro +3rt -ar2 1 circuits, a line-to-ground fault near the substation can produce
rr 2 + (r 1 +r 2 )(ro +3rt) (42) fault current exceeding that produced by a three-phase fault
1
at the same point.) And the single line-to-ground fault is the
And, in the other phase associated with this fault, most common type of fault.

37
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)

The other two types of faults, however, should not be Observing the behavior of current in a single-phase circuit
completely ignored. For example, double line-to-ground faults (Figure 21 A 1) provides some guidance on this type of informa-
are difficult to calculate by hand, but there is little justification tion. The circuit consists of an ideal sinusoidal voltage source
for omitting them from a computer program for short-circuit and a series combination of resistance, an inductance, and a
studies. In finding maximum fault currents, it is customary to switch.
assume a zero value for fault impedance r t, because it is The dotted portion of Figure 21 A 1 serves as a reminder
apparent from Equations 39 through 41 that, with practical that a circuit in which a fault occurs may normally be carrying
r
values of system impedances, any values of f greater than some load. If the fault is represented by the closing of the
zero will reduce the resulting fault current. This is not apparent switch, then the load is shorted and, in the steady state, the
from Equations 42 and 43, since r t appears in the numerator, fault current is unaffected by the load. However, before the
as well as the denominator, of these expressions. On some fault occurs, i(t) is affected by the load, so in theory, the
actual systems, it has been demonstrated that introducing a behavior of i(t) in the period after the fault in which transients
r
small resistive value of f makes the magnitude of the fault exist is influenced by the prefault load current. But in most
current in one phase of a double line-to-ground fault greater practical situations, the fault current is the dominant factor
r
than the fault magnitude with zero f. In fact, in these cases, and load current is ignored.
it was surprising that a double line-to-ground fault with fault The determination of how the fault current behaves as a
impedance produced a current magnitude in one of the faulted function of time involves the solution of the following differential
phases roughly ten percent greater than the current magni- equation:
tudes of both three-phase and single-phase faults with zero
fault impedance. Thus, the current magnitudes produced by Ri + L-ffi= E sin (wt +e)
double line-to-ground faults can be significant. It cannot be (44)
said that they are always less than the magnitudes of three- where R and L are the circuit resistance and inductance,
phase or line-to-ground faults. respectively; i is the instantaneous current in the circuit
Also, line-to-line faults cannot always be ignored, especially (Figure 21 A 1) after the switch is closed; E is the crest value
if the circuit has single-phase laterals consisting of two phase of the sinusoidal voltage source; w is the source generator's
conductors. In general, in situations such as the development angular frequency; and 4> is the angle separating the voltage
of computer programs for fault calculations, there are argu- zero and the time at which the fault occurs (t=O).
ments in favor of calculating all types of faults. The details of the solution of Equation 44 are well covered
in Reference 16 and other textbooks, so only the result is
ASYMMETRICAL FAULT CURRENT* stated here. Assuming the prefault current to be zero (i.e.,
Definition and Significance load current = 0) then the solution is
Some knowledge of the behavior of the actual current waveform
in a circuit following a fault is important in the application of ·Rwt
devices such as fuses, sectionalizers, reclosers, and breakers i = Ae X+ 8 sin (w+ e-o)
for distribution-system overcurrent protection.
The fault-current equations, 39 through 43, are applicable A= E sin (0-e)
only for steady-state conditions. They calculate the rms values where
,f R2 + X2
of fault currents that have persisted for periods sufficiently
long so that all initial transients have disappeared. They tell E
nothing about either the rms or the instantaneous values of B = r,f:;;R:;;:2:::+:::;:X;:;;:2
current in the time immediately following the fault.
()=tan · 1 ~)
R L
~~~--~-----, and X =wl (45)
I
I
,--L-. The first term in Equation 45 is the transient part of the
SWITCH solution, since it is decaying exponential whose value disappears
I LOAD I
=E sin (wt + ¢] '--r-' eventually. The second term is the steady-state part of the
I solution. These are also the d-e and a-c components, respec-
....__ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ___. _____ .JI tively. The second term is a sinusoidal function of time whose
crest value is simply the crest value of the supply voltage
divided by the magnitude of the system impedance as viewed
from the fault. The phase difference 0 between the supply
Figure 21 A1. voltage (E sin(wt+ 4>)) and the steady-state fault current
Single-phase circuit for study of current behavior depends only on the X/R ratio of the circuit impedance.
immediately following a fault. The significance of the transient and steady-state components
of the fault current is best illustrated by considering an actual
example. Figure 22A 1 shows a specific circuit with an X/R
ratio of 5. The circuit is supplied by a 60-hertz source
(W=377), with the fault arbitrarily occurring (switch closes) at
20 degrees on the voltage wave. The numbers obtained from
the general solution, Equation 45, are given in the figure.
* Portions adapted from material in Reference 17.

38
A1

E= 100VOLTS X= 100HMS
R X w =377 RADIANS/SECOND R=20HMS

¢ = 20° = .349 RADIANS X=5


R
SWITCH CLOSES
~=10.20HMS
· Att=O
·1 X 78.7o
SUBSTITUTING INTO EQUATION 45 {)=tan R
75 41 1.373 RADIANS.
i = 9.8 sin (1.024) e' .

+9.8 sin (377tt1.024)

= 8.37 e' 75.41 + 9.8 sin (377t- 1.024)

Figure 22A1.
illustration of significance of transient and steady-state fault-current components.

Figure 23A 1, however, graphically illustrates the interaction This is where the significance of current asymmetry lies. In
:i the terms of the equations. The curves were plotted from designing and applying devices that will be exposed to fault
ne specific example of Figure 22A1 and the time base is currents, transient as well as the steady-state fault currents
;raduated for that solution. The curves themselves are must be considered, since both thermal effects and mechanical
abeled with the general equation symbols, so that the interaction forces can be greatly magnified in the initial transient period.
:i curves and equations is clearly shown. The upper curve
snows the voltage waveform. The fault is assumed to occur Application of Current Asymmetry Information
~=0) at a point on the ascending voltage wave 20 degrees The maximum magnetic forces produced in a device occur at
after a voltage zero. The lower graph shows the total fault current the instant the current is maximum. In Figure 23A1 for example,
solid curve) and its transient and steady-state components the total current has peaks at approximately 7, 15, 24, and 32
jotted curves) plotted on a time scale identical to that of the milliseconds for the time range displayed. A protective
..oltage waveform. The solid current curve, which is the wave· device, such as a recloser, in a circuit where this fault current
shape that would be observed on an oscilloscope connected is flowing will experience peak magnetic forces at the same
nto the circuit, is the sum of the two dotted curves. Although times. From the equipment design and application viewpoint,
"'$ither of the two current components could be recorded in the largest of the peaks is of interest, since it subjects equipment
his transient period by an oscilloscope, the dotted curves are to the severest test with respect to magnetic forces. For certain
still of interest since they provide a better perspective of values of the voltage phase angle ( c/>) (Equation 44), the
asymmetry. largest peak will occur in the first current loop, as shown in
Asymmetry in an a·c power system is the phenomenon Figure 23A1. However, there are other values of 4> for which
whereby the symmetrical current oscillations about the zero the largest peak will not occur until the second loop. Figure
ine are shifted so that they oscillate around some transient 24A 1 shows a current waveform of this type.
-eference line that is neither straight nor zero. In Figure 23A 1, The larger of these peaks can be found mathematically by
:Tie total current is oscillating around the decaying exponential differentiating the current expression in Equation 45 with
:;urve, which means that the exponential curve is the new respect to its two independent variables t and cf>. (The other
--eference "zero" line for the sine wave. This will make the total variables, E, R, X, and w, are fixed for any given circuit).
:urrent wave asymmetric with respect to the true zero line, When this is done, it is found that the larQer of the two
since the positive loops of current reach different crest "largest" peaks occurs for zero voltage angle cp. which places
'Tlagnitudes than the negative loops. it in the first current loop. The current waveform thus resembles
Now that asymmetry has been defined, what is its significance that shown in Figure 23A 1 rather than that in Figure 24A 1
n dealing with fault currents? The answer lies in two important This 4> = 0 condition is called the condition of maximum
aspects of the problem: first, the magnetic force exerted on asymmetry.
carts due to the current, and, secondly, the thermal or joule References 17, 18, and 19 provide a thorough treatment of
content of the fault current. Both the thermal and magnetic the mathematics of analyzing current under the condition of
lorce characteristics are a function of the square of the current. maximum asymmetry, and the details are well worth studying
In Figures 22A 1 and 23A 1, the first peak of the asymmetrical for a clear understanding of the implications of asymmetry.
Naveform has a magnitude approximately 1.5 times the crest They show that some of the effects of asymmetry are
value of the steady-state waveform. For example, at this point dependent only on the X/R ratio of the circuit; also, that the
::he magnetic forces on interrupting equipment are about 2.25 effects on the peak value and the energy content of the first
jmes the forces caused by the steady-state fault current. In current loop are much greater than the effect on the rms
:he same fashion, if the first loop is not only greater in ampli· value. For the condition of maximum asymmetry, the rms
:ude but is above the zero line for longer than half a cycle (as value of the first current loop can be as great as 1.7492 times
:n Figure 23A 1), then the i2t content of the current (that is, its the rms value of its steady-state symmetrical component
::hermal or heating effect) is much greater. Both of these (References 17, 18).
affect the design and application of the protective equipment
used on a power system.

39
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)

+ 100
e (t) 100 Sin (377t + .349)

VOLTAGE

5 20

-100

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0


TIME {CYCLES)

754
I (t) = 9.8 Sin (377t- 1.024) + 8.37e'
+15 7
..,.,.,.......... ,
TOTAL
CURRENT
/ ClJRRENT
,.."" '
w
w
a:
----r---- .' """ '\
\
'\
·~ 1/ · - - -..
I
{
I
1- I I
2 0
w I 20
a: 5 I
,gj TIME(ms) · I
0 I
-5 /
I
/

-10
'' ...... _.....,,. /

-15

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0


TIME (CYCLES)

Figure 23A1.
Interaction of terms of equations in Figure 22A1.

40
A1
is the same as maximizing I'll, since I is constant. The
condition for maximum i is a zero voltage angle </>, as
described earlier. But for maximum I', the value of </> is
always greater than zero. If I' is calculated for the first current
loop, the maximum value of I'll is 1. 7662. It occurs at an X/R
ratio of 200 and an angle</> of 12 degrees.) The result of plot-
ling the maximums of I'll is shown in Figure 25A 1.
While the integration time interval T for finding I, the rms
value of a symmetrical waveform, is constant n, the interval
for finding I' varies with X/R and 0. The T used to find I' in
Figure 25A 1 is not constant, but it is always the time to the
first current zero of the asymmetrical waveform.
At a point of fuse application on a specific circuit - if for
example, the rms symmetrical fault current for a line-to-ground
fault is known (Equation 41) - the single-phase equivalent
Figure 24A1. X/R ratio can be found from the total system impedance used
Current waveform with largest magnetic-current peak in in the fault calculation. For a line-to-ground fault with zero
the second loop. fault impedance, this would be (2-21 + -2 o)/3. The reactive
part of this impedance divided by the real part is the single-
phase equivalent X/R ratio. An I'll value can be found from
However, the peak of the first current loop can be as great as Figure 25A 1 for this value of X/R. This multiplied by the
two times the peak of the steady-state component, and this calculated rms symmetrical fault current will produce the
energy content can be six times that of the first loop of the greatest rms asymmetrical value possible for that type of
symmetrical a-c component (Reference 17). From the viewpoint fault.
of equipment design and application, these peak current and The same procedure is used for all types of faults possible at
energy comparisons are more meaningful than a comparison the fuse location. Then, the largest rms symmetrical and
of rms values. asymmetrical values can be used for selecting the fuse cutout
The discussion here is confined, however, to rms relationships, with the proper interrupting ratings. (Since Figure 25A 1 is based
since this is the way equipment is now rated and standards on the analysis of current in a simple R, X series circuit, the pro-
are written. The root-mean-square (rms) value of an arbitrary cedure described is not precisely correct for finding the RMS
current is of the asymmetrical current in a double line-to-ground fault or
in any system whose symmetrical component equivalent circuit
involves parallel paths. More study of the transient behavior
(46) of fault current for various types of faults and various systems
needs to be made. However, the procedure described is
where i = a current function of time more precise for line-to-line and single line-to-ground faults
t =time than simply using the X1/R1 ratio, which, strictly speaking, is
T = time interval specified for the rms valid only for three-phase faults.)
determ in at ion. This, briefly, illustrates the application of current asymmetry
information of the type provided by Figure 25A 1, which, as
If i = B sin wt, where B is the crest value of a sinusoidal noted, is based on the first current loop. This is especially
current, Equation 46 shows that I = B/{2 so long as T is an useful in the application of fuses, since many fuses interrupt
integral multiple of a half cycle. From a physical viewpoint, a at the current zero following the initial loop. It is also useful in
sinusoidal current with a crest value of B will have the same checking the momentary ratings of switches, sectionalizers,
effect on p loss in a conductor as a d-e current whose and breakers. However, the use of Figure 25A 1 for selecting
value is B/ or this reason, I is sometimes called the effec- breakers or reclosers with adequate interrupting capacity can
tive value of i, but this {2 relationship does not in result in the selection of ratings much higher than necessary.
general hold for an asymmetrical waveform. Applying In this instance, the rms value of the first current loop is too
Equation 46 to Equation 45 results in a detailed expression conservative for comparison with the interrupting ratings of
for the rms value of the asymmetrical waveform, and the time breakers and reclosers, since these devices do not usually
interval for the integration or averaging process definitely interrupt for a number of cycles after fault initiation. For many
influences the outcome (References 17, 18). Identifying the practical values of X/R ratio, this means much of the asymmetry
rms value of the steady-state a-c component of current in
has disappeared, and the device is interrupting essentially a
Equation 45 as I and the rms value of the total current as 1',
symmetrical current. The procedure to follow in selecting
then a useful measure of an asymmetrical waveform is the
ratio I'll. Fault-current calculations (Equations 39 through 43) breakers and reclosers with adequate interrupting ability for
produce values of I. If an appropriate value for the ratio I'll is a specific circuit is given in industry standards (References
known, it can be multiplied by the calculated I value to obtain 20, 21).
the rms value of the asymmetrical waveform.
Gross and Thapar (Reference 19) cite an expression that
is a function only of X, R, and </>. For any given value of X/R,
the value of I'll with respect to </>can be maximized and then
plotted as a function of X/R. (For the reader who has gone
into the details of asymmetry calculations, Hshould be noted
that this procedure involves maximizing 1', not i. Maximizing I'

41
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)

., •i ,·

1.8 "'

1.7
~ ··- ,_,-
.. ·
/
,JJ/
1.6 '

PLOT OF MAXIMUM VALUES OF 1'/1 VERSUS X/R


WHERE 1'/IIS THE RATIO OF THE RMS
Q 1.5 OF THE FIRST LOOP OF THE ASYMMETRICAL
~
WAVEFORM TO THE RMS OF THE FIRST
LOOP OF THE SYMMETRICAL WAVEFORM.
1-
ffi 1.4 ~
0:::
0:::
:::1
1/~
0
1.3

1.2
/ "
,.

/~
1.1

1.0 - ~
v "

I' t,l . " I ..


0.9 I I I I

.2 .5 2 5 10
' 20 50 100

SHORT CIRCUit RAtl6 X/R


Figure 25A1.
Result of plotting the maximums of 1'/I.

MOTOR-CURRENT CONTRIBUTIONS 50 hp in Table 8A 1) a conservative estimate is the 3.6


If short-circuit current contributions from large rotating machinery times rated current (equivalent of 0.28 per unit impedance)
are neglected in system fault studies, the increased current first-cycle assumption of low-voltage standards, and this is
may cause the interrupting capacity of a device to be exceeded. effectively the same as multiplying subtransient impedance
To determine rotating machinery contributions, the reactance by 1.67.
(or impedance) is calculated using the multiplies in Table With this interpretation as a basis, the following induction
8A 1, and all three-phase motors above 50 hp are treated as motor treatment is recommended to obtain a single combi-
sources. As an aid in understanding this complex subject, nation first-cycle short-circuit calculation for multivoltage
following is an excerpt from ANSI/IEEE Standard 141-1986, industrial systems:
from which the table (number 24 in the ANSI/IEEE text) has
been reproduced. The excerpt has been slightly edited to (a) Include connected motors, each less than 50 hp, using
eliminate potentially confusing references to material not a 1.67 multiplying factor for sub-transient impedances.
cited in this manual. if available, or an estimated first-cycle impedance of
To simplify comprehensive industrial system calculations, a 0.28 based on motor rating.
single combination first-cycle network is recommended ...
based on the following interpretation of ... standards. (b) Include larger motors using the impedance multiplying
Because the initial symmetrical rms magnitude of the current factors of Table 8A 1. Most low-voltage motors 50 hp and
contributed to a terminal short circuit might be 6 times
larger are in the 1.2 times subtransient reactance group.
rated for a typical induction motor, using a 4.8 times rated An appropriate estimate for this group is first-cycle
current first-cycle estimate for the large low-voltage induction impedance of 0.20 per unit based on motor rating.
motors (described as all others, 50 hp and above in Table
8A 1) is effectively the same as multiplying subtransient
impedance by approximately 1.2. For this motor group, Short circuits can be calculated using procedures described
there is reasonable correspondence of low- and high-voltage in the following section. The multiple sources and impedances
procedures. For smaller induction motors (all smaller than are paralleled to the point of fault (Reference 24).

42
A1
TABLE 8A1
Rotating- Machine Reactance (or Impedance) Multipliers
Type of Rotating First-Cycle Interrupting
Machine Network Network
All turbine generators; all hydrogenerators with amortisseur windings; all condensers 1.0 Xd" 1.0 Xd"
Hydrogenerators without amortisseur windings 0.75 Xd" 0.75 Xd"
All synchronous motors 1.0 Xd" 1.5 Xd"
Induction motors
Above 1000 hp at 1800 r/min or less 1.0 Xd" 1 .5 Xd"
Above 250 hp at 3600 r/min 1.0 Xd" 1.5 Xd"
All others, 50 hp and above 1.2 Xd" 3.0 Xd"
All smaller than 50 hp Neglect Neglect
From ANSI/IEEE C37.010-1979 (2) and ANSI/IEEE C37.5-1979 (3)
1. Xd"of synchronous rotating machines is the rated-voltage (saturated) direct-axis subtransient reactance.
2. Xd"of synchronous rotating machines is the rated-voltage (saturated) direct-axis transient reactance.
3. Xd" of induction motors equals 1.00 divided by per-unit locked-rotor current at rated voltage.

FAULT CALCULATION PROCEDURES For each identified type of overhead and underground line,
AND EXAMPLES use Tables 1A 1 through 7 A 1 to find its positive- and zero-
This section outlines a procedure for finding fault currents on sequence impedances in ohms/1 000 feet. In some situations,
a distribution system and includes some numerical examples. the tabulated impedances may not be applicable, and it will
be necessary to resort to calculations using impedance
Assumptions equations.
lin the following fault calculation examples, the underlying 4. Determine line-section sequence impedances in ohms. For
assumptions are: each line section of the circuit diagram, multiply the section
1. System frequency is 60 hertz. length in thousands of feet by the ~ 1 and ~ o values from
2. Distribution feeders radiate from only one substation. There Step 3 in ohms/1000 feet.
is no other source of power feeding into the distribution 5. Select fault impedance.
circuits. In general, fault-current calculations are made both with
3. The supply system is represented by the source impedance and without a fault impedance. Also, it is important to note
at the substation low-voltage bus. This is the impedance that, in some cases, the maximum fault current corresponds
looking back into the system supplying the distribution to a double line-to-ground fault with impedance (see pages
circuit. 37 and 38).
4. The current prior to the fault is neglected: that is, all shunt
connections (loads, line charging, etc.) are neglected. 6. Calculate total sequence impedances at point of fault.
Thus, the voltage at each node of the circuit will be Add the positive-sequence impedances from Step 4 of all line
assumed to be the nominal distribution voltage. sections connecting the point of fault to the source, including
the positive-sequence source impedance determined in
Basic Approach Step 2. Repeat the procedure for the negative- and
This section describes an effective and readily usable proce- zero-sequence impedances, with the negative-sequence
dure for calculating fault currents in a radial distribution sys- impedance of a line section being equal to its positive-
tem. An example of its application to a simple system is pro- sequence impedance.
'iided in the next section. Also, since much of the procedure
IS easily programmable and many fault-current calculations 7. Find symmetrical fault currents.
today are done on a computer, results from a computer study Use the formulas developed under ''Types of Faults" to calcu-
are included. late the following currents:
The procedure consists of the following steps: A. Three-phase fault
1. Draw circuit diagram.
A. Label the points on diagram where fault currents are to (39)
be calculated.
B. Line-to-line fault
B. Identify the different types of overhead circuit and under-
ground cable used.
C. For each line section, write on the diagram the circuit (40)
type of the section and its length in feet.
C. Line-to-ground fault
2. Calculate sequence-source impedances.
Depending on what information is available on the supply
I I I= I 3Vt I
system, use one of the methods outlined previously to
calculate the positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence
r 1 +r 2+r 0 + sr t (41 )
impedances. An example illustrating the use of method A D. Double line-to-ground fault
begins on the next page.
3. Determine line-section sequence impedances by type in
III=I-if3V, ra+3rt-ar2 I
ohms/1000 feet.
r 1 r 2+ <r1 +r 2)(ro +3rt) (42)
And, in the other phase associated with this fault,

43
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)

9. Record fault-current range on circuit diagram.


III=I+i-f3Vt ro+3rt-a2r2 I
r1 r The symbol, 502 1183 , as used for the circuits, indicates
2 + ( r 1 +r 2 )(ro +3rt) (43) 1451
In these equations, I is the rms value of the steady-state a minimum available symmetrical current of 502 amperes
symmetrical a-c phase current flowing into the fault; Vt is (rms), a maximum available symmetrical current of 1183
the rms value of the steady-state a-c voltage to ground at amperes (rms), and a maximum asymmetrical fault cur-
the fault prior to the occurrence of the fault; r 1, r 2, and rent of 1451 amperes (ins).
r o are the total positive-, negative-, and zero-sequence
impedances (from Step 6) of the system viewed from the 10. Steps 6 through 9 are repeated for each fault point selected
fault; and r f is the fault impedance associated with a given Example ot Source-Impedance Calculation
type of fault (see Figure 20A1). Figure 26A 1 illustrates the per-unit calculation of sequence-
The vertical line notation ([I]) means that the magnitude source impedances of a distribution circuit supplied by a radial
of the complex number with the lines is to be taken, i.e. transmission system. To apply the per-unit method properly
if I = A+jB, [I) = ,fA2 + 82 to a source-impedance calculation in a three-phase system
of several voltage levels, it is necessary to select a three-phase
8. Calculate asymmetrical fault current at point of fault for base kVA common to all voltage levels, and base voltages
each type of fault that are line-to-line values conforming to line-to-line voltage
r
A. Calculate the equivalent impedance e from Equations transformation ratios. For this example, the generator rating
39 through 43. For example, the equivalent impedance (40,000 kVA) is arbitrarily selected as the base kVA. The
for a line-to-ground fault is (Equation 41 ): base voltages are 6.9 kV, 138 kV, and 12.47 kV.
re = r1 + r2 +ro + 3Z:f Since the generator kVA rating is identical to the base kVA,
and its voltage rating is 6.9 kV, the per-unit values of generator
3
reactance can be obtained directly from Figure 26A 1. In
r
B. Calculate the X/R ratio of a: i.e., the imaginary part of accordance with the previous comments on generator
impedances, the subtransient value of reactance Xd is used;
re divided by the real part of r e.
and since this is a turbine generator, assume xq = X(t Thus,
C. From Figure 25A 1, find the asymmetry ratio corresponding for the generator, the per-unit values of sequence Impedances
to this X/R value: that is, the ratio of the rms of the first are:
loop of the asymmetrical waveform to the rms of the first
loop of the symmetrical waveform. r1 = jX"d = j0.15 pu
D. Calculate the first loop asymmetrical fault current rms
by multiplying the symmetrical fault current from Step 7 r2 = r1 = j0.15 pu
by this asymmetry ratio. (As noted on page 41 , this use ro = jX"90 = j0.05 pu
of an equivalent impedance X/R ratio is not precisely
correct for all types of faults.)

~ GENERATION

+ TRANSMISSION

+ DISTRIBUTION
-1
.6."]_
... .6.~

~ T1 T2

8 ~
12.47 kV

i
6.9kV 138kV 51.6MILES 3-1/0cu
0
p
6.9kV 50mVA ~~ = 31.3 + j 37.8.0 10mVA
40mVA X=10% DJ = 46.1 + j 157.9.0 X=7%

l<d= 15%

Xg= 5%

Figure 26A1.
Per-unit calculation of sequence-source impedances.

44
A1
Percent transformer impedance is based on the transformer 1. Draw circuit diagram.
rating. The stated impedances of the transformers cannot be A single-line diagram of the system used in the example is
used directly, since their ratings differ from the base kVA. To shown in Figure 27A 1. The system consists of an overhead
convert the impedances of T1 and T2 to the new base, apply circuit and an underground circuit at 12.47 kV. Nodes at
Equation 14 (page 13). which fault currents will be calculated are numbered, and line
lengths and types are identified. Examples of fault-current
ForT1 r1 = j0.10 X ~gggg = j0.08 pu calculations are given for node 5. The same procedure can
be repeated for any other point.
2. Calculate sequence source impedances.
ForT2 r1 = j0.07 x ~gggg = j0.28 pu The sequence-source impedances calculated previously
are used for this example:
These values apply whether the transformers are viewed
from their high- or low-voltage terminals. However, because r1 = r 2 = .255 + j2.291 ohms
the transformers are connected delta-grounded wye, the r 0 = o + j1.089 ohms
zero-sequence impedances will change from one side to the
other (see Figure 1OA 1 ). This will be taken into account later. 3. Determine sequence-line impedances by type in
For the transmission line, impedances are stated in ohms. To ohms/1 000 feet.
get per-unit values, apply Equations 12 and 5. Between the fault at points and the source, one type of
overhead line (Type 1) and one type of underground cable
r 8 = 1000E~ = 1000 (138) 2 =4761 ohms
(Type 3) are used. Their respective sequence impedances
kVA 8 400000 .
in ohms/1 000 feet are obtained from Tables 1A 1 and 4A 1,
and are as follows:
r 1 = _1_ (31.3 + j37.8) = .0657 + j.0794 pu Type 1, 3-1/0 CU (phase) and 1-No. 2 CU (neutral), from
476.1
Table 1A1:
ro = _1_ (46.1 + j158.) = .0968 + j.3317 pu r 1 = .1150 + j.1386, ro = .2328 + j.4034
476.1
Type 3,3-780 MCM AL, 175-mil XLP cable with 1/3 size con-
Keeping in mind the transformer connections and the fact centric neutral, from Table 4:
that zero-sequence impedance cannot be reflected through a
delta-connected winding (Figure 1OA 1), the sequence-source r 1 = .0550 + j.0581, ro =.1188 + j.0305
impedances of the system viewed from point P on the distribution
circuit then become:
4. Determine line-section sequence impedances in ohms.
r1 = r2 The sequence impedances of each section of line or cable
Generator 0 + j0.15 0 between the source and the fault can be calculated by
T1 0 + j0.08 0 multiplying the impedance in ohms/1 000 feet by the length
Transmission 0.0657 + j0.0794 0 of the section in 1000 feet. In this example, impedance values
T2 0 + j0.28 0 + j0.28 will be given with only three decimal places.
Total 0.0657 + j0.5894 pu 0 + j0.28 pu Section Type Length ~ 1 (ohms) ~ o (ohms)
1-2 3 8.448 .465 + j .491 1.004+j .258
To express these source impedances in ohms on a 12.47 kV 2-3 1 4.224 .486 + j .588 .983+j1.704
base, first find the base impedance at this voltage from 3-5 1 21.278 2.447 + j2.949 4.953 + j8.584
Equation 12:
2 5. Select fault impedance.
r = 1000 ( 12.47) = 3 8875 ohms
B 40000 . In the computer results presented later, fault impedances
of 0 and 20 ohms are used in the overhead portion of the
Then the source impedances in ohms as viewed from the system. On the underground portions, only a zero fault
low-voltage bus of the substation are: impedance is used.
r1 = r2 = {0.0657 + j0.5894) 3.8875 6. Calculate total sequence impedances at point of fault. The
total system sequence impedances at the faulted node 5
= .255 + j2.291 ohms are the sum of the sequence impedances of the sections
between the source and node 5.
r 0 = {O + j0.28) 3.8875 Total positive- and negative-sequence impedances:
= .0 + j1.089 ohms .255 + j2.291 source
+ .465 + j.491 section 1-2
Example of Distribution-System Calculation + .465 + j.585 section 2-3
The distribution system used in this example is typical from +2.447 + j2.949 section 3-5
the standpoint of commonly encountered conductor sizes r1 = r2 - 3.653 + j6.316 ohms at node 5
and configurations. Fault currents at one point of the system
are calculated in detail following the procedure outlined in the
previous section. The results of a computer study giving the
fault currents at every specified point of the system also are
included.

45
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)

138~
SOURCE IMPEDANCES
at 12.47 kV {Node #1):
i! 1 .256 + i 2.291 ohms
i!0 0 + j 1.089 ohms
12.47kV LINE TYPES

17
OVERHEAD
{ (1)3-1/0CU& 1-#2CU
(2) 1-#2CU & 1-#4CU . II
422'
14)
¥
;
~· UND!=RGROUND
{ (3)3-750MCMAL.XLPCABLES
WITH 1/3 SIZE CONCENTRIC NEUTRAL
I
1
+ 2 3 (4)1·1/0AL.XLPCABLEWITH I
16 0+-++f*-t-t-1~-t-t-IHQ+f-lf+fo++-11++++'10---------a FULL SIZE CONCENTRIC NEUTRAL :
4699' 4224'
+
528':
13) t
t
1320'
(1)

14) 6 3960'
(3)
(4)
.3168'
18 ~ 11)
9

3326'
(3)

++++-+0 14 5
475'
14)
6 o-------o--------;...--.0
10660' 14098'
.8
I
(1) I 12)
I
I 13411'
3-PHASE 3-PHASE II 121
11111111 I
13 OVERHEAD UNDERGROUND I
------
· 1-PHASE
+-t++++
1·PHASE
0
7

Figure 27A 1.
Circuit diagram for sample case.

Total zero-sequence impedance: b. Line-to-line fault, using Equation 40:

.000 + j1.089 source II I= I ±j.f3Vt I =I ± j.f312470 I


+ 1.004 + j.258 section 1-2 r 1 + r 2+ r 1 2.[3 (3.653 + j6.316)
+ .983+j1.704 section 2-3
+ 4.953 + j8.584 section 3-5 =7199.56 1 ±i 1
=
~ 0 6.940 + j11.635 ohms at nodes 4.218 + j7.293

7. Find symmetrical fault currents.


=7199 ·56 =854.541 amperes
8.425
In this example, ~ f is zero. Since the voltage is an rms
value, all calculated currents are also rms values. c. Line-to-ground fault, using Equation 41:
a. Three-phase fault, using Equation 39:
II I= I 3Vt I
II I= I Vt I=I 12470 I r1 + r2 + ro + 3rf
r r
1 + 1 -Y3 (3.653 + j6.316)
I 3* 1247o I
=7199.561
1
1 = rs (2(3.653 + j6.316) + (6.940 + j11.635))
3.653 + j6.316
=7199.56 1
-;:=;:::::::==~=7.:~~
=7199.56 14.749 +1j8.089 1
" (3.653)2 + (6.316)2
7199 ·56 =986.738 amperes =7199 ·56 =767.555 amperes
9.380
7.296
46
A1
d. Double line-to-ground fault, using Equation 42: for node 5 impedances
~ = 8.089 = 1 703
I\= 0
J-i'i'3(r +3r,-arz)Vt \ R 4.749 .
r 1 r 2 + (r1 + r 2) (r 0 + 3r1 ) from Figure 25A 1,
= 7199.56\ ~((6.940 + j11.635)- (-.5 + j.866)
(3.653 + j6.316)2 + 2(3.653 + j6.316)
\ IAs\ =\I\ x 1.130
=767.555 x 1.130 =867.337 amperes
(3.653 + j6.316)H-n I D. Double line-to-ground fault:
(6.940 + j11.635)
r = r 1r 2 + (r 1 +r 2) + (r 0 + 3r 1)
= 7199.56 1 -i 1
e {3 (ro + 3r, -ar2)
1.361 + j7.763
7199 ·56 = 913.527 amperes for node 5 impedances
7.881
Similarly, in the other phase associated with this fault, X 7.763
using Equation 43: R= 1.361 = 5 ·706
from Figure 25A 1,
I
I I = 7199.56 I . I
I 6.105 + j5.070
7199 ·56 = 907.261 amperes \ IAs\ =Jrj x 1.471
7.935 = 913.527 x 1.471 = 1343.798 amperes
J.. Calculate asymmetrical fault current at point of fault for
each type of fault. In the other phase associated with this fault, from
=or each type of fault, the asymmetrical current is obtained Equation 43:
oy first calculating the X/R ratio of the equivalent impedance
:2- e of the fault. X/R = Imag ( -:2- e)/Real( -:2- e). Then, using r = r1 r2 + (r1 +r2) + (ro + 3r,)
XR ratio calculated, find from figure 25A 1 the corresponding e {3 (ro + 3r, -a 2r2)
asymmetry ratio and multiply this by the rms symmetrical
"7ault current to get the rms asymmetrical value. and
A. Three-phase fault:
X 5.070
R= 6.105 = 0 ·830
r.: = r1 + rt
ior the node 5 impedances: from Figure 25A 1,

x_ 6.316 _ \lAs\ =\I\ x 1.013


'i- 3.653- 1.729
= 907.261 x 1.013 = 919.055 amperes
from Figure 25A 1,
9. Record fault-current range on circuit diagram.
The minimum available symmetrical current of 277
IAs\=\I\ X 1.134 amperes (rms), the maximum available symmetrical cur-
rent of 987 amperes (rms), and the maximum asymmetri-
= 986.738 x 1.134 = 1118.961 amperes cal fault current of 1344 amperes (rms) are recorded on
B. Line-to-line fault: the circuit diagram in Figure 28A 1.
10.Steps 6 through 9 are repeated for each fault point.
~
r.: -- r1 +r2+
{3 COMPUTER CALCULATION OF FAULT CURRENTS
for node 5 impedances The results of a computer program calculation of fault currents
for the sample system at every node are given in Table 9A 1.
X 7.293 For each node, the listing gives two rows each of rms symmet-
~= 4.218 = 1. 729 rical fault currents, rms asymmetrical fault currents, and X/R
ratios for the various types of faults: three-phase, double line-
from Figure 25A 1, to-ground, line-to-line, and line-to-ground. The first row shows
results based on zero fault impedance. The second row is
based on the fault impedance entered as program input. In
IAs\ = Jrj x 1.134
this sample case, zero -:2- t is used on the cable portions of
= 854.541 x 1.134 = 969.049 amperes the circuit, and a 20-ohm -:2- tis used on the overhead portions.
Whenever a zero appears in the Table 9A 1 data, it indicates
C. Line-to-ground fault:
that that kind of fault cannot exist at the indicated node of the
circuit. For example, at node 7, three-phase, double line-to-
ground, and line-to-line faults are not calculated, since this is
a node on a single-phase lateral.

47
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY
System Faults (Continued)

TABLE 9A1
Results of Computer-Program Calculation of Fault Currents
Fault Currents (Amps) and X/R Ratios
Column**: See Explanation in Text, Previous Page

I Type of Fault I Type of Fault


Node I ** I 3-Phase I LL-G I LL-G I LL I L-G Node I ** I 3-Phase I LL-G I LL-G I LL I L-G
1 SYM 3123. 3720. 3526. 2705. 3793. ASYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 3032.
353. 2616. 2794. 593. 355. 0. 0. 0. 0. 3032.
ASYM 4907. 3862. 3547. 2885. 6095. X/R 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.97
377. 2787. 2983. 834. 380. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.97
X/R 8.98 1.06 0.75 0.11 11.12 10 SYM 2245. 2083. 2756. 1944. 2579.
