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DOCUMENT RESUME

ED 202 204

EL 012 1184

AUTHOR

Latify, A. Hartz

TITLE

Spoken Dari. Preliminary Edition.

INSTITUTION

Foreign Service (Dept. of State), Washington, D,C.

Foreign Service Inst.

PUB DATE

80

NOTE

452p.

LANGUAGE

Dari; English

'`FORKS. PRICE

DESCRIPTORS

MF01/PC19 Plus Postage.

Cultural Context; *Dialogs (Language); Glammar;.Indo

' European Languages; *Intensve Language Courset;

IDENTIFIERS '

ABSTRACT

*Pattern Drills (Language); Persian; Postsecondary

Education: *Pronunciation Instruction; *Prove bs; Second Language Instruction; Textbooks; Vocabul

*Afghanistan; *Dari; Foreign Service Institute DC

1.,r=

This book contains the core of the Dari language

inatfiCti

program developed by the Foreign Service Institute.

KOst of he sentences and exercises in the lessons are presented in the Per ian script; the spelling represents the actual pronunciation of colloquial Dari. Each lesson includes a set of basic sentences and

drills, vocabulary lists, grammatical notes, pronunciition drills, question-and-answer exercises, and.a dialogue. A large number of proverbs and sayings are included in the lessons because such sayings are-used constantly in Dari, and they give an insight into Afghan

culture and thought. (Author/AMH)

*********************************************************************** Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made

from the original document.

***********************************************************************

best that can be made from the original document. ***********************************************************************

\

a

11)

For sale by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office

by the Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office Washington, D.C. 20402 Stock Number 044-000-0176S-7 4

Washington, D.C. 20402

Stock Number 044-000-0176S-7

4

FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE Edited by MARIANNE LEHR ADAMS 5

FOREIGN SERVICE INSTITUTE

Edited by

MARIANNE LEHR ADAMS

5

Acknowledgments - I would like to express my deep appreciation to m y former students

Acknowledgments

-

I would like

to express my deep appreciation to my

former students who

and loose pages of this

form. Their thoughtful suggestions were very helpful.

very patiently put up with the errors

book when it was being used

in xerox

and Chairman especially of the grateful to Dr. James A. Snow, linguist

I am

Department of Near Eastern and African Languages, without whose comments, attention, this text would not have suggestions been possible. and patient

Recorded material for this

course was prepared in the

Mr. Jose Ramirez

studios of the Foreign Service Institute.

and members of the language laboratory staff.

Finally,. I would like to thank

Mrs. Marianne L. Adams,

He d cf Testing and

Publications Office for her willingness to

publication of this preliminary S. Deemer for typing the English

make arrangements for the

edition and to Mrs. Maryko

sections.

'A. Hafiz Latify

iii

SPOKEN DARI

INTRODUCTION

This book contains the core of the Dari instructional program developed by the author at the Foreign Service Institute.

Each lesson includes a set of Basic Sentences and Drills. These

are to be introduced orally and practiced by simple repetition.

The

students should imitate the instructor's voice, practicing until they can say each sentence with reasonable fluency, keeping the meaning in mind. Listening and oral sractice.are the essential steps in learning

to speak.

After the sentences have been practiced in this way, the vocabulary

lists and grammatical notes may be.consulted

The pronunciation drills,

question -and- answer exercises, and other exercises should also be practiced by imitation.

The Dialogue at the end of the lesson should also be practiced orally; after they have gained fluency, students may take parts and repeat the Dialogue as a conversation. Then, most important, the students should begin to use the material of the lesson in genuine

.conversation.

This course has been designed primarily for inductive learning.

,Many exawples of each grammatical point have been given-, and explanations kept to a minimum.-

In learning to speak and understand Dari, the student must rely primarily on his ears, listening to his instructor and to the recordings which accompany this text.

Phonetic transcription has been avoided, except in the vocabulary sections of each lesson. Most of the sentences and exercises'are presented in the Per'ian script. 'The spelling used in this book represents the

actual prciunciation of colloquial bari; this differs somewhat from the

spelling

ually used in Afghan publications.

A la. 1 number of proverbs and sayings have been introduced in these lest s. Sayings like' hese are used constantly in.Dari, and they

give an it .0-1t into Afghan' culture and thought.

The purpose of this course is-to help the student learn to communicate

in Dari

to exchange information and ideas with Afghans. By the

active participation of both student and instructor, this ability can be built up. Learners should not feel bound by the lesson, but should try to use what they learn at each step to express their real ideas and

opinions.

One of ur favorite proverbs- says jt,"mosht nmmunm-e-kherwar zes."

which may be roughly translated as, "By a small sample we may judge the

whole 7.1.ece."

may be roughly translated as, "By a small sample w e m a y j u
tS If.; t v - S Ik.,1 - J 3 - A t ° I

tS If.;

tv-S

Ik.,1

-J3-At °

I

)1

Lo,

L

11

lm

)1 df

j

fab L

1J

1

m''

SPOKEN DARI

}1

",,

Loya

I)

i.

c

L5 Cie I

ltb.) 3

41

.4. La &

)

t.r

14) t.11.,

Lto.t.e.-t

e.6;

1 ji.S

10; j

a5.

