Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 47

SOCIAL SCIENCE – POLITICS AND GOVERNANCE WITH PHILIPPINE

CONSTITUTION

COMPETENCIES:
1. Familiarize with the various forms of government from the barangay to the present
system.
2. Explain the nature and provision of the present constitution to advantages and
disadvantages over the other in the past in its function as fundamental law of the
state.

I. WHAT IS POLITICAL SCIENCE?


a. The term political science is the systematic study of the state and the
government.
b. Political Science is a social science regarding the practice and theory of
politics, the analysis of political systems, and the study of political behavior.
c. It is derived from the Greek words “polis” or “city” which today would mean
a sovereign state and “scire” meaning “science.
d. Montesquieu expounded the concept. He posted that all the functions of
the government could be encompassed within the categories of legislation,
execution and the adjudication of law. He assumed that liberty could be best
assured by the distribution among separate branches of government
namely the legislative, executive and the judiciary courts of law.
e. Aristotle, a Greek Philosopher was credited with the observation, that,
“man is by nature, a political animal.” By this statement, Aristotle meant that
the basic underlying substance of human existence is politics, that is, that
man is predisposed to be involved in politics.

II. CONCEPT OF STATE


a. STATE is a community of persons more or less numerous, permanently
occupying a definite portion of territory, independent of external control, and
possessing an organized government to which the great body of inhabitants
render habitual obedience.
III. ORIGIN OF THE STATE
There are several theories on the origin of state, but it is not known exactly which is
of them is the correct one.
a. DIVINE RIGHT THEORY - state is of divine creation and the ruler is
ordained by God to govern the people.
b. NECESSITY OR FORCE THEORY - state is created through force, by
strong warriors who imposed their will upon the weak.
c. PATERNALISTIC THEORY - state comes from the expansion of family,
under the authority of the father. Family grew into a clan, then developed
into tribe which broadened into a nation, and a nation became a state.
d. SOCIAL CONTRACT THEORY - states have been formed by deliberate
and voluntary compact among the people to form a society and organize
government for their common good.
IV. FUNCTIONS OF THE STATE
a. CONSTITUENT – compulsory in nature
b. MINISTRANT – discretionary in nature

