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COMPUTATION OF AREA

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COMPUTATION OF AREA

 The term area in surveying refers to the area of a tract of


land projected upon the horizontal plane and not the actual
area of the tract
 For flat tracts, no much difference between actual & projected
area
 For steep tracts, the actual area is much more than the projected
area
 Area may be expressed in the following units
 Square metre
 Hectares
 Square feet
 Acres 2
METHODS OF DETERMINING AREA
 Field measurements:
 Triangle method
 By offset to base line
 By latitudes & departures:
 By coordinates
 Based on measurements scaled from a map

 By mechanical method: Planimeter

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 Area divided into a number of triangles
 Area of each triangle calculated using TRIANGLE METHOD
one of the following formula:
 If 2 sides & one included angle of
triangle measured, then
1
Area = ab sin C
2
 If length of 3 sides of triangle
measured
Area = √[𝑠 𝑠 − 𝑎 𝑠 − 𝑏 𝑠 − 𝑐 ]
1
where s = (a+b+c)
2
 If length of base & perpendicular
distance known
1
Area = x base x perpendicular
2
 Suitable for works of small nature
Total area of tract= sum of area of 4

individual triangles
AREA FROM OFFSET TO A BASE LINE:
OFFSETS AT REGULAR INTERVALS

 Method suitable for long narrow strips of land


 Offsets measured from the boundary to baseline or a
survey line at regular intervals
 Area can be calculated by following rules:
1. Mid-Ordinate rule
2. Average ordinate rule
3. Trapezoidal rule
4. Simpson’s one- third rule

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MID- ORDINATE RULE
 Assumption
 Boundaries between the extremities of the ordinates (or
offsets) are straight lines
 Base line divided into a number of divisions & ordinates
are measured at the mid points of each division
 Area calculated by:

Area = average ordinate x length of base

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MID- ORDINATE RULE

𝑶𝟏:𝑶𝟐:...:𝑶𝒏
Area (∆) = xL
𝒏
= (O1 + O2 +.....+On) x d
=d∑O

where O1, O2... = ordinates at the mid points of each division


∑ O = sum of mid ordinates
n = number of divisions
L = length of base line = nd
d = distance of each division
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AVERAGE ORDINATE RULE
 Assumption
 Boundaries between the extremities of the ordinates (or offsets) are
straight lines

 Offsets measured to each of the points of the divisions of the


base line
Area (∆)= average ordinate x length of the base

𝑂0:𝑂1:...:𝑂𝑛
Area = xL
𝑛:1

𝑳
Area = ∑O
𝒏:𝟏
where O0 = ordinates at one end of the base
On = ordinates at the other end of the base divided into n
equal divisions 8
O1, O2... = ordinates at the end of each division
TRAPEZOIDAL RULE
 Assumption
 The figures are trapezoids

𝑂0:𝑂1
Area of the 1st trapezoid = ∆1 = xd
2
𝑂1:𝑂2
Area of the 2nd trapezoid = ∆2 = xd
2
𝑂𝑛;1:𝑂𝑛
Area of the last trapezoid = ∆n = x d
2

Total area ∆ = ∆1 + ∆2 +....... + ∆n


𝑂0:𝑂1 𝑂 :𝑂 𝑂𝑛;1:𝑂𝑛
∆= x d + 1 2 x d+.........+ x d
2 2 2
𝑶𝟎:𝑶𝒏
∆ =( + O1+ O2 +.........+ 𝑶𝒏 − 𝟏 )x d 9
𝟐
TRAPEZOIDAL RULE
𝑶𝟎:𝑶𝒏
∆=( + O1+ O2 +.........+ 𝑶𝒏 − 𝟏 )x d
𝟐

Trapezoidal rule may be expressed as:


“Add the average of the end offsets to the sum of the
intermediate offsets. Multiply the total sum thus obtained
by the common distance between the ordinates to get the
required area”

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SIMPSON’S ONE THIRD RULE
 Assumption
 Short lengths of boundary
between the ordinates are
parabolic arcs