0.11 0.12 0.11 4.48 0.09 2245. 2083. 2756. 1944. 2579.
2 SYM 2506. 2497. 3068. 2170. 2947. ASYM 2923. 2378. 2862. 1981. 3078.
2506. 2497. 3068. 2170. 2947. 2923. 2378. 2862. 1981. 3078.
ASYM 3424. 2791. 3112. 2242. 3749. X/R 3.12 1.78 0.24 0.32 2.16
3424. 2791. 3112. 2242. 3749. 3.12 1.78 0.24 0.32 2.16
X/R 3.87 1.62 0.36 0.26 2.83 11 SYM 2059. 1831. 2518. 1784. 2322.
3.87 1.62 0.36 0.26 2.83 2059. 1831. 2518. 1784. 2322.
3 SYM 2013. 1870. 2141. 1743. 2013. ASYM 2603. 2112. 2659. 1808. 2673.
335. 1665. 1822. 533. 332. 2603. 2112. 2659. 1808. 2673.
ASYM 2553. 1992. 2271. 1768. 2419. X/R 2.75 1.87 0.16 0.36 1.85
354. 1685. 1852. 704. 351. 2.75 1.87 0.16 0.36 1.85
X/R 2.79 1.26 0.14 0.36 2.23 12 SYM 1924. 1665. 2340. 1666. 2138.
0.16 0.38 0.34 3.33 0.15 1924. 1665. 2340. 1666. 2138.
4 SYM 1749. 1608. 1772. 1514. 1623. ASYM 2383. 1932. 2499. 1684. 2407.
329. 1440. 1590. 512. 323. 2383. 1932. 2499. 1684. 2407.
ASYM 2145. 1699. 1895. 1528. 1910. X/R 2.52 1.91 0.11 0.40 1.67
346. 1449. 1608. 662. 339. 2.52 1.91 0.11 0.40 1.67
X/R 2.42 1.20 0.05 0.41 2.04 13 SYM 1729. 1449. 2082. 1497. 1879.
0.18 0.45 0.38 3.04 0.18 1729. 1449. 2082. 1497. 1879.
5 SYM 987. 907. 913. 855. 767. ASYM 2084. 1692. 2226. 1506. 2058.
294. 799. 913. 414. 277. 2084. 1692. 2226. 1506. 2058.
ASYM 1119. 959. 961. 855. 867. X/R 2.25 1.97 0.04 0.44 1.47
303. 801. 915. 495. 281. 2.25 1.97 0.04 0.44 1.47
X/R 1.73 1.20 0.18 0.58 1.70 14 SYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 2056.
0.27 0.67 0.51 2.16 0.33 0. 0. 0. 0. 2056.
6 SYM 785. 723. 714. 679. 586. ASYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 2281.
276. 633. 730. 372. 254. 0. 0. 0. 0. 2281.
ASYM 875. 767. 743. 680. 658. X/R 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.56
282. 637. 732. 431. 256. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.56
X/R 1.60 1.23 0.23 0.63 1.64 15 SYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 2188.
0.31 0.75 0.53 1.91 0.40 0. 0. 0. 0. 2188.
7 SYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 526. ASYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 2456.
0. 0. 0. 0. 241. 0. 0. 0. 0. 2456.
ASYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 579. X/R 0.00 0.00 0.00 0. 1.65
0. 0. 0. 0. 243. 0.00 0.00 0.00 0. 1.65
X/R 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.50 16 SYM 1972. 1721. 2403. 1708. 2202.
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.41 1972. 1721. 2403. 1708. 2202.
8 SYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 518. ASYM 2459. 1993. 2556. 1728. 2498.
0. 0. 0. 0. 240. 2459. 1993. 2556. 1728. 2498.
ASYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 569. X/R 2.60. 1.90 0.12 0.39 1.73
0. 0. 0. 0. 242. 2.60 1.90 0.12 0.39 1.73
X/R 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.49 17 SYM 2.60 1.90 0.12 0.39 1.73
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.42 0. 0. 0. 0. 2125.
9 SYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 2597. ASYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 2377.
0. 0. 0. 0. 2597. 0. 0. 0. 0. 2377.
X/R 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.62
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.62
18 SYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 2107.
0. 0. 0. 0. 2107.
ASYM 0. 0. 0. 0. 2349.
0. 0. 0. 0. 2349.
X/R 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.60
0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 1.60

48
A1
The circuit diagram of Figure 28A 1 includes current values
obtained from the program results displayed in
Table 9A1.

3-PHASE 3-PHASE
111111111
OVERHEAD UNDERGROUND
17 ++++++
¥
+
1-PHASE 1-PHASE

+ 2 L..-...=....:'-=--.....1 3
16~~H+~~~~+H~~HO-------------o
+
+
+
0
18

.+++++015

++++-+0 14
o----------9--------oS
I
I
I
12387l:141
I
I
I
I
124~~:.261 b 7

figure 28A1.
Cin:uit diagram with fault-current ranges.

49
A. Overcurrent Protection
1. FUNDAMENTALS AND THEORY

Index of Figures and Tables


FIGURE Principles of Overcurrent Protection Page
OA 1 Reclosers and fuses protect feeder segment and taps against temporary and transient faults ..................7
1A 1 Conventional definitions of protective devices based on location .........................................8
Tools for Fault Analysts
2A1 Diagram of balanced three-phase system showing conductor and phase relationships ........................9
3A1 Balanced systems of phasors used in three-phase symmetrical component analysis ........................10
4A1 Diagram of single-phase transformer with zero impedance serving a load impedance ....................... 13
5A1 Actual configuration of phase conductors referred to in Figure 6A 1 ...................................... 15
6A1 Assumed configuration of phase conductors for simplified impedance calculation ........................... 15
7A1 Cross-sectional geometry of concentric cables ......................................................22
8A1 Per-unit equivalent circuit for a two-winding transformer ...............................................26
9A1 Positive- and negative-sequence per-unit equivalent circuits of a transformer ..............................27
10A1 Transformer connections and zero-sequence equivalent circuits .........................................28
11A1 Sequence equivalents of a generator ..............................................................29
12A1 Diagram of a distribution system .................................................................30
System Faults
13A1 Line-to-ground faults ...........................................................................33
14A1 Line-to-line faults .............................................................................33
15A1 Double line-to-ground faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...........................................33
16A1 Wye-connected synchronous generator ............................................................34
17A1 Generator diagram considering only zero-sequence components ........................................34
18A1 Diagram for line-to-ground case study .............................................................35
19A1 Interconnection of sequence networks for phase A-to-ground faults ......................................36
20A1 Fault-impedance convention for Equations 39 through 43 ..............................................37
21A1 Single-phase circuit for study of current behavior immediately following a fault .............................38
22A1 Illustration of significance of transient and steady-state fault-current components ...........................39
23A1 Interaction of terms of equations in Figure 22A 1 .................................................... .40
24A1 Current waveform with largest magnetic-current peak in the second loop ................................ .41
25A1 Result of plotting the maximums of I'll ............................................................. 42
26A1 Per-unit calculation of sequence-source impedances ................................................ .44
27A1 Circuit diagram for sample case ................................................................. .46
28A1 Circuit diagram with fault-current ranges .......................................................... .49
TABLE Tools for Fault Analysis Page
1A1 Impedance of copper conductor ..................................................................16
2A1 Impedance of ACSR conductor ..................................................................17
3A1 Impedance of bare all-aluminum conductor .........................................................18
4A1 Impedance of 15 kV three-phase underground cable with 175-mil cross-linked polyethylene insulation ..........23
5A1 Impedance of 15 kV three-phase underground cable with 220-mil cross-linked polyethylene insulation .......... 23
6A1 Impedance of 15 kV three-phase underground cable with 175-mil cross-linked polyethylene insulation .......... 24
7A1 Impedance of 15 kV single-phase underground cable with 220-mil conventional polyethylene insulation .........24
System Faults
8A1 Rotating-machine reactance (or impedance) multiplies ............................................... .43
9A1 Results of computer-program calculation of fault currents ............................................. .48

50
Section A
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS


AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS

An Introduction
This section bridges the gap between fundamentals and theory, The overcurrent protection equipment covered ranges from
and application specifics. Now that the previous section (A1) single-action devices requiring replacement of at least a key
nas supplied the basis for understanding and analysis of component after each operation (fusing equipment) to apparatus
overcurrent phenomena, we present a discussion of the designed for repeated operation over many years (reclosers,
equipment available for reducing or eliminating the potential circuit breakers). Each has its place in present-day electrical
dangers of overcurrent to distribution systems and their distribution systems. Each is discussed in the following pages
:omponent feeders and apparatus. The following overcurrent as to function and characteristics, available types, and general
protection section (A3) contains specific examples of how this selection and application factors.
equipment is used, with particular emphasis on the
coordination of devices to achieve the desired balance
between protection and continuity of service.

Table of Contents, Page 2


Index of Figures and Tables, Page 79

51
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS

Fusing Equipment
Fuses are the most basic protective devices available for for overload protection. Switch links, on the other hand, have
overcurrent protection on the distribution system. Their primary no element, but are used to convert the fuse-link holder into
function is to serve as inexpensive weak links in the circuit-links a disconnect switch, if required.
that open to clear (interrupt) overcurrents and protect equipment The characteristics of an expulsion fuse link are defined by
against overloads and short circuits. They can also be used its time-current characteristics (TCC). On TCC graphs
for line sectionalizing. (Figure 2A2), the minimum-melt curve is the average melt
Fuses are available in a variety of types offering a wide less the manufacturer's tolerance, approximately 10 percent,
selection of operating characteristics. The basic types include with positive variations. The total clearing time is the average
expulsion fuses (covered under "fuse links" and "fuse cutouts" melt plus manufacturer's tolerance plus arcing time, with vari-
in the following discussions), vacuum fuses, and current-limiting ations in the negative direction. All curves are developed at
fuses. 25° C with no preloading.
Expulsion fuse links are covered under ANSI standard
DESIGNS AND CHARACTERISTICS C37.43, which defines characteristics for the following types
Fuse Links of links.
Fuse links serve as expendable, inexpensive "weak links" in The "N"-rated link was the first attempt at standardizing
expulsion-type protective devices, the most common of which fuse-link characteristics. The standard dictated that it would
are cutouts. That is, fuse links are the components replaced carry 100 percent of its rated current continuously and would
after providing the desired protection, just as blown household melt at less than 230 percent of its rating in five minutes.
fuses are replaced without disturbing the fuse box. From this, an upper limit for the TCC at five minutes is
The principal component of a fuse link is a fusible element defined. Since only the low-current end was standardized,
of various materials and dimensions that determine the time- the actual TCC shape was determined by fuse manufacturers
current characteristics. In parallel with the element is a strain and was highly variable.
wire to remove tension from the fuse link. The construction K and T links - "fast" and "slow" types, respectively - were
(Figure 1A2) utilizes a button head and a leader designed to also defined by standards in the early 1950's. For the Klink,
allow mechanical interchangeability in the cutouts or other a speed ratio of 6 to 8 is defined and for a T link, 10 to 13.
devices in which fuse links are used. Surrounding the fusible The speed ratio is the ratio of minimum-melt current at 0.1
element is an auxiliary tube that aids in the extinguishing of second to minimum-melt current at 300 or 600 seconds,
low-current faults. depending on the fuse-link current rating.
Some links make use of dual elements that reduce the Using this system, three points are established to
long-time minimum-melt currents without reducing short-time adequately describe the fuse curve: 0.1 second, 10 seconds,
minimum-melt currents. These types have special application and 300 seconds (600 seconds for 140- and 200-amp links).

Single Element FUSE ElEMENT AUXILIARYTUBE LEADER


En~ineered for accurate Provides gases for low- Stranded for strength
fusmg using a single tin current interruption. and flexibility.
element for cooler oper-

BUTIONHEAD
STRAIN WIRE
ation.

FERRULE
L
Provides exceptional ten- Copper construction for
sion relief in excess of better soldering, conduc-
standards. tivity, and strength.

Dual Element FERRULE SEAL AUXILIARY TUBE


Retains tube to assure Provides gases for low-
low-current interruption. current interruption.

BUTIONHEAD

FUSE ELEMENT LEADER


Designed for slow-speed, Stranded for strength and
high-surge withstand flexibility.
characteristics.

Figure 1A2.
Fuse-link construction, single and dual element.

52
A2

Fuse Cutouts
300 As stated earlier, distribution expulsion fuses must be used in
conjunction with another device for proper operation. The
200
most typical devices are cutouts, available in open-link, open,
and enclosed design (Figure 4A2).
100 These devices operate on the "expulsion" principle by
80
60 means of a fuse link and an arc-confining tube with a deionizing
fiber liner. When the fusible element of the fuse link melts, the
40 fiber liner melts, thereby emitting deionizing gases, which
30 accumulate within the tube. The arc is stretched, compressed,
20 and cooled within the tube, and gas escaping at the tube
ends carries away a portion of the arc-sustaining particles.
10 Reestablishment of the arc after current zero is reached is
8 prevented by the deionizing gases, and by extreme gas pressure
6 and turbulence, which increase the dielectric strength of the air
a;- 4 \ gap in the tube. High-pressure gases then expel arc-supporting
-g 3 \
ions remaining in the tube.
i
w
2
1\1\
\ '
Open-link cutouts, the simplest design, rely only on the
fuse auxiliary tube for arc confinement and to clear currents.
~ 1\1\ MAXIMUM CLEARING TIME In both open-type and enclosed cutouts, however, the fuse link
~ 1
.8 \ / is inserted in a bone-fiber tube or fuseholder that enhances
v
\'r-v v
.6 fault-clearing capability. Enclosed cutouts have terminals,
.4 fuse clips, and fuseholder mounted completely within an
.3 \ insulating enclosure, whereas open cutouts, as the name
.2 1\ indicates, have these parts completely exposed .
\ Expulsion cutouts are covered by ANSI standard C37.42.
\ They have maximum voltage ratings of 5.2 kV through 38 kV
.1 and, as a result of testing, have defined symmetrical inter-
.08
.06 7 \ rupting ratings. (Asymmetrical values also are provided in the
.04
v·.V \ \ standards "for information only.") Table 2A2 summarizes the
ratings most commonly used. In addition to continuous current,
.03 f-- _
.02
MINIMUM
MELTING TIME
\
\ "' maximum voltage, and interrupting current, ANSI C37.42
states that distribution-cutout ratings also shall include

.01
I I
I I \"' frequency, basic impulse insulation level (BIL), load-break
current, and short-time current.
g 8 88 gr-- 80 0
0
0
0
0
g
N C"l VLC'l
~ g LC'l
TABLE 2A2
CURRENT (amperes) )
Summary of Available Ratings for Distribution Cutouts
Figure 2A2. (Expulsion Type)
Typical time-current curves for 10K link. Max Design Cont. Current Interrupting
Voltage Type Ratings Sym.Amps
(kV) (amps) (kA)
Typically, in addition to these points, the long-time continuous 5.2 Enclosed 50,100 & 200 1.6 through 12.5
current of a fuse link also is specified. This would generally 7.8 Enclosed 50, 100 1 .4 through 8.0
be 150 percent of rating for tin links and 100 percent of 7 .8 Open Unk 50 1 .2
7.8/13.5 Open 100,200 3 .6 through 12.5
rating for silver links. 15.0 Open Unk 50 1.2
The standard also specifies preferred and nonpreferred 15.0 Open 100,200 2.8 through 10.0
ratings. (Table 1A2.) "Basic" and "intermediate" might be better 15/26 Open 100, 200 1.8 through 5.6
terms, since the categories were established primarily to 18 Open Unk 50 .75
27 Open 100 1.1 through 8.0
facilitate rule-of-thumb coordination, and neither group is 38 Open 100 1.3 through 8.0
actually preferred. ..
See manufacturers ' catalogs for spec1f1c rat1ngs.
Typical fuse curves of various types of links are shown in
Rgure 3A2. It should be noted that there are several types of
fuse links - not all recognized by standards - other than
those described here.

TABLE 1A2
Standard Fuse-Link Ratings
"Non-Prefferred"
Preferred Ratinas Ratinas
6, 10, 15, 25, 40, 8, 12, 20, 30,
I 65,100,140,200 50, 80

53
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Fusing Equipment (Continued)

1000

TYPICAL TIME-CURRENT CURVES


TYPES K. T. N. AND S FUSE LINKS

CURRENT {amps)

Figure 3A2.
Comparison of various fuse-link time-current characteristics.

Current-Limiting Fuses 2. The general-purpose current-limiting fuse is designed to


Current-limiting fuses {Figure 6A2) are basically non-expulsion interrupt all fault currents from its rated interrupting current
fuses that limit the energy available to the protective device. down to the current that causes element meHing in one
Thus, the possibility of catastrophic failure of the protective hour.
device can be reduced. 3. The full-range current-limiting fuse interrupts any continuous
Current-limiting fuses are available in three basic types: current (up to the rated interrupting current) that will cause
1. The backup or partial-range fuse must be used in conjunction the element to melt.
with an expulsion fuse or some other device, as it is only
capable of properly interrupting currents above a specified
level (typically 500 amperes).

54
A2

MOUNTING
BRACKET

LINE
TERMINAL

LINE
TERMINAL

Open Open-Link

Enclosed

Rlgure 4A2.
J!'stribution-type fuse cutouts.

CLIP STYLE

HINGE STYLE WITH


ARC-STRANGLER®
LOADBREAK DEVICE

Figure 6A2.
Current-limiting fuse.

Figure 5A2.
Loadbreak fuse cutout.
55
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Fusing Equipment (Continued)

A current-limiting fuse, as shown in Figure 7A2, consists of main element continues to arc, it now must do so in three
a fusible element of silver wire or ribbon. The ribbon is wound locations, thereby tripling the arc length and the area avail-
around a supporting member ("spider") which may or may not able to dissipate the circuit energy (Example C). During the ini·
produce ionizing gas to aid in clearing. The fuse is filled with tial arc period, sufficient heat is generated to decompose the
sand and installed in an insulating tube, typically of glass spider in that area, and the blast of gas evolving from the spi-
porcelain or epoxy der cools the fulgurite and reduces the length of arc needed to
The operation of the fuse is dependent on its type. For all achieve fault interruption.
types, high-fault current clearing is basically the same. A flow With other types of fuses, such as the Cooper NXC@
of current melts the full length of the element and the resulting capacitor fuse, the melting of the M spot ignites a squib at the
arc causes the element to explode, thereby vitrifying the sand end of the fuse that operates similarly to an expulsion fuse
and forming a glass tunnel which confines the arc. This glass and cutout to provide low-current clearing.
tunnel, known as fulgurite, restricts the arc by increasing the For current-limiting fuses, important factors to consider
resistance. Current is reduced and forced to an early current include let-through current, the melt l2t, the let-through l2t,
zero. and peak-arc voltage. Let-through current (Figures 9A2 and
In partial-range and full-range fuses, provision must be 10A2) depends on the point of fault initiation in the X/R of the
made for intermediate- and low-current clearing. In Cooper fault current. The minimum-melt 121 measures the fuse's ability
current-limiting fuses, for example, an "M spot" (a bit of tin- to withstand transients without being damaged. The let-through
lead alloy) is placed in the center of the main fusible element 121 measures the fuse's ability to reduce destructive effects on
to lower its initial melting temperature (Figure 8A2, Example faults. Peak-arc voltage is related to available fault current,
A). As soon as the element melts at the M spot, current is trans- the point on the cycle at which fault interruption occurs, or
ferred to an auxiliary element, a small wire wound adjacent system voltage, depending on the type of element. Silver wire
to the main element and gapped closely to the main element elements have a uniform cross-sectional area, and the peak-arc
about one-quarter of the distance from each end. A voltage voltage is a function of available fault current and the voltage
gradient appears across the arc at the M spot and across rating of the fuse (Figure 11 A2). Ribbon elements have notches
both auxiliary element gaps (Example B). Therefore, if the or cutouts which provide arc-voltage-generation control; as a

Clip-Style Current-Limiting Fuse END CAP


STANDARD
CONSTRUCTION Seated to the fuse tube
using a magnetic forma-
END FITTINGS~-:-------------_j
(CONTACTS} .
tion technique where
high-energy capacitors
Silver- or tin-plated as discharge into a maQnetic
required. Copper or red core to provide consistent
brass provides excellent force around the cap cir-
current- and heat-con- cumference.
ducting properties.
~-----EPOXY BOND
SILVER R I B B O N - - - - - - - - - - - - - For added cap-retention
ELEMENT strength.
High-purity sliver with
::!:5% tolerance assures NOTE: All 8.3, 15.5 and
accurate melting charac- 23 kv 2-lnch-dlameter NX
teristics. fuses have magniformed
end fittings.
SPIDER -:-:--:-:-:-:::-::-::7'----------
Gas-evolving support AUXILIARY ELEMENT
element to cool heat dis- - - - - - - - - - - - S i l v e r wire melts rapidly
sipated during fuse opera- to aid in low-current
tion and aid lowcurrent operation.
clearing.
: - - - - - - - - - - M SPOT(SOLDER)
AUXILIARY CONTACTS - - - - - - - . Reduces melting temper-
cause the arc length to ature of silver element at
triple during low fault cur- low fault-current opera-
rents, thus dissipating cir- tion.
cuit energy more rapidly.
----------HIGH-TEMPERATURE-
SAND-FILLED RESISTANTTUBING
Silica sand (99.5% pure) Contains internal pres-
fuses into a glass-like tun- sures during fuse opera-
nel structure (fulgurite) tion.
during fuse operation. dis-
sipating arc heat energy
rapidly.
INDICATOR BUTION - - - - - - - - . . .
Indicates a blown fuse
when protruding.

Figure 7A2.
Basic components of Cooper NX® current-limiting fuse.

56
A2
result, peak-arc voltage is mainly a function of system voltage
(Figure 12A2).
The ability to reduce the energy available to the protective
equipment, as shown in the preceding figures, is the biggest
advantage of current-limiting fuses.

MAIN ELEMENT

MSPOT\.. \

INDICATOR
WIRE
AUX. ELEMEN~ f \
GAP ELECTRODES

.....-::INITIAL ARC

B~\==~====~~c===~==~f
___ /f K
GAPS FIRE

v AUXILIARY ELEMENT
BURNING OPEN

Figure 8A2.
Low-current operation of Cooper NX current-limiting
fuse.

100
_,
~.

-
50
' ~
/
~ v ,.....,. 200
!50
"'
- ~ ::::
i---"" 130
~ 20 .... 100
~ ~ ~ ;..... 75

~ ~ ~ .,.
::::. ......
~ 65
-lij 10 ~~ 50
45
40
!
1-
z
~
a:
:::>
(,)
5
- --
~
L. ~ ~ .....
::,.....-
"""'
~~ ...-:::: ;....
~
.,...,.. ......-::
.,...,.. ~ .....
;.....
......
~ ¥~&20.
12
10
30&35

- -
~ """' ~ ~ .......
J:

-
(!l
2
...... ....... ~ 68
:::>
..... ......... ......... ...... 1""""- ~r""'
0
"""' .....
a:
J:
1-
._!.
w
~~ k t::: .,...,.. .......
.,...,..
AMPERE RATINGS
v
...J
::!
~
,., .... .....
OF FUSES
.5
1/: ....... .... r-
~ / .... .......
::!
~

.2

.1
.1 .2 .5 2 5 10 20 50 100

AVAILABLE CURRENT (nns symmetrical kiloamperes)

Figure 9A2.
Maximum Jet-through current for NX current-limiting fuses - 4.3 and 5.5 kV.

57
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Fusing Equipment (Continued)

100
/
50
/
/ ,.... ~-"'!~
0
~
Q) 20 k t;:: ::::;:. ;;;
::;...
,.... ~~~88065
~~
0.
E
"'
.Q
:i2 10
~~F' ~ """"
~
......... ::.I-" 50
40

-
-"

-
30
"'
Q)
8
1-
z
w
a:
a:
::J
5

~~
1/"
~~ ~

- ::> --
1- ,.,..
- ~
~ ~ ::;;..--
....-:: ....
....
25
20
12 & 18
10
8

-
~ .........
0
I
2 .... ~ f::::: 1- 1- .... 6
(!)
:..- ~ ~ 1-"" .........
::J
0
a:
I ~~ ~

- ~.-'"'
1-"" ...- ~ .... 3:ij
-_
1-

-
1.5
t!.
w
....1 / ...- ....
:;
::J .5 .... AMPERE RATINGS
/ ~
:; ..... ,..- OF FUSES

-
x ~~ I-"'
<(
:; v ~--"' ""' ... ,..- ~
.2
l..,.....-
"""" ...- ""'
.1 ............ 1-
.1 .2 .5 2 5 10 20 50 100
AVAILABLE CURRENT (rms symmetrical kiloamperes)

Figure 1OA2.
Maximum let-through current for NX current-limiting fuses- 8.3, 15.5, and 23 kV.

120

100
38 KV FUSES 6 THRU 12 AMP
c>
w
<!) 80
~
:..J
§2 27 KV FUSES 6 THRU 12 AMP
{)
a: 60
< I_ I I_
~ 23 KV FUSES 6 THRU 12 AMP
<
w !_ I I
a. 15.51KV FUSE~ 1.5 THRU 12 AMP
:::!!: 40
::::> I I I I I I
:::!!: 8 3 KV FUSES 1.5 THRU 12 AMP
~ ·
5.~ KV FUS~S
1
6THRU 12 AMP
I I -~
:::!!:
20

0
.1 .2 .3 .4 .5 .7 2 3 4 5 7 10 20 30 40 50 70
AVAILABLE CURRENT (rms symmetrical kiloamperes)

Figure 11 A2.
Maximum peak-arc voltage for current-limiting fuses as related to available current.

58
A2
phase-to-phase fault when one fuse operates before the second
·oo has a chance to melt.
For ungrounded systems, the maximum voltage rating of the
I cutout should equal or exceed the maximum system phase-
90

80
v to-phase voltage. For grounded systems on single-phase
taps, the maximum voltage rating should equal or exceed the
maximum phase-to-ground voltage of the system, provided
the BIL rating is compatible. For three-phase applications, a
>
=-
·-
70 / cutout should be used with its maximum voltage rating equal
to or greater than the maximum phase-to-phase voltage. On
three-phase systems, however, faults that produce conditions
~
':::: I for which a single cutout must interrupt against phase-to-phase
> 60
:i
< 50 I
v voltage are relatively rare, so that slant-rated cutouts may
commonly be used. Table 3A2 lists typical cutout applications.

v
TABLE 3A2
"'~ Typical Open-Type Cutout Applications
::i: Recommended EC~u,\~ion

/I
::; 40
::i: Svstem Voltage (kV) Cutout Ratin kV *
X Four-Wire
<: Nominal Maximum Multigrounded Delta
::i: 30
Neutral
-
20 / 2.4
2.4/4.16
4.16
2.54
2.54/4.4
4.4
7.8/15
-
7.8/15
-
7.8/15

/
I 4.8
4.8/8.32
5.1
5.1/8.8
-
7.8/15
7.8/15
-
10 6.9 7.26 - 7.8/15

0 /
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35
6.93/12
7.2
7.2/12.47
7.62
7.3/12.7
7.62
7.62113.2
8.1
7.8/15

7.8/15
-
-
7.8/15
-
7.8/15
CIRCUIT VOLTAGE (kv) 7.62/13.2 8.1/14.0 15 -
7.97 8.4 - 7.8/15
Figure 12A2. 7.97/13.8 8.4/14.5 15
Maximum peak-arc voltage for current-limiting fuses as 8.32 8.8 - 7.8/15
related to circuit voltage. 8.32/14.4 8.8/15.2 15
12/20.8 12.7/22 15/27 -
12.47 13.2 - 7.8/15
FUSE APPLICATION FACTORS
13.2/22.9 14/24.2 15/27 -
13.2 14 - 7.8115
.Fuse CutoutS/Fuse Links 13.8 14.5 - 7.8/15
3ecause fuse links are used primarily in expulsion-fuse 14.4/24.9 15.2/26.4 15/27 -
14.4 15.2 15
:utouts, the first step in their application is selection of the -
19.9134.5 21.1/36.5 27/38
appropri~te fu~ cutout rating. To determine this rating, system 34.5 36.5 - 27/38
<'Oitage, msulat1on level, maximum available fault current at
application point, X/R ratio, and maximum load current must
.For mulllph~;~se il!ults not mvolvtng ground, slant-rated units rely on two
cutouts tn senes to mte!"'upt the tault and share the recovery voltage. In systems
all be known. From this, the fuse cutout can be selected wtth an ?~er-/underbutld of the same voltage or a situation where the line
~tonalizmg cutouts are spaced apart on diftarent spans, conditions could
:lased on continuous current, voltage, and interrupting capacity. extst where one cutout would be required to interrupt at phase-to-phase
The rated continuous current of the fuse cutout should be voltage. In such applications, lull-rated cutouts must be used.
;;reater than the maximum continuous load current the cutout
11ould be required to carry, including normal currents overload
The symmetrical interrupting rating of a fuse should be
currents, sustained harmonic currents, etc. '
equal to or greater than the maximum fault current at the fuse
Voltage selection is made based on the phase-to-phase or
location. Cutout interrupting ratings are based on X/R values
ohase-to-ground v?lta~~· depending on the system grounding
that are equal to or greater than those encountered on the
and whether the c1rcu1t 1s three phase or single phase. Either
majority of distribution systems. Close to substations where
X/R ratios may be particularly high, cutouts may ha~e to be
a full-rated cutout or a slant-rated cutout can be used.
. By standards, ~ full-rated cutout, which is designated by a
derated as shown in Figure 13A2.
s1ngle voltage rat1ng (such as 15 kV), must be able to interrupt
Where system fault currents are known, it is a simple matter
any ~ault curr~nt up to its maximum interrupting rating at its
to choose a cutout whose symmetrical and asymmetrical
max1mum des1gned voltage.
interrupting ratings are greater than the symmetrical and
. T~e rating of a slant-rated cutout (for example, 15/27 kV)
asymmetrical values of fault current. For example, Table 4A2
1mphes that one cutout i~ capa~le of i~terrupting its full rating
lists both types of interrupting ratings for a cutout with
when the lower voltage IS applied to 1t. It also is implied that
100 ampere fuse holder, and such information is available
two cutouts in series will interrupt the full rating when the
from cutout manufacturers. Also, asymmetrical fault current
higher number is applied (representing a high-magnitude
can be calculated by multiplying the symmetrical value by a
phase-to-phase fault). The cutout must also be able to inter-
factor obtained from the curve shown in Figure 13A2.
rupt low currents .(typicE~:IIY up to 500-1000 amperes) at the
h1gher voltage rat1ng. Th1s would represent a low-magnitude

59
A2
Generally, single-phase circuits may be protected by current-
limiting fuses whose ratings are greater than the line-to-
(/)
w 120· ground voltage, whereas three-phase circuits require fuses
>
cr: ~, with suitable line-to-line ratings. In certain cases, line-to-
3 115 ·-.....t/1\1 ground ratings may be applied on three-phase systems,
:::i
::l
:l. 110 '' provided the post-interruption voltage impressed across the
fuse does not exceed the maximum design voltage. For this

-- ----' .. '....'........'~ , .. __
5 condition, it is assumed that two current-limiting fuses in
f
JJ
105 ---~llVEA series will share the impressed voltage for the given fault
:2 condition. Table 5A2 shows the recommended voltage ratings
- 100 and applications of current-limiting fuses.
:,)
~
:::; 95
' ---,., For equipment protection, the interrupting requirement of
the current-limiting fuse must coordinate with the equipment
...J
2
90
40 30 20 10 0 10
'' .........
it is protecting. The time-current characteristic must also
coordinate with other protective devices on the system, par-
20 30 40 50 ticularly when there are backup fuses and an expulsion fuse
AMBIENT TEMPERATURE DEGREES CENTIGRADE
must be relied on for low-current clearing. These points will
be discussed in more detail in later sections.
Figure 15A2.
Ambient temperature derating factors for fuse links. Like fuse links, current-limiting fuses must be derated
under certain ambient temperature conditions. The derating
factors for various applications are shown in Figure 16A2.
Current-Limiting Fuse Selection
:::;,ment-limiting fuses are selected primarily on the basis of
:'leir voltage rating. Factors to consider in determining suit- 140
::.Die ratings are the type of system, maximum system volt-
:;.ge, transformer winding conditions if fuses are to protect a 130
::-ansformer, neutral grounding, and type of loading. 120

I=' 110 IN FUSE CANISTER IN OIL -


TABLE 5A2 z
w .....

""'--
I I I
Recommended Current-Limiting Fuse Voltage Ratings a: 100
ecce
System Voltage (kV) Recommended NX Fuse Rating (kV) 125 90
... l'...... I IN TRANSFORMER
BUSHING
Four-Wire ~!:;j
u.;W ~~ I
Multigrounded Delta (!l:::E 80
/
"' " "
Nominal Maximum Neutral ?;:::E
!;(:::) 70
Single- Three- Single- Three- a:!!] FREE AIR
Phase Phase Phase Phase wz ~
o- 60
2.4 2.54 - - 4.3 4.3 1-:::E
z..J "
2.4/4.16 2.54/4.4 4.3 5.5* w<C 50
4.16 4.4 - 4.3 4.3 a:?;
CC:::E
4.8 5.1 - 5.5 5.5 :>a 40
4.8/8.32 5.1/8.8 5.5 8.3* - - Uz
lL
6.9 7.26 - - 8.3 8.3 0 30 DERATING FACTOR FOR NX FUSES
6.93/12 7.3/12.7 8.3 15.5* - e3
7.2 7.62 - - 8.3 8.3 20
7.2112.47 7.62/13.2 8.3 15.5* - - 10
7.97 8.4 - 8.3 8.3
7.97/13.8 8.4/14.5 8.3 15.5* -
8.32 8.8 - - 8.3 8.3 0
0 25 50 75 100 125 150 175
8.32/14.4 8.8/15.2 8.3 15.5* - -
12120/8 12.7/22 15.5 23* - - FREE AIR OR TOP OIL TEMPERATURE
12.47 13.2 - - 15.5 15.5
13.2122.9 14/24.2 15.5 23* - - Figure 16A2.
13.2 14.5 - 15.5 15.5 Ambient temperature derating factors for NX current-
14.4/24.9 15.2/26.4 15.5 27* - - limiting fuse applications.
14.4 15.2 - 15.5 15.5
19.9/34.5 21.1/36.5 23 38* -
34.5 36.5 - 38 38

'.!>.line-to-neutral rating may be used if certain parameters are met;


see three-phase applications.

61
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS

Automatic Circuit Reclosers


An automatic circuit recloser is a self-contained device with the nications equipment allowing it to be linked with supervisor
necessary circuit intelligence to sense over-currents, to time and systems and/or peer devices.
interrupt the overcurrents, and to reclose automatically to re·
energize the line. If the fault should be "permanent:' the recloser RECLOSER CLASSIFICATIONS
will "lock open" after a preset number of operations {usually Automatic circuit reclosers are classied on the basis of single-
three or four) and thus isolate the faulted section from the main phase, three-phase or triple/single. Table 6A2 summarizes
part of the system. typical ratings in these classifications and identifies units
Most faults on overhead distribution systems - perhaps as specifically designed for pad-mounted installation.
high as 70 to 80 percent- are likely to be temporary in nature
and last only a few cycles to a few seconds at the most. Single-Phase Reclosers
Automatic circuit reclosers, with their ''trip and reclose" capa- Single-phase reclosers {Figures 17A2 and 18A2) are used
bility, eliminate prolonged outages on distribution systems for protection of single-phase lines, such as branches or taps
due to temporary faults or transient over-current conditions. of a three-phase feeder. They can also be used on three·
Although overcurrent protection is the primary duty for phase circuits where the load is predominantly single-phase.
reclosers, electronically controlled devices can be programmed Thus, when a permanent phase-to-ground fault occurs, one
to operate on a variety of circuit conditions. Some controls phase can be locked out while service is maintained to the
include voltage inputs. Controls can be equipped with commu- remaining two-thirds of the system.
TABLE 6A2
Summary of Cooper Reclosers
Interrupting Rating
Voltage Rating Max Cont. Current (sym amps at Interrupting Insulating Reloser
(kV) Rating (amps) max voltage) Medium Medium Control Typet
ISingle· Phase
50 1250 Oil Oil Hydraulic H
100 2000* Oil Oil Hydraulic 4H
200 2000* Vacuum Oil Hydraulic V4H
200 2000* Vacuum Oil Hydraulic PV4H**
15
280
280
4000*
6000
Oil
Vacuum
Oil
Oil
Hydraulic
Hydraulic
L
V4L I
560 10000* Oil on Hydraulic D
400 8000 Vacuum Oil Electronic VXE
400 8000 Vacuum Solid Dielectric Electronic NOVA1
800 12500 Vacuum Solid Dielectric Electronic NOVA1
100 2500 Oil Oil Hydraulic E
280 4000 Oi Oil Hydraulic 4E

s
27 400 8000 Vacuum Oil Electronic VXE
400
800
8000
125000
Vacuum
Vacuum ~ic
S ric
NOVA1
NOVA1
35 560 8000 Oil Oil r DV
rhrAB·Phase
100 2000* Oil Oil Hydraulic 6H
200 2000* Oil Oil Hydraulic V6H
560 10000* Oil Oil Hydraulic w
560*** 10000* Oil Oil Electronic WE
560 12000 Vacuum Oil Hydraulic PWH**
15 560 12000 Vacuum Oil Hydraulic vw I
560 12000 Vacuum Oil Electronic PWE***
560*** 12000 Vacuum Oil Electronic VWE
630 12500 Vacuum Solid Dielectric Electronic NOVA
800 12500 Vacuum Solid Dielectric Electronic NOVA
800 16000 Vacuum Solid Dielectric Electronic NOVA
560*** 12000 Vacuum Air Electronic VSA12
560 16000 Vacuum Air Electronic VSA16
800 16000 Vacuum Air Electronic VSA16
1 ~o~
8
~g~og ~:g~um
uum ~~~ ~~~ronic
tronic
VSA,~~
VSA2 A
560 12000 Vacuum Oil Hydraulip VWV27
27 560*** 12000 Vacuum Oil VWVE27
560 12000 Vacuum Oil PWVH**
560 12000 Vacuum Oil nic PWVE**
Vacuum So~~~ Dielectric
~5~ 12~gp0 Electronic NOVA
8 0 125 Vacuum Soli Dielectric Electronic NOVA
560 8000 Oil Oil Hydraulic wv
560*** 8000 Oil Oil Hydraulic WVE
35 560 12000 Vacuum Oil Hydraulic VWV38
560*** 12000 Vacuum Oil Electronic VWVE38
560*** 12000 Vacuum Oil Electronic VS012
560 16000 Vacuum Oil Electronic VS016
ITrlple Single

I&R!I
15 400 12500 Vacuum f<.!QYA
800 12500 Vacuum NOVA
27 400 12500 Vacuum NOVA
800 12500 Vacuum NOVA
* Interrupting rating Will be higher at lower voltage.
•• Pad-mounted reclosers. All others are overhead- or substation-type
••• Continuous current rating can be extended to 800 amps with an accessory . .
t NOTE: Recloser type designations are assigned by the manufacturer and are not universal. Cooper Power Systems type des1gnabons are the most complete
listing of reclosers in the industry, and are used in this manual for convenience in identifying recloser groupings and ratings.

62
A2

Figure 17A2.