Lib

cj

I 3 Ltb

.0S

154

r4L""&"-" k:+ef

ti 134

J

.3)!A;)

4;35

15.;

I 03" may C):4)11-;)

-W:1,14";

1 45

j

ua

-04-; o'r

Lit)

61--tj 5 )° `1'"d `f

r'1-°' Ls

US. ,:ke

1).1. tL, e

1.

ts

I

tb

6. I 45 -3)1 Ja.3 ISA di,

.5; Iv

. 1)1 J 6.6.0) .05

8

141 Le)

Lreitat:

LeyZ.,

4.%.

/

<. 14-r j , ,J 41% (s-c ; -1 rte. -4, 4-okr5 J 1 ,-take-,

<. 14-r j

, ,J 41%

(s-c

;

-1

rte.

-4,

4-okr5 J1

,-take-,

I

44, 1 tir.

2

, te L14

I i_pt , .;-

;.

,t,

1 Ir <5.

t.):-.1<:-- -: i ''J

t.s

,

f'-q.-

ct-r<1.

tai

-4-4,9,, !, , .

E - . /1/44.4

;

I -4--`k, -!,,s. S.,""

l't.

-)_?-11 (410-4

-/

4 tr)

tzr 0_1-te

jam

.L71

-

1-4.4kr

I.J.,4

cc

,

. 4.)L-,11-,;1 Lx t 1 : : n t o SPOKEN DARI u s b

.

4.)L-,11-,;1

Lx t

1::

n

to

SPOKEN DARI

usb

T.;11veL., o au, lj", ) 1 og

"" 4.)6e11".L.S.

_tekolt,

O

-)Aal

;t

14t,

Lr.3

Ls),

jet

Lr 1.3 j.11

J.;

450;

ljt.t.r.

L7

./-t' 15.41-0 0-"'"

,

to _L.:, dz

LS.Jt" li

:1

A:0 j,,3' l:

own. J Vz-tryzy

,:j51

tr r

4.1 4

54.,;4,41-:.

LI*

1

3

!7.)4jt.

vi

F i n a l Medial SPOKEN DARI The Alphabet AL.WI Initial U s u

Final

Medial

SPOKEN DARI

The Alphabet

AL.WI

Initial

Usual Value

711111.0

11

d

r of

z

(measurel/

1.3#

a

sh

Isolated

alif

bay

pay

tay

say

jeem

chay

2.1

y

khay

dahl

zahi

ray

zay

jay

Seen

sheen

sought

zought.

Final

4-

4,-

Medial

.4.

SPOKEN DAR!

Initial

Usual Value

rah.

Isolated

toey

eyn

gheyn

fay

slough

cough

gough

lahm

mim

noon

WOW

hay

Note that the following group of letters, like the jare never connected to the following letter.

Note that the di does not have dots in the i 0 ated or final

positions.

t e r . Note that the di does not have dots in t h e
1. Some Examples: Phoneme Dark. Examples 4 siP e ser Aria. va# e: ee 1.1

1. Some Examples:

Phoneme

Dark. Examples

4

siP

e ser

Aria.

va#

e:

ee

1.1

o.

0:

a

soar

s

tit'

khod

so:r

dar

ai

0"

0

.01

A.5.'7

/

,fro°

/

A. )

K

car

q deo

, laVh

_

char

--

shar

ch

h

x 4

kh

alaa

.khub

-.411

0,

at4

Jig'

&

01* 17

"

gh

/4

zoEhal disk/

SPOKEN DART

Approximate English Equivalent

BetWeen the English vowels of

Sit and set

cake'

Between the English vowels of

can and cut

root

put

note

Between the English vowels of

cot and caught

king

Ik1 said way _back In the. throat

. bottle,

chair

should

measure., azure

-

place back of tongue agains t

back part of soft palate and

exhale

As 'kh' above, but voiced

SPOKEN DARI

An,Tntroduction to Reading

The Vowels

ti

There are only three:symbols normally used in Dari for

vowels.

Their basic forms-.,are:

a

30

1 used in the middle or at the end of a word represents

the vowel sound 1 I

At the beginning of a word, however, the

1 merely indicates that the word starts with a vowel.

represents the aound a.

represents the sounds u

represents the sounds i and e:

The three,remaining- vowel sounds which are represented. by

only at the beginning of a word are m,e and o

m

=

I

Most of the letters have been grO4ped into families and

most of the letters within each family are distinguished by means

of dots written above or below the letter

of the letters within each family are distinguished b y m e a n s of

.

7

SPOKEN DAR I

In reading Dari, the-following principles should be

considered.

1. Read from right to left.

2. Identify the Dari letters by means of

a. Shay of the.letter.

b.

c.

The number of dots.

The position of the dots.

I

Here we follow some of the examples and their equivalents;

P

6.4;0.

b

4

just one example, and you do the rest of the exercise.

s ; P 6.4;0. b 4 just one example, and you do the rest of the

.%19, /.-

L

)y1

6

kh

,e

1'

z.

'Cf

I now read SPOKEN DARI ;l /9I ty.91 v ; 06 e cr/ (pi v.