V. CONCEPT OF NATION
a. A nation is a group of persons occupying a portion of the territory sharing
the same language, culture, tradition and history
VI. STATE VS. NATION
a. A state is more of a judicial or legal concept while a nation is more of a
racial or ethnic concept.
b. A nation may or may not be independent of external control.
c. A state may consist of one or more nations while a nation may consist of
one or more states.
VII. INHERENT POWERS OF THE STATE
a. POLICE POWER
i. It is the sovereign power to promote and protect the general
welfare. It is the most pervasive and the least limitable of the three
powers of the state, the most essential, consistent and illimitable
which enables the State to prohibit all hurtful things to the comfort,
safety and welfare of the society.
ii. It is an inherent attribute of sovereignty. It can exist even without
reservation in the constitution. It is based on necessity as without it,
there can be no effective government. It is also referred to as the
law of overwhelming necessity.
b. POWER OF EMINENT DOMAIN
i. It is an inherent power of the state that enables it to forcibly acquire
private property, which is intended for public use, upon the payment
of just compensation. It is based on political necessity; it is
inseparable from the state unless it is denied to it by its
fundamental law.
c. POWER OF TAXATION
i. It is the inherent power of the state to raise revenues to defray the
expenses of the government or for any public purpose. This can be
done through the imposition of burdens or imposition on persons,
properties, services, occupations or transactions.
ii. The importance of taxation derives from the unavoidable obligation
of the government to protect the people and extend them benefits
in the form of public projects and services. Taxation is based on
necessity and the reciprocal duties of protection and support
between the state and those that are subject to its authority.
VIII. ELEMENTS OF THE STATE
a. People - the population living in a state.
b. Territory - includes the land, the rivers, the sea, and the air space which
the jurisdiction of the sate extends.
c. Government - the agency through which the will of the state is
formulated, expressed and carried out.
d. Sovereignty or independence - the power to command and enforce
obedience free from foreign control.
IX. MODES OF ACQUIRING TERRITORY
a. DISCOVERY is the oldest method of acquiring title to territory. However,
discovery alone would not suffice to establish legal title. It is necessary
that the discovered area must be physically occupied. Occupation is the
intentional acquisition by a state over a territory which at the time of claim
not under the sovereignty of any state. There are two requirements: (1)
the territory subject of claim must not be under the sovereignty of any
state (terra nullius); and (2) the state must have effectively occupied the
territory, that is, the state claiming the territory must have exercised
immediate occupation (corpus occupandi) on the territory after it displayed
its intention to occupy (animus occupandi).
b. PRESCRIPTION means continued occupation over a long period of time
by one state of territory actually and originally belonging to another
state. There are four requirements of prescription: (1) the possession must
be exercised in the form of actual exercise of sovereign authority; (2) the
possession must be peaceful and uninterrupted; (3) the possession must
be public; and (4) the possession must be for a long period of time. The
peaceful and continuous display is also an essential element although as
compared to occupation, prescription requires a stricter proof and longer
period of the display of authority. Moreover, any protest or objection by the
losing state destroys the peaceful display of authority of the claiming
state.
c. CESSATION is the transfer of territory usually by treaty from one state to
another. Concomitant of transfer of territory is the transfer of
sovereignty from the owner state to another state.
d. CONQUEST is acquiring territory by the use of force. The practice before
was after conquest, the conqueror annexed the conquered territory to his
state. Thus, conquest first takes place followed by annexation. But with
the establishment of the United Nations, conquest is no longer acceptable
in the international community.
e. ACCRETION it is the process where the land area of a state caused by
the operation of either the forces of nature, or artificially through human
labor, is increased.
X. FORMS OF GOVERNMENT
a. Democracy - a form of government in which the supreme power is
retained by the people, but which is usually exercised indirectly through a
system of representation and delegated authority periodically renewed.
b. Monarchy - a government in which the supreme power is lodged in the
hands of a monarch who reigns over a state or territory, usually for life and
by hereditary right; the monarch may be either a sole absolute ruler or a
sovereign - such as a king, queen or prince - with constitutionally limited
authority.
c. Presidential - a system of government where the executive branch exists
separately from a legislature (to which it is generally not accountable)
d. Federal (Federation) - a form of government in which sovereign power is
formally divided -- usually by means of a constitution -- between a central
authority and a number of constituent regions (states, colonies or
provinces) so that each region retains some management of its internal
affairs; differs from a confederacy in that the central government exerts
influence directly upon both individuals as well as upon the regional units.
e. Aristocracy – a form of government wherein the power is exercised by a
limited few or the so-called elite. It is always regarded as the privileged
class.
f. Parliamentary – a form of government wherein the president serves as
nominal or titular head. It is the Prime Minister that runs the affairs of the
State. He is directly accountable to the people.
g. Military – a form of government established and controlled by military
authorities over a beleaguered state.
THE HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT OF PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT
I. THE PRE-SPANISH GOVERNMENT
a. Before the arrival of the Spanish colonizers in the Philippines in the 16th
century, the Barangays were well-organized independent villages and in
some cases, cosmopolitan sovereign principalities, which functioned much
like a city-state. The Barangay was the dominant organizational pattern
among indigenous communities in the Philippine archipelago. The name
barangay originated from balangay, a Malay word meaning "sailboat".
b. Every barangay was virtually a State for it possessed the four basic
elements of the state.
c. Each barangay was ruled by a Datu. He is the chief executive, law-giver,
chief judge and military head. He was assisted by Council of Elders called
Maginoos which serve as advisers.
d. In form, the government in a barangay is Monarchial in nature with the
datu as the monarch.
e. Social classes in barangay are divided into four: the nobility or the
maharlika, freeman or the timawa, the serfs or the aliping namamahay and
the slaves of the aliping saguiguilid.
II. THE SPANISH GOVERNMENT
a. During the Spanish colonization in the Philippines, the government was
composed of two branches, the executive and the judicial. There was no
legislative branch on that time since the laws of the islands were coming
from Spain. The only laws created in the Philippines are those who were
ordered by the Governor General.
b. The government on that time was led by the Governor General. He was
considered as the representative of Spain and the King himself. He is the
highest officer in the island and responsible for implementing laws from
the mother country. He also has the power to appoint or relieve officer in
the government or priest in the parish, except with those personally
appointed by the king of Spain.
c. The provinces in the island were called as “Encomienda” and were
governed by the “Encomienderos”, later they were replaced by the
“Alcalde Mayor”. “Alcalde Mayor” had both the executive and judicial
power. He had also given the right to collect taxes. The “Alcalde Mayor”
was also allowed to establish a business because of its limited salary. In
1886, their executive power was abolished but their judicial powers
remain.
d. Small towns were governed by the “gobernadorcillo”. Under his authority
were one police chief and the lower government employees from which he
had jurisdiction.“Gobernadorcillo” were elected by the married people but
later a “gobernadorcillo” was chosen by those outgoing in the position as
his replacement.
III. THE REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT
a. THE KATIPUNAN
i. Under the leadership of Bonifacio, the Katipunan laid down three
fundamental objectives or aims: political, moral and civic. The
political objectives consisted in working for the separation of the
Philippines from Spain. The moral objective revolved about around
the teaching of good manners, hygiene, good morals, and attacking
obscurantism, religious fanaticism, and weakness of character. The
civic aim revolved around the principle of self-help and the defense
of the poor and the oppressed. All members were urged to come to
the aid of the sick comrades and their families, and in case of death
the society itself was to pay for the funeral expenses. For the
purpose of economy however, the society saw to it that the funeral
was of the simplest kind, avoiding unnecessary expenses so
common under the rule of the friars.
b. THE BIAK-NA-BATO REPUBLIC
i. The Republic of Biak-na-Bato (officially referred to in its
constitution as the Republic of the Philippines was the first
republic ever declared in the Philippines by the revolutionary Emilio
Aguinaldo and his fellow members of the Katipunan. Despite its
successes, including the establishment of the Philippines' first ever
constitution, the republic lasted just over a month. It was
disestablished by a peace treaty signed by Aguinaldo and
the Spanish Governor-General, Fernando Primo de Rivera which
included provision for exile of Aguinaldo and key associates
to Hong Kong. The constitution of the Republic of Biak-na-Bato was
written by Felix Ferrer and Isabelo Artacho, who copied the Cuban
Constitution of Jimaguayú nearly word-for-word. It provided for the
creation of a Supreme Council, which was created on November 2,
1897, with the following as officers having been elected.
c. THE DICTATORIAL GOVERNMENT
i. Filipino rebels routed the Spaniards in Alapan, Cavite. By early
June, with no arms supplied by Dewey, Aguinaldo's forces had
overwhelmed Spanish garrisons in Cavite and around Manila,
surrounded the capital with 14 miles of trenches, captured the
Manila waterworks and shut off access or escape by the Pasig
River. Links were established with other movements throughout the
country. With the exception of Muslim areas on Mindanao and
nearby islands, the Filipinos had taken effective control of the rest
of the Philippines. Aguinaldo's 12,000 troops kept the Spanish
soldiers bottled up inside Manila until American troop
reinforcements could arrive.
d. REVOLUTIONARY GOVERNMENT
i. The Revolutionary Government is another government established
by Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo on the 23rd day of June in the year 1898;
replacing the dictatorial government. This government aims to
struggle for the Philippine independence until the foreign countries
including Spain will recognized the Philippines. It also aims for the
future establishment of the real republic.
e. THE FIRST PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC
i. The Philippine Republic more commonly known as the First
Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic, was a
nascent revolutionary government in the Philippines. It was formally
established with the proclamation of the Malolos Constitution on
January 23, 1899, in Malolos,Bulacan and endured until the capture
and surrender of Emilio Aguinaldo to the American forces on March
23, 1901, in Palanan, Isabela, which effectively dissolved the First
Republic.
IV. THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT
a. After the Spaniards capitulated to them in the Battle of Manila on August
13, 1898, the victorious Americans established the Military Government on
August 14. This government which was run by military generals appointed
by the American president exercised all powers of the government until
the war was declared by the Americans to have ended until July 1901,
following the capture of President Emilio Aguinaldo.
b. On July 4, 1901, upon the recommendation of the Second Philippine
Commission headed by William Taft, the American authorities established
the civil government that took over the functions of the military
government. The president of the Philippine Commission became civil
governor in areas already pacified under the American military rule. The
Civil Governor (the title was later changed to Governor-General in 1905)
also exercised legislative powers while remaining as president of the
Philippine Commission, the lawmaking body of the government up to
1907.
c. Upon the creation of the Philippine Assembly that served as the lower
house, the Philippine Commission became the upper house of the
legislative branch from 1907 to 1916. The first free national elections in
the Philippines were held for the members of the Philippine Assembly who
were all Filipinos where Sergio Osmeña served as Speaker of the
Assembly.
d. With the passage of the Spooner Amendment in 1916, the Philippine
Commission and Philippine Assembly gave way to an all Filipino
Legislature. The Philippine Legislature had two houses – the Senate and
the House of Representatives. Manuel Quezon was elected President of
the Senate and Osmeña again became Speaker of the House.
e. Despite the growing participation of the civil government there were still
limitations. The American governor-general was still the power behind the
government and, together with the American president could veto any law
passed by the Philippine Legislature. The U.S. Congress regulated
Philippine trade and the American Supreme Court could overrule the
decisions of the Philippine Supreme Court.
f. Pursuant to the provisions of the Tydings-McDuffie Law passed by the
U.S. Congress, the Commonwealth Government was established to
succeed American Insular Government in the Philippines. Following the
first national elections under the 1935 Constitution, the Commonwealth
Government was inaugurated on November 15, 1935, with Quezon as
president and Osmeña as vice president.
g. The Commonwealth Government was a ten-year transitory government
which gave Filipinos a chance to prove to the Americans their capability
readiness in handling their own government. If proven capable the
independence of the Philippines would be proclaimed upon the expiration
of the said period.
h. The Commonwealth was a semi-independent or autonomous government
of the Filipinos under American tutelage. It was republican in form under
the presidential type. The legislative power was vested in a bicameral
congress that was divided into the Senate and the House of
Representatives.
i. It had its own system of judicial courts with the Supreme Court on top of
the ladder.
j. When the Second World War broke out, the Commonwealth Government
became a government-in-exile administering the affairs of the Philippines
across the ocean from the United States. The Commonwealth officials,
headed by President Quezon, had to flee there to the Japanese
occupation of the country.
V. THE JAPANESE GOVERNMENT
a. After Manila became an occupied city, Gen. Masaharu Homma,
Commander-in-Chief of the Japanese Imperial Forces in the Philippines,
issued a proclamation announcing the end of the American rule in the
country and the purpose of the Japanese expedition. This was on January
3, 1942 and reiterated the avowed aim of the Japanese occupation to
emancipate the Filipinos from the oppressive domination of the United
States and letting them establish "the Philippines for the Filipinos".
b. On January 23, 1942, General Homma issued an order re-naming the
national government as Central Administrative Organization, headed by a
Chairperson. The Chairperson of the Executive Commission was assisted
by the Council of State. Jorge B. Vargas was appointed by Homma as the
Chairperson of the said Commission. The Central Administrative
Organization was composed of six executive departments: Interior,
Agriculture and Commerce, Communications, Education, Finance, Justice,
Health and Public Welfare, and Public Works and Communications. Each
of these departments was under a Commissioner whose task was to
"execute an administration within his jurisdiction under the control of the
Chairman of the Executive Commission."
c. It must be pointed out that the powers and prerogatives of the
Commissioners were limited by the fact that each department had a
Japanese adviser and assistant adviser. Furthermore, Vargas'
recommendation for the Commissionership of any department or for any
subordinate position had first to be approved by General Homma. What
can be taken from this set-up is that the Japanese advisers were nothing
more than the eyes and ears of the Japanese military authorities.
d. The organization of each department and the courts of justice remained
essentially the same as during the Commonwealth period but their general
programs of work had to be approved by General Homma. The provincial
and municipal levels also remained on status quo.
e. The Japanese made the Filipinos believed that Japan's intention was to
see the Philippines become a Republic. Thus, as early as January 21,
1942, the Premier of Japan, Hideki ToJo, stated in an address before the
Japanese Imperial Diet, that "Japan will gladly grant the Philippines its
independence so long as it cooperates and recognizes Japan's program of
establishing a Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere."
f. On January 20, 1943, Jorge Vargas pledged support of the Filipinos in the
attainment of independence. On June 18, the Kapisanan sa Paglilingkod
sa Bagong Pilipinas (KALIBAPI) was instructed to form the Preparatory
Commission for Philippine Independence. On January 20, the KALIBAPI
announced the composition of the body with Jose P. Laurel as president
and Benigno Aquino and Ramon Avanceña as vice-presidents.
g. What followed was the preparation of the draft of the prepared
Constitution which was approved on September 4 and ratified by a
convention two days later. The new Constitution provided for a unicameral
National Assembly whose members were immediately chosen and who
elected Laurel as president of the future Republic. This was on October
14, 1943.
VI. THE THIRD PHILIPPINE REPUBLIC

The Third Republic was formed and headed by a succession of presidents. On July
4, 1946, the Republic of the Philippines was inaugurated and Philippine independence
was proclaimed in Luneta, Manila.

Philippines as a new-born republic sprang out of the ashes of war. The following were
the problems:

1. Economic rehabilitation
2. Cultural rehabilitation
3. Financial poverty (Annual deficit of over Php 200,000,000)
4. Peace and order
5. Distorted moral values of Filipinos
MANUEL A. ROXAS ADMINISTRATION (Term: July 4, 1946 – April 15, 1948)

 Laws and Programs:


o Rehabilitation and Reconstruction of War-Ravaged Philippines
o Adoption of pro-American Foreign Policy:
 Adherence to and support of the ideals and objectives of the
United States
 Preservation of the ideals and objectives of the United States
 Maintenance of friendly relations with other nations of the
world, except communist nations
 Signing of treaties and Agreements: Treaty of General
Relations , War Surplus Property Agreement, Military Bases
Agreement and Military Assistance Agreement
 Bell Trade Act
 General Amnesty
 Rehabilitation Finance Corporation
 Parity Rights Amendment

ELPIDIO QUIRINO ADMINISTRATION (Term: April 17, 1948 – December 30, 1953)

 2 Objectives of his administration:


o Economic reconstruction of the nation
o Restoration of the faith and confidence of the people in the
government

 Laws and Programs:


o President’s Action Committee on Social Amelioration (PACSA)
o Agricultural Credit Cooperatives Financing Administration (ACCFA)
o Labor Management Advisory Board
o Rural Banks
o Created the Social Security Commission
o Construction of farm-to-market roads
o Declared Quezon City as the Capital of the Philippines (July 17,
1948)

RAMON MAGSAYSAY ADMINISTRATION (Term: December 30, 1953 – March


17, 1957)
A man of greatness of spirit, he saw his fellow human beings born with the
right to live in liberty and happiness. He angered at injustice and the violation of
high principles. He worked to build a nation – a world – in which all people were
free and lived in honor and peace with one another.