Pole-top installation of single-phase recloser.

Figure 18A2.
Single-phase recloser.

~19A2.
•~Type NOVA-TS Triple-Single Recloser.

63
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Automatic Circuit Reclosers (Continued)

Three-phase Reclosers
Three-phase reclosers (Figures 20A2 and 21A2) are used
where lockout of all three phases is required for any permanent
fault, to prevent single phasing of three-phase loads such as
large three-phase motors.

Triple-Single Reclosers (Figure 19A2)


Triple-Single Reclosers are electronically controlled and have
three modes of operation. In the single-phase mode each
phase responds to fault currents independently. This mode
will allow only the phase experiencing the fault to trip while
maintaining continuity of service on those unaffected.ln addi-
tion, the control can sense, trip and lockout for ground faults.
Ground faults are an imbalance between all three-phases
and as a result all three phase will trip and lockout all three-
phases. Ground faults sensing is automatically disabled anytime
a phase fault has resulted in the tripping or lockout of one- or
two-phases.
The single-phase trip/three-phase lockout mode permits
single-phase trip operation for single-phase faults, three-phase
operation tor ground faults. Permanent phase or ground faults
will result in the lockout of all three phases.
The three-phase mode will operate exactly like a the three-
Figure 20A2.
phase recloser described above. Three-phase recloser.

Figure 21 A2.
Three-phase NOVA electronically controlled recloser.

64
A2
Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers proportional to the minimum trip current programmed, (3) the
-1ydraulic control is used in single-phase reclosers and three- level-detection and timing logic is activated. After a time
:::~ase reclosers listed in Table 6A2. This type of control, which delay, as determined by the programmed time-current char-
s an integral part of the recloser, senses an overcurrent by acteristic, (4) the trip circuit is energized, sending a trip sig-
-neans of a series trip coil connected in series with the line. nal to the recloser. (5) A sequence counter then operates, (6)
Nhen current in excess of the coil's minimum trip rating flows causing the reclosing and reset logic to begin timing and
·'irough the coil, a plunger is drawn into the coil to trip open advancing the control program to its next preset operation.
::1e recloser contacts. Timing and sequencing are accom- After the programmed reclosing time expires, (7) a close
::Jiished by the "pumping" of oil through separate hydraulic signal is sent to the recloser and the current sensing begins
:1ambers. again. When the reset time expires, the sequence counter
One of two contact closing methods is used in hydraulically resets the control program to its starting position.
::ontrolled reclosers. In single-phase reclosers rated 280 The control will lock out immediately following a trip signal
a11peres and below, and in three-phase reclosers rated 200 after the programmed number of trip operations occur. When
amperes and below, contacts are closed by springs loaded locked out, the control does not reset or send a close signal
':!Y movement of the series-trip-coil plunger during the over- until the closing operation is manually activated from the control
:;ment opening operation. On 560-ampere single-phase panel or by a remote signal.
·eclosers and three-phase reclosers rated 400 amperes and Electronically controlled reclosers utilized solenoids, motors
.., igher, closing power is provided by a separate closing solenoid or magnetic actuators to open and close interrupters.
::!"!ergized from the line potential on the source side of the
·ecloser. (An optional closing solenoid arrangement can be ~sol Interrupters
Jsed for closing from ex1ernal120- or 240-Vac power.) Reclosers utilize either oil or vacuum as the interrupting
medium. When oil is used, the same oil is used for both arc
Electronically Controlled Reclosers interruption and basic insulation. Some reclosers with
--,e electronic method of recloser control is more flexible, hydraulic control also utilize the same oil for the timing and
~10re easily adjusted and tested, and more accurate than counting functions.
··ydraulic control. The electronic control conveniently permits Use of vacuum as an interrupting medium provides the
::1anging the time-current characteristics, trip current levels, advantages of reduced maintenance and minimum external
3.!1d recloser operation sequences without deenergizing or reaction. Some recloser types are available with either an oil
Jntanking the recloser. A wide range of programming options interrupter or a vacuum interrupter. Vacuum reclosers may
3.llow the operation of the control to be modified to solve many utilize either oil or air as the basic insulating medium.
:: fferent application problems.
Electronic controls are available utilizing microprocessor Types of Insulating Mediums
ogic. Greatly simplied, the operation of the logic is illustrated Reclosers insult those components at line potential with any
'1 Figure 21A2. (1) Line current is sensed by three bushing- one of the following materials:
:Jpe sensing transformers inside the recloser. Secondary • Mineral Oil
:urrents from these transformers are carried to the control by • Air
a rnulticonductor cable that also carries trip-and-close signals • High dielectric gas, such as SFa
:::;ack to the recloser. When these secondary currents, (2) • Solid dielectric, such as polymers.
"towing through sensing circuits in the control, exceed a level

CLOSE-INITIATING CIRCUIT
RECLOSER
TRIP-INITIATING CIRCUIT
I (~)
/1"~
,.._:_.. "-~":
:--- SENSING
LEVEL DETECTION
SEQUENCE RECLOSE
TRIP
BUSHING r-- CIRCUIT r- AND
r- CIRCUIT :--- COUNTER r-- TIMING
C-T's
r--
TIMING CIRCUIT
.... r-

~ PHASE-TRIP NETWORK t
~---1 ------- I
I I I I
l!
1
SENSING
ciRCUIT

I _ _ _ __.JI
I
~1
I LEVEL DETECTION
TIMIN~~?RcUIT
I- - - - - - -I
I
r---
I
- RESET
TIMING
-
GROUND-TRIP NETWORK

Figure 22A2.
Block diagram of electronic recloser control.

65
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Automatic Circuit Reclosers (Continued)

5. Coordination with other protective devices on both source


and load sides of the recloser.
6. Ground-fault sensing.
System Voltage
The system voltage will be known and the recloser must have
a voltage rating equal to or greater than the system voltage.

Maximum Fault Current


The maximum fault current will be known or can be calculated.
The recloser interrupting rating must be equal to or greater
than the maximum available fault current.

Maximum Load Current


The maximum continuous current rating of the recloser must be
equal to or greater than the maximum load current anticipated
for the circuit.
In hydraulically controlled reclosers, the continuous current
rating of the series coil selected may be equal to or greater
than the anticipted circuit load. The coil can be selected to
Figure 23A2. match the present load current, anticipated future load current,
Electronic recloser controls utilizing microprocessor or substation transformer capacity. The minimum trip rating,
based logic. also a property of the series coil, normally is twice the coil's
continuous rating and should be at least twice the expected
peak load current.
In electronically controlled reclosers, the minimum trip current
RECLOSER LOCATIONS AND FUNCTIONS is selected independently of the recloser's maximum continuous
Reclosers can be used anywhere on a system where the current rating, although it normally does not exceed twice
recloser ratings are adequate for the system requirements. that value. Generally, a trip current value at least twice the
Logical locations are: expected peak load current is used.
1. In substations as the primary feeder protective device. For some circuits, such as those that have high air
2. On the lines at a distance from a substation, to sectionalize conditioning loads or electric heating loads, difficulties may be
long feeders and thus prevent outages of the entire feeder experienced when attempting to re-energize the circuit after
when a permanent fault occurs near the end of the feeder. an extended outage (cold load pickup}. For these applications,
3. On the taps of main feeders, to protect the main feeder a trip current setting of 250 percent, or higher, of the peak
from interruptions and outages due to faults on the taps. load current may be required.
Pad-mounted Reclosers
In addition to overhead and substation types, reclosers are Minimum Fault Current
available as pad-mounted units to provide simple, direct The minimum fault current that might occur at the end of the
connections to underground cable systems. line section to be protected must be checked to determine
Some substations utilize UG cable and pad-mounted that the recloser will sense and interrupt this current.
equipment to achieve smaller size and low profile, possibly NOTE: The "minimum fault current" values used in applying
with feeder circuits exiting via UG cable and changing to reclosers and other overcu rrent protection devices are
conventional overhead distribution feeders at nearby riser arbitrary values based on the particular utility's determination
poles. In such substations, and wherever underground sys- as to the level of protection needed for the zone in question.
tems convert to overhead, pad-mounted reclosers offer the Obviously, the true minimum fault level at any point on any
advantages of convenient UG cable connection and low pro- system is zero.
file while providing the desired protection for downline over- Coordination with Other Protective Devices
head distribution feeders. Coordination with other protective devices, both source-side
Pad-mounted reclosers can also be used on UG systems and load-side, becomes important after the first four application
for protection of the cable circuits and as primary protection factors are satisfied. Proper selection of time delays and
for transformers. In these applications, where reclosing oper- sequences is vital to ensure that any momentary interruption
ations are not used, the recloser can be set for one-trip oper- or longer outage due to faults is restricted to the smallest
ation to lockout, thus providing an economical circuit/trans- possible section of the system. Generally, the time-current
former protective device. characteristics and operating sequence of a recloser are
selected to coordinate with source-side devices. After a specific
RECLOSER APPLICATION FACTORS recloser size and sequence are determined, protective
Six major factors must be considered for proper application equipment farther down the line is then selected to coordinate
of automatic circuit reclosers: with it.
1. System voltage.
2. Maximum fault current available at the point of recloser
location.
3. Maximum load current.
4. Minimum fault current within the zone to be protected by
the recloser.

66
A2

DUAL TIMING A three-phase recloser can have a more sensitive setting


Automatic circuit reclosers have dual timing capabilities that for ground faults, and thus have greater "reach," by utilizing
serve an important function in coordinating with other protective residual current detection for ground-fault sensing. This sensing
devices and in helping limit the areas affected by permanent permits setting of the ground-fault trip current well below the
faults. A typical recloser operating sequence to "lockout" (for phase-trip current.
a permanent fault) is illustrated in Figure 23A2. Many utilities utilize a ground-fault trip setting approximately
As shown, the first fault-current interruptions (one or more) equal to the peak load current. This results in a ground-fault
are performed in accordance with a "fast" timing characteristic. setting of 40 to 50 percent of the phase-trip setting and
The remaining interruptions to lockout incorporate a prede- ensures that there will be no unnecessary trips due to load
termined time delay. The first operations are fast in order to unbalance or operation of downline single-phase protective
clear temporary faults before any downline fuse operation. If devices (fuses or reclosers).
the fault is permanent, the time-delay operation allows a When even greater recloser reach is needed, the ground-fault
device nearer the fault to interrupt the overcurrent, thereby trip setting can be more sensitive than the peak load current
limiting the outage to a smaller portion of the system. To prevent any unnecessary trip operation, the ground-fault
trip setting must be greater than the normal maximum phase-
Ground-Fault Sensing current unbalance plus the added unbalance that would be
The majority of faults on the typical utility system (wye con- created by an operation of the largest downline single-phase
nected) involve either the neutral or the ground and are com- protective device. Note, however, that sympathetic tripping
monly referred to as "ground" faults. Such faults are com- conditions may in some cases dictate higher settings.
monly revealed through the detection of over-current, which When ground-fault sensing is used with a three-phase
is accomplished by sensing the residual current of three- recloser, the ground-fault settings (minimum trip and timing)
phase current transformers. The residual current measured, must be coordinated with the phase-trip settings of the downline
the zero-sequence current of the circuit, is comprised of both single-phase recloser. That is, the ground-fault minimum trip
the line-to-ground (or neutral) fault current plus the unbal- and timings must be greater than those of the downline
ance current of the three-phase feeder. recloser. This will insure trip and lockout of the downline
The standard phase-current sensing of reclosers will recloser on any fault beyond it without causing lockout of the
detect ground-fault currents when the total current through upline three-phase recloser.
any phase (load plus ground fault) exceeds the minimum
phase-trip setting. However, since this setting is relatively high
(two to two-and-a-half times peak load current), many ground
faults may not be detected. Since many of the ground faults
occur at some distance from the substation, the magnitude is
limited by the line impedance, ground resistance, and arc
resistance.

j ! "FAST" ,dPER:b.'T'IONS . "TIME-DELAY" OPER.ATIONS


(~O!iTACTS ¢ LOSED) (CONTACTS CLOSED)

RECLOSER
LOCKOUT
(CONTACTS OPEN)

-
T IME
RECLOSING INTERVALS (CONTACTS OPEN)

Figure 24A2.
Typical recloser operating sequence to lockout.


A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS

Sectionalizers
A sectionalizer is a protective device that automatically isolates
faulted sections of line from a distribution system. Normally
applied in conjunction with a backup recloser or breaker, a
sectionalizer does not have any fault-interrupting capability of
its own. Rather, it counts the operations of the backup device
during fault conditions and, after a preselected number of
current-interrupting operations and while the backup device
is open, the sectionalizer opens to isolate the faulted section
of line. This allows the backup device to reclose into the
remaining unfaulted sections, thus restoring them to service.
If the fault is temporary, however, it will be cleared by the
backup device prior to the sectionalizer count to lockout, and
the sectionalizer will remain closed. The sectionalizer mechanism
then automatically resets to prepare for another complete
cycle of operations should a new fault occur.
Compared to fuse cutouts, which do, of course, have full
interrupting capability, sectionalizers provide several advantages
that, depending on the application and the particular utility's
approach to overcurrent protection, can offset a higher initial
cost. These advantages include application flexibil ity,
convenience, and safety.
After a permanent fault, for example, the fault-closing
capability of a sectionalizer greatly simplifies testing of the
circuit, and if the fault is still present, interruption takes place Figure 25A2.
safely at the backup recloser. Since replacement fuse links Typical electronically controlled sectionalizer.
are not required, the line can be tested and restored to service
with far more speed and convenience. Also, the possibility of
error in selecting the size and type of fuse link is eliminated.
In addition to providing the general advantages just cited, Electronically Controlled Sectionalizers
sectionalizers are particularly suitable for two applications The electronic control used with larger three-phase sectionalizers
where time-current characteristics (which sectionalizers do is more flexible and more easily adjusted than the hydraulic
not have) might pose coordination problems: control. It conveniently permits changing actuating current
1. They can be used between two protective devices with levels, shots to lockout, and memory time without deenergizing
operating curves that are close together. This is a vital or untanking the sectionalizer. A wide range of accessories is
feature in locations where additional coordination steps are available to modify the basic operation and solve many
impractical or impossible. different application problems.
2. They can be used on close-in taps where high fault Line current is detected by sensing current transformers in
magnitude prevents coordination of fuses with the backup the sectionalizer. Intelligence from the current transformers is
recloser or breaker. sent to an electronic cirruit that counts the nurroer of operations
of the backup interrupting device and then sends a trip signal
when necessary to activate an electromechanical release of
SECTIONALIZER CLASSIFICATIONS
the contact opening springs. Some electronically controlled
Sectionalizers are available in single- and three-phase versions sectionalizers are motor operated and may be closed either
controlled by hydraulic or electronic counting mechanisms: electrically or manually; others must be manually closed.
Table 7A2 lists representative ratings. Figure 24A2 shows an
electronically controlled unit. SECTIONALIZER FEATURES
Sectionalizer features include count reset, ground-fault sensing,
Hydraulically Controlled Sectionalizers
and various restraints that prevent unnecessary or undesirable
Hydraulic control, as used in all single-phase sectionalizers
operation and lockout (for example, by distinguishing
and in smaller three-phase units, is an integral part of the between the operation of load-side and source-side inter-
sectionalizer. This type of control senses overcurrent by
rupting devices). These features are covered in detail in the
means of a coil connected in series with the line. When over-
discussions of sectionalizer applications in Section A3.
current flows through the coil, a plunger is drawn into the coil
to arm the counting mechanism. When the over-current dis-
SECTIONALIZER APPLICATION FACTORS
appears, a count is accomplished by "pumping" oil through
hydraulic chambers. After a preselected number of pumping The following factors must be considered when applying
operations, a latch is released to allow preloaded springs to sectionalizers:
open the contacts. Hydraulically controlled sectionalizers 1. System voltage.
must be manually closed. 2. Maximum load current.
3. Maximum fault current available.
4. Coordination with other protective devices.

68
A2

System Voltage greater than the maximum available fault current. The maxi-
The system voltage will be known and the sectionalizer must mum fault timing of the backup device must not exceed the
have a voltage rating equal to or greater than the system voltage. short-time rating of the sectionalizer.

Maximum Load Current Coordination with Other Protective Devices


The sectionalizer continuous-current rating should be equal Coordination with other protective devices, both source-side
to or greater than the anticipated maximum circuit load. and load-side, becomes a factor after the first three factors
are satisfied. At .this point, actuating levels, shots-to-lockout of the
Maximum Fault Current backup device, and memory time of the sectionalizer become
The maximum fault current will be known or can be calculated, prime considerations. These considerations are discussed in
and the sectionalizer momentary ratings must be equal to or detail in Section A3, "Applications and Coordination."

TABLE 7A2
Typical Sectionalizer Ratings
Hydraulically Controlled- 14.4 and 24.9 kV
Three-Phase
Single-Phase, Type GN3:14.4 kV, 110-kV BIL
Type GH: 95- or 125-kV BIL Type GN3V: 24.9 kV, 125-kV BIL
Continuous Symmetrical Actuating
Current Interrupting Current Short-Time Current Ratinas lamoeresl
Rating (loadbreak Rating Momentary Momentary
(amperes) amperes) (amperes) and Making One- Ten- and Making One- Ten
Current Second Second Current Second Second
(asymmetric) (symmetric)
5 1-Phase 3-Phase 8 800 200 60 800 200 60
10 Units Units 16 1600 400 125 1600 400 125
15 24 2400 600 190 2400 600 190
25 40 4000 1000 325 4000 1000 325
35 56 6000 1500 450 6000 1500 450
50 308 440 80 6500 2000 650 7000 2000 650
70 112 6500 3000 900 8000 4000 900
100 160 6500 4000 1250 8000 4000 1250
140 224 6500 4000 1800 8000 4000 1800
160 256 - - - 9000 4000 2600
185
200
296
320
-
-
-
-
-
-
9000
9000
5700
5700
2600
2600
Electronically Controlled, Three-Phase-14.4, 24.9, and 34.5 kV
14.4-kV, 24.9-kV, 110-kV 34.5-kV and 150-kV BIL
and 125-kV BIL
Continuous Symmetrical Actuating
Current Interrupting Current Short-Time Current Ratinas lamoeres)
Rating (loadbreak Rating Momentary Momentary
(amperes) amperes) (amperes) and Making One- Ten- and Making One- Ten-

I 16
Current
(asymmetric)
Second Second Current
(symmetric)
Second Second

24
40
56
80
200* 440 112
160
9000 5700 2600 - - -
224
256
296
320
16
24
40
56
80
400** 880 112 15000 10000 3500 15000 10000 3500
160
224
320
448
640
• Type GN3E: 14.4 kV; Type GN3VE: 24.9 kV.
- Type GV: 14.4 kV; Types GW : 34.5 kV.
NOTE: Sectionalizer type designations are assigned by the manufacturer and are not universal. Cooper type designations are used in this manual for CCliMliWn:e
in identifying sectionalizer groupings and ratings.
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS

Circuit Breakers and Relays


Circuit breakers and relays are grouped together in this dis- Circuit breakers also have a stored-energy mechanism that
cussion of equipment characteristics and general application allows the breaker contacts to be closed several times after
factors because relays are normally used with breakers to power has been lost. The types of stored-energy mechanisms
achieve automatic tripping and closing of breaker contacts in and the respective numbers of closing/opening operations
overcurrent protection service. Subjects to be covered include required by ANSI37.12-1981 are as follows:
classifications of breakers and the selection of appropriate 1. Compressed air or other gas: two closing/opening
ratings, plus the types of relays used in distribution protection operations.
and their time-current characteristics. 2. Pneumatic or hydraulic: five closing/opening operations.
3. Motor-compressed spring: one closing/opening operation,
CIRCUIT BREAKER CHARACTERISTICS with spring reset within ten seconds.
AND CLASSIFICATIONS
A circuit breaker is usually employed at the substation level
in distribution-system overcurrent protection applications. By
definition (ANSI C37. 100), a circuit breaker is a mechanical
switching device capable of making, carrying, and breaking
currents under normal circuit conditions, and also capable of
making, carrying for a specified time, and breaking currents
under specified abnormal circuit conditions such as short circuits.
Breakers can be tripped and closed manually or by the use
of external relays or electronic controls. Because of their high
interrupting capacity and high continuous current capacity,
they are relatively expensive and bulky compared to other
distribution-system protective devices.
Circuit breakers can be classified according to both their
interrupting medium and their method of storing energy.
Interruption of currents following separation of contacts may
take the following forms:
1. Oil interruption.
2. Vacuum interruption.
3. Air-blast interruption.
4. SF6 (gas) interruption.
5. Air-magnetic interruption-available with indoor (metalclad)
breakers.
In distribution-system applications the breakers usually are oil,
vacuum, or air-magnetic. Examples of breakers with distribution
voltage ratings are shown in Figure 25A2 (oil interruption)
and Figure 26A2 (vacuum interruption).

Figure 26A2.
Kyle Type VSA20B air-insulated, electronically-controlled
vacuum circuit breaker.

70
A2
TABLE 8A2
Preferred Ratings for Outdoor Oil Circuit Breakers
Related Required Capabilities
Current Values
Rated Values Max 3-Second Closing-
I Symmet- Short- and-
I Current rical Time Latching
Voltage Insulation Level Rated Transient Inter- Current- Capability
Rated Short- Recovery Rated rupting Carrying 1.6 K
Rated Withstand Continuous Circuit Voltage Per- Rated Capability Capability Times
Rated Test Voltage Current Current Rated Rated missible Max Rated
Rated Voltage at at Time to Inter- Tripping Voltage K Times Rated Short-
Max Range Low 60Hz Rated Point P rupting Delay Divided Short-Circuit Circuit
'lloltage Factor, Frequency Impulse (Amperes, Max kV T2 Time y byK Current Current
{llV, rms) K (kA, rms) (kV, Crest) rms) (KA,rms (ps) (Cycles) (Seconds) (kA, rms) (kA, rms) (kA, rms) (kA, rms)
Col. 1 Col. 2 Col.3 Col.4 Col. 5 Col. 6 Col. 7 Coi.S Col.9 Col.10 Col.11 Col.12 Col.13
15.5 2.67 600 8.9 36 5 2 5.8 24 24 38
15.5 1.29 1200 18 33 5 2 12 23 23 37
25.8 2.15 See Discussion 1200 11 52 5 2 12 24 24 38
38 1.65 in Text 1200 22 63 5 2 23 36 36 58
48.3 1.21 1200 17 80 5 2 40 21 21 33
72.5 1.21 1200 19 106 5 2 60 23 23 37

CIRCUIT BREAKER RATINGS amperes. The continuous load current of the system- including
~EMA SG-4 preferred ratings for alternating-current high-
load transfer and contingencies-plus allowances for load
dage circuit breakers are listed in Table 8A2 (a slightly growth dictate the continuous current rating required.
-evised version ofTable 3 in ANSI C37.06-1979). The ratings Rated Short-Circuit Current
and their applications are explained below in accordance (at Rated Maximum kV) (Col. 6)
rih the ANSI standards. Note that headings in the text relate To obtain the required symmetrical-current interrupting capability
1D table column headings.
of a circuit breaker at an operating voltage between 1/K times
Rated Maximum Voltage (Col. 1) rated maximum voltage and rated maximum voltage, the
The wltage rating is based on ANSI C84-1-19n, voltage ratings following formula shall be used:
b electric power systems and equipment (60 Hz), where Rated Symmetrical-Current Interrupting Capability =
applicable. It is the maximum voltage for which the breaker is
designed and the upper limit for operation. . . (Maximum Voltage}
Rated Short-C1rcu1t Current Rated Operating Voltage
Rated Voltage Range Factor, K (Col. 2)
K is the ratio of maximum rated voltage to the lower limit of the For operating voltages below 1/K times rated maximum
'31Qe of operating voltage, in which the required symmetrical voltage, the required symmetrical-current interrupting capability
cni asymmetrical current interrupting capabilities vary in of the circuit breaker shall be equal to K times rated short-circuit
nverse proportion to the operating voltage. current.
1R ated Withstand Test Voltage, Transient Recovery Voltage,
Low Frequency (Col. 3) Rated Time to Point P (Col. 7)
The rated low-frequency withstand voltage (dry) is the test At its rated maximum voltage, each circuit breaker must be
dage that a new circuit breaker, when tested dry and under capable of interrupting three-phase ungrounded terminal
specified conditions, must be capable of withstanding for one faults at rated short-circuit current in any circuit in which the
"'''inute without puncture or flashover. When tested wet and three-phase ungrounded-circuit transient recovery voltage
mer specified conditions, a new outdoor circuit breaker and does not exceed the rated transient recovery-voltage envelope.
edernal components shall be capable of withstanding the For circuit breakers rated 72.5 kV and below, the envelope Is
low frequency for ten seconds without flashover or puncture. defined by the rated values of E2 and T 2 from ANSI C37.06-
1979. E2 = 1.88 times rated maximum voltage, and T2 is the
IR ated Withstand Test Voltage, rated time to point P given in Table 8A2, Column 7.
-.,ulse (Col. 4)
The rated withstand impulse-test voltage consists of full-wave Rated Interrupting Time (CoL 8)
IPlplllse and a chopped-wave impulse. A new circuit breaker The rated interrupting time of a circuit breaker is the maximum
n.~st be capable of withstanding each without flashover or permissible interval between the energizing of the trip current
puncture when tested under specified conditions. The full-wave at rated control voltage and the interruption of the main current
mpulse voltage is the crest value of a standard 1.2 x 50 in all poles on an opening operation. The current interrupted
mpulse voltage wave. The rated chopped-wave impulse with- must be within the required interrupting capabilities and
stmd test voltages shall consist of 129 percent of rated full- equal to 25 percent or more of the required asymmetrical
rcrve impulse withstand voltage chopped at a minimum time interrupting capability at rated maximum voltage.
of two microseconds and 15 percent chopped at a
"'linimum time of three microseconds. Rated Permissible Tripping Delay (Col. 9)
The rated permissible tripping delay is the maximum value of
Rated Continuous Current at 80Hz {Col. 5} time for which the circuit breaker is required to carry K times
~ is the maximum 60-Hz current the circuit breaker can rated short-circuit current after closing on this current and
any continuously without exceeding allowable temperature before interrupting. K is the rated voltage range factor of
'IISieS. Standard values are 800, 1200, 2000, and 3000 Column 2.

71
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Circuit Breakers and Relays (Continued)

Rated Maximum Voltage Divided by K (Col. 1 OJ The following conditions must be observed:
Throughout most of a circuit breaker's voltage range, the 1. A duty cycle shall not contain more than five openings.
interrupting rating increases as the voltage decreases 2. A period between opening operations greater than 15 minutes
reflecting, of course, the established relationship between shall be considered a new operating cycle.
voltage and current. The figures in this column indicate the In addition, asymmetry in the fault current at the time of
lowest voltages at which this relationship applies, which contact parting must be considered. This magnitude is
means that the interrupting rating does not change at lower between the symmetrical fault-current value and the maximum
voltages. asymmetrical fault-current value.
Figure 28A2 (which is Figure A12 in ANSI C37.010-1972)
Maximum Symmetrical Interrupting tabulates multiplying factors for this consideration - based
Capability (Col. 11) upon X/R of the circuit, contact parting time, and interrupting
For polyphase and phase-to-phase faults, the required time of the breaker. Thus, symmetrical fault current is multiplied
symmetrical interrupting capability is the highest value of the by the appropriate factor and compared to the standard or
symmetrical component of the short-circuit current - in rms modified maximum symmetrical interrupting rating as
amperes at the instant of primary arcing-contact separation - appropriate.
that the circuit breaker shall be required to interrupt at a
specified operating voltage on the standard operating duty Three-Second Short·Time Current-Carrying
and irrespective of the direct-current component of the total Capability (Col. 12)
short-circuit current. The numerical value at an operating voltage The short-time current-carrying capability is that value of rms
between 1/K times rated maximum voltage and rated maxi- short-circuit current that the circuit breaker shall be capable
mum voltage shall be determined by the following formula: of carrying for three seconds. This rms value, determined
from the envelope of the current wave at the time of the maximum
Rated Symmetrical _ Rated Short- crest, does not exceed 1.6K times rated short-circuit current;
Interrupting Capability - Circuit Current or, its maximum crest value does not exceed 2. 7K times the
X Rated Maximum Voltage rated short-circuit current, and the rms value determined
Operating Voltage over the complete three-second period does not exceed K
times rated short-circuit current.
In no case shall the required symmetrical interrupting
capability exceed K times short-circuit current. Closing·and·Latching Capability (Col. 13)
For distribution-voltage-level breakers (i.e., breakers rated The circuit breaker shall be capable of closing and, immediately
below 72.5 kV and having a continuous-current rating 1200 thereafter, latching any normal-frequency making current thai
amperes and below), the duty cycle is CO+ 15s + CO as does not exceed 1.6K times the rated short-circuit current or
defined in ANSI/IEEE C37.04-1979; which means that the whose maximum crest (peak making current) does not
breaker must be capable of closing into its maximum-rated exceed 2.7K times the rated short-circuit current. This corre-
interrupting capability, interrupting, remaining open for sponds to an X/R ratio of approximately 20. Higher X/R values
15 seconds, reclosing, and interrupting again. Breakers with may require the use of a circuit breaker with a higher inter-
continuous current rating above 1200 amperes are not rupting rating and thus a higher close-and-latch rating. This
intended for reclosing service applications. When such rating should be compared to the maximum asymmetricai
applications arise, the manufacturer should be consulted for fault current as calculated in Section A1 (see "System
capability factors. Faults").
Whenever a circuit breaker is applied on a duty cycle having Note that for outdoor circuit breakers rated at 121 kV and
either more operations or a shorter time interval between above, the rated voltage range factor K was changed to unity.
operations, its rated short-circuit current and rated interrupting 1.0, to simplify rating and testing procedures.
capabilities must be modified by the reclosing capability factor R.
ANSI/IEEE C37.04·1979 defines R as

R = 1OO·D (percent)
- d•=3

--
and '----;? KA=OT018.
0 = d1 (n-2) + d1 (15-t1) + d1 (15-t2) 0 ...
15 15 d, = 1/6KA
KA=18T075-
-
where D = total reduction factor in percent

d1 = calculating factor for D in percent of breaker


symmetrical interrupting capability at operating
voltage from Figure 27 A2 (based on Figure 2
in ANSI C37.06-1979).
15
._
-
n = total number of openings o 10 20 30 .co so eo 10 80
BREAKER SYMMETRICAL INTERRUPTING CAPABILITY
IN KILOAMPERES AT OPERATING VOLTAGE
t 1 =first time interval less than 15 seconds Note: See Section 5.10.2.6 of ANSI/IEEE C37.04-1979 for procedures
lor calculating the reclosing capabilities using the reduction factor, d1.
t2 = second time interval less than 15 seconds
Figure 27 A2.
ts = ... Interrupting capability factors for reclosing service.

72
A2

130

120

110

100

90

80

a: 70
><
0 60
~
a:
50

10~-+~~~4---~~-1
CONTACT PAFlTiNG 2-CYCLE
TIME BREAKER
o~~------~~~~~
1.0 . 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1,0 u 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.0 1.1 1.2 1;3 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3
MULTiPLYiNG FACTORS FOR E/XAMPERES

Figure 28A2.
Multiplying factors for three-phase and line-to-ground faults fed predominantly through two or more transformations.

TYPES OF RELAYS
Flelays provide the intelligence for identifying fault currents,
u timing and reclosing, and, in general, for controlling the
operation of a circuit breaker. They are an externally applied
apparatus, in that the breaker by itself has no fault-sensing
capability. There are many varieties of relays for sensing and
responding to a multitude of system conditions and quantities,
n:luding overcurrent, overvoltage, differential, impedance,
phase sequence, etc. The types most applicable to distribution-
system protection are the overcurrent relay (Figure 29A2}
and the reclosing relay, and both are used in most applications.

OVERCURRENT RELAY
Tune-Current Characteristics
The time-current characteristics of an overcurrent relay are
represented by a family of curves as shown in Figure 30A2.
The position of the curve is determined by the choice of tap
and adjustment of the time lever. The tap setting determines
1he minimum value of secondary-current input reached by
progressive increases that will cause pick-up of the relay. The
system current at which the relay picks up is defined as minimum
1rip and is determined by lhe following:

Minimum Trip =CT Ratio X Tap Setting


Trip time is determined by the time-lever setting. A higher Figure 29A2.
Typical time-overcurrent relay.
time-lever setting causes the induction disk to rotate a
greater distance, resulting in longer trip times.Thus, the tap
setting establishes the horizontal position of the curve and
1he time-lever setting establishes the vertical position of the
curve.

73
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Circuit Breakers and Relays (Continued)

1' 1\'
6
,\ l\ i\
1\1
\' ' \ l
TYPICAL TIME CURVES
TYPECQ-8
OVERCURRENT RELAY
50-60 CYCLES

5 \
~' .\1\
'~ \~ ~,~
l
"Ni I,
,\ \ ~·,1\ ~ 1\ Ill
(/)
0
z
0
()
4
'
I' ~ ' ~
~
~ ~ 1\ ~ i\ 1\
\I\
.\
1\ 11
TIME DIAL SETTING

~'\ i\\'~~r.~
w ~
(/) 10 '\

3 1\ 8 ~
9 '~ ~
....
I' ' ~ "' ~
'~ ~ ~ I'
7 •'
1\ 6~ !'- r--- h.
I\,4~ 1\~ f\ "' "

~ ""
~

r--- I' r ~,.._


.~.

" " r-- r-. ~ ..... ~~~--


5
~ ~
2 I
3
~ l'lllo

~ ~ !"""" ,.... 1--


I~ r'l
~ 2

,,
l'\. 1\ ' f\ ~" ~ ~ r--- ,.... .... r-.
" f' ~ ~~--
~ ~'-t- ~'-""~

ttJ
~
1'1

~
""',.._ f' ""
~ ..._,
I'
~ ~ r--.. ~ ~ ~ """"
~~

~
I""- r--
1111

,.}':1 ..........
"' ~ r--- ...... ~
"··,'"

