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Global Service Training

994K Wheel Loader


Power Train System
Module 1 - Text Reference

SERV2070

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -2- Module 1 - Power Train System

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Safety Briefing��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 3
Purpose����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 4
Reason������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 5
Competency statement����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 6
Learning outcomes������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 7
INTRODUCTION������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 8
Power Train Hydraulic System Components����������������������������������������������������������� 9
front pump drive��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 10
MAGNETIC SCREENS��������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������11
power train pressure taps������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 12
power train oil coolers������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 13
POWER TRAIN ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM��������������������������������������������������������������� 14
Power Train ECM���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 17
Engine Speed Sensor������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 19
STIC and Steering/Transmission Lock Lever����������������������������������������������������������� 20
TORQUE CONVERTER������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 22
Lockup Clutch�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 25
Impeller Clutch����������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 27
Rimpull Selection�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 29
Transmission Hydraulic Control Valve������������������������������������������������������������������� 33
POWER TRAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OPERATION�������������������������������������������������������������� 38
Cold Power Train Engine Speed Limiting������������������������������������������������������������������ 46
994K Wheel Loader Torque Strategy������������������������������������������������������������������������ 47
front and rear axle assembly������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 50
AUTO LUBE SYSTEM�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 51
Purpose review������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 52
Reason review�������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 53
Competency Statement review������������������������������������������������������������������������������������ 54
Learning Outcomes Review������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 55
Module Conclusion���������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������������� 56

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -3- Module 1 - Power Train System

Safety Briefing
• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

3
Safety Briefing

Before beginning this module, the following topics will be reviewed:


• Emergency Phone Numbers
• First Aid Responders
• Location of Exits
• Location of Fire Extinguisher
• Room Alerts or Hazards
• Designated Location for Evacuation
• Storm Shelter
• Hazardous Material

Safely Home. Everyone. Every Day.™

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -4- Module 1 - Power Train System

PURPOSE

This module is designed to ensure you are able to


locate, identify, and describe the function of all major
components and service points of the Power Train
System.

4
Purpose

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -5- Module 1 - Power Train System

REASON

This training is necessary to properly locate and identify


all major components and service points as well as
describe the operation of the Power Train System to be
able to diagnose and correct system problems.

5
Reason

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -6- Module 1 - Power Train System

COMPETENCY Statement

At the completion of this module, you will be able to


successfully complete the following exercises:
• Lab 1 Exercise
• Post-Assessment

6
Competency statement

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -7- Module 1 - Power Train System

LEARNING OUTCOMES

You will meet the following learning outcomes


during this Power Train System module of the 994K
Wheel Loader course:
• Locate, identify, and describe the function of all major
components and service points of the 994K Wheel
Loader.
• Test and adjust the Power Train System.

7
Learning outcomes

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -8- Module 1 - Power Train System

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INTRODUCTION

The hydraulic and mechanical components in the 994K power train are very similar
to the 994H power train. The 994K power train electronic control system has been
updated.

This image shows the power flow through the main components in the 994K
power train. Power from the 3516E HD engine (1) is sent from the engine flywheel
through the spring coupling to the rear pump drive (2). The rear pump drive is
splined to the torque converter (3). The torque converter drives the transmission
pump (4).

Two universal joints and the input drive shaft connect the torque converter to the
transmission input transfer gear (5).

The input transfer gear is splined to the input shaft of the transmission (6). The
transmission output shaft is splined to the output transfer gear (7). Power from the
output transfer gear is sent through the front drive shaft, to the front axle (8) and
through the rear drive shaft, to the rear axle (9).

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -9- Module 1 - Power Train System

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3
4
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Power Train Hydraulic System Components

The transmission pump (1) is mounted on the torque converter housing below
the output shaft (2). The transmission pump has two sections. The rear section
(toward the rear of the machine) supplies oil through the torque converter oil filter
(3) to the torque converter. The front section, supplies oil through the transmission
oil filter (4) to the lockup clutch modulating valve, the impeller clutch modulating
valve, and the transmission control valve (5). Also, return oil from the transmission
control valve will join the oil that is flowing into the torque converter.

The torque converter oil filter and the transmission oil filter are mounted to the rear
frame of the machine. The transmission filters can be accessed from the bottom
side of the machine. The oil filters are each equipped with a bypass valve which
informs the Power Train ECM if an oil filter is restricted. Each filter is also equipped
with a S•O•S port.