 More useful when boundary


lines departs from straight line

 Area between line AB and


the curve DFC = area of the
trapezoid ABCD +area of
segment between parabolic arc
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DFC & corresponding chord
DC
SIMPSON’S ONE THIRD RULE

 Let O0 ,O1, O2... = 3 consecutive ordinates taken at regular


interval of d
 Through F, draw a line EG parallel to the chord DC to cut the
ordinates in E & G
𝑂0:𝑂2
Area of trapezoid ABCD = x 2d ..............(1)
2
 Area of the segment (DFC) is equal to two-third the area of the
enclosing parallelogram (CDEG)
2
Area of segment DFC = (FH x AB)
3
2 𝑂0:𝑂2
= { (𝑂1 − ) x 2d} ...........(2)
3 2
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SIMPSON’S ONE THIRD RULE

Adding (1) & (2)


𝑂0:𝑂2 2 𝑂0:𝑂2
∆(1,2) = x 2d + { (𝑂1 − ) x 2d}
2 3 2
𝑑
= (𝑂0 + 4𝑂1 + 𝑂2 )
3
Similarly,
𝑑
∆(3,4) = (𝑂2 + 4𝑂3 + 𝑂4 )
3
Area of last 2 intervals,
𝑑
∆(n-1,n) = (𝑂𝑛 − 2 + 4𝑂𝑛 − 1 + 𝑂𝑛 )
3
Total area
𝑑 𝑑 𝑑
∆ = (𝑂0 + 4𝑂1 + 𝑂2 ) + (𝑂2 + 4𝑂3 + 𝑂4 ) + (𝑂𝑛 − 2 + 4𝑂𝑛 − 1 + 𝑂𝑛 )
3 3 3
𝒅
∆ = [(𝑶𝟎 + 𝑶𝒏)+ 4(𝑶𝟏 + 𝑶𝟑 + ⋯ + 𝑶𝒏 − 𝟏) + 2(𝑶𝟐 + 𝑶𝟒 +𝑶𝒏 − 𝟐 )] 13
𝟑
SIMPSON’S ONE THIRD RULE

𝒅
∆ = [(𝑶𝟎 + 𝑶𝒏)+ 4(𝑶𝟏 + 𝑶𝟑 + ⋯ + 𝑶𝒏 − 𝟏) + 2(𝑶𝟐 + 𝑶𝟒 +𝑶𝒏 − 𝟐 )]
𝟑

Simpson’s one third rule may be stated as:


“The area is equal to the sum of the two end ordinates plus
four times the sum of the odd intermediate ordinates plus twice the
sum of the even intermediate ordinates, the whole multiplied by one-
third the common interval between them”

 Simpson’s rule is applicable only when the number of divisions of the


area is even ie, odd number of ordinates
 If odd division, last area of the division calculated separately
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Q. 1
The following perpendicular offsets were taken with at 10 m
intervals from a survey line to an irregular boundary line:
3.25, 5.60, 4.20, 6.65, 8.75, 6.20, 3.25, 4.20, 5.65 m

Calculate the area enclosed between the survey line, the


irregular boundary line, and the first & last offsets, by the
application of (a) average ordinate rule, (b) trapezoidal rule, &
(c) Simpson’s rule

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(a) Average ordinate rule
𝐿
Area = ∑ O
𝑛:1
n=8,
N+1=9
L= 10 x8 =80m
∑ O = 47.75 m
80
Area = 𝑥 47.75 = 424.44 sq.m
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(b) Trapezoidal rule


𝑶𝟎:𝑶𝒏
∆=( + O1+ O2 +.........+ 𝑶𝒏 − 𝟏 )x d
𝟐
𝟑.𝟐𝟓:𝟓.𝟔𝟓
= ( + 5.60+4.20+6.65+8.75+6.20+3.25+4.20)x10
𝟐
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= 433 sq. m
(c) Simpson’s rule
𝑑
∆ = [(𝑂0 + 𝑂𝑛)+ 4(𝑂1 + 𝑂3 + ⋯ + 𝑂𝑛 − 1) + 2(𝑂2 + 𝑂4 +𝑂𝑛 − 2 )]
3
10
∆ = [(3.25 + 5.65)+ 4(5.6 + 6.65 +6.2 + 4.2) + 2(4.2 + 8.75
3
+3.25)] = 439.65 sq. m