Laws and Programs:


1. Reparation Agreement with Japan on May 9, 1956 ($300,000,000 for 25 years)
3. Presidential Complaints and Action Committee (PCAC)
7. Land Tenure Law (RA No. 1400)
8. Agricultural Tenancy Act (RA 1199)
9. National Resettlement and Rehabilitation Administration (NARRA, RA 1160)
10. Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) on September 8, 1954
11. Presidential Assistance on Community Development

Works, Examples, Principles:

 He attained fame as an able guerilla leader in World War II and was


subsequently named by Macarthur as military governor of Zambales during
the liberation. A friend to the common tao
 He toured the barrios, opened up Malacanang to the public, solicited and
acted upon their complaints, built artesian wells and roads.
 Popularized the use of barong tagalog
 He had Congress pass the Agricultural Tenancy Act of 1954 providing
greater protection to tenants
 He was instrumental in having the US Congress pass the G.I. Bill of Rights
which accorded benefits to the Filipino war veterans.
DIOSDADO MACAPAGAL ADMINISTRATION (1961-1965)

LAWS AND PROGRAMS

 Opened Malacanang to the Public; however it didn’t last long because people
started to only loft around.
 Dismissed Corruption in the government when the official couldn’t justify his
sudden acquisition of wealth.
 Changed the Date of the Philippine Independence from June 12 to July 4.
 Agricultural Land Reform Code of 1963
 Abolished share tendency on rice and corn farmlands and establishment of a
leasehold system where farmers would pay rentals to landlords instead of
harvests.
FERDINAND E. MARCOS (1965-1986)
 Marcos took his oath of office on December 30, 1965. He was reelected in 1969.
However, before the end of his second term, Marcos made serious efforts to
amend the 1935 constitution which was in effect that time.
 Marcos issued Proclamation 1081 even before they finish the draft of the 1973
constitution. The proclamation placed the entire Philippines under Martial Law.
By virtue of this, Congress was abolished.
 Marcos assumed executive, legislative and even judicial powers of the
government.
CORAZON AQUINO ADMINISTRATION (1986-1992)
 She was inducted as the first lady president of the Philippines on February 25,
1986.
 Aquino issued Proclamation No. 3 on March 25, 1986 promulgating the Freedom
Constitution.
 February 2, 1987, the Filipino people voted to ratify the charter, thereby legalizing
the restoration of democratic government and institutions in the country.
 May 11, 1992 the first Marcos presidential election was held and Fidel Ramos
was anointed successor of Corazon Aquino as president.

JOSEPH EJERCITO ESTRADA (1998-2001)


 During the 1998 presidential election campaign, like most presidential campaign,
the competition did not do anything between political platforms and programs.
Estrada’s strategists were aware that there is a large percent of the population
who are poor and uneducated or “masa” who were looking for a candidate whom
they could relate to. Using the slogan “Erap para sa mahirap”, Estrada
succeeded in inspiring the lower class people with a hope that if he wins, he will
the president of the masses. Estrada was inaugurated on June 30, 1998 in the
historical town of Malolos in Bulacan province in paying tribute to the cradle of
the First Philippine Republic.
PRIMARY PROBLEMS

 Graft and Corruption

Graft and corruption was pretty eminent not just during Estrada’s administration.
Obviously, we all know Estrada was sanctioned to have been getting or robbing money
from the governments’ fund to use for his own personal interest. That is why he was
impeached due to his plunder and perjury case.

 Asian Financial Crisis

The Central bank raised interest rates by 1.75%. The BSP was forced to intervene
heavily to defend the peso raising the overnight rate from 15% to 24%. The pesa fell
from 26 per dollar to 28 pesos to 40 pesos by the end of the crisis.
 El Nino

The El Nino led to too many problems in the country. One of which is the serious
drought of lands in the rural areas that cause the unemployment of the farmers and the
rise of the prices of rice.

 Poverty

Of the 14.37 million families, 5.75 million belonged to the lowest 40% income group
while 8.62 million in the highest 60% income bracket. In terms of percentage to total
families, families in the highest 60% income strata got the biggest percentage in almost
all indicators. But in terms of the percentage to the total families within each income
strata, families in the lowest 40% income strata are not far off from families in the
highest 60%

GLORIA MACAPAGAL-ARROYO (2001-2010)

President Arroyo was named the 14th president of the Philippines during the People
Power II, January 20, 2001 in Edsa when former President Joseph Estrada was forced
out of office because of allegations of plunder and corruption. The president faced a lot
of challenges in her early presidency which includes an unstable economy and protests
by the supporters of Estrada. Another one of her problems include the ongoing battle
between the government and the rebels. Despite the problems and issues regarding her
administration, she has also done a lot for the Philippines including lifting the Philippines
out of its financial crisis.

In 2004, she won the elections and was elected to a full term presidency until 2010.
During her inaugural speech, she vowed to create 10 million jobs in the next six years,
balance the budget of the Philippines, improve tax collection through computerization,
provide cheap medicine for the poor and unite the country.

Until now, she has been arguably the most unpopular president of the Philippines. This
is because of her numerous unanswered issues and controversies like the Hello Garci
scandal, expensive dinners during her visit to the United States, and many more.

LAWS AND PROGRAMS


 Restoring Political Stability and Building New Politics
 President Arroyo wanted to resolve the political crisis through restoring the
confidence of the people in the government through:
• Making a Selection Committee to recruit a Cabinet team who is committed to
the values of the administration
• Establishing partnerships with the civil society by involving people in
governance.
• Opening up peace initiatives to address threats specifically regarding the
Muslim rebels to make them obey the law and list them as soldiers in the war
against poverty.
• Restoring the rule of law in order to fight crimes such as smuggling, kidnapping,
and corruption.
• Making a new Anti-Graft Commission which will promote integrity among the
officials and presidential appointees.
 Promote Economic Revival through Social Equity
• Implementing a monetary policy in order to keep the inflation rate low while
providing liquidity for growth.
• Create new micro-financing guidelines so that loans may be more available to
the poor.
• Banking reforms to promote transparency, enhanced competition, financial
soundness and modernization with the help of expanded foreign participation in
domestic banks.

BRIEF HISTORY OF CONSTITUTION


Meaning of Constitution
According to Judge Cooley, a constitution is a body of rules and maxims in accordance
with which the power of sovereignty is habitually exercised.
Kinds of Constitution

1. The Written Constitution is the constitution where the provisions are all
contained in a single document.
2. The Unwritten Constitution is the constitution where the provisions are not
contained in a single document.

Two steps of amending or revising a constitution

1. Proposal – may be made by


a. Congress
b. Constitutional Convention
c. People’s Initiative
2. Ratification – this means the submission of the draft constitution to the electorate.
A proposal made by the people’s initiative requires at least 12% of the entire
electorate and 3% must come from every legislative district.

PREAMBLE
The term preamble comes from the Latin word ‘preambulare which means ‘to walk
before’. It is not an integral part of the constitution and has no legal implications.

The Philippine Territorial Jurisdiction comprises:


1. Terrestrial – jurisdiction over bodies of land.
2. Fluvial – jurisdiction over maritime and interior waters.
3. Aerial – jurisdiction over atmosphere.

ARTICLE 1
NATIONAL TERRITORY
 The national territory comprises the Philippine archipelago, with all the islands
and waters embraced therein, and all other territories over which the Philippines
has sovereignty or jurisdiction, consisting of its terrestrial, fluvial and aerial
domains, including its territorial sea, the seabed, the subsoil, the insular shelves,
and other submarine areas. The waters around, between, and connecting the
islands of the archipelago, regardless of their breadth and dimensions, form part
of the internal waters of the Philippines.

ARTICLE II
DECLARATION OF PRINCIPLES AND STATE POLICIES

 Section 1. The Philippines is a democratic and republican State. Sovereignty


resides in the people and all government authority emanates from them.
Section 2. The Philippines renounces war as an instrument of national policy,
adopts the generally accepted principles of international law as part of the law of
the land and adheres to the policy of peace, equality, justice, freedom,
cooperation, and amity with all nations.

Section 3. Civilian authority is, at all times, supreme over the military. The Armed
Forces of the Philippines is the protector of the people and the State. Its goal is
to secure the sovereignty of the State and the integrity of the national territory.

Section 4. The prime duty of the Government is to serve and protect the people.
The Government may call upon the people to defend the State and, in the
fulfillment thereof, all citizens may be required, under conditions provided by law,
to render personal, military or civil service.

Section 5. The maintenance of peace and order, the protection of life, liberty, and
property, and promotion of the general welfare are essential for the enjoyment by
all the people of the blessings of democracy.

Section 6. The separation of Church and State shall be inviolable.


ARTICLE III: Bill of Rights

 Bill of rights is defined as a declaration and enumeration of a person’s rights and


privileges which the Constitution designed to protect against violations by the
government or by an individual or group of individuals.
TYPES OF RIGHTS
1. NATURAL RIGHTS - Political theory that maintains that an individual enters into
society with certain basic rights and that no government can deny these rights.
2. CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS - A liberty or right whose protection from
governmental interference is guaranteed by a constitution.
3. STATUTORY RIGHTS - The term 'statutory' basically means relating to a
statute, which in turn is defined as a law enacted by a legislature.
CONCEPT OF DUE PROCESS
Due process is the legal requirement that the state must respect all legal rights that
are owed to a person. Due process balances the power of law of the land and
protects the individual person from it.