~~~ ~ ..._, ,.....,., .....


......... """""

~
'fi"
0
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 12 14 16 18 20
MULTIPLES OF TAP VALUE CURRENT

Figure 30A2.
Time-current characteristics of a typical overcurrent relay on the same

There are many different shapes of time-current characteris- capability after an extended outage. Inverse and moderately
tics available, and the type chosen is dependent upon the inverse relays are generally applied where fault-current
application. Figure 31A2 shows the relationship among the magnitude is primarily a function of generation condition at
various families of curves when set on the same tap. the time of fault. Inverse short-time relays are applied for
In general, the very inverse and extremely inverse relays are protection of equipment such as power rectifiers, where fast
used for distribution-system protection, since fault-current tripping is desirable, but tripping not as fast as would be
magnitude is usually a function of fault location and only provided by an instantaneous element. Inverse long-time
slightly a function of generation and voltage conditions. These relays provide protection for motors against overloads where
relays provide excellent coordination with fuses and good thermal devices are not applicable.
recloser coordination in addition to providing load pick-up
A2

100
0.030
60
~
30 1\ 0
z
rJl

0 0.020
0.025
\ 1\..

"'
u

10 1\ ~
w
rJl

w
I O.Q15
:::!: '' " MAX
r--....
!'--.t--
~ 0.010 r--..... MIN ~

\
""'
:::>
6 :.<:
LONGTIME
~ 0.005

3 '\ 0

'\I\"- 0
rJl 2 3 4 56 7 8 9 10
Cl
z
~
MULTIPLES OF PICK-UP
0
u
w
rJl 1.0
r--...... ..... Figure 32A2. . . .
~ t'-INVERSE Typical instantaneous tnp charactenst1c.
.......
~ o.e ..... 1-~VERY
i=

0.3
1\.
~HORT
\ INVERSE First, assume the following relay and settings have been
chosen:
.....__
IME ~ COB Relay
EXTREMELY
0.1
r--...... INVERSE
BOO : 5 CT Ratio
Tap5
0.06 Time Lever 1.5
IT Tap 12

' Refer to Figure 30A2 for the family of curves for the COB
inverse relay, and proceed as follows:
1.5 5 10 20 50
MULTIPLES OF TAP VALUE CURRENT
1. Minimum Trip = 1 x tap value = CT Ratio x Tap Setting
=BOOx 5
Rgure 31A2. 5
Relationship of various families of overcurrent relay
curves. =BOOA
When plotting on log-log TCC paper:
1X = BOOA
lftstantaneous Trip
rn addition to a time-current characteristic, which is a function 2X = 1600A, etc.
of induction disk movement, overcurrent relays also have an 2. To select the correct curve using the 1.5 time lever setting,
nslantaneous-trip mechanism, which operates magnetically. we must interpolate between the 1 and 2 settings at:
lllnimum value of trip current is determined by adjusting the
position of a plunger inside a solenoid. Different continuously
For 2X =
1600A, T = 2.1 + (4-2.1) X 112 = 3.05 s
~ustable ranges are available by inserting different instan-
For 3X = 2400A, T = .7B + (1.6B- .7B} X 112 = 1.23s, etc.
llaneous elements.Tap settings are indicated, and the
These points are plotted on TCC paper and the result is
nnmum trip is a function of secondary input current and the
setting chosen. This is expressed as: shown in Figure 33A2. To this curve should be added the circuit
breaker interrupting time.
fT Minimum Trip = CT Ratio x Instantaneous Tap Setting
3. The instantaneous element characteristics are shown in
Figure 32A2. Using the maximum curve:
Figure 32A2 shows a typical instantaneous trip character-
sic plotted as a multiple of pick-up current. When transferred Minimum Trip = 1 x Tap value = CT Ratio X Tap Setting
til standard log-log paper, the curves plot as straight lines.
=B00x12
As stated, inputs to both instantaneous and time trips are 5
pEMded by secondary CT current. The CT ratio should be
!1l!f so that the continuous current (including emergency con- = 1920A
dlons} does not exceed the rating of the CT. Often a ratio of For 2X = 3B40A, T = .03 s
1:JS to 1.50 times peak load current is selected to allow for For 3X = 5760A, T = .022 s
energency load-growth conditions. etc.
In order to coordinate the relay with other devices, it is
aJnWOOn to represent the relay curve on log-log paper on a
The curve is added to the time characteristics and the
pTal of time versus primary CT current - a procedure best
combination curve is shown in Figure 34A2. If breaker oper-
iiEtrated by an example.
ating time is added to the instantaneous curve, it would move
upwards slightly.