I

now read

SPOKEN DARI

;l /9I

ty.91

v

;

06

e cr/

(pi

v.

Cr

z

31/4°

t.

Go

cs / now read this, L o w 6:0 If, 4), kiita°' SPOKEN DARI C

cs

/

now read this,

Low

6:0 If,

4),

kiita°'

SPOKEN DARI

C,

sd

dm.;

/r.s

10

6,/

rnuoi

17

gh

rah

e

9

f

af,/ oy d y / o I d / now read this. SPOKEN DARI o

af,/

oy

dy/

o I

d/

now read this.

SPOKEN DARI

o I

10,4

4.r.

n

1,y

SPOKEN DARI 01111(111% For Memorizing -Hello. ( H i ) 1 -Hen o . 2

SPOKEN DARI

01111(111%

For Memorizing

-Hello.

(Hi)1

-Hen o .2 you?

How are-

- Not bad .thank you.

How about you?

- I'm fine thank you.

-Is your family fine?

(fine) (it is the grace of God) .

What is this?

What is happening?

smlamalekom

walekom (mswIlam)

chi al dare:n?

bored ne:s tmshmkur,

shorria citor?

Ithob asS tom taashmkur

fameletan khoba3s?

faazle khoda (s)

i-chis?

T

-J

j.tit:.;

I

t:;

try:.

(4.1.1 i.e.'s

ObJeali

-

What is- gang on? ,

:

.

What ia the news?

What is new.?

nothing, :none

Ncithing is.happening.

Really?

chi gasp ms?

chi kilMbwr ms?

chi nMw ms?

ech

ech'gmp ne:s.

rasti?

NOte:.

1 Lit. May peace be 'with you. ,Shaking hands is a

eryimpOrtant

aspeCt of ,the Afghan'oulture:; Even close frierkdsi ahake hands,

,upon meeting for the first time during the day, as well aa upon.

taking leave.

2. this expression is used only as e'reply.

12

Where'are you from? I'm from America What is your name? My name is Thank you.

Where'are you from?

I'm from America

What is your name?

My name is

Thank you.

You're welcome.

good-by,-good night

good -by, good night

Please repeat.

Please speak' slOwly.

I have aheadache.

My head aches

,.-

both are the same

the same

how?.

We will see later.

Have a nice trip'.

I'm very happy to

meet

ou.

It was nice meeting

you.

I'm very happy, to

see you.

It was nice` to see

you

SPOKEN DARI

Shoma mz kojasteln?

ma az amrikastom

name: shoma chis?

name: m3.5

talshakor

qabele: tash4okor nets

khoda afetz

bamane khoda

lotf,sen tekrecr kone:n

iotfan'astagap

bezmnetn.

sarem.da!rd,me:kona

Ott:'-'"t5

r-"'15101 :11

10-4

4.

ft;

1

u.

oid.)55:

4:51.0

rjo.,

ardo yak chiz as

wyne.chiz ms

chito(r)

LIN

o

CAA

,pasan me:bine:al

safaare bmkhOyr

am Mol.aqate'shoma

besyarlftmlhastomi

NAM*. 13

0277j1t""1 "4 4:°)

_z

u

kbpb-shod ke ShOmarm.-

milagat kadom

ast didane shoma

ut.ovt-

f

besyarkhosh astom

,,

kht_:o shbd ice shomara; kr

didom

olad,-) )1

Why? Why not? because, in order to Hurry Up! Welcome! Thank you (lit.: may -you

Why?

Why not?

because, in order to

Hurry Up!

Welcome!

Thank you (lit.: may

-you be happy)

(response to above

'welcome!')

of course

,

that's

right

that's

\.

it doesn't matter

I'm very; sorry

,

I!m very sad.

, Excuse me.

1 apologize.

sorry

doeshit make. any

difference

It's . interesting.

It is boring.

missed you.

SPOKEN DARI

chera.

chera ne:

anktaterike:

zud shu

asOwlaa ku

lapsh amaede:n

kilosh-bsshe:n

wlbaata9

dorUst aes

p.mrwa'nmOaree

besiar. mota3sef

cestOm

bbsy0 motamei,

Eestom

bObEekgsheln

Me3Z era3t" Metkhaybm

firq hapine:konm

3

. delchaesp Des

akun 'eas

.

pushtet diq shogom

14

,

2 1

IIILL410

f

6,

16'

414

c-"zatv

Np

SPOKEN DARI

Congratulations!

tmbrik

It's pretty.

qmshmngae

bmdrmng me

tmbrik It's pretty. qmshmngae bmdrmng me Its ugly. That's all right. I'm thirsty. I want to

Its ugly.

That's all right.

I'm thirsty.

I want to drink,

some water.

I am hungry.

I want to eat

something.

Please help me.

You are very:kind.

YotOre very kind,

(lit.: It is :your

kindnesS) .

:(it is) enough.

God'willing.

Please' eat!.

What would, You like

to eat?

May I come'in.

'please '(`1o)

It is very crowded,

bead qMwarms

Klmirms

tushnmetom

me:khayom mw

buldxwom

gushnmetom

me:khayom chize.