ARTICLE IV: Citizenship


ARTICLE V: Suffrage
ARTICLE VI: Legislative Department
ARTICLE VII: Executive Department
ARTICLE VIII: Judicial Department
ARTICLE IX: Constitutional Commissions
ARTICLE X: Local Government
ARTICLE XI: Accountability of Public Officers
ARTICLE XII: National Economy and Patrimony
ARTICLE XIII: Social Justice and Human Rights
ARTICLE XIV: Education, Science and Technology, Arts, Culture and Sports
Education
ARTICLE XV: The Family
ARTICLE XVI: General Provisions
ARTICLE XVII: Amendments or Revisions
ARTICLE XVIII: Transitory Provisions
Who can be classified as citizens of the Philippines?
1. Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this
constitution.
2. Those whose fathers or mothers are citizens of the Philippines.
3. Those born before January 17, 1973 of Filipino mothers who elect Philippine
citizenship upon reaching the age of maturity.
4. Those who are naturalized in accordance with law.
Two principles on Citizenship
 Jus Soli
 Citizenship is obtained based on the place of birth, regardless of the
citizenship of the parents.
 Jus Sanguinis
 Citizenship is based on the citizenship of the parents.
Define Naturalization?
This is a legal process whereby one renounces a foreign citizenship to obtain
Philippine citizenship.
EXECUTIVE DEPARTMENT
Qualifications for being a president
• Natural born Filipino citizen
• Registered Voter.
• Can read and write
• Is forty years old at the time of the election
• Is a resident of the Philippines within ten years prior to Election Day
Duties of the president
• Implement laws of the land and to issue executive orders
• To propose bills in Congress.
• To submit the proposed annual budget of the government to congress.
• To appoint government and military officials.
• To implement the republic’s foreign policies.
• To give pardon, reprieve or postponement of sentence, and to commute or
decrease the sentence of prisoners.
• To approve, veto or disapprove any proposed bill in congress.
• To lead the armed forces of the Philippines as commander – in – chief.
THE VICE PRESIDENT
• The primary duty of the VP is to replace the president if he/she dies, becomes
incapacitated or has resigned from the post.
• He/she can also be appointed as member of the cabinet.
IMPEACHMENT
• It is a process through which any government leaders like:
• President
• Vice President
• Members of the constitutional commissions the ombudsman and
Supreme Court magistrates.
are removed from their office.
GROUNDS FOR IMPEACHMENT
1. Violation of the constitution
2. Betrayal of the country
3. Bribery
4. Corruption
5. Betrayal of public trust
6. Other high crimes
JUDICIARY DEPARTMENT
• Primary duty is to settle disputes concerning violations of the law and abuses of
rights.
• To decide fairly whether or not a violation or abuse has been committed.
LEGISLATIVE DEPARTMENT
Congress is responsible for making enabling laws to make sure the spirit of the
constitution is upheld in the country and, at times, amend or change the constitution
itself. In order to craft laws, the legislative body comes out with two main documents:
bills and resolutions.

According to the 1987 Constitution, legislative power shall be vested in the Congress
of the Philippines, which shall consist of a Senate and a House of Representatives.

The Senate shall be composed of twenty-four Senators who shall be elected at large
by the qualified voters of the Philippines, as may be provided by law; the House of
Representatives shall be composed of not more than 250 (unless otherwise fixed by
law), 20 percent of whom must be Party-list representatives.
SOCIAL SCIENCE - PHILIPPINE HISTORY
COMPETENCIES:
1. Trace the history of the Philippines from pre-colonial to contemporary
periods.
2. Draw the implications of the historical evolution of the Philippines to
the present socio-political conditions.
Geography
 Geography is the study of the earth’s landscapes, peoples, places and
environments. It is, quite simply, about the world in which we live.
 The study of physical and human landscapes, the processes that affect them, how
and why they change over time, and how and why they vary spatially.
PRE-COLONIAL PHILIPPINES
The primary peoples of the Philippine archipelago were the Negrito, proto-Malay, and
Malay peoples. The Negritos are believed to have journeyed to the Philippines by land
bridges some 30,000 years ago from Borneo, Sumatra, and Malaya, during the last ice
age. Later migrations were by water and took place over several thousand years. The
Malayans followed in successive waves. These people belonged to a prehistoric age of
Malayan culture, which has in fact survived to this day among certain groups such as
the Igorots. The Malayan tribes that came later had more highly developed material
cultures.

The social and political organization of the population in the widely scattered
islands evolved into a generally common pattern. Only the permanent-field rice farmers
of northern Luzon had any notion of territoriality. The basic unit of settlement was the
barangay, formerly a kinship group headed by a datu (chief). Within the barangay
(Malay term for boat; also came to be used for the communal settlements established
by migrants who came from the Indonesian archipelago and elsewhere. The term
replaces the word barrio, formerly used to identify the lowest political subdivision in the
Philippines), the broad social divisions consisted of nobles, including the datu; freemen;
and a group described before the Spanish period as dependents. Dependents included
several categories with differing status: landless agricultural workers; those who had
lost freeman status because of indebtedness or punishment for crime; and slaves, most
of whom appear to have been war captives.

In the 14th century Arab traders from Malay and Borneo introduced Islam into the
southern islands and extended their influence asfar north as Luzon. Islam was brought
to the Philippines by traders and proselytizers from the Indonesian islands. By the 16th
century, Islam was recognized in the Sulu Archipelago and spread from there to
Mindanao; it had reached the Manila area by 1565.

The first Europeans to visit (1521) the Philippines were those in the Spanish expedition
around the world headed by the Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan. Other
Spanish expeditions followed, including one from New Spain (Mexico) under López de
Villalobos, who in 1542 named the islands for the infante Philip, later Philip II. Muslim
immigrants introduced a political concept of territorial states ruled by rajas or sultans
who exercised suzerainty over the datu. Neither the political state concept of the Muslim
rulers nor the limited territorial concept of the inactive rice farmers of Luzon, however,
spread beyond the areas where they originated. The majority of the estimated 500,000
people in the islands lived in barangay settlements when the Spanish arrived in the 16th
century.

SPANISH COLONIAL PERIOD IN THE PHILIPPINES

Ferdinand Magellan arrived in the Philippines in 1521.

The Philippine islands first came to the attention of Europeans with the Spanish
expedition around the world led by Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan in 1521.
Magellan landed on the island of Cebu, claiming the lands for Spain and naming them
Islas de San Lazaro. He set up friendly relations with some of the local chieftains and
converted some of them to Roman Catholicism. However, Magellan was killed by
natives, led by a local chief named Lapu-Lapu, who go up against foreign domination.

Over the next several decades, other Spanish expeditions were send off to the islands.
In 1543, Ruy López de Villalobos led an expedition to the islands and gave the name
Las Islas Filipinas (after Philip II of Spain) to the islands of Samar and Leyte. The name
would later be given to the entire archipelago.

Spanish colonization

The invasion of the Filipinos by Spain did not begin in earnest until 1564, when another
expedition from New Spain, commanded by Miguel López de Legaspi, arrived.
Permanent Spanish settlement was not established until 1565 when an expedition led
by Miguel López de Legazpi, the first Governor-General of the Philippines, arrived in
Cebu from New Spain. Spanish leadership was soon established over many small
independent communities that previously had known no central rule. Six years later,
following the defeat of the local Muslim ruler, Legazpi established a capital at Manila, a
location that offered the outstanding harbor of Manila Bay, a large population, and
closeness to the sufficient food supplies of the central Luzon rice lands. Manila became
the center of Spanish civil, military, religious, and commercial activity in the islands. By
1571, when López de Legaspi established the Spanish city of Manila on the site of a
Moro town he had conquered the year before, the Spanish grip in the Philippines was
secure which became their outpost in the East Indies, in spite of the opposition of the
Portuguese, who desired to maintain their monopoly on East Asian trade. The
Philippines was administered as a province of New Spain (Mexico) until Mexican
independence (1821).

Manila revolted the attack of the Chinese pirate Limahong in 1574. For centuries before
the Spanish arrived the Chinese had traded with the Filipinos, but evidently none had
settled permanently in the islands until after the conquest. Chinese trade and labor were
of great importance in the early development of the Spanish colony, but the Chinese
came to be feared and hated because of their increasing numbers, and in 1603 the
Spanish murdered thousands of them (later, there were lesser massacres of the
Chinese).

The Spanish governor, made a viceroy in 1589, ruled with the counsel of the powerful
royal audiencia. There were frequent uprisings by the Filipinos, who disliked the
encomienda system. By the end of the 16th cent. Manila had become a leading
commercial center of East Asia, carrying on a prosperous trade with China, India, and
the East Indies. The Philippines supplied some wealth (including gold) to Spain, and the
richly loaded galleons plying between the islands and New Spain were often attacked
byEnglish freebooters. There was also trouble from other quarters, and the period from
1600 to 1663 was marked by continual wars with the Dutch, who were laying the
foundations of their rich empire in the East Indies, and with Moro pirates. One of the
most difficult problems the Spanish faced was the defeat of the Moros. Irregular
campaigns were conducted against them but without conclusive results until the middle
of the 19th century. As the power of the Spanish Empire diminished, the Jesuit orders
became more influential in the Philippines and obtained great amounts of property.

Occupation of the islands was accomplished with relatively little bloodshed, partly
because most of the population (except the Muslims) offered little armed battle initially.
A significant problem the Spanish faced was the invasion of the Muslims of Mindanao
and the Sulu Archipelago. The Muslims, in response to attacks on them from the
Spanish and their native allies, raided areas of Luzon and the Visayas that were under
Spanish colonial control. The Spanish conducted intermittent military campaigns against
the Muslims, but without conclusive results until the middle of the 19th century.

