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UniversitY of TechnologY

Construction
Engineering Department of Building and
Final Exam-First attempt 2013-2014
Year: Second
Subject: Fluid Mechanics Time: 3 hours.
Division: All Divisions Date:3115120!4
EXaminef : Fluid m€ch.nics commirt€e
Answer flff
Questions OnlY
f the open channel flow maY
Qr: A- l) With
Av and A2 are the cross sectional areas of
the flow
by:- Q = o, 1ffifi.*here the drop in water surface between
and 2 respectively,hf is head losses and A, is
(Z tlt!!t .

the units of Chezy's constant in F L'T and


2 State Chezy's formula. IIow is it derived? Also state
M.L.T dimensions.
of water? Why?
B - l,l) Define specific gravity? What is the relative density
) Whrt i. th" that causes the boiting of fluid? Explain it
"ondition
qf A; -fitt in ttte blanks: - (!-A"r'}
1- Surface tension is a phenomenon due to
2- The piezometric head is expressed by-'
-'
3- Cavitations will occur wh€n the pressure is at a
point .- '
+ If a pump supplies energy to the flow the energy line
with radius is '
$ In fulty devetoped laminar flow in pipes the velocity distribution
-' as
limit is known
6 The distance from the wall when the velocity is 99yo of its asymptotic -
of a boundary layer. -
in a channel is referred to as-'
7- The phenomenon of sudden increase in depth of flow
& The flow depth in subcritiel flow wilt be compared to the flow depth a critical flow'

-
Intravenous infusion usually is driven by gravity through
hanging the fluid bottle at sufficient height
B) - into the body as shown in
to counteract the blood pressure in the vein and to force the fluid
figure(2).Thehigherthebottleisraise.t'thehighertheflowratewillbe.g|Ifitisobservedthatthe
fluidandthebloodpressurebalanceeachotherwhenthebottleisl.2mabovethearmlevel,
the fluid at the arm level needs 20KPa
determine the gage pressure of blood' ,) If the gage pressure of
placed' Take the density ofihe
for sufficient flow rate' determine how high the bottle must be
fluid to be 1020kg/mr. 0-Mux9'
-How can You design a rectangula. "h"@
respectively' are connected in
Q3: A) - Two pipes of lengths 2
is 250 liters per
parallels. The coefficient offriction for each pipe is 0'006 and the total flow
second. Find the rate offlow in each pipe. $ US'ks)'
B)-whataretheassumptionsthatmustbeconsideredinthederivationofBernoulli'sequ^tion?(5Ma*i.
Cj - Classify the type of flow in pipo und

Paqe (1-3)
Q5: A) - A ship having a wetted p".i."t". of-0 .iidlffi7140 m is to travet ut 5
power required to oyercome the skin friction. Assume kinematic -/* D*tffi
viscosity v = t.4 x r0{ mrls,
density 1025 kg/ml.{ For the runge Sx Id>Re<If taks62: __ il:l:
_ lj1g
ttos ReL)Z 53 R'L'1 6 r,[s!r.s).
. B) - what will happen if we mix o with water? why?
& uetil.
C) - A garden hose attached with a nozzle is used to fill a 0.757lls bucket
The inner diameter ofthe
hose is 2cm,and it reduces to 0.8cm at the nozzle exit as shown in figure(S).Ifit
take s0 second to
fill the bucket with wat€r. Determine: g) the vorume and the mass rate ofwater throush the hose.
D the average velocity ofwater at the nozzle exit 00 Mdrki.

Q6: Answer 14q of the fotlowingr


A) - Two pipes each of length L and diameters Dland D2 are arranged in parallel, the loss of head,
when a total quantity ofQ flows through them, being hl.Ifthe pipes are arranged in series and
the same quantity of wat€r,Q, flows through lhem, the loss ofhead is h2.If D1=2Dr,find the ratio
ofhrto hr.Neglect minor loss and friction factor,f, to be constant
e!D!g!g,
B) - A sluice gate across a channel 6m wide discharges a stream lrn deep as shown in figure(6).
What is the flow rate when the depth upstream ofthe sluice is 7m? On the downstream side
concrete blocks have been placed to create conditions for hydraulic jump to occur. Calculate the
force on the blocks if the downstream depth is 3m.Also determine the type of flow at section
J-J.

@ Ugrtcs).
C) - Water has to be supplied to a town with a rate of l5Olitre/person /day from a river 2(X)0m away.
the difference in elevation between the lowest water level in the sump and reservoir is 40m.If
the demand has to be supplied in Shours,determine the size ofthe main and brake horsepower
ofthe pumps required. Assume maximum demand as l.Stimes the average demand. Take
f{.03, velocity in the pipe 2.4mls and efficiency of pump S0percent, and number ofthe people
in this town 100000 person O0 Marki.

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