*bukhorom

lutfmn maaras kommk

mehrwpan-aletesn

met rmbani shomas

_bme me,

.enshalla .

lotTmn npshe an

kone:n-

chi noshejan

me:kone:n?

ejazms dakhel shmwoM?

yofmlimayin .

besyar bi/4ubar ms

"i5

2Z

1 kjat

'Le 4.) 9'

r.#5"."(-31)

L.r

AD

.1,41,ZAZ:

64. c1.5te

L

L 04,150t,:-

1

r4

-

1111.1

I hope.

Forget it.

I-am honored

SPOKEN DARI

khoda konm

faramosh ko

mushairralf shudum

How much do I owe you? chaan(d) qaTZdaret

it is useless

mstum?

be: -faydms

it does not do any good

mind your own

business

m to mmbut ne:s

be careful,

. of course, certainly

Goa bless,you

eteyat ku

bm chishm

khucia rmhmmt kunth

For God sake.

Thank you'.for

everything.

Do ,me a favor.

Will you?

I'm tired.

him tired.

bm leyaze khuda

mz mmm chiz tmshmkur

yask kar khu bwrem

bUkd?

khasetaetUml:

mandastum

It is very important. bisyar MOhim ao

fortunately

LinfOrtUnately.

,

.

'please bd quiet,

Tontt make noise

LinfOrtUnately. , . 'please bd quiet, Tontt make noise khushbakhtanm band baakhtanaa. . n .lutfa3n 0.ram,bashe:n

khushbakhtanm

band baakhtanaa.

.

n

.lutfa3n 0.ram,bashe:n

ghal ghal nakunen'

t

rvj

4-:

 

ej.eforoa

",

6e-4

ra:- -Oa

Jig-4

.

it

Be quiet (shut up)

(slang)

Be quiet (slang).

SPOOU Di DARI

Oup ;bash

qmra bash

00,70);

May you not be tired. mandm nmbashi (when someone comps from a trip or even a. short walk)

(when someone comps from a trip or even a. short walk) (as reply) may you live

(as reply) may you

live long.

How are you?

(how is your health)

How are you? (how is your nature

Good-by .(.1 entrusted

you to God)

thanks to God

in my opinion

in my opinion,in

my belief

in.my opinion.,

my .idea

don't' .worry.

don't worry.

he's verykind to me.

he's mad .at. me.

Where are yoU going?

.

_

You are very kind.

It t-haS bPen a long

time since .I, have

Seen you.'

zendes bashi

sehetet chetorme

tmbeymtet chetorms

beekhuda sepurdemet

shukr

bas fekre mm

4h:

nas

bisSneezmreyeee mm

,negmran nesbasnin

be:ghmm bashin

smrem:mehresbanm

sarPm qar ass j,_

beekhmyii?.

lutf meikune:Ti

besyar wagt ms

ke nmdide'm

re -4

AS

Is everything o.k ? ± like it. (Iteomes to my liking). You are right. Itts

Is everything o.k ?

± like it.

(Iteomes to my

liking).

You are right.

Itts worth it.

I don't know. (slang)

SPOKEN DAR I

.0.0101.1.611111

kheayreywt as

khushem meyaya

khushdarum

rest me:ge:n

me: arzm

mze them

s

41) t

s.

fsTt.41 *ati Jags N31)100 VC !S sear" LIO I r c r:740 at; al-±1 '.fiat41

fsTt.41

*ati Jags

N31)100 VC!S

sear" LIO I

r

c

r:740

at;

al-±1

'.fiat41

et41

'au

at.ts

uosaad

,c.Watiq

atm

uosaad

6s,t

14

a A

luasaad

suz,

Stu

*),iosIg

au.)

paco

v:

-

 

ann4

inOX

4.1:7:10

aT2stia

eas

.

2sLim

' u.oTtim

aaat.fp4

Wsea

a:its2s

'aaaum

qm

a1

,1s

sun

t.; wo

TYPiygd

usse.

'4ieWais

etaati

"

'

Le)

SPOKEN DART

pen

qaamm.

paper

kalhmi

teadher

rna1em

student

shagerd

book

ketab

be

'budmn

present stem

lesson

very, much, too, a lot

ms(t)

Oars

-besyar

word; vocabulary

lughmt

pl.

lughat

north,, wind

shmmal

south

junvb

conversation, dialogue

mokalemm

sentence

jumlm

)31.

jummlat

drill, exercise, pract ce

clock;, watch, time

tmmrin

sat

20

Co' Na.t.

r SPOKEN- -DART 2S

r SPOKEN- -DART

2S

SPOKEN DARI *vas 1 e ; 9 1 1 ' vet>. % I r Ivy?

SPOKEN DARI

*vas 1

e; 91

1'

vet>.

%I r

Ivy?

1;31

:or I 4.46

vv .>

cs

.j.1.105 rt

low;

11-6

11;91( SJI)

SaVettqr

22

L., I

o

SPOKEN DARI

Below are the endings of the Dari verb:

I

.

sing.

pl.

sing.

(I. )

.

ma(we)

tu(you)(familiar)

.