Church and state were inseparably linked in Spanish policy, with the state assuming
responsibility for religious establishments. One of Spain's objectives in colonizing the
Philippines was the conversion of Filipinos to Catholicism. The work of conversion was
facilitated by the absence of other organized religions, except for Islam, which
predominated in the south. The pageantry of the church had a wide plea, reinforced by
the incorporation of Filipino social customs into religious observances. The eventual
outcome was a new Christian majority of the main Malay lowland population, from which
the Muslims of Mindanao and the upland tribal peoples of Luzon remained detached
and separated.

At the lower levels of administration, the Spanish built on traditional village organization
by co-opting local leaders. This system of indirect rule helped create in a Filipino upper
class, called the principalía, who had local wealth, high status, and other privileges. This
achieved an oligarchic system of local control. Among the most significant changes
under Spanish rule was that the Filipino idea of public use and ownership of land was
replaced with the concept of private ownership and the granting of titles on members of
the principalía.

The Philippines was not profitable as a colony, and a long war with the Dutch in the 17th
century and intermittent conflict with the Muslims nearly bankrupted the colonial
treasury. Colonial income derived mainly from entrepôt trade: The Manila Galleons
sailing from Acapulco on the west coast of Mexico brought shipments of silver bullion
and minted coin that were exchanged for return cargoes of Chinese goods. There was
no direct trade with Spain.

Decline of Spanish rule

Spanish rule on the Philippines was briefly interrupted in 1762, when British
troops invaded and occupied the islands as a result of Spain's entry into the Seven
Years' War. The Treaty of Paris in 1763 brought back Spanish rule and the British left in
1764. The brief British occupation weakened Spain's grip on power and sparked
rebellions and demands for independence.

In 1781, Governor-General José Basco y Vargas founded the Economic Society of


Friends of the Country. The Philippines by this time was administered directly from
Spain. Developments in and out of the country helped to bring new ideas to the
Philippines. The opening of the Suez Canal in 1869 cut travel time to Spain. This
prompted the rise of the ilustrados, an enlightened Filipino upper class, since many
young Filipinos were able to study in Europe.

Enlightened by the Propaganda Movement to the injustices of the


Spanish colonial government and the "frailocracy", the ilustrados originally clamored for
adequate representation to the Spanish Cortes and later for independence. José Rizal,
the most celebrated intellectual and essential illustrado of the era, wrote the novels Noli
Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo, which greatly inspired the movement for
independence. The Katipunan, a secret society whose primary principle was that of
overthrowing Spanish rule in the Philippines, was founded by Andrés Bonifacio who
became its Supremo (leader).

The Philippine Revolution began in 1896. Rizal was concerned in the outbreak of the
revolution and executed for treason in 1896. The Katipunan split into two groups,
Magdiwang led by Andrés Bonifacio and Magdalo led by Emilio Aguinaldo. Conflict
between the two revolutionary leaders ended in the execution or assassination of
Bonifacio by Aguinaldo's soldiers. Aguinaldo agreed to a treaty with the Pact of Biak na
Bato and Aguinaldo and his fellow revolutionaries were exiled to Hong Kong.

It was the opposition to the power of the clergy that in large measure brought about the
rising attitude for independence. Spanish injustices, prejudice, and economic
oppressions fed the movement, which was greatly inspired by the brilliant writings of
José Rizal. In 1896 revolution began in the province of Cavite, and after the execution
of Rizal that December, it spread throughout the major islands. The Filipino leader,
Emilio Aguinaldo, achieved considerable success before a peace was patched up with
Spain. The peace was short-lived, however, for neither side honored its agreements,
and a new revolution was made when the Spanish-American War broke out in 1898.

The Spanish-American war started in 1898 after the USS Maine, sent to Cuba in
connection with an attempt to arrange a peaceful resolution between Cuban
independence ambitions and Spanish colonialism, was sunk in Havana harbor. After the
U.S. naval victory led by Commodore George Dewey defeated the Spanish squadron at
Manila Bay on May 1, 1898, the U.S. invited Aguinaldo to return to the Philippines,
which he did on May 19, 1898, in the hope he would rally Filipinos against the Spanish
colonial government. By the time U.S. land forces had arrived, the Filipinos had taken
control of the entire island of Luzon, except for the walled city of Intramuros Manila,
which they were besieging. On June 12, 1898, Aguinaldo declared the independence of
the Philippines in Kawit, Cavite, establishing the First Philippine Republic under Asia's
first democratic constitution. Their dreams of independence were crushed when the
Philippines were transferred from Spain to the United States in the Treaty of Paris
(1898), which closed the Spanish-American War.

AMERICAN COLONIZATION OF THE PHILIPPINES


In Feb., 1899, Aguinaldo led a new revolt, this time against U.S. rule. Defeated on the
battlefield, the Filipinos turned to guerrilla warfare, and their defeat became a mammoth
project for the United States— thus began the Philippine-American War, one that cost
far more money and took far more lives than the Spanish-American War. Fighting broke
out on February 4, 1899, after two American privates on patrol killed three Filipino
soldiers in San Juan, Metro Manila..

The poorly equipped Filipino troops were handily overpowered by American troops in
open combat, but they were frightening opponents in guerrilla warfare. Malolos, the
revolutionary capital, was captured on March 31, 1899. Aguinaldo and his government
escaped, however, establishing a new capital at San Isidro, Nueva Ecija. Antonio Luna,
Aguinaldo's most capable military commander, was murdered in June. With his best
commander dead and his troops suffering continued defeats as American forces
pushed into northern Luzon, Aguinaldo dissolved the regular army in November 1899
and ordered the establishment of decentralized guerrilla commands in each of several
military zones. The general population, caught between Americans and rebels, suffered
significantly.
The revolution was effectively ended with the capture (1901) of Aguinaldo by Gen.
Frederick Funston at Palanan, Isabela on March 23, 1901 and was brought to Manila,
but the question of Philippine independence remained a burning issue in the politics of
both the United States and the islands. The matter was complex by the growing
economic ties between the two countries. Although moderately little American capital
was invested in island industries, U.S. trade bulked larger and larger until the
Philippines became almost entirely dependent upon the American market. Free trade,
established by an act of 1909, was expanded in 1913. Influenced of the uselessness of
further resistance, he swore allegiance to the United States and issued a proclamation
calling on his compatriots to lay down their arms, officially bringing an end to the war.
However, sporadic insurgent resistance continued in various parts of the Philippines,
especially in the Muslim south, until 1913.

U.S. colony

Civil government was established by the Americans in 1901, with William Howard Taft
as the first American Governor-General of the Philippines. English was declared the
official language. Six hundred American teachers were imported aboard the USS
Thomas. Also, the Catholic Church was disestablished, and a substantial amount of
church land was purchased and redistributed. Some measures of Filipino self-rule were
allowed, however. An elected Filipino legislature was established in 1907.

When Woodrow Wilson became U.S. President in 1913, there was a major change in
official American policy concerning the Philippines. While the previous
Republicanadministrations had predicted the Philippines as a perpetual American
colony, the Wilson administration decided to start a process that would slowly lead to
Philippine independence. U.S. administration of the Philippines was declared to be
temporary and aimed to develop institutions that would permit and encourage the
eventual establishment of a free and democratic government. Therefore, U.S. officials
concentrated on the creation of such practical supports for democratic government as
public education and a sound legal system. The Philippines were granted free trade
status, with the U.S.

In 1916, the Philippine Autonomy Act, widely known as the Jones Law, was passed by
the U.S. Congress. The law which served as the new organic act (or constitution) for the
Philippines, stated in its preamble that the ultimate independence of the Philippines
would be American policy, subject to the establishment of a stable government. The law
placed executive power in the Governor General of the Philippines, appointed by the
President of the United States, but established a bicameral Philippine Legislature to
replace the elected Philippine Assembly (lower house) and appointive Philippine
Commission (upper house) previously in place. The Filipino House of Representatives
would be purely elected, while the new Philippine Senate would have the majority of its
members elected by senatorial district with senators representing non-Christian areas
appointed by the Governor-General.

In 1934, the United States Congress, having originally passed the Hare-Hawes-Cutting
Act as a Philippine Independence Act over President Hoover's refusal, only to have the
law rejected by the Philippine legislature, finally passed a new Philippine Independence
Act, popularly known as the Tydings-McDuffie Act. The law provided for the granting of
Philippine independence by 1946.

U.S. rule was accompanied by improvements in the education and health systems of
the Philippines; school enrollment rates multiplied fivefold. By the 1930s,
literacy rateshad reached 50%. Several diseases were virtually eliminated. However,
the Philippines remained economically backward. U.S. trade policies encouraged the
export of cashcrops and the importation of manufactured goods; little industrial
development occurred. Meanwhile, landlessness became a serious problem in rural
areas; peasants were often reduced to the status of serfs.

Commonwealth

The period 1935–1946 would ideally be dedicated to the final adjustments required for a
peaceful transition to full independence, great latitude in autonomy being granted in the
meantime.

The Hare-Hawes Cutting Act, passed by Congress in 1932, provided for complete
independence of the islands in 1945 after 10 years of self-government under U.S.
supervision. The bill had been drawn up with the aid of a commission from the
Philippines, but Manuel L. Quezon, the leader of the leading Nationalist party, opposed
it, partially because of its threat of American tariffs against Philippine products but
principally because of the provisions leaving naval bases in U.S. hands. Under his
influence, the Philippine legislature rejected the bill. The Tydings-McDuffie
Independence Act (1934) closely looks like the Hare-Hawes Cutting Act, but struck the
provisions for American bases and carried a promise of further study to correct
“imperfections or inequalities.”