The power train hydraulic system is equipped with remote pressure taps, located in
the service bay behind the cab.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -10- Module 1 - Power Train System

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front pump drive

Oil from the power train oil coolers flows through line (1) to a manifold (2) on the
rear of the front pump drive (3). The manifold distributes oil though lines, in order
to cool and lubricate the front pump drive. Also shown is the return line (4) for the
front pump drive.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -11- Module 1 - Power Train System

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MAGNETIC SCREENS

The magnetic screens (1) for the power train oil are mounted to the output transfer
gear housing (2) on the transmission. Oil passes through the magnetic screens
before entering the suction side of the transmissoin pump (not shown), through
suction line (3).

Also shown is the transmission housing (4).

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -12- Module 1 - Power Train System

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5
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power train pressure taps

The remote power train pressure taps are located in the service bay behind the cab
and include the following pressure taps:
• Speed clutch pressure (1)
• Directional clutch pressure (2)
• Transmission lube pressure (3
• Torque converter inlet pressure (4)
• Torque converter outlet pressure (5)
• Lock-up clutch control pressure (6)
• Impeller clutch control pressure (7)
• Steering pilot pressure (8)

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -13- Module 1 - Power Train System

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power train oil coolers

Oil from the torque converter flows through two oil-to-coolant coolers (1) and two
oil-to-air coolers (2). The oil-to-air coolers are located above the radiator core at
the rear of the machine.

Oil from the torque converter flows through a junction block (3) which contains
an orifice in the inlet end. The orifice limits the oil flow through the oil-to-coolant
coolers so that the majority of the torque converter oil flows through the oil-to-
coolant coolers and the remaining oil flows though the oil-to-air coolers.

The oil from the coolers flows back to the transmission and lubricates the
transmission bearings, the rear pump drive, and the front pump drive before
returning to the transmission sump.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -14- Module 1 - Power Train System

POWER TRAIN ECM INPUT COMPONENTS

Transmission ECM (1)


Reduced Rimpull
Selection Switch (2)

CAN Data Link


Keypad (31)
Parking Brake Pressure Sensor (17)

Lockup Clutch Parking Brake Switch (18)


Enable Switch (3)

EEF Auto Lube Pump Pressure Sensor (19)


STIC Upshift, Downshift,
Forward, Neutral, Reverse (4)
NEEF Auto Lube Pressure Sensor (20)

Engine Speed Sensor (5)


Front and Rear Axle oil Temperature Sensors (21)
Steering/Transmission Lock Switch (6)
Brake Accumulator Pressure Switch (22)
Torque Converter Pedal Position Sensor (7)

Torque Converter Output Speed Sensor (8) Powered Access Stairway Position Switch (23)

Transmission Output Speed Sensor 1 and 2 (9)


Fuel Level Sensor (24)
Impeller Clutch Pressure Sensor (10)
Front and Rear Service Brake
Bumper Transmission Lockout Switch (11) Pressure Sensors (25)

Torque Converter Temperature Sensor (12) Front and Rear Brake Lube
Oil Pressure Switches (26)
Transmission Temperature Sensor (13) Key Start Switch (27)
Right and Left Transmission
Oil Filter Bypass Switches (14) Seat Belt Switch (28)

Transmission Oil Full


Left Armrest Switch (29)
Level Switch (15)
Transmission Oil Low Autolube Grease Level Sensor (30)
Level Switch (16)
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POWER TRAIN ELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM

The 994K Power Train electronic control system has been updated with a new
A4:M1 Power Train ECM. Additional components now provide input signals to
the Power Train ECM. The ECM provides output signals to control the torque
converter, transmission, and several other machine functions.

The Power Train ECM also controls the keypad (27) backlighting and LEDs for
features in other ECMs.

This image shows the components that provide input to the Power Train ECM.

The main purpose of the Power Train ECM (1) is to determine the desired
transmission gear and energize the appropriate solenoids to shift the transmission
up or down as required based on information from both the operator and the
machine.

The following components on the left side of the diagram provide input to the
Power Train ECM for transmission and torque converter control:

Reduced rimpull selection switch (2): The rimpull selection switch is located on
the keypad and sends an input signal to the Power Train ECM via the CAN Data
Link requesting the desired maximum rimpull torque.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -15- Module 1 - Power Train System

Lockup clutch enable switch (3): The lockup clutch enable switch is located on
the keypad and sends a signal to the Power Train ECM via the CAN Data Link.
When in the ON position, the lockup clutch enable switch enables the lockup clutch
to ENGAGE when the machine operating conditions are correct. The lockup clutch
enable lamp is illuminated whenever the lockup clutch is enabled.