II

 

pl.

shoma(you)

.sing.

u(he,

she, that)

 

III

pl.

r,

i(he, she, this)

una(they, those)

-om

e:m ' hr

-i

-esn

-99

an

cS

CW

a

a

*this rule does not apply for the verb Ito be.'

a *this rule does not apply for the verb Ito b e . ' example: to

example:

to have

dashtaan

I have.

mm darom

we have.

ma dare:m

you have.

to dart

1

you have.

shoma dare:n

(he, she,

that, it) has

example:

to do

dare

kadan

I do.

mae mp:konom

we do. ma me:kone:m fr6cf

present stem -dar/

4)

.

fic

cs

Ow dr

O

AO

/

ta.:*

present stem kon

you do. shoma me:kone:n

L

(he, she, it) does.

me:kona

CAP69"

.460. /I

. 1 1 1 1 1 . t6 be SPOKEN DARI /budmn/ present stem /ms(t)/

.11111.

t6 be

SPOKEN DARI

/budmn/

present stem /ms(t)/

in

person singular.

fill in the blanks.

there is no ending ,

4,

r

rl.A.

14)1' 3

3

a --1.

I

:141 ,z

I'S)

b3

SPOKEN DARI' rI°13 JtIC .31 as (;3 %Ate )1 read this. .40 0)1 ) rz.I

SPOKEN DARI'

rI°13 JtIC .31

as

(;3 %Ate )1

read this.

.40

0)1

)

rz.I c)b

31.;,;

(71!5e)11

jos :11

4.

c4-41.1 .)1

-kr)-2Am

lei.

L.,t1

J 4.

.fats

LS, 71

.1::

A

4

SPOKEN DARI 40J1:,1 csaft.ps; it translate the following. I am from America. He is from

SPOKEN DARI

40J1:,1

csaft.ps;

it

translate the following.

I am from America.

He is from Afganistan.

Where is he from?

He is Afgan.

ofi

4.)1.1

eJI

This lesson is very easy.

41&14

C.,d.P5

46.11

la-al c

)

1:6

-1 (51 1 1

A.r:Pj Ul

L-4 cr) -1

()NJ J

Ls%

(5

* SPOKEN YDAki

e- a connector used with nouns and adjectives, often in the

sense of tof.t

The connective - e :

l'- good book'

2 - your book

3 - your books

4 your white book

5 - Dari book

6 - the owner of the

, car

aL61:\ezafm

ketabe khub

ketabe shoma

.ketabaye shoms_

ketabe smfe:de shoma

ketabe dmri

sahebe moteer

The above examples illustrate the following:

a. The suffix /-e/ connects the modifier with the word modified.

b. It is suffixed to the word modified.

c. The second word either describes, defines, or limits the

the first.

d. With the chaih of words in the connective -e construction,

all of the words take the -é but the last, e.g.

The President of the United States of America.

Rm yise jeemhure mzlaye motmhedme mmrika

States of America. Rm yise jeemhure mzlaye motmhedme mmrika 6614 43'11Cla .&1""" vv.%) 27 3 4

6614 43'11Cla .&1""" vv.%)

27

3 4

41%0

Lre.111"")1

SPOKEN DARI 451 t : I' vie,- c.Sj Ls u t,. t ; 1 :

SPOKEN DARI

451

t:

I'

vie,-

c.Sj

Ls

u t,.

t; 1:6

(.5

rti;

CA

;LI LI fty5

tz(5J

-5C1.4

'LP i

U L

I

ess4". 1501014)t " -11105

&ACV-PI 4T9LI`

4° 0 14-

u:.Jte 1 0.6 )1 La iv;

Jej, 14

1 )1 4. ,0L

SPOKEN' DAIti now translate the following. "---N-also, too, either - tarrie 01:1 A-4-4 c .

SPOKEN' DAIti

now translate the following.

"---N-also, too, either

-

tarrie

01:1 A-4-4 c.r.)

Ls'

 

45:0

r

t;;-- vice'

Lls

 

1

t.r1

,,.i!+.

4.5

1

S )1

t*-4, Y

ad. A

1.

C

( r-br

) "

)1:1

LP) -I

15

01:1, .c.:41

T

, SPOKEN DARI Oada4ASZ 4;ij 14)1 u :4u1 )1 t -11,1 Lie ;1 44, -

, SPOKEN DARI

Oada4ASZ 4;ij

14)1

u :4u1 )1

t

-11,1

Lie

;1 44, -

CI LI° ama 4.platt,

. SPOKEN DARI (t)-kab ogia 44 vas 4 .1 I r Ni 4,;:pi, . j

.

SPOKEN DARI

(t)-kab ogia

44 vas

4

.1

I

r

Ni

4,;:pi,

. j*1 4.

.4.1/4) b

.LAOL°4 ."1

;

lAii

dke

at

4.300;)1 ;

0)U4

)t,q

4044

ja:t JU 4 rbvIA

41.1.4. at 0;11

*UV% J1" 4e

Pli°

ofr,,,14:11- Ifts

A SPOKEN DART 411111! Translate -the following 1 -yhat is this?. 2 - Are you

A

SPOKEN DART

411111!

Translate -the following

1 -yhat is this?.

2 - Are you from Kabul?