The Philippine legislature approved the bill; a constitution, approved by President


Roosevelt (Mar., 1935) was accepted by the Philippine people in a vote by the
electorate determining public opinion on a question of national importance (May); and
Quezon was elected the first president (Sept.). On May 14, 1935, an election to fill the
newly created office of President of the Commonwealth of the Philippines was won by
Manuel L. Quezon (Nacionalista Party) and a Filipino government was formed on the
basis of principles apparently similar to the US Constitution. (See:
Philippine National Assembly). When Quezon was inaugurated on Nov. 15, 1935, the
Commonwealth was formally established in 1935, featured a very strong executive, a
unicameral National Assembly, and a Supreme Court composed entirely of Filipinos for
the first time since 1901. The new government embarked on an ambitious agenda of
establishing the basis for national defense, greater control over the economy, reforms in
education, improvement of transport, the colonization of the island of Mindanao, and the
promotion of local capital and industrialization. The Commonwealth however, was also
faced with agrarian unrest, an uncertain diplomatic and military situation in South East
Asia, and uncertainty about the level of United States commitment to the future
Republic of the Philippines.

In 1939-40, the Philippine Constitution was revised to restore a bicameral Congress,


and permit the reelection of President Quezon, previously restricted to a single, six-year
term. Quezon was reelected in Nov., 1941. To develop defensive forces against
possible aggression, Gen. Douglas MacArthur was brought to the islands as military
adviser in 1935, and the following year he became field marshal of the Commonwealth
army.

During the Commonwealth years, Philippines sent one elected Resident Commissioner
to the United States House of Representatives, as Puerto Rico currently does today.
JAPANESE OCCUPATION OF THE PHILIPPINES
As many as 10,000 people died in the Bataan Death March.

War came unexpectedly to the Philippines. Japan openned a surprise attack on the
Philippines on December 8, 1941, when Japan attacked without warning, just ten hours
after the attack on Pearl Harbor. Japanese troops attacked the islands in many places
and launched a pincer drive on Manila. Aerial bombardment was followed by landings of
ground troops in Luzon. The defending Philippine and United States troops were under
the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Under the pressure of superior numbers,
the defending forces (about 80,000 troops, four fifths of them Filipinos) withdrew to the
Bataan Peninsula and to the island of Corregidor at the entrance to Manila Bay where
they entrenched and tried to hold until the arrival of reinforcements, meanwhile guarding
the entrance to Manila Bay and denying that important harbor to the Japanese. But no
reinforcements were forthcoming. Manila, declared an open city to stop its destruction,
was occupied by the Japanese on January 2, 1942. The Philippine defense continued
until the final surrender of United States-Philippine forces on the Bataan Peninsula in
April 1942 and on Corregidor in May. Most of the 80,000 prisoners of war captured by
the Japanese at Bataan were forced to undertake the notorious Bataan Death March to
a prison camp 105 kilometers to the north. It is estimated that as many as 10,000 men
died before reaching their destination.

Quezon and Osmeña had accompanied the troops to Corregidor and later left for the
United States, where they set up a government in exile. MacArthur was ordered out by
President Roosevelt and left for Australia on Mar. 11, where he started to plan for a
return to the Philippines; Lt. Gen. Jonathan Wainwright assumed command.

The besieged U.S.-Filipino army on Bataan finally fell down on Apr. 9, 1942. Wainwright
fought on from Corregidor with a barracks of about 11,000 men; he was overwhelmed
on May 6, 1942. After his surrender, the Japanese forced the surrender of all remaining
defending units in the islands by threatening to use the captured Bataan and Corregidor
troops as hostages. Many individual soldiers refused to surrender, however,
and guerrilla resistance, organized and coordinated by U.S. and Philippine army
officers, continued throughout the Japanese occupation.

The Japanese military authorities immediately began organizing a new


government structure in the Philippines. They initially organized a Council of State
through which they directed civil affairs until October 1943, when they declared the
Philippines an independent republic. The Japanese-sponsored republic headed by
President José P. Laurel proved to be unpopular.

Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale underground


and guerrilla activity. The Philippine Army continued to fight the Japanese in
a guerrilla war and was considered a back up unit of the United States Army.
Their effectiveness was such that by the end of the war, Japan controlled only twelve of
the forty-eight provinces. The major element of resistance in the Central Luzon area
was furnished by the Hukbalahap (Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa mga Hapon - "People's
Army Against the Japanese"), which armed some 30,000 people and extended their
control over much of Luzon.

Japan’s efforts to win Filipino loyalty found expression in the establishment (Oct. 14,
1943) of a “Philippine Republic,” with José P. Laurel, former Supreme Court justice, as
president. But the people suffered greatly from Japanese brutality, and the puppet
government added little support. Meanwhile, President Quezon, who had escaped with
other high officials before the country fell, set up a government-in-exile in Washington.
When he died (Aug., 1944), Vice President Sergio Osmeña became president. Osmeña
returned to the Philippines with the first liberation forces, which surprised the Japanese
by landing (Oct. 20, 1944) at Leyte, in the heart of the islands, after months of U.S. air
strikes against Mindanao. The Philippine government was established at Tacloban,
Leyte, on Oct. 23.

MacArthur's Allied forces landed on Leyte on October 20, 1944. Landings in other parts
of the country followed, and the Associates pushed toward Manila. The landing was
followed (Oct. 23–26) by the greatest naval engagement in history, called variously the
battle of Leyte Gulf and the second battle of the Philippine Sea. A great U.S. victory, it
effectively destroyed the Japanese navy and opened the way for the recovery of all the
islands. Luzon was invaded (Jan., 1945), and Manila was taken in February. On July 5,
1945, MacArthur announced “All the Philippines are now liberated.” The Japanese had
suffered over 425,000 dead in the Philippines. Fighting continued until Japan's formal
surrender on September 2, 1945. The Philippines suffered great loss of life and
monstrous physical destruction by the time the war was over. An estimated 1 million
Filipinos had been killed, and Manila was extensively damaged.

The Philippine congress met on June 9, 1945, for the first time since its election in 1941.
It faced huge problems. The land was destroyed by war, the economy destroyed, the
country torn by political warfare and guerrilla violence. Osmeña’s leadership was
challenged (Jan., 1946) when one wing (now the Liberal party) of the Nationalist party
nominated for president Manuel Roxas, who defeated Osmeña in April.
SOCIAL SCIENCE - BASIC ECONOMICS AND AGRARIAN REFORM
COMPETENCIES:
1. Familiarized the Philippine economic conditions with respect to taxation,
land reform and cooperative as well as to the growth of gross national
product.
2. Apply the fundamental economic principles to current conditions of the
Philippines.
Definitions of Economics
3. Mankiw’s definition
 …is the study of how society manages its scarce resources
4. Hedrick’s definition
 …is how society chooses to allocate its scarce resources among
competing demands to improve human welfare.
Why study economics?
1. To learn new way of thinking: Cost and benefit thinking
2. To understand society
3. To understand global affairs
4. To become an informed voters
Resources – Factors of Production
 Natural resources (Land)– “free gifts of nature”
 Land, minerals, oil, forests, air, and timber
 Capital Resources – “manufactured aids to production”
 Tools, machines, equipment, factories
 Things used in producing goods and services and getting them to
consumers.
 Human Resources (Labor)– “mankind’s physical and mental talent”
 These are the skills people have that are used to produce goods and
services.
 Entrepreneur – the individual who combines the factors of production in order to
produce a good or service.
 Risk taker, policy maker, and innovator
Types of Economics
 Macroeconomics – branch of economics that deals with economic theory and the
economic decisions of large bodies like the government.
 Theories of Economics
 Countries and their governments
 Trade between countries
 Microeconomics – branch of economics that deals with behavior and decisions of
smaller unit like individuals and businesses.
 Families, businesses, and communities
 Domestic economies
3 Basic Economic Questions
 What to produce?
 With limited resources, deciding what is needed the most is often a factor
in determining what will be produced. What is the need or want of this
product?
 What is the point of making a product that no one is going to buy.
Businesses need to make money…so they choose products that people
want.
 How should it be produced?
 Technology, labor, capital, ect.
 getting the lowest cost to make the product.
 Are we going to make the product from scratch or will a machine be
making the product.
 What will each option cost?
 Will having new technology allow us to lower our expenses?
 Whom should it be produced for?
 Who is going to use this product?
 Most goods and services are distributed to individuals through a price
system.
 Products can also be distributed through other means; force, first come,
lottery, majority.
Economic systems

1. Command economy - The most notable feature of a command economy is that


a large part of the economic system is controlled by a centralized power; often,
a federal government. This kind of economy tends to develop when a country
finds itself in possession of a very large amount of valuable resource(s). The
government then steps in and regulates the resource(s). Often the government
will own everything involved in the industrial process, from the equipment to the
facilities.
2. Market economy - A market economy is very similar to a free market. The
government does not control vital resources, valuable goods or any other major
segment of the economy. In this way, organizations run by the people
determine how the economy runs, how supply is generated, what demands are
necessary, etc. Arguably the biggest advantage to a market economy (at least,
outside of economic benefits) is the separation of the market and the
government. This prevents the government from becoming too powerful, too
controlling and too similar to the governments of the world that oppress their
people while living lavishly on controlled resources. In the same way that
separation of church and state has been to vital to America’s social success, so
has a separation of market and state been vital to our economic success. Yes,
there is something wary about a system which to be successful must foster
constant growth, but as a result progress and innovation have occurred at such
incredible rates as to affect the way the world economy functions.
3. Mixed economy – a regulated market economy. The government plays a vital
role in the economy while allowing the market mechanism to govern the
economy.
Production
 The process of making goods and services to satisfy human material wants and
maximize profits.
Factors of production
 Land
 Labor
 Capital
 Entrepreneurship
How the market works?
Market is a mechanism by which the buyers and sellers interact to determine both price
and quantity of goods and services.
Demand refers to how much (quantity) of a product or service is desired by buyers.
Demand Curve a graphical representation of the demand schedule. It is a down
warding sloping curve.