75
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Circuit Breakers and Relays (Continued)

60 3600
50 3000

40 2400

. 30 1800

20 1200
CO-S RELAY
800:5CT
TAP5
TL 1.5
10 600

8 480

6 360
5 300
4
'\ \ I I I
240

3 180

2 ' ~ 120

\
'\ 60

~ .8
' 48 ....,
['-.
z
~
8
~
.6
.5
' ~
36
30 z
~ .4
24 g
~
i= .3 ' ' I" r
~

.2 ~-- ._."'-
12

0.1 6.0

.08 4.8

.06 3.6
.05 3.0

.04 2.4

.03 1.8

.02 1.2

8 888 8§
CURRENT IN AMPERES

Figure 33A2.
Time characteristics of C0-8 relay using the 1.5 time-lever setting.

76
A2

60 3600
50 3000
40 2400

30 1800

20 CO-S RELAY 1200


800:5CT
TAP5
TL 1.5
(IT 12
10 600
8 480

6 360
5 300
4 \ 240 .
_1_

3 \ 180

2
' ~ 120

\
~ 60

~ .8
' 1'- 48
:::j
z
~-
8
:.:
.6
.5
' !\ 36
30 z
~ .4 24 ~
~
~ .3 ' ~
f"
18 (/)

"~~~~~-..
~:X:
.2 12 m
-~
-- .............
~
§
0.1 6.0
.08 4.8.

.06 3.6
.05 3.0
-
.04
"" "" i"'lll
2.4

.03 1.8

' "- ,, 1.2

8 8 88 8 § '~
CURRENT IN AMPERES

::;gure 34A2.
nstantaneous trip characteristic combined with time characteristic from Figure 32A2.

77
A. Overcurrent Protection
2. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT CHARACTERISTICS AND GENERAL APPLICATION FACTORS
Circuit Breakers and Relays (Continued)

Reset Microprocessor Based Relay


One final characteristic of the time-overcurrent relay is identified With the advent of the macroprocessor based relay, the
as reset. Reset is the state of the relay when all response to relay can perform a single function such as the relay shown
decrease of input has been completed. That is, the induction in Figure 35A2 or multiple functions like the relay shown in
disk has returned to its unactuated or "home" position. Disk Figure 36A2. Microprocessor based relays provide more
reset time for various electromechanical relays is available functionality, easier get up and require less service than
from the manufacturers and is very important when coordinating electromechanical relays.
with reclosing relays. For the example, given, reset time is
eight seconds.

RECLOSING RELAY
The reclosing relay's only function is to begin counting the
instant the circuit breaker (in response to the over-current
relay) opens and to send a "close" signal back to the breaker
at prescribed times. There are generally two types of reclos-
ing relays: synchronous-motor timed and electronically
timed.

455
Figure 36A2.
Edison® Relay.
Figure 35A2.
Diagram of relay reclose settings of 2, 15, and 45 seconds.

With the synchronous motor type, reclose is accomplished by


cam-initiated switching, and timing is begun after the first trip
operation. Reset usually occurs ten seconds after a successful
reclose, or it can be delayed to the final reclose. For example,
a typical reclose setting of 2, 15, 45 would appear as shown
in Figure 35A2.
The reclosing relay, therefore, does not time the interval
between fault clearing and the successive reclose. Rather, it
sets up an entire sequence based on the moment of fault
clearing.
Apply the above reclose setting to the example under
"Overcurrent Relay," keeping in mind that the overcurrent
relay disk requires eight seconds to reset.
Upon the occurrence of a short circuit, the overcurrent
relay will sense the high-magnitude current pick-up,
time out to trip, and direct the circuit breaker to open. Figure 37 A2.
Edison® ldea•M Relay.
At this instant, the disk begins to reset and the reclosing
relay begins counting. After two seconds, the reclose relay
signals the circuit to close. If the fault persists, the overcurrent
relay will again begin timing, but a reclose interval of two sec-
onds allows the disk to reset only 2/8 or 25 percent of the
required time. Thus, when the second fault-timing sequence
occurs, the disk will need to travel only 25 percent of the dis-
tance to trip. Trip time will be four times faster and may
impede coordination.

78
A2

Index of Figures and Tables


R GURE Fusing Equipment Page
1A2 Fuse-link construction, single and dual element .. .... . . ......... .. . . ..... ... . ... ...... .... . .... .. . . .52
2A2 Typical time-current curves for 10K link ............................................................53
3A2 Comparison of various fuse-link time-current characteristics ... . ........... .. .......... ... .......... .. .. 54
4-A2 Distribution-type fuse cutouts .. . ........... . ............ .. .......... .. ...................... .. ... 55
5A2 Loadbreak fuse cutout . ...... .. ............ . ...................................................55
6A2 Current-limiting fuses . .. ..... . ........................ . ...... . ................ . .......... .. .... 55
7A2 Basic components of Cooper NX current-limiting fuse .... ............. ........ . . . .... . . .. . . .... .. .. ...56
BA2 Low-current operation of Cooper NX current-limiting fuse ..... . ... . ....... .. .......... . ................57
9A2 Maximum let-through current for NX current-limiting fuses - 4.3 and 5.5 kV .. ... ..........................57
l 10A2 Maximum let-through current for NX current-limiting fuses- 8.3, 15.5 and 23 kV ...........................58
11A2 Maximum peak-arc voltage for current-limiting fuses as related to available current ........ . . .... ..... ... ... 58
l 2A2 Maximum peak-arc voltage for current-limiting fuses as related to circuit voltage . ...................... . .... 59
l.3A2 X/R derating factors for fuse cutouts ..... . ........ . .. . ... . ........... . ....... . .... . .. . . ........ ... 60
1-4A2 Preload derating factors for fuse links ........ . . .. ....... .. ... . . .. .... ..... . . .... . . . ............. .. 60
l.5A2 Ambient temperature derating factors for fuse links ...................................................61
•6A2 Ambient temperature derating factors for NX current-limiting fuse applications .............................61
Automatic Circuit Reclosers
17A2 Pole-top installation of single-phase reclosers ... .. ........ .... . ...... .. . . ... ......... .. ........ .. ... 63
"'l8A2 Single-phase recloser ...... .... ..... ... .. . . ...... .. .... ..... . ... .... . ..... . ........ . .... . ... . .. 63
"'9A2 Kyle Type NOVA-TS Triple-Single Recloser ......... . ................... . ....... .. ..... ... .. .. .. . ... 63
2!lA2 Three-phase recloser ............... . ............................................. ... .... .. .... 64
Z1A2 Three-phase hydraulically controlled recloser .. ... .......... .. ........... . ...... . ... .. ........ ... ... 64
Z2A2. Block diagram of electronic recloser control .... .... ........ . ........................................65
Z3A2 Electronic recloser controls utilizing microprocessor-based logic ...... .. ............... . ............ .. .. 66
2'CA2 Typical recloser operating sequence to lockout ..... . .... .. . . ...... .. . ..... ... . ......................67
Sectionalizers
:!5A.2 Typical electronically controlled sectionalizer ............... .... ...................... . .......... . ... 68
Circuit Breakers and Relays
25A2 Kyle Type VSA20B air-insulated, electronically-controlled vacuum circuit breaker ..... .. ................. .. .. 70
'llA2. Interrupting capability factors for reclosing service ... ... . .... . ....... .. .... .. .... ... ...... ...... ..... 72
2BA2 Multiplying factors for three-phase and line-to-ground faults fed predominantly through two or more
transformations .. ....... ... ..... .. ................ .. ........ . ... .... ...... .. .......... . ..... 73
.2iA3 Typical time-overcurrent relay . ... ........... .. ................................... . ......... .... .. 73
JDA2 Time-current characteristics of a typical overcurrent relay on the same tap ..... . ..........................74
31 A2. Relationship of various families of overcurrent relay curves ............... . ............................75
J2A2 Typical instantaneous trip characteristic .... ..... .... ... .. ... ......... ... .......... . ............ . ... 75
:3SA2. Time characteristics of C0-8 relay using the 1.5 time-lever setting .................... . ......... . . . ......76
:MA2 Instantaneous trip characteristic combined with time characteristic from Figure 32A2 ......... .. ............. 77
J5A2 Diagram of relay reclose settings of 2, 15 and 45 seconds .............................. ... .......... .. 78
:ISA2 Edison Relay ................ ... ...................... .. .......... .. ........... . ............ . .78
'UA2. Edison Idea Relay ............ . ........................ .. ... .... .... .. ....... .. . . .... . ... . .. . .. 78
'"'ABLE Fusing Equipment Page
1A2 Standard fuse-link ratings ....................... ... .... .. ..................... .... ........... . .. 53
2A2 Available ratings for distribution cutouts (expulsion-type) .................. .. .... .. ................... .. 53
3A2 Typical open-type cutout applications .......... .. .......... .. ....................... . .............. 59
4A2 Interrupting ratings for open cutout with 100 ampere fuse holder . .. .......... . ............. .. ........... 60
5A2 Recommended current-limiting fuse voltage ratings .. . ....... . .......... . ........... ... .... . ...... .. .61
Automatic Circuit Reclosers
~ Summary of Cooper reclosers . .. ........ ..... ............................ .. ....... . .......... ... 62
Sectionalizers
~A2. Typical sectionalizer ratings ..... ... ...... ...... .................... .... .......... ........... . ... 69
Circuit Breakers and Relays
iA2 Preferred ratings for outdoor oil circuit breakers . .. .. ... ..... . ............... .. ........ ....... •• ___ ••71
80
Section A
OVERCURRENT PROTECTION

3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION

An Introduction
;).ercurrent protection encompasses two overlapping areas service interruption to the fewest possible customers and the
concern: protection of specific feeder sections or apparatus, shortest possible time. Weighed against this ideal are cost
and protection of the overall feeder or distribution system. It considerations, discussed in general terms in the preceding
s principally the latter that is involved in the "coordination" of section (A2).
~ive equipment, but even protection designed primarily Throughout the application and coordination recommenda-
iJr a single transformer or other apparatus might require the tions that follow, consideration is given to the need for an
:::o::lfdination of two or more devices to assure the desired overcurrent protection philosophy, both in regards to specific
·esponses to different types of faults and to avoid potential equipment areas and for the overall distribution system.
ll&nger to adjacent equipment and lines. Readers not already working with an established protection
The application and coordination of overcurrent protection philosophy may find it helpful, if questions arise, to review the
iQ.ipment obviously will have considerable effect on continuity appropriate discussions in Section A2 on equipment charac-
r:l service, which ideally means limiting any fault-induced teristics and application factors.

Table of Contents, Page 3


Index of Figures and Tables, Page 150

81
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION

Coordination Basics
Before the application of overcurrent protective devices can Protective devices are located at the coordinating points.
be discussed in detail, the fundamentals for coordinating Device A is at the substation, C and H are in the feeder, B is in
devices installed in series must be established. Some of what the branch tap off the feeder, D is on the distribution trans-
follows will sound familiar, as it is partly a review of principles former primary, and E, F, and G are service entrance fuses
stated previously, in Section A 1. on the distribution transformer secondary. All devices must
First, those series devices whose zones of protection overlap be selected to carry normal load current and respond prop-
must be coordinated so that the device nearest the fault (the erly to a fault, as follows:
"protecting" device) will operate before the upline device next • With respect to C, the protecting device is H, which means
closest to the fault (the "protected" or "backup" device) can that, for a fault at point 1 , device H must interrupt and C
function. The relative locations of "protecting" and "protected" must not open.
devices in a simple over-current protection scheme are • With respect to A, the protecting device is C, which must
shown in Figure 1A3. interrupt permanent fault current at point 2 before A operates
to lockout.
• Device B also is a protecting device for A and must operate

---1
SUBST~TION A PROTECTING similarly to C for a fault at point 3.
DEVICE • Only device A functions for a fault between A and C, such
~
as at point 4.
> PR;ECTED • For a transformer fault at point 5, device D interrupts current
OR BACKUP and permits normal load current to flow in the rest of the
DEVICE
C ) PROTECTING system.
DEVICE • For an overload on the transformer secondary at point 6,
device E interrupts that circuit only, so that power to the
transformer may be continued and customers on the other
Figure 1A3. secondary taps will receive service.
Conventional definition of protective devices based on
location. Fuse links are indicated for illustration.

Such coordination of properly selected and installed


devices will make possible the achievement of these basic
rules of distribution protection:
1. Give all faults a chance to be temporary, for most of them
are - perhaps as high as 70 to 80 percent.
2. Lock out (interrupt power) only for permanent faults.
3. Remove only the smallest possible portion of the line from
service.
In a typical, more complex protection scheme than that
shown in Figure 1A3, some devices serve both protecting
and protected roles, depending on the location of specific
faults. Also, devices with automatic reclosing capability, such
as circuit reclosers, are provided at appropriate points to permit
momentary interruptions in response to temporary faults. DISTRIBUTION
TRANSFORMERrv~~

EXAMPLE OF SYSTEM COORDINATION


Figure 2A3 diagrams overcurrent coordination for a system in
which a substation receives power from a high-voltage
transmission line and steps the voltage down to 7.2/12.47 kV.
Power to the customer is delivered by 7200 - 120/240-volt
transformers.
LOAD LOAD LOAD

Figure 2A3.
Typical example of system coordination.

82
A3

Fuse-Fuse Coordination
The first step in establishing a fuse-fuse coordination philosophy the feeder.
is strict adherence to the just-described fundamentals for Even more difficult to quantify are the effects of predamage
ax>rdinating series protective devices. All faults should be - the degree to which fuse clearing characteristics may be
given a chance to be temporary, lockout should occur only for affected when currents approach the minimum melt of the
permanent faults, and when lockout does occur, only the time-current characteristic. To avoid the effects of predamage,
smallest possible portion of the line should be removed. in no case should the protected link be allowed to experience
For series-coordinated devices, the trip zones of protection a current within 90 percent of its minimum-melt curve.
owertap. An accepted rule for coordinating fuse links is that Example of fuse-link coordination based on TCC comparisons:
!he maximum clearing time of the protecting link should not Figure 3A3 shows a typical study for part of a system with
aceed 75 percent of the minimum melting time of the pro- feeder fuse A and branch-line fuses B and C. Known maximum
tected link. This assures that the protecting link will interrupt available fault current in symmetrical amperes and normal
n clear the fault before the protected link is damaged in any- load current are shown at each coordination point. Type T tin
way, as further explained below. links will be used in all protective devices.
Three methods that may be used in coordinating fuses are
1he application of time-current curves (TCCs), the use of

____3~:---------~---0--+-J~'OJS_A_~_P_E_R-ES---r--~
mordination tables, and rules of thumb. The TCC method,
fhe most accurate, must be used for critical coordination
areas. Tables, which are derived from TCC coordination, are
ll!latively accurate and can be used in repetitive situations. jr sar ~L
~=~des of thumb, the least accurate, will achieve satisfactory SUBSTATION A ~~~
toofdination in limited applications where fuses are used all
il one series, in either preferred or nonpreferred ratings.
36AMPERES' @
TCC COORDINATION METHOD 21 AMPERES
....,__ ,....15T
ID most cases, the entire system coordination is based on
TCCs for one particular fuse type (K, T, N, etc.) throughout
!he system. If so, coordination is somewhat simplified. Figure 3A3.
In applying fuse links as the protective devices in Figure Diagram for study of TCC fuse coordination method.
1A3, coordination should assure that the source-side protect-
ed ink (A) is not damaged when a fault occurs in the zone of
eiher load-side protecting link (B or C). Factors to consider in
a:complishing this are: Figure 4A3 shows maximum clearing-time and minimum
1. Tolerances. melting-time curves for possible links to be used at points A,
2.. Ambient temperature. B or C on the system. The 15T link, rated 23 amperes
1 Preloading effects. continuous, will meet the 21 ampere load current and provide
4. Predamage effects. a maximum clearing time of 0.021 second for 1550 amperes
at point C. Minimum melting time is not a critical factor if no
In practice, rather than going through a detailed analysis of other devices need be coordinated with the last fuse link on
~lEse factors (they are discussed below), a derating factor of the branch.
75 percent can be used. This will achieve the desired coordi-
'111fion (and prevent damage to the protected link) by assuring
'hal the maximum clearing time of the protecting link is no
peater than 75 percent of the minimum melting time of the
praected link. .16
-\
15T 25T 30T

'~"
\
BOT
...............
~\
2

15
As previously stated, the tolerance in time-current
c:haracteristics is automatically taken into account in standard
TCCs. Simply overlaying the curves and comparing maximum
\\ 1\ -,~,,

' ...
'\.
j\ ',
'\. 08
\. \. 07
dearing of protecting links to minimum melt of protected links !\. 1\ '~ \. \.
,_. account for tolerance. ll 1\ ~
oorg
Published TCCs are based on a 25° C ambient temperature.
~r temperatures will reduce the melt time and lower
.05 1

\
r-.. \.. \. I\ \.
~ '~ 1'\. \ \
' 05
04hl
z
0

.-Dent temperatures will increase it, as was shown earlier


· FIQUre 15A2, Section A2. While this is difficult to evaluate
ill view of yearly and daily variations in temperature, a range
.03 11--

.02 11-,-
~

- - ,.... "~ """"\ ·,


',\ 1\. ~
\
'
03 w
!Q.
::;
i=

can be developed based on maximum and minimum yearly .016 '- · - - r- 1\1-- ·, '· \
~\ \
02

015

1\ If\ \ ·" ' r\


~ratures .
I
Preloading effects -the degree to which the flow of current
lwough a fuse link will raise the temperature and thereby
'li!!OJce melting time - are not taken into account in developing
TCC curves. Using Figure 14A2, Section A2, the effect of
~ ~ ~ § ~~~ ~
CURRENT (AMPERES)
~~ ~ J ~ ~ ~~! f1
p:eloading can be determined for tin and silver links. As with Figure 4A3.
antlient temperature variations, this is a difficult characteris- TCCs for coordinating fuse links in Figure 3A3 example.
ic to evaluate, since preloading can vary over the life cycle of

83
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Fuse-Fuse Coordination (Continued)

A link must now be found to carry 36 amperes continuous which employ the 75 percent ratio in indicating the maximum
current, interrupt 1630 amperes at point B, and coordinate fault-current values at which various types of fuse links will
with the 15T link. The 20T link is unsatisfactory, because it coordinate. Additional coordination tables are available from
can carry only 30 amperes continuously. The next choice, the your Cooper Power Systems representative.
25T link, carries 3B amperes continuously. Minimum melting The example cited under "TCC Coordination Method" can
time of the 25T link at 1550 amperes is 0.016 second. also be solved by using coordination tables. Again, select the
Because the 25T link melts before the 15T link clears, this 15T link as the protecting device at location C in Figure 3A3,
combination is undesirable for coordination. Minimum melting based on load-current considerations; protected links at B
time of the 30T link at 1550 amperes is 0.031 second. The and A can be chosen by referring to Table 3A3. First, locate
maximum clearing time/minimum melting time ratio for the 15T in the "Protecting Fuse Link Rating" column at the left,
30T and 15T combination is 0.021/0.031, or 6B percent. This and then follow horizontally to the right to the "Maximum Fault
is satisfactory, as the ratio for desirable coordination should Current" entry that is greater than the 1550 amperes available
not exceed 75 percent. at location C. That value, 1700 amperes, corresponds to a
An BOT link will satisfactorily interrupt 1BOO amperes at protected link rating of 30T at location B, and since the 30T
point A, carry 105 amperes continuously, and coordinate with link can carry 36 amperes continuously, it is an appropriate
the 30T link at point B. The CT/MT ratio for the BOT-30T com- choice.
bination is 0.051/0.16, or 32 percent. When the procedure is repeated with 30T as a protecting
The results of this study are shown in Table 1A3. link at location B, Table 3A3 indicates that a fuse-link rating of
65T at location A will coordinate with the 30T link up to a fault
USE OF COORDINATION TABLES current of 3100 amperes and satisfy the fault-current range.
When, as in many situations, the choice of fuse-link coordination However, the load current at A is 105 amperes and, since the
is a repetitive process, overlaying TCCs lends itself nicely to 65T link can carry only 97 amperes continuously, it will not
a tabular representation. If a suitable multiplying factor is chosen satisfy the continuous current rating. The next larger size link,
as representative of the system and the fault current can BOT, is therefore checked and found to be appropriate.
be determined over a range for which two fuse links will As can be seen, use of the coordination tables makes fuse-
coordinate, tables can be developed and used. For ANSI fuse coordination relatively easy to accomplish while satisfying
standard links, this is relatively straightforward, since the the 75 percent criterion.
links do not vary from one manufacturer to another.
Examples of this are shown in Tables 2A3 through 6A3,

TABLE 1A3
Study Results, Coordination of 25T - 15T Fuse-Link Coordination
Protected Link Protecting Link
Location of Protected Protecting Maximum Load Maximum Minimum Percent
Protected Link* Link Link Current Fault Current Clearing Time Melting Time CTIMT
c 15T - - 21 - - -
1550 .021 .0165 128
B** 25T 15T 36 (.021/.0165)
B 30T 15T 1550 36 .021 .031 68
(.021/.031)
A SOT 30T 1630 105 .051 .160 32
(.0511/.160)
• See F1gure 1A3
•• No Coordination for 25T-15T combination.

TABLE 2A3
EEI-NEMA Type K Fuse Links
Protecting Protected Link Rating - Amperes
Fuse-Link 8K 10K 12K 15K 20K 25K 30K 40K 50K 65K 80K 100K 140K 200K
Rating-
Amperes Maximum Fault-Current Protection Provided by Protecting Link - Amperes
6K 190 350 510 650 840 1060 1340 1700 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
SK 210 440 650 840 1060 1340 1700 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
10K 300 540 840 1060 1340 1700 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
12K 320 710 1060 1340 1700 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
15K 430 870 1340 1700 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
20K 500 1100 1700 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
25K 660 1350 2200 2800 3900 5800 9200
30K 850 1700 2800 3900 5800 9200
40K 1100 2200 3900 5800 9200
50K 1450 3500 5800 9200
65K 2400 5800 9200
SOK 4500 9200
100K 2400 9100
140K 4000
ThiS table shows max1mum values of fault currents at which EEI-NEMA Type K fuse links w1ll coordinate w1th each other. The table IS based on max1mum clear-
ing-time curves FL2B for protecting links and 75 percent of minimum melting-time curves FL 1 B for protected links.

B4
A3
RULES OF THUMB times the rating of the protecting link. Such applications ~
Simple rules of thumb have been formulated for coordinating vide a safety factor of 75 percent or more.
EEI-NEMA fuse links of the same type and category - for Preferred T ratings are 6, 10, 15, 25, 40, 65, 100, 140, 200;
example, using preferred T links with preferred T, or nonpreferred nonpreferred T ratings are 8, 12, 20, 30, 50, 80. As in lhe
K links with nonpreferred K. example in the preceding section, a 15T link will coordinate
K links can be satisfactorily coordinated between adjacent with a 25T link up to 24 times 15, or 375 amperes The rules
ratings in the same series up to current values of 15 times the of thumb cannot be extended further, and thus are limited in
rating of the protecting link. T links can be satisfactorily coor- application.
dinated between adjacent ratings up to a current value of 24

TABLE 3A3
EEI-NEMA Type T Fuse Links

Protecting Protected Link Rating - Amperes


Fuse-Link 8T 10T 12T 1ST 20T 2ST 30T 40T SOT SST SOT 100T 140T 200T
Rating-
Amperes Maximum Fault-Current Protection Provided by Protecting Link - Amperes
6T 350 680 920 1200 1500 2000 2540 3200 4100 5000 6100 9700 15200
8T 375 800 1200 1500 2000 2540 3200 4100 5000 6100 9700 15200
10T 530 1100 1500 2000 2540 3200 4100 5000 6100 9700 15200
12T 680 1280 2000 2540 3200 4100 5000 6100 9700 15200
15T 730 1700 2500 3200 4100 5000 6100 9700 15200
20T 990 2100 3200 4100 5000 6100 9700 15200
25T 1400 2600 4100 5000 6100 9700 15200
30T 1500 3100 5000 6100 9700 15200
40T 1700 3800 6100 9700 15200
SOT 1750 4400 9700 15200
65T 2200 9700 15200
BOT 7200 15200
100T 4000 13800
140T 7500
"'S table shows max1mum values of fault currents at wh1ch EEI-NEMA Type T fuse links Will coordinate w1th each other. The table 1s based on maximum cleanng-
11ne curves FL4B for protecting links and 75 percent of minimum melting-time curves FL3B for protected links,

t ABLE 4A3
Type K Fuse Links
Protecting Protected Link Rating - Amperes
Fuse-Link 8K 10K 12K 15K 20K 25K 30K 40K 50K 6SK 80K 100K 140K 200K
Rating-
Amperes Maximum Fault-current Protection Provided by Protecting Link - Amperes
5K 22 150 280 400 490 640 1250 1450 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
8K 175 350 490 640 1250 1450 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
10K 200 370 640 1250 1450 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
15K 200 450 1250 1450 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
20K 175 1250 1450 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
25K 900 1450 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
30K 1300 2000 2650 3500 4950 8900 10000
40K 1300 2500 3500 4950 8900 10000
50K 1700 3200 4950 8900 10000
60K 2000 4950 8900 10000
75K 3700 8900 10000
85K 8900 10000
100K 6000 10000
150K 3000
"11115 1atlle shows max1mum value of fault currents at which Type N fuse links Will coordinate with each other. The table is based on maximum clearing-time curves
IR..iB br protecti ng links and on 75 percent of minimum melting-time curve FL7B for protected links.

85
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Fuse-Fuse Coordination (Continued)

TABLE 5A3
Type K Fuse Link Coordination
Protecting
(D) 20 25 30 40 50 65 80 100 140 200
1 500 750 1000 1300 1700 2200 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
1.5 500 750 1000 1300 1700 2200 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
2 325 670 900 1250 1650 2200 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
3 325 670 900 1250 1650 2200 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
4 620 1050 1500 2100 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
5 620 1050 1500 2100 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
7 620 1050 1500 2100 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
10 620 1050 1500 2100 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
15 620 1050 1500 2100 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
20 620 1050 1500 2100 2BOO 4000 6000 9500
Max1mum fault current to wh1ch protected and protecting fuse Will cooradmate

TABLE 6A3
Type T Fuse Link Coordination
Protecting
(D) 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 65 80 100 140 200
1 5BO BOO 1150 1400 2000 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
1.5 5BO BOO 1150 1400 2000 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
2 730 1050 1400 1900 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
3 730 1050 1400 1900 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
4 BOO 1200 1BOO 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
5 BOO 1200 1BOO 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
7 BOO 1200 1BOO 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
10 BOO 1200 1BOO 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
15 1200 1BOO 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
20 1200 1BOO 2500 3200 4200 5100 6400 15000 3000
Max1mum fault current to wh1ch protected and protecting fuse w111 cooradmate

TABLE 7A3
EEI-NEMA Type K Fuse Link Coordination
Protecting Protected Link rating - Amperes
Fuse Link
Rating- A 8 10 12 15 20 25 30 40 50 65 80 100 140 200
6K 190 350 510 650 840 1060 1340 1700 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
BK 210 440 650 B40 1060 1340 1700 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
10K 300 540 710 1060 1340 1700 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
12K 320 430 1050 1340 1700 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
15K B70 1340 1700 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
20K 500 1100 1700 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
25K 660 1350 2200 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
30K B50 1700 2BOO 3900 5BOO 9200
40K 1100 2200 3900 5BOO 9200
50K 1450 3500 5BOO 9200
65K 2400 5BOO 9200
BOK 4500 9200
100K 2000 9100
140K 4000
ThiS table shows max1mum values of fault currents at which EEI-NEMA type K fuse links Will coordinate With each other. The table IS based on max1mum-cleanng
time curves FL2B for protecting links and 75 percent of minimum-melting time curves FL1B for protected links.