, 3 - Nor, Irn not from Kabul.

4 - Do you have a watCh?

5 - Yes, I do.

6 - What are these?

7 - I don't know.

8. 7 What do you have?

9 - I have a Dari Dictionary.

1Q - Really?

11 - You are joking.

.13 - Very good.

14 - What is that?

1-5 - Nothing.

4.1-0 Jih114-44

4.46.).* 45.64.0.14

SPOKEN DARI

Lesson II

ri-) "Le') -I

car, automobile

mostmr

Work job, emplbyment

kar

houSel,home

khanm

'radio

radeyo

why?

chera,

beCause

ez khaterlke

radeyo why? chera, beCause ez khaterlke alsO, either, too friend of course first second God goodby

alsO, either, too

friend

of course

first

second

God

goodby

now

(h) am

rmfiq

mlbmtem

wwwaa

dowom

khoda

khoda afez

ale

very, very :reach, extremely,

quite, many.

poor

a woman, wife

suffix; his, her, its ex. his, her, its name

American

besyar

grarito

za9n

mrikayl

,

,

uA

(it rt)

41-vsla

bi, large, 'important,'

older, oldest

from, belong,. to

money-.-

child

pl.

apartment

who?

bread, food, meal.

one, an, a

lazy

name

married

husband

SPOKEN DARI

kaaan

FJz

pul

tefl

mtfal

mpartman

ki

nan

syank

tambal

nam

zmndar

shuy(shamhser)

Note: when the progressive indicator me:

J too

J JO)

(.01-4 ) 41,4"

(ing) is prefixed

to the present stem of a verb in Dar' a present tense is

' a p r e s e n t t e n s e i s

formed, e.g.

to do

kmdmn

0.6

) present stem is (kon.

cars

)

I do.

.mm me:konom 4e 4t. me:

we do. ma meskonem

plus kon 05 plus ending.

you do. shoma meskone:n

you do.

to meskoni

(familiar)

_

_

(he,fh.y, it) does. they una me:konam SPOKEN DARI u m e : k o n

(he,fh.y, it) does.

they

una me:konam

SPOKEN DARI

u me:konm

_

-

-

-

44,

LI

In Dari dean

0-3 and tmn

C

kmdmn 0.4 to do

are the signs of infinitive. e.g.

Aashtmn

it -1-1

to have

zmdmn

0.))

to hit

kmdmn

. c.).6

is commonly used as a part of a compound verb

in Dari, e.g.

tmshmkur kmdmn

kar kmdmn

-6th to thank

0.6 A

to work

42

No e. t V t) `t) .)).\ ) .) .) ) ) . ) S.)

No

e.

t

V

t)

`t)

.)).\

)

.)

.)

)

)

. )

S.)

S*?

V.)

'4.4kb) %Y. U)

kr5

.

0)

. 10)

N.))

,

7.° ) ,

.fib 1

.7

.00
A

ate

4, 6)

4. 6)

v P

,,f

t N. a'

.00 A ate 4, 6 ) 4. 6 ) v P ,,f t N . a'
Jr nem TIT, uT et eXuvIct . ins,1 rr ter, re OOO . . .

Jr

nem

TIT, uT

et

eXuvIct

. ins,1

rr

ter,

re

OOO

.

.

.

,

11r.

.

r "'"1

cl

1

lofor

r01

i tr

frief4

leuti

f

ire

r

Pp.)

es-J

C

i L

ft

I

r

Mft"'n

PIP

grj

rirt efoe

sitp

gr4 sr4

ire

r 1Psr 71-0

41-4

gre

4

Vg/441

A

4411514,V11

riff) 414/

SPOKEN DARI 110.) rJ J oNS 4.9,e 4 44.1, l4. LAP Cu. ra.4.1 rifts 0.,

SPOKEN DARI

110.)

rJ

J

oNS

4.9,e

4

44.1,

l4.

LAP Cu.

ra.4.1 rifts

0.,0.;

kip "CJI-11

- roT

Pt; CA-

4.

ivj5

/ (dib-t 4 r:"4"1

) U.) J UJ

JO)

ftrit-Z. LA

4T,i` Adf

J 4

vta

--

It-

tit;

re;

ufiCio

3:.*

6t.r. I

a. ui GJ t

re;

39_ 4 6

' a n s w e r the following: SPOKEN DARI 416*°) L o t

'answer the following:

SPOKEN DARI

416*°)

Lot

fit; 1

o J &AM r5

J 0) pu5--T

sue.

04%v

? 41,10.)

tor

ft)544.-4

or

4

L2.

0

r I. A

6-

)

1

T

J &t 1r

SPOKEN DARI 416 Qii (06ita c o a - -$ J14 r . I T(.s.)1

SPOKEN DARI

416

Qii

(06ita

coa-

-$ J14 r

.

I

T(.s.)1

-

JaN

A; 4e j.6

`1101 AL -'14

TomiS

et-lb

o

)1 1

IV/ V

I L -

XVI CAA t;

" I

J-6 J

D iy

11

r

SPOKEN DARI . j I atijent-66 .0J J tJ 44., c o l 4:-. fie;

SPOKEN DARI

. j I

atijent-66

.0J J tJ

44.,

col

4:-.

fie;

-seji

4;e4i 4.4 Jou- . ejt.$ Jai) 44e e l J A L . oij 4

4;e4i 4.4 Jou-

. ejt.$ Jai) 44e el JAL

. oij

411.)