Law of Demand: ceteris paribus, when price increases, quantity demanded decreased,
when the price decreases, quantity demanded increases.
Factors of Demand
1. Changes in income
2. Taste and preference
3. Price of substitute goods
4. Price of complimentary goods
5. Expectation of future income, wealth and prices
6. Population
7. Seasonality
Supply is a market expression of the cumulative willingness and ability of all firms to
sell different amount of product at different prices over a given period of time.
Supply curve is a graphical representation of the supply schedule. It is an upward
sloping curve.
Law of Supply: when price increases, quantity supply increases, when price
decreases, quantity supply decreases.
Factors of Supply
1. Cost of production
2. Price of related goods
3. No. of firms in the industry
4. Seasonality(weather condition(
5. Expectation of future price
Market equilibrium
 When the supply and demand curves intersect, the market is in equilibrium.
This is where the quantity demanded and quantity supplied are equal

Disequilibrium condition
1. Excess Demand – Shortage
a. When quantity demanded exceeds quantity supplied, price tends to rise.
2. Excess Supply – Surplus
a. When quantity supplied exceeds quantity demanded price tends to fall.
Price elasticity
 is a measure used in economics to show the responsiveness, or elasticity, of the
quantity demanded of a good or service to a change in its price, ceteris paribus.
Market regulation: Price Control
Reasons for price control
1. for the government to control the price of goods and services is “fairness”
2. emergency situations
Types of price control
1. Price ceiling
2. Price Floor
Different Market Structures
1. Perfect Competition
a. There are many sellers in the market, thus nobody controls the price.
Sellers are said to be price takers.
2. Monopoly
a. There is only one seller in the market; price is determined by the seller.
3. Oligopoly
a. A market where there are few big sellers colluding with each other.
4. Monopolistic competition
a. Involves a few sellers supplying the market with different types of brands
of the same product and capturing a specific group of buyers for a
particular brand or product.

MACROECONOMICS STUDIES
Measuring Growth: National Income Account
1. Gross national Product (GNP)
a. The total market value of all the goods and services produced by a nation
in a given period.
2. Gross Domestic Product (GDP)
a. Measures the total market value of all the goods and services produced in
the country.
Recession is a period during which aggregate output declines for two consecutive
quarter.
Depression is a prolonged and deep recession.
Inflation is a sustained and general increase in prices in all or nearly all the markets in
the economy.
Deflation is a sustained and general decrease in prices in all or nearly all the markets in
the economy.
Types of Inflation
1. Demand-pull inflation
2. Cost push inflation
Effect of Inflation
1. Decrease in the value of money
2. Inflation losers
a. Fixed income earner and retired workers
b. Creditors and savers
3. Inflation gainers
a. People with flexible income
b. Debtors
Government Role in Combating Inflation
1. Fiscal Policy
a. The manipulation of government spending and imposition of taxes.
2. Monetary Policy
a. The manipulation of savings and investment of the financial sector.

TAXATION
 It is an inherent power of the state to impose and collect revenues to defray the
necessary expenses of the government.
 It is compulsory contribution imposed by a public authority irrespective of the
amount of services rendered to the payer in return.
Purposes of taxation
 Collect revenue for the government
 Redistribute income
 Reallocate resources
 Correct an adverse balance of payments
Classification of Tax System
1. Progressive Income Tax
a. The higher the income the higher the tax rate
2. Proportional Tax
a. Tax rate is constant and unaffected by the level of income.
3. Regressive Tax
a. The higher the income the lower the tax rate.

AGRARIAN REFORM
Republic Act No. 6657 – THE COMPREHENSIVE AGRARIAN REFORM LAW OF
1988 which signed into law by Pres. Corazon Aquino.
Agrarian Reform Defined
 The redistribution of lands, regardless of crops or fruits produced to farmers and
regular farm workers who are landless, irrespective of tenurial arrangement to
include the totality of factors and support services designed to lift their economic
status of the beneficiaries and all other arrangements alternative to physical
redistribution of lands, such as production, profit sharing, labor administration
and the distribution of shares of stocks, which will allow beneficiaries to receive a
just share of the fruits of the land they work.
Principles of Agrarian Reform
 To promote social justice
 To move the nation toward sound rural development and industrialization
Republic Act 9700: CARP Extension with Reform Law or otherwise known as
CARPER Law was signed on August 7, 2009 to extend the implementation of the CARP
which ended upon the expiration of R.A. 6657 or the CARL on 2008.
SOCIAL SCIENCE – RIZAL’S LIFE AND WORKS

 El Filibusterismo - Thirteen years after he left the Philippines, Juan Crisostomo


Ibarra (the main character from Noli Me Tangere) returned as Simoun, a
rich jeweler sporting a beard and blue-tinted glasses, and a confidant of the
Governor-General of the Philippines Captain-General.
 Abandoninghis idealism, he becomes a cynical saboteur, the titular Fili
buster (military)f i l i b u s t e r o , s e e k i n g r e v e n g e a g a i n s t t h e S p a n i s h
P h i l i p p i n e s s y s t e m r e s p o n s i b l e f o r h i s misfortunes by plotting a
revolution.
 Simoun insinuates himself into Manila high society and influences every
decision of the Captain-General to mismanage the country’s affairs so that
arevolution will break out. He cynically sides with the upper classes, encouraging them to
commit a b u s e s a g a i n s t t h e m a s s e s s o t h a t t h e l a t t e r w o u l d b e e n c
o u r a g e d t o r e v o l t a g a i n s t t h e oppressive Spanish colonial regime.
This time, he does not attempt to fight the authorities through legal
means, but through violent revolution using the masses. Simoun has reasons
for instigating a revolution. First is to rescue María Clara from the convent and
second, to get rid of ills and evils of Philippine society. His true identity is
discovered by a now grown-up Basiliowhile visiting the grave of his mother,
Sisa, as Simoun was digging near the grave site for hisburied treasures.
Simoun spares Basilio’s life and asks him to join in his planned
revolutionagainst the government, egging him on by bringing up the
tragic misfortunes of the latter'sfamily. Basilio declines the offer as he still hopes that
the country’s condition will improve.Basilio, at this point, is a graduating student
of medicine at the Ateneo de Manila University Ateneo Municipal de
Manila. After the death of his mother, Sisa, and the disappearance of hisyounger
brother, Crispín, Basilio heeded the advice of the dying boatman, Elías, and traveled toManila
to study. Basilio was adopted by Captain Tiago after María Clara entered the
convent.With Captain Tiago’s help, Basilio was able to go to Colegio de San
Juan de Letrán where, at first, he is frowned upon by his peers and teachers not
only because of the color of his skin but also because of his shabby appearance
which he also experience at Ateneo. Captain Tiago’sconfessor, Father Irene is
making Captain Tiago’s health worse by giving him opium even asBasilio tries
hard to prevent Captain Tiago from smoking it. He and other students
want toestablish a Spanish language academy so that they can learn to
speak and write
Spanishl a n g u a g e i n t h e P h i l i p p i n e s S p a n i s h d e s p i t e t h e o p p o s i t i
o n f r o m t h e D o m i n i c a n O r d e r Dominican friars of the University of Santo
Tomas|Universidad de Santo Tomas. With the helpof a reluctant Father Irene
as their mediator and Don Custodio’s decision, the academy
isestablished; however they will only serve as caretakers of the school
not as the teachers.Dejected and defeated, they hold a mock celebration at a
pancitería while a spy for the friarswitnesses the proceedings.Simoun, for his part,
keeps in close contact with the bandit group of Kabesang Tales, a former cabeza
de barangay who suffered misfortunes at the hands of the friars. Once a farmer
owning a prosperous sugarcane plantation and a cabeza de barangay (barangay
head), he was forced to give everything to the greedy and unscrupulous Spanish friars. His
son, Tano, who became acivil guard was captured by bandits; his daughter
Julî had to work as a maid to get enough ransom money for his freedom;
and his father, Tandang Selo, suffered a stroke and becamemute. Before joining
the bandits, Tales took Simoun’s revolver while Simoun was staying at his house
for the night. As payment, Tales leaves a locket that once belonged to María
Clara. Tofurther strengthen the revolution, Simoun has Quiroga, a
China|Chinese man hoping to beappointed consul to the Philippines,
smuggle weapons into the country using Quiroga’s bazaar as a front. Simoun
wishes to attack during a stage play with all of his enemies in attendance.