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Q. 2
A series of offsets were taken from a chain line to a curved
boundary line at intervals of 15m in the following order:
0, 2.65, 3.80, 3.75, 4.65, 3.60, 4.95, 5.85 m

Compute the area between the chain line, the curved boundary
& the end offsets by (a) average ordinate rule, (b) trapezoidal
rule, & (c) Simpson’s rule

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(a) Average ordinate rule
Area = 383.91 sq.m
(b) Trapezoidal rule
∆ = 394.87 sq.m
(C) Simpson’s rule
Area between 1st & 7th ordinate calculated by Simpsons
rule & area between 7th & 8th by trapezoidal rule
∆ = 390.25 sq. m

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OFFSETS AT IRREGULAR INTERVALS
 Area of each trapezoid is calculated separately & then
added together to calculate the total area
𝒅𝟏 𝒅𝟐 𝒅𝟑
∆= (𝑶𝟏+ 𝑶𝟐) + (𝑶𝟐+ 𝑶𝟑) + (𝑶𝟑+ 𝑶𝟒)
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐

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Q. 3
The following perpendicular offsets were taken from a
chain line to an irregular boundary:

Chainage (m) 0 10 25 42 60 75
Offset (m) 15.5 26.2 31.8 25.6 29.0 31.5

Calculate the area between the chain line, boundary & the
end offsets

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𝒅𝟏 𝒅𝟐 𝒅𝟑
∆= (𝑶𝟏+ 𝑶𝟐) + (𝑶𝟐+ 𝑶𝟑) + (𝑶𝟑+ 𝑶𝟒)
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐

𝟏𝟎;𝟎 𝟐𝟓;𝟏𝟎
∆= (𝟏𝟓. 𝟓+ 𝟐𝟔. 𝟐) + (𝟐𝟔. 𝟐 + 𝟑𝟏. 𝟖) +
𝟐 𝟐
𝟒𝟐;𝟐𝟓 𝟔𝟎;𝟒𝟐
(𝟑𝟏. 𝟖 + 𝟐𝟓. 𝟔)+ (𝟐𝟓. 𝟔 + 𝟐𝟗) +
𝟐 𝟐
𝟕𝟓;𝟔𝟎
(𝟐𝟗 + 𝟑𝟏. 𝟓)
𝟐
= 2076.5 sq.m

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LATITUDE & DEPARTURE
 If the length & bearing of
the line are known, then it
can be represented by 2
rectangular coordinates
 The axes of the coordinates
are the North & South line,
& the East & West line

 Latitude – coordinate
length measured parallel to
the meridian direction
 +ve when measured
northwards (northing)
 -ve when measured
southwards (southing) 23
 Departure– coordinate length measured perpendicular to the
meridian direction
 +ve when measured eastwards (easting)
 -ve when measured westwards (westing)

Latitude & departure of line OA of length l1 & bearing θ1 is


given by:
L1 = l1 cos θ1
D1 = l1 sin θ1

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AREA FROM DEPARTURE & TOTAL LATITUDES
 Commonly used for computing areas of
closed traverse
Area ABCD = area AbB + area BbcC +
area dcCD + area DdA D4 D3
1
A = [ (D1) (0 - L1’) + (D2)( -L1’+L2’)
2
+ (-D3)( L2’+L3’) +(-D4)( L3’+0)
𝟏
= - [L1’(D1 + D2)+ L2’ (- D2 + D3)
𝟐
+ L3’ (D3 + D4)]
𝟏
A = [ ∑ total latitude of a point x
𝟐
(algebraic sum of two
adjacent departures)
 Negative sign to area has no
significance
 L1’, L2’, L3’ – total latitudes of the ends 25
of the lines
AREA BY COORDINATES
 Let (x1, y1), (x2, y2), (x3, y3), (x4,
y4) be coordinates of A, B, C, D
respectively of ABCD
 Area = area aABb + area bBCc
– area cCDd – area dDAa
1
= [ (y1 – y2)(x1+x2) +
2
(y2 – y3)(x2+x3)-
(y4-y3)(x4+x3) –
(y1-y4)(x1+x2)]