Asa

tifs.

.Li.

Jam ail,

I, aji.t; 4:11.

NA' id" 1;

.2jo.ii

Jaazikesjapiar,

.11babesAO.

translate:

SPOKEN 'DARI

1 - Qasim is very poor.

2 - No, he is not poor; he has a lot of money.

3 - Are you married?

4 Who, me? no Ilm not married.

5 - Do you know his name?

Yes, his name is Omar.

7 - Is Omar from Kunduz?

8 - Na, Omar.is fromTadakhshan.

9 Oh, really?

10 Yes, they are husband and wife.

really? 1 0 Y e s , t h e y are husband and wife. 41

41 Ile OP

4.5.014/16114'lle

Plit" 4

SPOKEN DAM

Lesson III

NH! ut;

so, then!

khmy

city

Mar

early, time, already

wmqt

blackboard eraser

tmkhtm pak

lunch

-

nane chasht

fuel

te:l

to go.

rmftan

present stem

ru

to work.

kar kmdan

for

bare

0)4

drawer

rmwmk.

class

/classroom

stnf

meat

gosht

restaurant

rmstoran

third

seyom

cheap, inexpensive

sarzan

expensive, price

qimmt

to see, visit, watch

Aidzen

 

present stem

been

small, little

khurd

far, away

.dur

fruit

merwm

visit, watch Aidzen   present stem been small, little khurd far, away .dur fruit merwm
later g o o d - b y table in, at, on condition, state, health

later

good-by

table

in, at, on

condition, state, health

SPOKEN DARI

paean

bamane khuda

me:z

dm(r)

-hal, aal

Additional Words

()Li'

cA.-115.

President (of a Republic)

PriMe Minister

President, Chairman

-Director

alAtrAf

rA.,),41J

6

diva

Jo

4"7:1*P4.040.

saris-e-janhoor

smdr-e-ml zmm

rmyis

mudir

+

tori 1.04 itkaijf

.ake

this!, sup

16cdpiptat-).ro,

4-09.1,1,40)

I

'm*6'1" J*641

tOad°40 dgOtwt* UM0.04,5

.01"4"-I-raebti

t%re Pfa .04`"'" UNA/

uf

46

cre

)

Note:

Noun -Phrases

I need threeehair(s). Sei chmwki kar daruM

Ineed some chair(s).

chmn(d) chmwki kar darum

f)1-!)

jYr 4*°

fj1JA&t.

Unlike English, a noun is not pluralized when modified by

a counter or quantity word, and there is no difference between

mass nouns and count nouns in Dui as the following examples

mass nouns and count nouns in Dui as the following examples indicate. I buy some tea.

indicate.

I buy some tea.

,I buy some cups.

noun

adjective

verb

adverb

chay meikhaarum

rja-ir

piyalm meskhmrum

esm

sefmt

fail

qmyd

r-m°1,

c

431,1/4

d4l0.11 ,ntri

sui-*Etak-, -1.0i-tie 4;0 --r

AV" SPOKEN DART (19-*' Lra 'LP I 1. -0 " .05.3 5 1 or; tie

AV"

SPOKEN DART

(19-*' Lra

'LP

I

1.

-0

" .05.3

51

or;

tie

'V°

'6::"`; J Istt.1

Jle.e

A-4.

.0-I 0)6 A.;

oNS

455

A;

T

J.,-gb

Lst

L.-t:S

(51

31 _r

51

SPOKEN DART d J 4)1 - t ; . (3)1 _L; 411,J t)1;- 4 1

SPOKEN DART

d

J

4)1

-t;

. (3)1 _L;

411,J

t)1;-

414

:Ara

4-11.1.o

cs

(51

. 4) -t;

6)

el)

C.1-05-6

. ej _3.;

'LP

Jjie.

j Id-416f

J

J1

4-11.1.o

31

c.,-1

At--4

)-t--z

4

t-itaj

6 4.

ts-

(.7*--".)

_

SPOKEN DAR I 1111111f re; 1 4 e ) 5 J r S JJ 4.

SPOKEN DAR I

1111111f

re;

14e) 5 Jr S

JJ 4.

') 6 CA-4,

AA.)

J

r-Sev

. AA)

j J J "

a.

CA*-;JtS.

uJ

J.et

14 00.;

0-16"

13.9

csd., SPOKEN DARI 5 , 1 -4-)15 rib j 4:44j fjadqta rd.; --1 1 r

csd.,

SPOKEN DARI

5,1

-4-)15 rib

j

4:44j

fjadqta

rd.; --1 1

r

4v

LA-

Lyle

L,S.Ls

SPOKEN DARI L s ) J L 5-; u 6.- J5-tz a -; Oji Wee

SPOKEN DARI

Ls)

J L

5-;

u 6.-

J5-tz

a -;

Oji

Wee C.) Lst "

Ljt.; Lrw.`

4.1,33

>

.1:"`e

fle-441"

L7) is it

r5

Ad,

C.) !lc) ar

01

l;

Le

4) 12"

--

a Jwji

-leji

1 e At)

53 "., +5 f 4; """ 4 " 4 k.e. ,i kJ.