86
A3

Current-Limiting Fuse Coordination


""""-ee are several varieties of coordination situations involving the system will allow modification of this factor.
current-limiting fuses. These include coordination of a source- Example of source-side current-limiting fuse and loa«Hiide
Side current-limiting fuse with a load-side expulsion fuse, a expulsion fuse coordination: Figure 5A3 shows the maxinun
lmad-side current-limiting fuse with a source-side expulsion coordination point for a 65 NX fuse and a 25K link using a
flEe, a current-limiting fuse with another current-limiting fuse, 0. 75 factor. The value is 1250 amperes.
and a backup current-limiting fuse with an expulsion fuse.
LOAD-SIDE CURRENT-LIMITING FUSE AND
SOURCE-SIDE CURRENT-LIMITING FUSE AND SOURCE-SIDE EXPULSION FUSE
LOAD-SIDE EXPULSION FUSE The coordination of a load-side current-limiting fuse with a
As with fuse links, it is essential that the protecting fuse operate source-side expulsion fuse can be made simply by overlaying
I::IEfore the protected fuse begins to melt. An expulsion fuse the TCC as in expulsion-fuse coordination. Again, a factor of
nenupts at a current zero. Therefore, 0.8 cycles is considered 75 percent should be used to assure proper coordination.
!he minimum interrupting time and the range of coordination The zero-forcing properties and very inverse characteristic of
uil be limited as a result. A factor of 75 percent can again be the current-limiting fuse maximum clearing-time curve allow
wsed as a nominal number to take into account the various coordination through any level of fault current.
eilects-remembering, of course, that specific knowledge of

60 3600
50 I \
3000
40 2400
30 1800
1\
20
\ .. ,. 7.2/12.47 KV
1200

10
~t ""l\.,
65C
v
25K
~
- 600
8 480
6 360
5 300
4 240
65C
3 MINIMUM 180
\
MELT
_\ 25K 120
2
\ MAXIMUM
CLEAR

rJ)
1\\ 60~
(j)

0 .8 48 ID
z \. N
0 .6
(..)
\ 36 ~
w 30w
rJ) .5 :I:
~ .4 24 ~
w .3 18 rJ)
:::!; w
\ \
~ ..J
.2
' ~I' I\
12 >
(..)
(..)

~
~ ~I\
25K w
0.1 r-M INIMUM 6.0 ~
1-
.08 r- MELT 4.8
1'\.
.06 3.6
.05 3.0
.04 2.4
.03 1\ 1.8
'\
~
.02 1.2
.75X65C ~
\1 ~
.01
MINIMUM MELT
I I I I II ~ l\
8 88888§ § §§§§§~
CURRENT IN AMPERES

Figure 5A3.
TCC for coordinating source-side current-limiting fuse and load-side expulsion fuse.

87
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Current-Limiting Fuse Coordination (Continued)

COORDINATING TWO CURRENT-LIMITING BACKUP CURRENT-LIMITING FUSE AND EXPUL·


FUSES SION FUSE
To coordinate two current-limiting fuses, the curve should be This protection method is often used, as it permits the majority
plotted beginning at 0.01 second. For current-limiting fuses, of faults (which tend to be low current) to be cleared by an
curves extend downward from that point to fractions of a inexpensive expulsion fuse. When major faults occur within
cycle. Because clearance will occur within these short times, the equipment being protected, the current-limiting fuse operates
two time references must be considered. to limit the available energy
Above 0.01 second, a current-limiting fuse in series with Since it is important that the expulsion fuse clears low-current
another can be coordinated by simply overlaying TCCs and faults without damage to the current-limiting fuse, the
using a 75 percent coordination factor. Below 0.01 second, crossover point is established at current levels higher than
coordination can be achieved through the use of minimum- the minimum interrupting rating of the current limiting fuse. It
melt and total-clear I2t values. A bar graph incorporating the also is important that the current-limiting fuse lets through
75 percent ratio is available for this (Figure 6A3). enough energy after it operates to cause the expulsion fuse
When coordinating two current-limiting fuses in series, the to blow, thus providing a visible indication of the fault and a
maximum let-through J2t of the protecting or load-side fuse sharing of the post-impressed fault voltage by both fuses.
must not exceed the minimum-melt I2t of the protected or Overlaying the fuse characteristics will produce a point
source-side fuse. That is, the load-side fuse will limit the where the maximum-clearing curve of the expulsion fuse
let-through energy to a magnitude that is less than would be crosses the minimum-melt curve of the current-limiting fuse.
required to melt the source-side fuse. Higher currents will result in simultaneous operation.
Example: What is the smallest source-side 8.3 kV NX fuse Table 8A3 gives typical coordination information for Cooper
that will coordinate with a 25 ampere load-side NX fuse? The Power Systems backup current-limiting fuses and fuse links.
bar graph (Figure 6A3) shows that the maximum let-through Such tables are available also from other manufacturers.
of the 25 ampere NX fuse is 2.4 x 104J2t. The smallest
source-side fuse whose minimum-melt J2t exceeds this value TABLE 8A3
is the 65 ampere fuse, with a minimum-melt I2t of 2.65 x 104. Coordination of Backup Current-Limiting Fuse and
Fuse Link
Examining coordination above 0.01 second is not required
because coordinating margins are built into the published Companion* Coordinates with Fuse Links up Through (Amperes)
numbers. Coordination is conservative and will produce a Fuse Rating NEMA NEMA Cooper Kearney
coordinated system up to any fault-current level. If the fault (Amperes) TypeK TypeT TypeD Type X
current available is limited, coordination can be undertaken 12 12 8 1.5 2.5
by the use of J2t versus I curves. 25 25 15 20 10
40 40 20 20 15
*Cooper Power Systems trade name.

88
A3

2 I
I I I
I I I I I
FOR8.3-KV
C-RATED NX FUSES
108 X 1
8
6

4 t-
1--
1--

2 t--

105 X 1 t- t- t--
t--
8 I= I=
t- t-
r-
t--
6 t- t- t--
t- t- r-
4 t- t- t--
t- t- r-
2 t- r-

104 X 1
~ f.= I= I= f.= I=
? 8 t- t-- t- t-- t-- r-
~
~

6
t- t-- t- t- r-
u I'- t- t- t- t--
w t- t- t- t- t--
en
>< 4 t- t- t- t- t--
a.. ~
::!: t- t- t- t- t--
<
2 t-- t-- t- t- t- t-- r-

103 X 1
8
f.= f.=
t-
I= - ~-
f.= r- r- I=
~
I=
t--
6
t- -
t-- -
t-
t-
-- -- t-
t-
t-
t-
,.--
t-
t--
t--
- - t- - - t- t- t- t--
4 - - t-- - - r- t-- t- t--
- - t- - - t- t- t- t--

2 -MAX.
TOTAL
t- - ,.-- - - t- t- '- t--

- - - r=
102 X 1
8 =
- - -== f::t-
t-
=
- --=
-
I=
r-
t-
I=
t-
f::
t- t-
t-
t--
t--
6 - '- r- - ~
r- r- r- t--
f- t-- - t-- t-- t- - r- r- r-. t--
4 t- t- - t- t- - :- r-
t- - - -
t- t- t-
- . t- t-
"
t-. t--

2 f- f- - t- t- - - t- t- t- t--
MIN.
MELT

10x 1 ~.
1.5 3
.......
4.5 6
'--
8
'-
10
'--
12 18
'--
20
'-
25 30
'-
40 --
50 60 65 80
'- '--
90 100 130 160 200
'-- ....._

Figure 6A3.
Bar graph for coordination of current-limiting fuses.

89
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION

Transformer Fusing
A total overcurrent protection scheme for transformers must Inrush currents are the transient currents that occur when
accomplish these things: a transformer is energized. They are greatly dependent on
1. Protect the system from transformer faults. the residual flux in the core at the point on the voltage wave
2. Protect the transformer from severe overloads. when closing occurs. To withstand inrush currents, a fuse
3. Remove the transformer from the system as quickly as should typically be able to withstand 25 times the full-load
possible and limit the energy available to it. current for 0.01 second, and 12 times the full-load current for
4. Withstand harmless short-time overloads. 0.1 second.
5. Withstand inrush and cold-load pickup. Cold-load pickup occurs when re-energizing after an outage.
6. Resist damage from lightning surges. It can vary, depending on the system, and the fuse curve
The devices available for transformer overcurrent protection selected should be slower than the inrush curve, if known.
include fuses, circuit switchers, reclosers, fault interrupters, Lightning discharge voltages can saturate the core of the
and circuit breakers. Normally, the choice is likely to be the least transformer, producing inrush currents. Field experience is
expensive device or combination that will provide appropriate the best guide, as the analysis is quite complex. In general, if
protection in recognizing the type of load-and in most appli- lightning damage is a problem, larger fuse sizes are best
cations that choice will involve fusing. For a more complete used.
understanding of the overall subject of transformer protection,
it is recommended that the following discussion of transformer TYPES OF FUSES FOR TRANSFORMER
fusing be read in conjunction with later sections on recloser-fuse PROTECTION
link coordination and relay-fuse link coordination. There are numerous types of fusing possibilities for distribution
transformers, beginning with an internal (inside the trans-
DEVELOPING A TRANSFORMER former) weak link.This provides low-cost installation but has
FUSING PHILOSOPHY limited interrupting capacity. It is not field replaceable and
The first step in protecting transformers with fuses is to develop must often be used with a secondary breaker or Cooper
a fusing philosophy. In general, a fusing ratio can be calculated MagneX® Interrupter.
by dividing the fuse minimum-melt current by the transformer An external expulsion cutout, the next option, also is relatively
full-load current. If a high ratio is used, it protects the system economical and has the advantage of being easily re-fused.
from a damaged transformer but provides limited overload It will not, however, provide current-limiting protection against
protection. A low fusing ratio provides maximum overload catastrophic transformer failure.
protection, but the fuse is subject to damage by inrush and A current-limiting fuse in the bushing or externally mounted
surge currents. is the most expensive option, and the fuse must be replaced
Tradeoffs to be considered in developing a fusing philosophy after all faults. This fuse, however, does the whole job with no
include service continuity, transformer failures due to over- danger of miscoordination or replacement of incorrect links,
loading, coordinating transformer fuses with sectionalizing and it provides protection against transformer catastrophic
devices, effects of inrush and cold-load pickup, etc. failure.
If the transformer characteristics are known, the fuse can Combining a current-limiting fuse with an expulsion fuse
be coordinated simply by making sure the time characteristic has a higher initial installation cost, but since only the expulsion
falls within the confines of the transformer inrush curve and the fuse needs to be replaced as a result of low-current faults, it
transformer damage curve. A development of these curves is is a more desirable option.
defined by standards but may not always be available. These options are available in various configurations for
Therefore, the fuse may have to be selected by considering both overhead and underground applications. Figures 7A3,
the various factors. 8A3 and 9A3 show typical TCC examples for a specific
transformer rating, and Tables 9A3 through 12A3 provide fusing
guides for proper transformer protection. Table 13A3 compares
the ratings and characteristics of applicable expulsion fuses
and current-limiting fuses.

90
A3

60 3600
50
I l I II II I I 3000
40 2400
30 TRANSFORMER 1800
F0 DAMAGE
20
1\
i\ " .~
~ CURVE 1200

~
10 600
8 480
6
5
4
'\
360
300
240
1. .

~ 180
3 : TRANSFORMER
INRUSH CURVE ,...!!!!"
2 I-
l\ 120

en
~ 60 Ci5
<
c;;
0 .8 48 Ill
z N
0 .6 36\i:
(,)
w 30 ~
en .5
~ .4 24 ~
w .3 18 en
::E w
i= _J

.2 12 ~
z
~
w
0.1 6.0 ~
1-
.08 4.8
\ 3.6
.06
1 3.0
.05
.04 2.4
.03

.02
'\
_1
1.8

1.2

.01 0.6
C1l a> CD c.> ~
8_..
(11
0 0 0
88888§ § §§§§§§ 0
§0 8 8
88
CURRENT IN AMPERES X 10'

Figure 7A3.
TCCs showing transformer inrush current and transformer damage current for a specific transformer size.

91
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Transformer Fusing (Continued)

60 3600

-
50 3000
40 2400
l 1800
30 \ TRANSFORMER
\ \ ,.
20
tt11 ' 1\

~
DAMAGE
CURVE

Ill
1200

m
10 600
8 480
6 360
5 sop
4 240.

I
'\.
3 TRANSFORMER,...
INRUSH CURVE "' 180

2
1\l\ ~ 120
\
(/) 1
\. \ 60
Ci)
~
0
z .8 48 :e
0
0 .6 ssb:

ift 30~
w .5
(/)

~ .4 24 g
w .3
::::E
i=
.2
1\

' l\~
\
...-- 8T

tt m
18

12
;n
w
..J
l20
z
0.1
1\\ 6.0 ~
w

.08 4.8
.08 1\ MIN. 3.6
\ \
.05
.04 ' MELT

MAX.
3.0
2.4
.03 '\ 1.8
(!LEAR

.02 \ 1\ 1.2
\. '\

\ 1\
8 88888§ § §§§§§~
CURRENT IN AMPERES X 101

Figure 8A3.
TCCs showing characteristics of appropriate expulsion fuse for transformer protection.

92
A3

8
6
5
4
3

(/) 1
Cl
z .8
0 .6
(..)
w .5 TRANSFORMER
(/) INRUSH CURVE
~ .4
w
:::E .3
i=
.2

0.1
.08
.06
.05
.04
.03

.02

.01 ~L.I-~1..1..--l...-"'--1--L...I-l..... 0.6


~ g: ~ 8 1\)

8 ~8888§ § ~§§§§~ ~ ~~~


CURRENT IN AMPERES X 101

=-igure 9A3.
"r'CCs showing characteristics of expulsion and current-limiting fuse combinations for transformer protection.

93
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Transformer Fusing {Continued)

TABLE 9A3
Suggested Primary Fusing for Distribution nansformers
Fuse Ratings Based on Use of Type "N" Fuse Links and High-Surge Type "H" Links
(Protection Between 200% and 300% of Rated Load)

Delta-Connected Primary Wye-Connected Primary

TWMTWm
Figure A Figure B Figure C FigureD Figure E Figure F

i
2400 Delta 2400/4160Y 4800 Delta 4800/8320Y
Figures A and B FigureC Figures D, E and F Figures A and B Figure C Figures D, E and F;
Transformer
Size Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link
(kVA) Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating
3 1.25 2H 2.16 3H 1.25 2H .625 1H* 1.08 1H .625 1H*
5 2.08 3H 3.61 5H 2.08 3H 1.042 1H 1.805 3H 1.042 1H
10 4.17 8 7.22 15 4.17 8 2.083 3H 3.61 5H 2.083 3H
15 6.25 10 10.8 20 6.25 10 3.125 5H 5.42 8 3.125 5H
25 10.42 20 18.05 30 10.42 20 5.21 8 9.01 20 5.21 8
37.5 15.63 25 27.05 40 15.63 25 7.81 15 13.5 20 7.81 15
50 20.8 30 36.1 60 20.8 30 10.42 20 18.05 30 10.42 20
75 31.25 50 54.2 85 31.25 50 15.63 25 27.05 40 15.63 25
100 41.67 60 72.2 100 41.67 60 20.83 30 36.1 60 20.83 30
167 69.4 100 119.0 150 69.4 100 34.7 50 60.1 100 34.7 50
250 104.2 150 180.5 200 104.2 150 52.1 85 90.1 150 52.1 85
333 138.8 200 238.0 138.8 200 69.4 100 120.1 150 69.4 100
500 208.3 361.0 208.3 104.2 150 180.5 200 104.2 150

7200 Delta 7200112470Y 7620113200Y 12000 Delta


Figures A and B Figure C Figures D, E and F Figures D, E and F Figure A and B Figures C
Transformer
Size Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link
(kVA) Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating
3 .416 1H* .722 1H* .416 1H* .394 1H* .250 1H* .432 1H*
5 .694 1H* 1.201 1H* .694 1H .656 1H* .417 1H* .722 1H*
10 1.389 2H 2.4 5H 1.389 2H 1.312 2H .833 1H* 1.44 2H
15 2.083 3H 3.61 5H 2.083 3H 1.97 3H 1.25 1H 2.16 3H
25 3.47 5H 5.94 10 3.47 5H 3.28 5H 2.083 3H 3.61 5H
37.5 5.21 8 9.01 20 5.21 8 4.92 8 3.125 5H 5.42 8
50 6.94 10 12.01 20 6.94 10 6.56 10 4.17 8 7.22 15
75 10.42 20 18.05 30 10.42 20 9.84 20 6.25 10 10.8 20
100 13.89 20 24.0 40 13.89 20 13.12 20 8.3 15 14.44 20
167 23.2 40 40.1 60 23.2 40 21.8 30 13.87 20 23.8 40
250 34.73 50 59.4 100 34.73 50 32.8 50 20.83 30 36.1 60
333 46.3 60 80.2 150 46.3 60 43.7 60 27.75 40 47.5 85
500 69.4 100 120.1 150 69.4 100 65.6 100 41.67 60 72.2 100

13 14400 Delta 14400124900Y

Transformer Figures A and B Figure C Figures A and B Figures C reD, E and F


Size Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link
(kVA) Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating
3 .227 1H* .394 1H* .208 1H* .361 1H* .208 1H*
5 .379 1H* .656 1H* .347 1H* .594 1H* .374 1H*
10 .757 1H* 1.312 2H .694 1H* 1.20 2H .694 1H*
15 1.14 1H 1.97 3H 1.04 1H 1.80 3H 1.04 1H
25 1.89 3H 3.28 5H 1.74 2H 3.0 5H 1.74 2H
37.5 2.84 5H 4.92 8 2.61 3H 4.52 8 2.61 3H
50 3.79 8 6.56 10 3.47 5H 5.94 10 3.47 5H
75 5.68 8 9.84 20 5.21 8 9.01 20 5.21 8
100 7.57 15 13.12 20 6.94 10 12.01 20 6.94 10
167 12.62 20 21.8 30 11.6 20 20.1 30 11.6 20
250 18.94 30 32.8 50 17.4 30 30.1 50 17.4 25
333 25.23 40 43.7 60 23.1 40 40.0 60 23.1 40
500 37.88 60 65.6 100 34.7 50 60.0 100 34.7 50
*Since this is the smallest link available and it does not protect lor 300% of load, secondary protection is desirable.

94
A3
TABLE 10A3
Suggested Primary Fusing for Distribution Transformers
Fuse Ratings Based on Use of EEI-NEMA Type "K" or "T" Fuse Links and High-Surge Type "H" Links
(Protection Between 200% and 300% of Rated Load)

Delta-Connected Primary Wye-Connected Primary

Figure A Figure C Figure D Figure E Figure F

2400 Delta 2400/4160Y 4800 Delta 4800/8320Y


I Figures A and 8 Figure C Figures D, E and F Figures A and 8 Figure C Figures D, E and F
1
Transformer
Size Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link
(kVA) Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating
3 1.25 2H 2.16 3H 1.25 2H .625 1H* 1.08 1H .625 1H*
5 2.08 3H 3.61 5H 2.08 3H 1.042 1H 1.805 3H 1.042 1H
10 4.17 6 7.22 10 4.17 6 2.083 3H 3.61 5H 2.083 3H
15 6.25 8 10.8 12 6.25 8 3.125 5H 5.42 6 3.125 5H
25 10.42 12 18.05 25 10.42 12 5.21 6 9.01 12 5.21 6
37.5 15.63 20 27.05 30 15.63 20 7.81 10 13.5 15 7.81 10
50 20.8 25 36.1 50 20.8 25 10.42 12 18.05 25 10.42 12
75 31.25 40 54.2 65 31.25 40 15.63 20 27.05 30 15.63 20
100 41.67 50 72.2 80 41.67 50 20.83 25 36.1 50 20.83 25
167 69.4 80 119.0 140 69.4 80 34.7 40 60.1 80 34.7 40
250 104.2 140 180.5 200 104.2 140 52.1 65 90.1 100 52.1 65
333 138.8 140 238.0 138.8 140 69.4 80 120.1 140 69.4 80
500 208.3 200 361.0 208.3 200 104.2 140 180.5 200 104.2 140

7200 Delta 7200/12470Y 7620/13200Y 12000 Delta


Figures A and 8 Figure C Figures D, E and F Figures D, E and F Figure A and 8 Figures C
Transformer
Size Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link
(kVA) Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating
3 .416 1H* .722 1H* .416 1H* .394 1H* .250 1H* .432 1H*
5 .694 1H* 1.201 1H* .694 1H* .656 1H* .417 1H* .722 1H*
10 1.389 2H 2.4 5H 1.389 2H 1.312 2H .833 1H* 1.44 2H
15 2.083 3H 3.61 5H 2.083 3H 1.97 3H 1.25 1H 2.16 3H
25 3.47 5H 5.94 8 3.47 5H 3.28 5H 2.083 3H 3.61 5H
37.5 5.21 6 9.01 12 5.21 6 4.92 6 3.125 5H 5.42 6
50 6.94 8 12.01 15 6.94 8 6.56 8 4.17 6 7.22 10
75 10.42 12 18.05 25 10.42 12 9.84 12 6.25 8 10.8 12
100 13.89 15 24.0 30 13.89 15 13.12 15 8.33 10 14.44 15
167 23.2 30 40.1 50 23.2 30 21.8 25 13.87 15 23.8 30
250 34.73 40 59.4 80 34.73 40 32.8 40 20.83 25 36.1 50
333 46.3 50 80.2 100 46.3 50 43.7 50 27.75 30 47.5 65
500 69.4 80 120.1 140 69.4 80 65.6 80 41.67 60 72.2 80

13200 Delta 14400 Delta 14400/2900Y 20000/34000Y

Transformer Figures A and 8 Figure C Figures D, E and F Figures D, E and F Figure A and 8 Figures C
Size Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link Rated Link
(kVA) Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating Amps Rating
3 .227 1H* .394 1H* .208 1H* .361 1H* .208 1H*
5 .379 1H* .656 1H* .347 1H* .594 1H* .374 1H*
10 .757 1H* 1.312 2H .694 1H* 1.20 2H .694 1H* .50 1H*
15 1.114 1H 1.97 3H 1.04 1H 1.80 3H 1.04 1H .75 1H*
25 1.89 3H 3.28 SH 1.74 2H 3.01 5H 1.74 2H 1.25 2H
37.5 2.84 5H 4.92 8 2.61 3H 4.52 6 2.61 3H 1.875 2H
50 3.79 6 6.50 10 3.47 SH 5.94 8 3.47 5 2.50 3H
75 5.68 6 9.84 20 5.21 6 9.01 12 5.21 6 3.75 5H
100 7.57 8 13.12 20 6.94 8 12.01 15 6.94 8 5.00 6
167 12.62 15 21.8 30 11.6 12 20.1 25 11.6 12 8.35 10
250 18.94 25 32.8 50 17.4 20 30.1 40 17.4 20 12.5 15
333 25.23 30 43.7 60 23.1 30 40.1 50 23.1 30 16.65 20
500 37.88 50 65.6 100 34.7 40 60.0 80 34.7 40 25.00 30
-~· ~ce th1s 1s the smallest link ava1lable and 1t does not protect for 300% of load, secondary protectiOn IS des1rable.

95
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Transformer Fusing (Continued)

TABLE 11A3
Overload Protection of Oil-insulated, Self-Cooled, and Dry-Type Transformers@
Single-Phase Application Using Current-Limiting Fusing

~
~
...Cll
...E
.e
Ul
t:
co
F

r
1.5 18 6 6 6

r
3 18 18 1.5 6 6 6
5
7.5
10
15
@
18
18
18
18
@
18
18
18
18
·(! 6
·(!
6
@ 1.5
1.5
3
3
@
6
6
6
6
@
6
6
6
6
@
6
6
6
6
25 18 18 8 6 3 3 6 6 6
37.5 25 18 18 12 10 6 6 6 6
50 25 45 18 25 20 18 12 8 6 6 6
75 75 25 18 10 10 8 6 6
100 25 40 25 12 12 10 8 6
150 40 65 40 18 25 18 20 12 10 8
167 50 20 30 25 12 18 10
200 65 25 40 30 12 20 12 12
250 80 30 50 40 18 25 15 12
333 40
500
750
1000
1250
1500
1667
2000
2500
3000
1. Recommendations are based on fuse melting characteristics at an ambient temperature of 40 C.
2. To prevent fuse blowing on transformer inrush, DO NOT USE FUSES SMALLER THAN RECOMMENDED without specific approval of the manufacturer.
3. Fuses allow in excess of 300% of load.
4. Fuses allow less than 140% of load.
5. Ratings in red area are for parallel-fuse combinations.

96
A3
TABLE 12A3
Overload Protection of Oil-insulated, Self-Cooled, and Dry-Type TransformersQ)
Three-Phase Application Using Current-Limiting Fusing
Nominal SlngleoPIIase Voltage Across Transformer Terminals (kVj
i~ I 7.2-7.96" I ti1'"2114.4 I 3~5
.. 2A I 4.1& 4.8 8.32
Recommended Fuse Volt&Qe (M:V)
12,47 I 2D8 I 22.!1i'l4..9

..
G)
E 4,3 I .4.3 I 5 .5 I 5.5 I s.s I 15.5 I 1S.!i I 15.5
Recommended Fuse-Current Ratings (amperes) •bill
I 23 J 21 I 38
~c: Column A -140-200% of Transformer Rating
lll Column B- 200-300% of Transformer RiJling
~ A B B A B A A B B A B A B A 9
A. B A B B A A
15 1.5 1.5 ®1.5 ®1.5 6
® (~ ® (~
22.5 Q) 18
r8
("
18 3 3 1.5 1.5 6

l
18 8 4.5 4.5 ®3 6
30
45
18
18
Q)

18 10
6
10 6 6
3
3 3 ®(! 0
6
75 25 35 18 12 20 12 18 10 10 6 6 6· Q)
6
100 35 50 25 20 25 12 18 25 18 12 10 8 6 6
112.5 45 65 25 25 30 12 18 30 18 12 10 10 6 6 6
150 50 100 25 45 25 40 18 25 40 25 18 12 12 8 8 6
200 65 100 45 65 40 65 20 30 18 50 30 25 18 12 18 10 10 8
225 75 39 45 75 40 75 25 40 20 30
65 40 18 12 20 10 10 8
300 100 200 50 100 50 7.5 75 ' 30 50 25 50 20 50 25 18 25 12 12 10
500 200 100 150
.- 100 150 00 50 75 50 80 30 100 50 30 50 20 25 18 25 15
200 iao ~SQ 80 30 65 130 40 80 40 80 25 40 25 40 18 25
~=
750 2Q[JJI
1000 ,.150• 150 100 160 100 Ulll 65 100 65 lOQ 30 30 &') 25 30
1500 1!W 200 130 200 100 16'0 80 ·1160 4()0 50 80 30 50
2000
2500
:D)()
I~ ,~ 2IXt , ZOO 13o '2()()
D
: ~ocr· tell MO
;Zr;)()
faD'

~~
0 eo
Bel
00
,'fOD
II
40
.!SO
e~
60•
00
00
3500 200 16tfV 1QP ae
~: I ~ :~ ~00

t ~..,
3750 i '~
4000
5000 l ~:~iir I~~
1. Recommendations are based on fuse melting characteristics at an ambient temperature of 40 C.
2. To prevent fuse blowing on transformer inrush, DO NOT USE FUSES SMALLER THAN RECOMMENDED without specific approval of the manufacturer.
3. Fuses allow in excess of 300% of load.
4.. Fuses allow less than 140% of load.
5.. Ratings in red area are for parallel-fuse combinations.