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1
Area = [ y1(x2- x4) + y2( x3-x1) + y3(x4-x2) + y4(x1-x3) ]
2

In general, if n stations,

𝟏
Area = [y1(x2-xn) + y2(x3-x1)+ y3(x4-x2)+.........+yn(x1- xn-1)
𝟐

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Q.1
The following table gives the latitudes & departures (in
metres) of the sides of a closed traverse ABCD

Side Latitude Departure


N S E W
AB 108 4
BC 15 249
CD 123 4
DA 0 257

Compute its area by (i) departures & total latitude


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(ii) coordinate method
Let A be the reference point
Total latitude of B = +108
Total latitude of C = +108+15 = +123
Total latitude of D = +123-123 = 0
Total latitude of A = 0+0 = 0
𝟏
Area = [ ∑ total latitude of a point x (algebraic sum of
𝟐
two adjacent departures)

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Side Latitude Departure
N S E W
AB 108 4
BC 15 249
CD 123 4
DA 0 257

Line Latitude Departure Station Total Algebraic sum of Double


(L) (D) latitude (L) adjoining departures area
AB +108 +4
B +108 +253 +27,324
BC +15 +249
C +123 +253 +31,119
CD -123 +4
D 0 -253 0
DA 0 -257
A 0 -253 0
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Sum 58,443
1
Area = 58,443 𝑠𝑞. 𝑚 = 29221 𝑠𝑞. 𝑚 = 2.9221 ℎ𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑠
2
COORDINATE METHOD
 Calculate independent coordinates of all the points
 Assume coordinate of A as (+100, +100)

Line Latitude Departure Station Independent coordinates


(L) (D)
North (y) East (x)
A 100 100
AB +108 +4
B 208 104
BC +15 +249
C 223 353
CD -123 +4
D 100 357
DA 0 -257
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A 100 100
1
Area = [ y1(x2- x4) + y2( x3-x1) + y3(x4-x2) + y4(x1-x3) ]
2
= 29221 𝑠𝑞. 𝑚

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Q.2
The following table gives the latitudes & departures (in metres)
of the sides of a closed traverse ABCD

Side Latitude Departure


N S E W
AB 145.6 138.4
BC 198 166.4
CD 63.4 193.4
DA 115.8 111.4

Compute its area by (i) departures & total latitude


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(ii) coordinate method
Let A be the reference point
𝟏
Area = [ ∑ total latitude of a point x (algebraic sum of
𝟐
two adjacent departures)]

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Side Latitude Departure
N S E W
AB 145.6 138.4
BC 198 166.4
CD 63.4 193.4
DA 115.8 111.4
Line Latitude( Departure Station Total latitude Algebraic sum of Double
L) (D) (L) adjoining area
departures
AB -145.6 138.4
B -145.6 304.8 -44378.88
BC 198 166.4
C 52.4 -27 -1414.8
CD 63.4 -193.4
D 115.8 -304.8 -35295.8
DA -115.8 -111.4
A 0 27 350

Sum 81089.6
1
Area = 81089.6 𝑠𝑞. 𝑚 = 40544.8 𝑠𝑞. 𝑚 = 4.05448 ℎ𝑒𝑐𝑡𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑠
 Calculate independent coordinates of all the points
 Assume coordinate of A as (+200, +200)

Line Latitude Departure Station Independent coordinates


(L) (D)
North (y) East (x)
A 200 200
AB -145.6 138.4
B 54.4 338.4
BC 198 166.4
C 252.4 504.8
CD 63.4 -193.4
D 315.8 311.4
DA -115.8 -111.4
A 200 200
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1
Area = [ y1(x2- x4) + y2( x3-x1) + y3(x4-x2) + y4(x1-x3) ]
2
1
= [ 200(54.4- 315.8) + 338.4( 252.4-200) + 504.8(315.8- 54.4)
2
+ 311.4( 200-252.4)]
= 40544.8 𝑠𝑞. 𝑚

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