53

".,

+5 f

4;

"""

4"4

k.e.

,i

kJ.

SPOKEN DARI ( ay-tab 4 0 o t e oiLlt isrl'a'CUb )1 fr-V I J

SPOKEN DARI

( ay-tab 40 ote

oiLlt

isrl'a'CUb )1 fr-V

I J otib

.011.11

.

ro-11 titiJ re;

4

4wor

:)1;

40 GO.

eg.-3

prosi

fejt., 01.0:

P324 .01 rI'D

j

tortaf

44, 4.1.)b

J

tJb

drk; 4/

e J

trttS J1 Al--;

-3c

library

English

_

German, Germany.

slightly, a little bit

n g l i s h _ German, Germany. slightly, a little bit Persian diffiCult to

Persian

diffiCult

to read, sing

present stem

Pashto

when, what time

,

when

.

,

,-,-

to know

,

,

present stem

I don't know.

French

!I

n

to speak.,

present stem

language

today

tomorrow

SPOKEN DARI

Lesson IV

r

cr)-1

ketabkhanm

_englisi

gmrmeeni

symkmme

resi

moAkel

khapdmn

Pmshto:

chi wmkht

kmy

:

a;

'

danestmn

.dan

_

nmthe:danom

fthransame.,

gasp zaltdmn

gasp zmn

lesan

emroz

smba

0

0.)

r.:140,1

0).4

t 4.:

.0z

.1:.-""v' ":,

3.,

.

ur

't.J.--1.

;1

)

SPOKEN DARI Additional Words tongue mother-tongue foreign, foreigner foreign-language zasban zaaban-e-malt ri khariji'

SPOKEN DARI

Additional Words

tongue

mother-tongue

foreign, foreigner

foreign-language

zasban

zaaban-e-malt ri

khariji'

lesane'lcharigi

A,N

.4.04Aist,

tg)

ado

'kr1 JA1b1 4/JJ16010 roc

4-$J-PLigt.,,

40-64

El

is)Asoto,

;I rt-

.

c.pt

rbs.

;.r ortv

f

Ai.mcrip;CLotbit.

rb-

_

ceJtiOL-1 Jte 44

Tviter.1-44.6-oLoil; --1

Ti."44b

.P1A-

4) 'AU tt)

56

SPOKEN DARI rJ Let' ( 3 rj (:).; (6, ,e" 4. 1 1;3-1

SPOKEN DARI

rJ Let' (

3

rj

(:).;

(6, ,e"

4. 1

1;3-1

SPOKEN DARI re)5 L.r, .0.1j5-4. 4 r LY't J5-444, t-.-2 )1.--: )1&*".1 _A ,,,t L:t

SPOKEN DARI

re)5

L.r,

.0.1j5-4.

4

r

LY't

J5-444,

t-.-2

)1.--:

)1&*".1

_A

,,,t

L:t

1

1:5

1

(.5

cs I

(5

j.,.

fill in the blanks. SPOKEN DARI (5) -) rd)-5 Y 4u)e, L.5 (s) -3e) 0-;:A

fill in the blanks.

SPOKEN DARI

(5) -)

rd)-5 Y

4u)e, L.5 (s) -3e)

0-;:A kv Lc)

4.1

 

4::;4

;S 554V 3

 
 

)

4;:A`a

Ai

`Se)

 

4:.;0'

(-5)

7.,-6.

 
 

l-: j

CA.,e'a

kV`

1f-4"q

1;3 I

 

'LS.) J Le.5"'

 

A.`""e

 

.

L.,1

 

.

.

L

:

 

.

.

.

.

I

1.;,

!

A_

t.

cr-5.e -3

- , SPOKEN DAR; Lyi4- > >ri. 01--e C.01 tz Cht-;&%-; svS ts) ;:x.A.1 SFS

- ,

SPOKEN DAR;

Lyi4-

> >ri.

01--e

C.01

tz

Cht-;&%-; svS ts)

;:x.A.1

SFS

Lrt*.)

t

LFS Lev-It I

t.s,J

0-91i 4u-6 ti,-)1

0.1/4.'1;1

I'

je

4.)-16-)1

j

v.:35

1 1

t

t SPOKEN DARI te-; T (4),06; tf.,00- C.xtrem Cul.' v-14;" Le:. 1 T "43, Le" 17,7

SPOKEN DARI

te-;

T (4),06;

tf.,00-

C.xtrem

Cul.'

v-14;" Le:. 1 T

"43, Le"

17,7

.

Ly;

--) r

1

0

SPOKEN DARI (5) -) J L c e - tiu: Ls,--; 1 . 1 *

SPOKEN DARI

(5) -)

J L ce-

tiu:

Ls,--; 1.1*

t tit-iv-4:J

a-aiNe

t-ib

-Li-

-.73

t;

c.)1-71

LJ

rit-;&:Atat.1)

Qt4,