He, however, abruptly aborts the attack when he learns from Basilio that María Clara
had died earlier that day in the convent. A few days after the mock celebration by
the students, the people are agitated when disturbing posters are found displayed
around the city. The authorities accuse the students present at
the pancitería of agitation and disturbing peace and has them
arrested. Basilio, although not present at the mock celebration, is also
arrested. Captain Tiago dies after learning of theincident and as stated in his
will—forged by Father Irene, all his possessions are given to theChurch, leaving nothing
for Basilio. Basilio is left in prison as the other students are released. Ahigh official tries to
intervene for the release of Basilio but the Captain-General, bearing grudgesagainst the high
official, coerces him to tender his resignation. Julî, Basilio’s girlfriend and thedaughter of
Kabesang Tales, tries to ask Father Camorra’s help upon the advice of an
elder woman. Instead of helping Julî, however, Father Camorra tries to rape
her as he has long-hidden desires for Julî. Julî, rather than submit to the will of the
friar, jumps over the balcony toher death.Basilio is soon released with the help of Simoun. Basilio,
now a changed man, and after hearing about Julî's suicide, finally joins Simoun’s revolution.
Simoun then tells Basilio his plan at thewedding of Paulita Gómez and Juanito,
Basilio’s hunch-backed classmate. His plan was toconceal an explosive inside a
pomegranate-styled Kerosene lamp|lamp that Simoun will give tothe newlyweds as a
gift during the wedding reception. The reception will take place at theformer
home of the late Captain Tiago, which was now filled with explosives planted by Simoun. According
to Simoun, the lamp will stay lighted for only 20 minutes before it flickers;
if someoneattempts to turn the wick, it will explode and kill everyone—important
members of civil society and the Roman Catholic Church in the Philippines|Church
hierarchy—inside the house. Basiliohas a change of heart and attempts to warn the
people inside, including Isagani, his friend and the former boyfriend of Paulita. Simoun leaves
the reception early as planned and leaves a notebehind;Initially thinking that it was simply a bad
joke by those left behind, Father Salví recognizes thehandwriting and confirms that it was
indeed Ibarra’s. As people begin to panic, the lamp flickers.Father Irene tries to turn the wick
up when Isagani, due to his undying love for Paulita, bursts inthe room and throws the
lamp into the river, sabotaging Simoun's plans. He escapes by diving into the river as
guards chase after him. He later regrets his impulsive action because he
had contradicted his own belief that he loved his nation more than Paulita and that the
explosionand revolution could have fulfilled his ideals for Filipino
society.S i m o u n , n o w u n m a s k e d a s t h e p e r p e t r a t o r o f t h e a t t e m p t e d a r s
o n a n d f a i l e d r e v o l u t i o n , becomes a fugitive. Wounded and exhausted after he
was shot by the pursuing Guardia Civil soldiers, he seeks shelter at the home of Father
Florentino, Isagani’s uncle, and comes under the care of Doctor Tiburcio de Espadaña,
the husband of Doña Victorina, who was also hiding at the house. Simoun takes poison
in order for him not to be captured alive by the authorities.Before he dies, he reveals his
real identity to Father Florentino while they exchange thoughtsabout the failure of his
revolution and why God forsook him. Father Florentino opines that God did not
forsake him and that his plans were not for the greater good but for personal
gain.Simoun, finally accepting Father Florentino’s explanation, squeezes his hand and
dies. Father Florentino then takes Simoun’s remaining jewels and throws them into the sea, hoping
that they would not be used by the greedy, and that when the time came that it would be
used for the

greater good, when the nation would be finally deserving liberty for themselves, the sea
would reveal the treasures
SOCIAL SCIENCE – SOCIOLOGY
COMPETENCIES:
1. Comprehend the basic concepts, theories, and perspectives which relate to
society, culture, and family planning.
2. Recognize the cultural elements that are distinctly Filipino.

Sociology
- Is the scientific study of society and social relations.
- It draws date or facts from the real world and attempts to account for them by
means of scientific explanation.
Theories About Society
1. Structuralist – Functionalist Model – emphasizes the elements of cohesion,
shared values and equilibrium as bases of social order.
2. Conflict Model – views society is shaped by the interest of the powerful and
dominant groups and the antagonism of opposing classes and groups struggling
over the distribution of scarce resources.
3. Symbolic-Interaction or Interactionalist Model – chooses the study of the smallest
units of social interaction in the hope that they, by discovering their basic laws, it
will be possible to understand larger structure of society.
Culture
- Is everything which is socially learned and shared by members of the society.
Types of culture
1. Material – made up of artifacts people construct on the basis of cultural norms.
2. Non-material – comprises the behavior patterns, values and social relations of
human group.
Characteristics of Culture
1. It is learned.
2. It is a group product/ social/ shared.
3. It is transmitted from one generation to another.
4. It is adaptive/ dynamic.
5. It is relative.
6. It is symbolic.
Folkways
- Types of behavior which have the force of custom but do not necessarily have a
moral connotation.
Mores
- Has attached the ideas of right or wrong to some kinds of behavior.
Values
- Measures of goodness or desirability
Norms
- Shared rules of conduct
Institutions
- Organized systems of social relationship which embody common values and
procedures and meet basic needs of the society
Cultural Trait
- The simplest unit of culture
Subculture
- Is the behavior and value system of a group which is a part of the society, but
has a unique cultural pattern.
Counter Culture
- Subculture which is not merely different from, but sharply opposed to the
dominant values of the society.
Ethnocentrism
- The tendency of a group to take for granted the superiority of its own culture.
Cultural Relativism
- Describes the fact that function and meaning of a culture trait depend upon the
culture in which it operates.
Ways of Acquiring Culture
1. Accomodation – peaceful adjustment between hostile or competing groups.
2. Acculturation – acquisition by a group or individual of the traits of another culture.
3. Enculturation – learning the roles one plays in one’s own culture.
4. Assimilation – mutual diffusion through which person or groups come to share a
common culture.
Cultural Lag
- The time lag between a change or innovation and accomplishment of the social
and cultural adjustments which the innovation makes necessary.
Cultural Pluralism
- The toleration of cultural differences within a common society; allowing different
groups to retain their distinctive cultures.
Culture Shock
- The feeling of disappointment or amazement one feels when exposed to certain
cultural practice significantly different from his own.
Alienation
- The emotional separation from a society, combining feeling of powerlessness,
normlessness and social isolation
Ideal Culture
- Includes the pattern which are supposed to be practiced.
Real Culture
- Includes illicit behavior which is formally condemned but widely practiced.
Taboo
- A behavior pattern which is strongly disapproved by the society.
Culture Change
1. Invention – development of something totally new
2. Innovation – an improvement on something that already exists
Cultural Diffusion
- the spreading of inventions and innovations in other cultures.
Social Mobility
- refers to the movement up or down in a social status
Social Stratification
- exists when there is intergenerational transmission of (dis)advantage stemming
from one’s location in the hierarchy.
Race
- genetic transmission of physical characteristics
Ethnicity
- refers to socialization into distinct cultural patterns.
Sex
- biologically differentiated categories
Gender
- expected dispositions culture assigns to each sex

CULTURAL VALUES OF FILIPINOS


1. Pakikisama – can be expressed in their hospitality and bayanihan
2. Family orientation – feeling of belonging and rootedness
3. Joy and Humor – love for social celebrations
4. Flexibility, Adaptability, Creativity – ability to improvise and make use of
whatsoever resources on hand
5. Hardwork and Industry = essentials of decent life + incentives
6. Faith and Religiosity – Accepting reality in the context of God’s will and plan.
7. Ability to survive – Having the capacity for endurance despite difficult times.
8. Extreme Personalism – tendency to give personal interpretations to actions such
as pakiusap, lagay, areglo, palakasan, nepotism and favoritism
9. Extreme Family Centeredness – the use of one’s office and power as a means of
promoting the interest of family like factionalism, patronage and political
dynasties.
10. Lack of Discipline – “Filipino Time”, “Palusot syndrome”, “Ningas Kugon”, “Pwede
na Iyan”
11. Passivity and Lack of Discipline – Dependence on a strong authority figure.
12. Colonial Mentality – Cultural vagueness or weakness that makes Filipinos
extraordinarily susceptible to western culture.
13. Kanya-Kanya Syndrome – “Crab Mentality”, using the leveling instruments of
gossips or “tsismis”, intrigue and destructive criticism.
SOCIAL SCIENCE - PHILOSOPHY
COMPETENCIES:
1. Form a critical and analytical attitude towards various philosophical thoughts.
2. Comprehend the various implications of various philosophical thoughts to
educational theories and practices.
3. Manifest the knowledge of the nature of philosophy and its processes as applied
in education.

Philosophy
- The science and art of all things naturally knowable to man’s unaided powers in
so far as these things are studied in their deepest causes and reasons.
Branches of Philosophy
1. Metaphysics – deals with the nature of being and reality. Concepts: Substance,
Essence, Truth, Space, Time, Causation, Nature of God, Origin of the Universe,
Mind-Body Relations
2. Epistemology – deals with human knowledge and the criteria of truth.
3. Axiology – deals with the problem of human values
4. Logic – systematic treatment of relationship of ideas.
Other branches of Philosophy
1. Cosmology – theories of nature and origin of universe
2. Philosophy of Man – deals with the nature and purpose of man
3. Social & Political Philosophy – deals with the nature of society and socialization
process.
4. Theodicy – study of nature, essence and existence of God using human reason
5. Aesthetics – the study of nature and appreciation of beauty
6. Ethics – the study of morality of human acts.
Ignorance
- lack of knowledge about a thing in a being capable of knowing. It is an outcome
of the limitations of our intellect or the obscurity of the matter.
Types of Ignorance
1. Invincible – involuntary and can be corrected by moral diligence
2. Vincible – voluntary and can be removed by reasonable diligence

Kinds of Vincible Ignorance


1. Crass or supine ignorance – having shown no little or no diligence compared to
what was reasonable, little or none of his imputability would be removed.
2. Affected or studied ignorance – can increase culpability for a sin, especially if it
displays harness of hearty, whereby one would commit the sin irrespective of any
law that might exist concerning it

Оценить