TABLE 13A3
Comparison of Expulsion Fuses and
Current-Limiting Fuses
Fuse Type
Rating Expulsion Current-Limiting
\titage Ratings (kV): 8.3,15,23 8.3,15,23
Current Ratings (ANSI): 1 through 100 12 through 65
Fault Current
Clearing Capacity (kA): Determined by Through 50 kA
cutout rating symme~ic

Discharge Interrupting
Capacity (kilojoules): 15 50-100
• A current-limiting fuse, when operating, changes the circuit X/R radically.
lherefore, no asymmetric ratings are normally assigned, as the fuse will
+andle any current.

97
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION

Capacitor Fusing
GENERAL CRITERIA are capacitor-bank switching and lightning surges. Switching
The basic objectives in selecting capacitor fuses are: is typically of concern only when capacitor banks are
1. The fuse must be capable of withstanding steady-state switched on the same bus: i.e., back-to-back switching. This
and transient currents in order to avoid spurious fuse oper- is seldom the case for pole-mounted, group-fused capacitors.
ations. However, the fuses in such applications are subject to high-
frequency transients due to lightning surges, which are more
2. The fuse should effectively remove a failed or failing likely to damage low-current-rated links.
capacitor unit from service without causing further dam- Individually fused applications involve an additional transient
age or disruption to the system. consideration. When a capacitor unit fails -that is, goes to a
These objectives are accomplished through two different short circuit - the remaining good capacitors will discharge
protection methods: group fusing and individual fusing. into the failed capacitor. Fuses on the good capacitors should
In group protection, one fuse protects more than one be able to withstand this high-frequency outrush current to
capacitor- usually with a single fuse on each phase protecting avoid multiple fuse operations.
all the capacitors on that phase (Figure 1OA3). Group fusing
is generally used for protecting pole-mounted distribution Effectively Removing a Failed or
capacitor racks. In such applications, the fuse links are Failing Capacitor Unit
installed in cutouts and mounted on a crossarm above the A failed or failing capacitor unit should be removed from service
capacitor rack. without causing any further damage or disruption to the system.
It is important, therefore, that the clearing fuse and the
capacitor unit be able to withstand the available 60Hz current
and the high-frequency energy discharge from the parallel
capacitors. In addition, the fuse must clear fast enough to
limit the duration of voltage on the remaining good capacitors
and to coordinate with upline overcurrent devices or an
unbalance detection scheme.

Summary of General Criteria


Figure 1OA3. A summary of the key criteria in choosing the appropriate
Diagram of group capacitor fusing. fusing for a shunt-capacitor application is given in Table
14A3. In comparing the need for slow-clearing and fast-clear-
ing fuses, it sometimes is not reasonably possible to meet all
In individual protection, each capacitor in a bank is protected criteria. In such cases, trade-offs must be made and some
by its own individual fuse (Figure 11 A3). This type of protec- risks taken in regard to the conditions when fuses and capac-
tion is commonly used in outdoor-substation capacitor banks. itors may not operate in a desirable manner.
Fuses are the bus-mounted type.
GROUP CAPACITOR FUSING
The following considerations are involved in selecting a
fuse for group capacitor protection:
• Continuous current.
• Transient current.
• Fault current.
• Tank-rupture curve coordination.
• Voltage on good capacitors.
• Coordination with upline overcurrent devices.
Figure 11 A3.
Diagram of individual. capacitor fusing. Continuous Current
The fuse's continuous-current capability is chosen to be
equal to or greater than 135 percent of rated capacitor current
Withstanding Steady-State and for grounded-wye connected racks, and 125 percent for
Transient Currents ungrounded-wye racks. This overrating takes into account the
Continuous-current and transient-current duties determine effects of overvoltage (ten percent), capacitor tolerance (five
the minimum acceptable fuse size that may be used without to 15 percent), and harmonics (five percent for ungrounded-
risking spurious fuse blowing under normal conditions. The wye and ten percent for grounded-wye configurations). The
requirements for group fusing and individual fusing are similar minimum-size fuse link for a grounded-wye application is
for continuous-current duty but different for transient duty. calculated as follows:
The fuse link is chosen to have a minimum rating of at least
125 to 135 percent of rated capacitor current. This overrating Iiink = 1.35 X kvar3"'
is necessary because of overvoltage conditions, capacitance V3 kVL-L
tolerance, and harmonics.
Fuses can be damaged by high-magnitude, high-frequency This calculation is based on the link's being 100 percent
currents. If possible, therefore, it is desirable to minimize spu- rated. In the case of NEMA Type T and K tin links, which are
rious fuse operations by selecting an appropriate fuse link to 150 percent rated, this value must be divided by 1.50.
withstand such transient currents, whose principal sources
98
A3
TABLE 14A3
Summary of Shunt-Capacitor Fusing Criteria
Fusing Method Fuse Characteristic Desired
Key Criteria Group Individual Slow Fast
Protection Protection Clearing
Withstanding Steady State and Transient Currents:
Continuous Current X X X
External Transient Currents
-Lightning X X
-Switching X X
Outrush Current X X
Effectively Removing Failed or Failing Capacitor Unit:
Fault Current X X . .
Tank Rupture Curve Coordination X X X
Voltage on Good Capacitors
Energy Discharge Into Failed Unit
X X
X . .
X

Coordinate with Upline Overcurrent Devices X X


Coordinate with Unbalance Detection Scheme X X
*These cntena help to determine whether expulsion or current-limiting fuses are requ;red.

Transient Currents Fault Current


Fuses can be damaged by high-magnitude, high-frequency As stated previously, the fuse link and capacitor must be able
currents. If possible, it is desirable to minimize spurious fuse to handle the available fault current. When capacitors are
operations by selecting an appropriate fuse link to withstand connected grounded-wye or delta in a pole-mounted rack, a
these transient currents, whose principal sources are capacitor- capacitor failure (terminal-to-terminal short) will cause system
bank switching and lightning surges. Switching is typically of fault current to flow. The capacitor must be able to withstand
concern only when capacitor banks are switched on the the fault current until the fuse interrupts the circuit, and the
same bus: i.e., back-to-back switching. This is seldom the fuse must be able to interrupt the available fault current
case for pole-mounted capacitors, although the fuses in such For K and T links, the available symmetric fault current
applications are subject to high-frequency transients from should not exceed the limits shown in Table 14A3. When the
ightning surges. available current for a given application does exceed the values
To minimize spurious fuse operations due to lightning given in the table, however, possible solutions include the fol-
surges, the use ofT tin links is recommended in group fusing lowing:
for low-ampere ratings through 25 amperes, and K tin links • Limit the available fault current the capacitor will see by
'or above 25 amperes. The T link can withstand a higher using current-limiting fuses.
surge current than the K link, and this general recommenda- • Unground the neutral and operate the bank as ungrounded
:ion has resulted in good performance for areas of significant wye, which generally is a more cost effective solution. In
1ghtning activity. (Note that installing switched capacitor this type of connection, the available current is limited to
:::anks very close together on the same pole or on adjacent three times the line current because of the impedance of
:·oles should be avoided unless precautions are taken to min- the capacitors in adjacent phases. (If a major insulation
-nize the high-magnitude, high-frequency inrush current.) failure or simultaneous failures in two phases should occur,
In areas of high lightning incidence and where experience then fault current could flow. These events are very rare
::1tetates, T tin links may be used at higher current ratings for and normally are not considered when applying fuses in
;;rounded-wye and delta-connected racks. For areas where an ungrounded-wye application.)
::istribution lines are shielded by trees or buildings or where • Move the capacitor rack to a location with an acceptable
:"'.e lightning incidence is low, the user may consider the use fault-current level.
-:f K links over the entire range of link ratings.
Occurrences of spurious fuse blowing due to lightning can
~so be reduced by locating the fuse cutout between the
:aoacitor and its arrester rather than placing the arrester
:e.veen the capacitor and the cutout.

TABLE 15A3
=autt Current Limitation (50.. to 400-kvar All-Film Capacitors)*
Maximum Link Rating
Maximum Symmetric Fault Current that Coordinates with
Cutout Rating (RMS amps) When XIR Is: Available Fault Current
(kV) 0 5 10 15 K-Tin T-Tin
Up to 25 12,000 8,500 7,400 7,100 100 80
38 8,200 5,700 5,000 4,700 100 EK 80 ET I
I
-.a::x:er Power Systems EX line of capacitors or equivalent.
3:A PROTECTIVE
Overcurrent Protection
EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Capacitor Fusing (Continued)

Tank-Rupture Curve Coordination the delta, but in that case the system voltage must be made
The maximum-clearing TCC curve for the fuse link must equal to the capacitor unit voltage in order _to follow the
coordinate with the tank-rupture curve for the capacitor recommendations in the table. Recommendations for delta
{Figure 12A3). This coordination is necessary to insure that fusing at 2400 volts are given in Table 17A3, but for all other
the fuse will clear the circuit before tank rupture can occur. system voltages use Table 16A3 as directed.
The fuse's maximum-clear TCC must fall to the left of the
tank-rupture TCC at and below the level of available fault current. INDIVIDUAL CAPACITOR FUSING
Jn the case of high fault currents, the tank-rupture curve The following considerations are involved in selecting a
should be compensated for asymmetry. In general, the largest fuse for individual capacitor protection:
fuse sizes that coordinate with the tank-rupture curve for • Continuous current.
modern all-film capacitors such as McGraw-Edison's EX line • Transient current.
are 100K and SOT tin links. See Table 15A3 for details. • Fault current.
• Tank-rupture curve coordination.
Voltage on Good Capacitors • Voltage on good capacitors.
For ungrounded-wye capacitor banks, the voltage on the • Energy discharge into a failed unit.
good capacitor units, when o~e is ~hort~d, is equal syste~ !o • Outrush current.
line-to-line voltage: i.e., 1. 73 t1mes 1ts rat1ng. If the fa1led u~1! IS • Coordination with unbalance detection scheme:
not cleared from the circuit quickly, this high overvoltage condition
could lead to a second capacitor failure in another phase, Continuous Current
resulting in a phase-to-phase fault. For ~hi:> ~ason, it is d~~i~able The fuse's continuous-current capability is chosen to be
to use a fast-clearing fuse so as to mtmm1ze the poss1b1llty of equal to or greater than 135 percent of the capacitor's rated
a second unit failure. Note that this criterion calls for a fast- current. This overrating takes into account the effects of over-
clearing fuse, such as a Klink, while the criterion for transient voltage conditions (ten percent), capacitance t<:l~rance (15
current calls for a slow-clearing fuse, such as aT link. percent), and harmonics (ten percent). The mrmmum-s1ze
fuse link is calculated as follows:
Coordination with Upline Overcurrent Devices
When a capacitor unit fails, it is desirable that the capacitor . _ 1 35 X kvarunit
fuse clear the capacitor without any other overcurrent 1link- · kV .
un1t
devices on the feeder having operated; that is, the capacitor This calculation is based on the link's being 100 percent
fuse must coordinate with the upline overcurrent devices. rated. In the case of NEMA type T & K tin links, which are 150
This criterion may dictate the maximum-size capacitor rack to
percent rated, the value must be divided by 1.50.
be used on a given feeder or adjusting the source device setting
upward. It is particularly important. to note the coordination Transient Currents
with source ground relays when usmg grounded-wye racks.
Unlike pole-mounted capacitor racks, individ~ally fuse? s~~sta­
tion capacitor banks generally are not subJect to s1gn1f1cant
Summary of Group Fusing high-magnitude, high-frequency lightning surges: The reason:
Group fusing recommendations for the EX line of all:film good substation shielding and enough fuses 1n parallel to
capacitors are listed in Table 16A3. These recommendatl?ns share the transient current.
assume a typical level of lightning incidence; therefore, t1n T Transient currents due to switching also are of little concern
links are listed for line-current ratings of 25 amperes and
unless capacitor banks are switched back-to-back, and even
below (see earlier discussion under "Transient ~urrents"),
then, if the switchgear is applied within .the ANSI standards
and tin K links for ratings above 25 amperes. Available fault-
for inrush-current frequency and magmtude, the fuse duty
current levels are assumed to be within the limitations listed
usually is acceptable in such applications, switch-~l~sing
in Table 15A3. resistors or inrush-current-limiting reactors generally llmrt the
It is recognized that, in specific cases, utilities r:night. elect transient currents to acceptable levels.
to use different link ratings or types than those g1ven m the
tables because of such considerations as lightning incidence Fault Current
rates, fuse stocking requirements, and feeder coo~dination. Just as in group fusing, the fuse link and individually protected
For example, when fusing ungrounded-wye racks w1th a very
capacitor must be able to handle the available f~ult cu.rrent.
low probability of lightning transients, Type K tin links might
When capacitors are connected grou.nded:wye 1n a .smgle-
be considered over the entire range of ratings. Or, rather than series group substation bank, a capac1tor fa1lure (termmal~to­
fusing grounded-wye racks with relatively low-current-rated T
terminal) will cause system fault current to flow. Th~ capacitor
links, higher-rated T links might be considered to reduce spu- must be able to withstand the fault current until the fuse
rious fuse blowings due to lightning. With ungrounded-wye
interrupts the circuit, and the fuse must be able to su?C~ss!ully
racks the user can choose between Type T and K links but interrupt the available fault current. The fault-current llm1tat1ons
usualiy cannot select a different rating. However, in making are the same as for group fusing (Table 15A3).
any adjustments in the recommendations it is important to In substation banks with multiple series groups, system
take into account all of the criteria discussed above. fault current will not flow through a failed unit unless other
Generally, group-fused racks are connected in wye. At tir:nes
units experience simultaneous fa~lures or extern~! flashovers
it may be advantageous to connect racks in delta, es~ec1ally occur in other parts of the capaci1or bank. For th1s reason, 1t
on 2400-volt systems or to minimize the number of d1fferent
usually is assumed that fault current will not flow in capac~tor
spare units kept in stock. The group fusings reco.mme~dations banks of more than one series group. Therefore, expuls1on
in Table 16A3 can be adjusted for delta configurations, as fuses rather than current-limiting fuses are commonly used.
explained by the note in the table, by making the capacitor
unit voltage equal to the system voltage. Larger kvar-rated
delta-connected racks are possible if the fuses are put inside

100
A3

N
CURRENT (ampsl
(II _,. C.O 01 CD 0 "' 0~ 80 0g~0 0~
0 g "' 00... 00,. 00'""'
0
0
0
0 8§
IOOOOU. c, iD - "' "' _,. C.O 01 CD 0 0 000000 0 0 0 0 0 00 0 0600000

8000 480000
2HR
6000 360000
!1000 300000
4000
Ill 240000
IHR I HR
3000 80000

2000 I I I'
1/z HR
I 20000
1/z HR

1000
l/4 HR
II II
1/4HR
60000
800 48000
SAFE ZONE UNSAFE ZONE
600 36000
SAFE FOR MOST APPLICATIONS; UNSAFE FOR MOST 30000
!100 USUALLY NO GREATER DAMAGE APPLICATIONS;
400 THAN SLIGHT SWELLING OF CASE. CASE MAY RUPTURE. 24000
300 I 8000

200 I 2000

100 6000
80 4800
60 3600
50 3000
40 2400
30 I 800

20 I 200

\ 600
480
360
300
240
I 80

\ I 20 ·:
;;
...
\ N
:1:
6
I 60 co
;;
.8 48 ~
.6 36 !
1\.
~~
.!I
.4 FOR TIMES SHORTER

.3
THAN 0.1 SECOND •
USE ASYMMETRICAL
\ I8
RMSAMPS.
.2 \ I2

0. I 6.0
.08 4.8
.06 THE MINIMUM J2T RATING FOR THE EX' LINE OF SINGLE-PHASE 3.6
.05 CAPACITORS IS 2,000,000 AMP2 SECONDS FOR FAULT 3.0
.04 CURRENTS OF 10,000 AMPS OR LESS . 2.4
.03 I .8

.02 I .2

MINIMUM CLEARING TIME (0.8 CYCLEI FOR SAFE COORDINATION WITH EXPULSION FUSES.
""'""'CD 0.6
~ ~~82:~8 ~0 0~ 0~g~ ~8
CURRENT (ampsl 00 0 0 § cs88
~ oo 88
o0
0

Figure 12A3.
Capacitor tank-rupture curve.

101
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Capacitor Fusing (Continued)

TABLE 16A3
Group Fusing Recommendations for AII·Film Capacitors, Using EEI·NEMA Tin Expulsion Links*
Three- Rated Line Recommended Three- Rated Line Recommended
System Capacitor Phase- Current Link Size System Capacitor Phase- Current Link Size
line-to-Line Unit Bank in Grounded- Ungrounded- Line-to-Line Unit Bank in Grounded- Ungrounded-
Voltage Voltage** kvar Amperes Wyet Wyet Voltage Voltage• • kvar Amperes Wyet Wyet
4160 2400 150 20.8 20T 20T 16500 9540 150 5.2 5T 5T
300 41.6 40 K 40 K 300 10.3 10T 10T
450 62.5 65 K 65 K 450 15.7 15T 15 T
600 83.3 80 K 80 K 600 21 .0 20T 20T
4800 2770 150 18.0 20T 15 T 900 31.4 30 K 30 K
300 31 .6 40 K 30 K 1200 41 .9 40 K 40 K
450 54.2 50 K 50K 1350 47.2 50 K 40 K
600 72.2 65 K 65 K 1800 62.9 65 K 65 K
900 108.3 100 K 100K 2400 83.8 80 K 80 K
2700 94.3 100 K 80 K
7200 4160 150 12.0 12T 10T
300 24.0 25T 20T 17250 9960 150 5.0 5T 5T
450 36.0 40 K 30 K 300 10.0 10T 10T
600 48.1 50 K 40 K 450 15.0 15 T 15T
900 72.1 65 K 65 K 600 20.1 20T 20T
1200 96.2 100 K 80 K 900 30.1 30 K 25T
1350 108.2 100 K 100 K 1200 40.2 40 K 40 K
1350 45.2 40 K 40 K
8320 4800 150 10.4 10T 10 T 1800 60.2 65 K 50 K
300 20.8 20T 20 T 2400 80.3 80 K 80 K
450 31 .2 30 K 30 K 90.4 80 K
2700 80 K
600 41.7 40 K 40 K
900 62.5 65 K 65 K
3600 120.5 - 100 K
1200 83.3 80 K 80 K 21600 12470 300 8.0 8T 8T
1350 93.8 80 K 80 K 450 12.0 12T 10 T
600 16.0 15 T 15 T
12470 7200 150 6.9 8T 6T 900 24.0 25T 20T
300 13.9 15T 12 T 1200 32.1 30 K 30 K
450 20.8 20T 20T 1350 36.1 40 K 30 K
600 27.8 25 T 25T 1800 48.1 50 K 40 K
900 41 .7 40K 40 K 2400 64.2 65 K 65 K
1200 55.6 50 K 50K 2700 72.2 65 K 65 K
1350 62.5 65 K 65 K 3600 96.2 100 K 80 K
1800 83.3 80 K 80 K
2400 111.1 100 K 100 K 22860 13200 300 7.6 8T 8T
450 11.4 10T 10T
13200 7620 150 6.6 6T 6T 600 15.2 15 T 15 T
300 13.1 12T 12T 900 22.7 20T 20T
450 19.7 20T 20T 1200 30.3 30 K 25T
600 26.2 25T 25T 1350 34.1 30 K 30 K
900 39.4 40K 40K 1800 45.4 40 K 40 K
1200 52.5 50 K 50 K 2400 60.6 65 K 50 K
1350 59.0 65 K 50 K 2700 68.2 65 K 65 K
1800 78.7 80 K 65 K 3600 90.9 80 K 80K
2400 105.0 100 K 100 K
2700 118.1 - 100 K 23900 13800 300 7.2 8T 6T
450 10.9 10T 10T
13800 7960 150 6.3 6T 6T 600 14.5 15 T 12T
300 12.6 12T 12T 900 21.7 20T 20T
450 18.8 20T 20T 1200 29.0 30 K 25T
600 25.1 25T 25T 1350 32.6 30 K 30 K
900 37.7 40 K 40K 1800 43.5 40 K 40 K
1200 50.2 50 K 50 K 2400 58.0 65 K 50K
1350 56.5 50 K 50 K 2700 65.2 65 K 65K
1800 75.4 80 K 65 K 3600 87.0 80 K 80K
2400 100.5 100 K 100 K
2700 113.1 - 100 K 24900 14400 300 6.9 8T 6T
450 10.4 10T 10T
14400 8320 150 6.0 6T 5T 600 13.9 15 T 12T
300 12.0 12T 10T 900 20.8 20T 20T
450 18.0 20T 15 T 1200 27.8 25 T 25T
600 24.0 25T 20 T 1350 31.2 30 K 30 K
900 36.0 40K 30 K 1800 41 .7 40 K 40 K
1200 48.1 50 K 40 K 2400 55.6 50K 50K
1350 54.1 50 K 50 K 2700 62.5 65 K 65 K
1800 72.1 65 K 65 K 3600 83.3 80 K 80 K
2400 92.2 100 K 80 K (Continued on Next Page)
2700 108.2 100 K 100 K
• General Notes:
1. See fault current limitations in Table 14A3.
2. Fusing recommendations are for the Cooper Power Systems EX line of capacitors or equ ivalent.
•• This column applies to wye-connected capacitor racks. To use these recommendations for delta-connected racks, make the capacitor unit voltage equal to the
system voltage given in the first column and use the recommendations for grounded-wye racks. (See Table 16A3 for group fusing recommendations for delta-
connected racks on 2400-volt systems.)
t If spurious fuse blowing is a problem w1th grounded-wye racks, it is possible to go to higher fu se ratings as limited by the ratings in Table 14A3 and by coordi-
nation with upline devices.

102
A3
TABLE 16A3 (Continued)
Group Fusing Recommendations for All-Film Capacitors, Using EEI-NEMA Tin Expulsion Links*
Three- Rated Line Recommended Three- Rated Line Recommended
System Capacitor Phase- Current Link Size System Capacitor Phase- Current Link Size
LiRe-to-Line Unit Bank in Grounded- Ungrounded- Line-to-Line Unit Bank in Grounded- Ungrounded-
Voltage Voltage•• kvar Amperes Wyet Wyet Voltage Voltage•• kvar Amperes Wyet Wyet
34500 19920 300 5.0 5 ET 5 ET 37400 21600 450 6.9 8 ET 6 ET
450 7.5 8 ET 8 ET 600 9.2 10 ET 8 ET
600 10.0 10ET 10 ET 900 13.2 15 ET 12 ET
900 15.1 15 ET 15 ET 1200 18.5 20 ET 20 ET
1200 20.1 20 ET 20 ET 1350 20.8 20 ET 20 ET
1350 22.6 20 ET 20 ET 1800 27.8 25 ET 25 ET
1800 30.2 30 EK 25 ET 2400 37.0 40 EK 40 EK
2400 40.2 40 EK 40 EK 2700 41.7 40 EK 40 EK
2700 45.2 40 EK 40 EK 3600 55.6 50 EK 50 EK
3600 60.3 65 EK 50 EK
• General Notes:
1. See fault current limitations in Table 14A3.
2. Fusing recommendations are for the Cooper Power Systems EX line of capacitors or equivalent.
- This column applies to wye-connected capacitor racks. To use these recommendations for delta-connected racks, make the capacitor unit voltage equal to the
system voltage given in the first column and use the recommendations for grounded-wye racks. (See Table 17A3 for group fusing recommendations for delta-
connected racks on 2400-volt systems.)
t If spurious fuse blowing is a problem with grounded-wye racks, it is possible to go to higher fuse ratings as limited by the rating s In Table 14A3 and by coordi-
nation with upl ine devices.

TABLE 17A3
ELF Fuse Selection for Capacitor Bank Protection
Capacitor
Bank Data

Cap. Bank
Three-Phase
kVAR

• Wulti-barrel fuse design.


- Multi-barrel fuse design at higher voltage ra ted fuse only.
a A line-to-neutral rated fuse may be used if there is no chance of a three-phase fault not involving ground.
Ill For delta connected capacitor banks, use the lower voltage rated fuse where two voltage ratings are given. For this application, the fuses must be connected
nside the delta of each side of each group of capacitors (six fuses total). Consult the manufacturer for applications where the fuses will be outside of the delta.
c'- The shaded area indicates ELF fuse current ratings that are only available at the lower voltage where tow voltage ratings are specified for grounded wye appli-
cations. Therefore, footnote "a" must apply for these applications.

TABLE 18A3 Tank-Rupture Curve Coordination


Group Fusing Recommendations for Delta-Connected The maximum-clearing TCC curve for the fuse link must coor-
~Film Capacitors on 2400-volt Systems, Using dinate with the tank-rupture curve for the capacitor (Figure
EEI-NEMA Tin Expulsion Fuse Links.• 12A3). This coordination is necessary to insure that the fuse will
System Three- Rated Line clear the circuit before tank rupture can occur. The fuse's max-
l..ile-to-Line Capacitor Phase- Current Recommended imum-clear TCC must fall to the left of the tank-rupture TCC at
Voltage Unit Voltage Bank kvar in Amperes Link Size and below the level of available fault current. In the case of high
2400** 2400 150 36.1 40 K fault currents, the tank-rupture curve should be compensated
300 72.2 65 K
450 108.3 100 K for asymmetry.
2400t 2400 150 20.8 20T Voltage on Good Capacitors
300 41 .6 40 K When a capacitor unit goes to a complete short, other series
450 62.5 65 K groups within the capacitor banks are subject to a 60 Hz over-
600 83.3 80 K
voltage until the fuse clears, and the fuse should clear fast
• General Notes:
.See fault cu rrent limitations in Table 14A3. enough to prevent overvoltage damage to the good units. When
2. Fusing recommendations are for the Cooper Power Systems EX line of a capacitor unit is shorted on phase A, the 60 Hz voltage on the
capac1tors or equivalent.
3. See Table 15A3 for group fusing recommendations for all other system voltages. other series groups in the bank are as summarized in Table
~ F uses are outside !he delta, Three cutouts are used. 19A3. The capacitor fuse chosen should insure that the duration
t Fuses are Inside the delta. Six cutouts are used.
103
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Capacitor Fusing (Continued)

of these overvoltages does not exceed the limitations defined in possible solutions: reconnect the bank to reduce the amount
ANSI/IEEE Standard 18. of parallel-stored energy, or use current-limiting fuses.
TABLE 19A3 Outrush Current
Per-Unit Voltage on Unfailed Capacitors with a Series When a capacitor failure occurs, the remaining good capacitors
Group Shorted on Phase A will discharge into the failed unit, and the fuses for the good
Grounded Ungrounded Split capacitor units must be capable of withstanding this high-fre-
No. of
Series Wye Wye Ungrounded Wye quency I 2t discharge to avoid multiple fuse operations. Extensive
Groups Va Vb Vc Va Vb Vc Va Vb Vc analysis and testing have been conducted on capacitor units
1 - 1.00 1.00 - 1.73 1.73 - 1.73 1.73 and typical block arrangements to determine these duties.
2 2.00 1.00 1.00 1.50 1.15 1.15 1.71 1.08 1.08 Coordination with Unbalance Detection Scheme
3 1.50 1.00 1.00 1.29 1.08 1.08 1.30 1.04 1.04
4 1.33 1.00 1.00 1.20 1.05 1.05 1.26 1.03 1.03 When a fuse operates in a capacitor bank, an increase in the
5 1.25 1.00 1.00 1.15 1.04 1.04 1.20 1.02 1.02 fundamental frequency voltage occurs on the remaining units
in that series group. An unbalance detection scheme is
Energy Discharge into a Failed Unit employed to monitor such conditions and to take action as
The fuse and the capacitor must be capable of handling the required . Its settings should be coordinated with fuse TCCs
available parallel-stored energy, since all of the stored energy so that the fuses will be allowed to clear a failed capacitor
of the parallel-connected capacitors can discharge through the unit before the unbalance detection scheme trips the capac-
failed capacitor and its fuse (Figure 13A3). Therefore, to pre- itor bank. If the bank is tripped before the fuse operates,
vent probable fuse failure and rupture of the capacitor tank, the there will be no visible indication of the cause of the bank
total calculated parallel-stored energy should not exceed the tripping.
energy capability or joule rating of the capacitor unit and fuse. Summary of Individual Fusing
In selecting the best fuse for a given application, it sometimes
is not reasonably possible to meet all of the above criteria. In
such cases, trade-offs must be made among the criteria and
some risks taken in regard to the conditions when fuses and
capacitors may not operate in a desirable manner.
Table 20A3 lists individual fusing recommendations, using
either expulsion or current-limiting fuses, for the EX line of all-
film capacitors applied in outdoor substation banks.These
recommendations will meet most of the criteria described
Figure 13A3. above for most typical capacitor-bank configurations.
Diagram of energy discharge into failed capacitor unit.
For metal-enclosed applications, it is recommended that
current-limiting fuses be used, even if the available parallel
The calculated value of energy should not exceed 15,000 energy in some cases indicates an expulsion fuse could
joules (i.e., 4650 kvar in parallel) for conventional all-film serve. A current-limiting fuse will minimize any gassing that
capacitors and 10,000 joules (i.e., 3100 kvar in parallel) for might occur in the enclosure during fuse operation.
paper/film capacitors. When the EX line of capacitors is used Excessive gases can cause flashovers in the enclosure.
with the recommended fusing, the available energy can be The recommendation in Table 20A3 are applicable for ambient
allowed to be as high as 30,000 joules (i.e., 9300 kvar in par- temperatures up to 40° C. if higher ambient temperatures are
allel). When the calculated value of the parallel energy expected, especially in enclosures, the capacitor manufacturer
exceeds the limitation of the expulsion fuse, there are two should be consulted for appropriate fuse recommendations.
TABLE 20A3
Individual Fusing Recommendations for All-Film Capacitors,t
Using EEI-NEMA Tin Expulsion Links or Current-Limiting** Fuses
Capacitor Unit kvar
Capacitor Fuse Voltage sott 200 400
Unit Rating (kV) I 100 150 I 300 I
Voltage Recommended Expulsion Link or Current-Limiting Fuse
Rating Exp. C-L Exp. C-L Exp. C-L Exp. C-L Exp. C-L Exp. C-L Exp. C-L
2400 8.7 8.3 20T 30 40K 65 65K 90* 80K - - - - -
2770 8.7 8.3 20T 25 40K 65 50K so· 65K - - - - -
4160 8.7 8.3 12T 18 25T 40 40T 65 50K 65 - - - -
4800 8.7 8.3 12T 18 20T 30 30T 45 40T 65 - - - -
6640 8.7 8.3 12T 18 1ST 25 25T 40 30T 45 SOT 65 65K 90*
7200 8.7 8.3 10T 18 1ST 25 20T 30 25T 40 40T 65 SOT 90*
7620 8.7 8.3 10T 18 1ST 18 20T 30 25T 40 40T 65 SOT 90*
7960 8.7 8.3 10T 18 1ST 18 20T 30 25T 40 40T 65 SOT 80*
8320 8.7 15.5 10T 10 1ST 18 20T 25 25T 35 40T 50* SOT 70*
9960 15.0 15.5 8T 10 1ST 18 20T 25 25T 30 30T so· 40T 60*
12470 15.0 15.5 - - 12T 12 1ST 18 20T 25 25T 35 30T 50*
13280
13800
15.0
15.0
15.5
15.5
-- -
-
12T
12T
12
10
1ST
1ST
18
18
20T
20T
25
25
25T
25T
35
30
30T
30T
50*
50*
14400 15.0 15.5 - - 10T 10 15T 18 20T 25 25T 30 30T 50*
19920 23.0 23.0 - - 8T 12 12T 12 1ST 18 20T 25 25T 36*
21600 23.0 23.0 - - 8T 12 10T 12 1ST 18 20T 25 25T 25
t Fus1ng recommendations are for the Cooper Power Systems EX line of capac1tors or equ1valent.
tt For 50-kvar capacitors, it is difficult to choose reasonably sized fuses that will withstand the 12t outrush. This is due to the fact that 12t withstand goes down
exponentially with fuse-link rating rather than linearly. Consequently, 50-kvar capacitor fusing recommendations cover only units with voltages up to 9960 volts.
• Indicates two fuses in parallel.
•• Current-limiting fuse ratings are for Cooper Power Systems NXC capacitor fuses.
104
A3

Recloser and Fuse-Link Coordination


Tile following comments on coordination principles and ratings will serve as references also for other
IJ8doser applications covered in this manual

~OSER COORDINATION PRINCIPLES RECLOSER RATINGS


~tic circuit reclosers are the overcurrent protective Recloser ratings include nominal voltage, impulse withstand
al!aices most often used to "give every fault a chance to be voltage (81), maximum continuous current, trip-coil current,
li!lllpOfary," as stated under "Coordination Basics" at the minimum trip current, and interrupting current. In Tables
b!ginning of Section A3. For proper application of reclosers 21A3, 22A3, and 23A3, which list typical ratings, reclosers
a distribution system, the following basic coordination are grouped for convenience into three major categories: single-
pinciples must be observed: phase hydraulically controlled, three-phase hydraulically
1. The load-side device must clear a permanent or temporary controlled, and three-phase electronically controlled. The
faajt before the source-side device interrupts the circuit or interrupting medium, oil or vacuum, is indicated for each
operates to lockout. recloser.
2.. Outrages caused by permanent faults must be restricted to Please note that "Recloser Type" designations (H, 4H, V4H,
1he smallest section of the system. etc.) in both tables and text relate to the products of Cooper
Power Systems and are not universal industry terms. This
~ principles primarily influence the selection of operating departure from the generic approach used throughout most
anes and sequences of both source-side and load-side of the manual is done to facilitate references to recloser fam-
G!lllices, and the general location of these devices on the ilies and ratings in discussing applications, and the reader is
llistrixrtion system. The placement and number of devices to encouraged to investigate other possible sources. Units
PeStrict Outrages to "the smallest section of the system" designed specifically for pad-mounted application are so indi-
.e determined by individual utility practice, and the recom- cated in the tables; all others are commonly referred to as
wendations and examples in this manual represent only a overhead-type but include some ratings normally installed in
aoss-section of accepted practices. substations. To assist in obtaining detailed information on
specific reclosers and related accessories and mountings,
applicable Cooper Power Systems catalog sections are listed.

TABLE 21A3
Single-Phase, Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers
Max
Cont Trio-Coil
Nominal Current Inter- Rating Min-Trip
Aecloser Voltage BIL Rating ruptlng (cont Ratlnij Interrupting Rating Catalog
Type (kV) (kV) (amps) Medium amps) (amps (rms sym amps) Section
At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
5 10 125
10 20 250
H 2.4-14.4 95 50 Oil 15 30 375 280-10
25 50 625
35 70 975
50 100 1250
At 4.8 kV At 8.32 kV At 14.4 kV
5 10 200 200 200
10 20 400 460 400
15 30 600 600 600
4H 2.4-14.4 110 100 Oil 25 50 1000 1000 1000 280-10
35 70 1400 1400 1400
50 100 2000 2000 2000
70 140 2800 2500 2000
100 200 3000 2500 2000
5 10 200 200 200
10 20 400 400 400
15 30 600 600 600
25 50 1000 1000 1000
V4H 2.4-14.4 110 200 Vacuum 35 70 1400 1400 1400 280-10
50 100 2000 2000 2000
70 140 2800 2500 2000
100 200 3000 2500 2000
140 280 3000 2500 2000
200 400 3000 2500 2000
(contmued on next page)

105
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Recloser and Fuse-Link Coordination (Continued)

TABLE 21A3 (continued)


Single-Phase, Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers
Max
Cont Trio-Coil
Nominal Current Inter- Rating Min-Trip
Recloser Voltage BIL Rating rupting (cont Rating Interrupting Rating Catalog
Type (kV} (kV) (amps) Medium amps) (amps) (rms sym amps) Section
At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
5 10 200 200 200
10 20 400 400 400
15 30 600 600 600
25 50 1000 1000 1000
PV4H* 2.4-14.4 95 200 Vacuum 35 70 1400 1400 1400 2B5-65
50 100 2000 2000 2000
70 140 2BOO 2500 2000
100 200 3000 2500 2000
140 2BO 3000 2500 2000
200 400 3000 2500 2000
25 50 1500 1500 1500
35 70 2100 2100 2100
50 100 3000 3000 3000
L 2.4-14.4 110 2BO Oil 70 140 4200 4200 4000 2B0-1 0
100 200 6000 5000 4000
140 2BO 6000 5000 4000
200 400 6000 5000 4000
2BO 560 6000 5000 4000
At 14.4 kV
5 10 300
10 20 600
15 30 900
25 50 1500
35 70 2100
V4L 2.4-14.4 110 2BO Vacuum 50 100 3000 2B0-10
70 140 4200
100 200 6000
140 2BO 6000
200 400 6000
2BO 560 6000
At 4.8 kV At 8.32 kV At 14.4 kV
100 200 6000 6000 6000
140 2BO B400 B400 BOOO
160 320 9600 9600 9600
1B5 370 11100 10000 10000
D 2.4-14.4 110 560 Oil 225 450 12000 10000 10000 2B0-20
2BO 560 12000 10000 10000
400 BOO 12000 10000 10000
400X 560** 12000 10000 10000
560 1120 12000 10000 10000
56 0X 750** 12000 10000 10000
At 24.9 kV
5 10 300
10 20 600
15 30 900
25 50 1500
E 24.9 150 100 Oil 35 70 2100 2B0-10
50 100 2500
70 140 2500
100 200 2500
50 100 3000
70 140 4000
4E 24.9 150 2BO Oil 100 200 4000 2B0-10
140 2BO 4000
200 400 4000
2BO 560 4000
At 24.9 thru 34.5 kV
100 200 6000
140 2BO BOOO
160 320 BOOO
1B5 370 BOOO
I
225 450 BOOO
DV 24.9-34.5 150 560 Oil 2BO 560 BOOO
400 BOO BOOO 2B0-20
400X 560** BOOO
560 1120 BOOO
i
560X 750** BOOO
!=or pad mounted installation.
--'ll rating is 140% of X coil ratings; all others are 200%.

106
A3

TABLE 22A3
Three-Phase, Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers
Max
Cant Trio-Coli
Nominal Current Inter- Rating Min-Trip
Recloser Voltage BIL Rating rupting (cant Rating Interrupting Rating Catalog
Type (kV) (kV) (amps) Medium amps) (amps) (rms sym amps) Section
At 4.8 kV At 8.32 kV AT 14.4 kV
5 10 200 200 200
10 20 400 400 400
15 30 600 600 600
6Ht 2.4-14.4 110 100 Oil 25 50 1000 1000 1000 280-10
35 70 1400 1400 1460
50 100 2000 2000 2000
70 140 2800 2500 2000
100 200 3000 2500 2000
5 10 200 200 200
10 20 400 400 400
I
15 30 600 600 600
25 50 1000 1000 1000
V6Ht 2.4-14.4 110 200 Vacuum 35 70 1400 1400 1400 280-1 0
50 100 2000 2000 2000
70 140 2800 2500 2000
100 200 3000 2500 2000
I 140
200
280
1400
3000
3000
At 4.8 kV
2500
12500
At 8.32 kV
2000
2000
At 14.4 kV
100 200 6000 6000 6000
140 280 8400 8400 8400
160 320 9600 9600 9600
185 370 11 100 10000 10000
w 2.4-14.4 110 560 Oil 225 450 12000 10000 10000 280-30
280 560 12000 10000 10000
400 800 12000 10000 10000
400X 560** 12000 10000 10000
560 1120 12000 10000 10000
560X 750** 12000 10000 10000
At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
50 100 3000
I 70 140 4200
100 200 6000
140 280 8400
160 320 9600
185 370 11100
PWH* 2.4-14.4 95 560 Vacuum 225 450 12000 285-70
280 560 12000
400 800 12000
400X 560** 12000
560 1120 12000
! 56 0X 750** 12000

' 50
70
100
140
At 24.4 thru 14.4 kV
3000
4200
100 200 6000
140 280 8400
160 320 9600
185 370 11100
vw 2.4-14.4 110 560 Vacuum 225 450 12000 280-30
280 560 12000
400 800 12000
400X 560** 12000
560 1120 12000
56 0X 750** 12000
t ..
Phases tnp 1nd1v1dually on overcurrent, but trip and lockout all three phases at the final step in sequence; other three-phase reclosers operate all three phases
simultaneously under all conditions.
• For pad-mounted installation.
- Trip rating is 140% of X coil ratings; all others are 200%.

(continued on next page)

107
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Recloser and Fuse-Link Coordination (Continued)

TABLE 22A3 (continued)


Three-Phase, Hydraulically Controlled Reclosers
Max
Cent Trip-Coil
Nominal Current Inter- Rating Min-Trip
Recloser Voltage BIL Rating rupting (cent Rating Interrupting Rating Catalog
Type (kV) (kV) (amps) Medium amps) (amps) (rms sym amps) Section
At 24.9 kV
50 100 3000
70 140 4200
100 200 6000
140 2BO B400
160 320 9600
1B5 370 11100
PWVH* 24.9 125 560 Vacuum 225 450 12000 2B5-70
2BO 560 12000
400 BOO 12000
400X 560** 12000
560 1120 12000
560X 750** 12000
At 24.9 kV
50 100 3000
70 140 4200
100 200 6000
140 2BO B400
160 320 9600
1B5 370 11100
VWV27 24.9 125 560 Vacuum 225 450 12000 2B0-30
2BO 560 12000
400 BOO 12000
400X 560** 12000
560 1120 12000
560X 750** 12000
At 34.5 kV
50 100 3000
70 140 4200
100 200 6000
140 2BO B400
160 320 9600
1B5 370 11100
VWV3B 34.5 150 560 Vacuum 225 450 12000 2B0·30
2BO 560 12000
400 BOO 12000
400X 560** 12000
560 1120 12000
560X 750** 12000
At 24.9 thru 34.5 kV
100 200 6000
140 2BO BOOO
160 320 BOOO
1B5 370 BOOO
wv 24.9-34.5 150 560 Oil 225 450 BOOO 2B0·30
2BO 560 BOOO
400 BOO BOOO
400X 560** BOOO
560 1120 BOOO
56 0X 750** BOOO
* For pad-mounted mstallat1on.
•• Trip rating is 140% of X coil ratings; all others are 200%.

108
A3

TABLE 23A3
llwee-Phase, Electronically Controlled Reclosers
I, Max
Cont
Nominal Current Inter- Min-Trip
Recfoser Voltage BIL Rating ruptlng Rating Interrupting Rating Catalog
Type (kV) (kV) (amps) Medium (amps) (rms sym amps) Section
At 4.8 kV At 8.32 kV At 14.4 kV
200 12000 10000 10000
2BO 12000 10000 10000
WE 2.4-14.4 110 560** Oil 400 12000 10000 10000 2B0-40
560 12000 10000 10000
BOO 12000 10000 10000
1120 12000 10000 10000
I! At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
I 100
140
12000
12000
200 12000
PWE* 2.4-14.4 95 560 Vacuum 2BO 12000 2B5-71
400 12000
560 12000
BOO 12000
1120 12000
At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
100 12000
140 12000
200 12000
2BO 12000
I VWE 2.4-14.4 110 560** Vacuum 560 12000 2B0-40
400 12000
560 12000
BOO 12000
l 1120 12000
At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
I 100
140
12000
12000
200 12000
VSA12 2.4-14.4 11 0 560** Vacuum 2BO 12000 2B0-45
400 12000
560 12000
BOO 12000
I 1120 12000
At 2.4 thru 14.4 kV
I 100 16000
140 16000
200 16000
VSA16 2.4-14.4 110 560** Vacuum 2BO 16000 2B0-45
400 16000
560 16000
BOO 16000
u 1120 16000
I 100
140
12000
12000
200 12000
VSAT 2.4-14.4 95 560 Vacuum 2BO 12000 2B0-46
400 12000
560 12000
BOO 12000
1120 12000
• For pad-mounted installation.
- Continuous current rating can be extended to 800 amps with an accessory.

(continued on next page)

109
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Recloser and Fuse-Link Coordination (Continued)

TABLE 23A3 (continued)


Three-Phase, Electronically Controlled Reclosers
Max
Cont
Nominal Current Inter- Min-Trip
Recloser Voltage BIL Rating rupting Rating Interrupting Rating Catalog
Type (kV) (kV) (amps) Medium (amps) (rms sym amps) Section
At 24.9 kV
100 12000
140 12000
200 12000
PWVE* 24.9 125 560 Vacuum 280 12000 285-71
400 12000
560 12000
800 12000
1120 12000
At 24.9 kV
100 12000
140 12000
200 12000
VWVE27 24.9 125 560** Vacuum 280 12000 280-40
400 12000
560 12000
800 12000
1120 12000
At 34.5 kV
100 12000
140 12000
200 12000
VWVE38 34.5 150 560 Vacuum 280 12000 280-40
400 12000
560 12000
800 12000
1120 12000
200 8000
280 8000
WVE 24.9-34.5 150 560** Oil 400 8000 280-40
560 8000
800 8000
1120 8000
At34.5 kV
100 12000
140 12000
200 12000
VS012 34.5 150 560** Vacuum 280 12000 280-57
400 12000
560 12000
800 12000
1120 12000
At 34.5 kV
100 16000
140 16000
200 16000
VS016 34.5 150 560** Vacuum 280 16000 280-57
400 16000
560 16000
800 16000
1120 16000
* For pad-mounted rnstalla!IOn.
** Continuous current rating can be extended to 800 amps with an accessory.

110
A3

USE OF TIME-CURRENT CURVES TABLE 24A3


WITH AD.JUSTMENTS "K" Factor for Source-Side and Load-Side Tin Fuse Links
Coordination between a recloser and fuse links can be achieved Source-Side Fuse Links
by using methods based on time-current curves adjusted by For source-side fuse coordination, the "K" factor, plotted to aver-
a multiplying factor. age values, is used to multiply the time values of the delayed
Source-side fuses, selected to provide protection to the curve (B, C, D, E, etc.). The intersection of this reference curve
transformer, will basically determine what recloser curve or with the fuse minimum-melting time curve determines the maxi·
mum coordinating current. Note that either the fuse or recloser
curves can be considered. When the recloser size and time- curves must be shifted so that both are plotted to the same volt-
current curves for coordination with source-side fuses have age reference.
been determined, then load-side fuses are selected to coor- Multipliers for:
dinate with the recloser. Reclosing Two-Fast, One-Fast, Four
For a more complete understanding of the subject of trans- Time in Two-Delayed Three-Delayed Delayed
former protection, it is recommended that the discussions Cycles Sequence Sequence Sequence
here be read in conjunction with the earlier section titled 25 2.7 3.2 3.7
"Transformer Fusing:' 30 2.6 3.1 3.5
60 2.1 2.5 2.7
COORDINATION WITH SOURCE-SIDE 90 1.85 2.1 2.2
120 1.7 1.8 1.9
FUSE LINKS 240 1.4 1.4 1.45
Fuse links on the source side of the transformer generally 600 1.35 1.35 1.35
protect the system from a transformer fault and protect the Load-Side Fuse Links
transformer from a fault at the secondary bus. This fusing
arrangement is shown in Figure 14A3. The automatic circuit For load-side fuse coordination, the "K" factors are used to multi-
ply the time values of the recloser fast curve. The intersection of
recloser (ACRE1) must be selected to coordinate with the this reference curve with the fuse minimum-melting time curve
source-side fuse link so that the fuse does not interrupt the determines the maximum coordinating current. These factors
circuit for any fault current on the load side of the recloser. are based on the recloser fast curve plotted at maximum time.
The cumulative heating effect of the recloser operations must Multipliers for:
be less than the damage characteristic curve of the fuse link. Recloslng Time One Fast Two Fast
This is accomplished through the use of a multiplying factor in Cycles Operation Operations
on the recloser time-current curve that identifies the damage 25-30 1.25 1.8
or fatigue point of the fuse link. The recloser's modified 60 1.25 1.35
delayed curve must be faster than the source-side fuse's min- 90 1.25 1.35
imum-melt curve. 120 1.25 1.35
Time-current curves are used to coordinate the secondary-
side recloser with the source-side fuse link, utilizing the With an unsymmetrical transformer connection (delta-wye),
following rule: the ratio of primary to secondary fault current will be different,
For the maximum available fault current at the recloser depending on the type of fault. The following factors are used
location, the minimum melting time of the fuse link on the to determine the amount to shift the fuse curve to refer it to
transformer's source-side must be greater than the average the secondary of a delta-wye transformer connection:
clearing time of the recloser's delayed curve, multiplied by a
specific factor. The multiplying factors ("K" factors) for various Fault Type Multiplying Factor
reclosing intervals and operating sequences are listed in Three-Phase N
Table 23A3. Phase-to· Phase 0.87 N
Since the fuse is located on the high-voltage side and the Phase-to-Ground 1.73 N
recloser on the low-voltage side of the transformer, a
comparison of the time-current characteristics of the fuse
and recloser will require that either the fuse or the recloser Where N is the voltage ratio, 46 = 3.7
curves be shifted horizontally on the current axis to allow for 12.47
the transformer turns ratio. Since the fuse size is determined
by the transformer size, it is usually easier to shift the fuse For theN ratio of 3.7, the multiplying factors are:
curve and compare it to the different recloser curves available.
Three-Phase: Fuse curve moved to the right by

SOURCE-SIDE LINK 46 = 3.7 factor


50 Amp TypeS 12.47

Phase-to-Phase: Fuse curve moved to the right by 0.87 X


46000VOLTS
2500KVA (3.7) = 3.2 factor
7200/12470VOLTS
RATED SECONDARY= 116AMPERES
Phase-to-Ground: Fuse curve moved to the right by 1.73 X
140-AMPERE COIL (3.7) 6.4 factor.

Since the phase-to-phase fault factor of 3.2 will result in the


Rgure 14A3. tightest coordination, that should be used as the limiting factor.
Example of recloser and source-side fuse protection Any other factor would result It in a larger shift and allow more
scheme. coordination space between the recloser and fuse curves.
111
A. Overcurrent Protection
3. PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT APPLICATIONS AND COORDINATION
Recloser and Fuse-Link Coordination (Continued)

Example of Source-Side Fuse and Selective fuse sectionalizing of a faulted section of line
Recloser Selections beyond a recloser is not possible with all-fast or all-delayed
The example of fuse-recloser coordination in Figure 14A3 recloser sequences. An all-fast sequence does not allow time
shows a 2500 kVA transformer with 46/12.47 kV transformation. for the fuse to clear, and an all-delayed sequence results in
A primary fuse size of 50 Amp Type S has been selected to pro- fuse operation on the first overcurrent.
vide proper transformer protection. The rated secondary current Two selection rules govern the use of fuse links as protecting
is 116 amperes, so a 140 ampere coil size has been selected. devices on the load side of reclosers:
For the recloser type (ACRE1 ), either three single-phase 1. For all values of fault current possible at the fuse link, the
reclosers or a three-phase recloser can be used, depending minimum melting time of the link must be greater than the
on requirements. If the loads are predominantly single phase, clearing time of the reclosers fast operation, times a multi-
three single-phase reclosers would provide individual clearing plying factor. Multiplying factors provide a safety margin
for single-phase faults. Selection of a three-phase recloser between the clearing time of the recloser's fast curve and
would permit use of ground-fault sensing, thereby providing the melting time of the fuse link to prevent damage or
more sensitive tripping for ground faults and increasing the fatigue of the fuse link. The magnitude of the multiplying
recloser "reach." With three-phase operation, however, all factor varies with the number of fast operations and the
three phases would be interrupted for any single-phase fault. reclosing-time intervals between fast operations. These
For this example, three single-phase reclosers will be load-side multiplying factors are tabulated in Table 24A3
selected. Although either Type V4H or Type L reclosers would for reclosing intervals of 30, 60, 90, and 120 cycles and
satisfy the requirements of a 140 ampere coil and the 1650 sequences with one fast and two fast operations. As can
ampere maximum fault current, the Type L will be used since be seen in the table, the shorter the reclosing interval, the
the 4000 ampere interrupting capability and 280 ampere higher multiplying factor, since the fuse link has less time
maximum continuous current rating will allow for future up rating in which to cool.
of the substation. 2. For all values of fault current possible on the section
The 2A2C sequence has been selected: two A operations protected by the fuse link, the maximum clearing time of
for transient fault clearing, while the C curve will provide the the fuse should be no greater than the delayed clearing
maximum time delay to allow for downline recloser and fuse time of the recloser, provided the recloser sequence is set
coordination. for two or more delayed operations. If the curves are very
Curves selected for this application are shown in Figure 15A3. close the recloser may trip when the fuse operates, but it
As indicated in Table 24A3, the delayed curve is raised by a fac- will reclose, returning service to the remaining system.
tor of 1.7 because a 2A2C sequence with 120 cycle reclosing Coordination range between the recloser and fuse link is
intervals is used. The minimum-melt curve for the 50 Amp S fuse fixed by the above two selection rules. Rule 1 establishes the
link on the primary of the transformer, must be transposed to the maximum coordinating current, while Rule 2 establishes the
right by a factor of 3.2 because coordination is based on minimum coordinating current. The maximum current is the
secondary fault current. current shown where the fuse-link minimum melting curve
Since the adjusted delayed C curve intersects the transformed intersects the reference curve obtained from the product of
50 Amp S curve at 2300 amperes, the maximum coordination the recloser's fast clearing-time curve and the multiplying factor.
point is above the maximum 1650 amperes of available fault The minimum current is at the intersection of the fuse-link
current and is therefore satisfactory. If the fuse and recloser maximum clearing curve and the delayed curve of the recloser.
curves had intersected below 1650 amperes, the fuse might If the link maximum clearing does not intersect and lies below
operate unnecessarily during the second time-delay operation the recloser's delayed curve, the minimum coordination point
for a phase-to-phase fault. For this situation, coordination could is the minimum-trip current of the recloser.
be improved by changing the recloser to either a 2A2E or
2A28 sequence. Example of Load-Side Fuse and
Recloser Selections
COORDINATION WITH LOAD-SIDE FUSE LINKS Figure 16A3 shows a system requiring selection of fuse links
Maximum coordination between reclosers and load-side fuse at location ABC/29. Available fault currents at the fuse locations
links is generally obtained by setting the recloser for two fast and at the end of each three-phase feeder are indicated on the
operations followed by two delayed operations. What this diagram. The load currents shown are present peak-load cur-
accomplishes can best be explained by citing percentages rents. Three single-phase Type L reclosers, with 140 ampere
that are largely hypothetical, since what actually occurs can series coils and 2A2C sequence, are located in the substation.
vary greatly, depending on types of faults, system characteristics, Fuse-link groups F1 and F2 are to be located in each three-
etc. For illustration, therefore, let us assume the first recloser phase feeder at point ABC/29. The fuse links and reclosers
opening allows approximately 70 percent of temporary faults must be coordinated so that, for any faults between points
to clear, and the second opening, about 10 percent more. If ABC/29 and ABC/30, the circuit is first interrupted by the
faults are persistent or permanent, the fuse link melts to clear recloser on its fast curve, after which, if the fault persists, it is
them before the recloser operates a third or fourth time. cleared by the fuse in group F2. Similarly, the recloser must
Coordination is achieved to a lesser degree with one fast clear any fault between ABC/29 and ABC/31 on its fast curve,
followed by three delayed operations. This sequence also and permit the fuse in group F1 to clear the fault if it persists.
should clear about the same percentage of faults during the The recloser must be capable of interrupting any faults occurring
first recloser opening, but is most likely to be used when between points ABC/27 and ABC/29.
automatic sectionalizers are installed at intermediate points
between recloser and fuse.

112
A3

60 3600
50 3000
40 50 Amp Type S *3.2 2400
50 Amp TypeS
30 1800

20 1200
1\ \
\
10 \ 600
8 480
6 360
5 300
4 240
3