STIC (4): Combines control of the vehicle steering system and the transmission
shifting system in a single input device.

Engine speed sensor (5): A passive speed sensor that uses the passing teeth of
the flywheel to provide a frequency signal to the Power Train ECM.

Steering and transmission lock switch (6): When in the LOCK position, causes
the Power Train ECM to shift the transmission to NEUTRAL.

Torque converter pedal position sensor (7): Signals the position of the torque
converter pedal to the Power Train ECM. The Power Train ECM uses the position
information to vary torque to the drive train through the impeller clutch. The actual
value of torque reduction is determined by a combination of different input signals.

Torque converter output speed sensor (8): Sends a signal to the Power Train
ECM which is used to determine the output speed and direction of the torque
converter.

Transmission output speed sensors (9): Provide a signal the Power Train ECM
which is used to determine the output speed of the transmission.

Impeller clutch pressure sensor (10): Provides a pulse width modulated signal
which is used by the Power Train ECM to determine the impeller clutch hydraulic
pressure.

Bumper transmission lockout switch (11): Provides a ground level input to the
Power Train ECM that will neutralize the transmission until the switch is moved to
the UNLOCK position.

Torque converter temperature sensor (12): Provides a signal to the Power Train
ECM indicating torque converter oil temperature.

Transmission temperature sensor (13): Provides a signal to the Power Train


ECM indicating transmission oil temperature.

Right and left transmission oil filter bypass switches (14): Inform the Power
Train ECM when the transmission oil filter is restricted.

Transmission oil full level switch (15): Informs the Power Train ECM when the
transmission oil level is full.

Transmission oil low level switch (16): Informs the Power Train ECM when the
transmission oil level is low.

NOTE: The input components (17-30) on the right side of the diagram
also provide input to the Power Train ECM and will be covered during the
discussion of other systems.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -16- Module 1 - Power Train System

POWER TRAIN ECM OUTPUT COMPONENTS


Power Train ECM (1)

Clutch 1
Back-up Alarm Relay (2)
Reverse Solenoid (12)

Auto Lube Solenoid (3) Clutch 2


Forward Solenoid (13)

Machine Feature Alarm (4) Clutch 3


3rd Gear Solenoid (14)
Backlight Dimmer (5)
Clutch 4
2nd Gear Solenoid (15)
Main Power Relay (6)
Clutch 5
Power Distribution Relay (7) 1st Gear Solenoid (16)

Impeller Clutch
Starter Lockout Relay (8)
Solenoid (17)

Powered Access
Stairway Relay (9) Lockup Clutch
Solenoid (18)
Heated Mirror Relay (10)
Front Axle Oil Cooler
Fan Bypass Solenoid (19)
Bumper Transmission
Lockout LED (11) Park Brake
Solenoid (20)
16
Based on the input signals, the Power Train ECM (1) energizes the appropriate
transmission control valve solenoids (12-16) for speed and directional clutch
engagement. The Power Train ECM also energizes the starter lockout relay (8)
when starting the machine and the back-up alarm relay (2) when the operator
selects a reverse gear.

When required, the Power Train ECM energizes the impeller clutch control
solenoid (17) and the lockup clutch solenoid (18) to control the torque converter.

The Power Train ECM also controls the following components:


• Auto Lube solenoid (3)
• Machine feature alarm (4)
• Backlight dimmer (5)
• Main power relay (6)
• Power distribution relay (7)
• Powered access stairway relay (9)
• Heated mirror relay (10)
• Bumper transmission lockout LED (11)
• Front axle oil cooler fan bypass solenoid (19)
• Park brake solenoid (20)

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -17- Module 1 - Power Train System

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Power Train ECM

The Power Train ECM (1) is mounted to a plate on the right side of the cab behind
the outside panel. The Implement ECM (2) is mounted to the other side of the
plate.

The new Power Train ECM is an A4:M1 module with two 70-pin connectors. The
Power Train ECM communicates with the Engine ECM, Implement ECM, and
monitoring system over the Cat and CAN Data Links.

The Power Train ECM receives three different types of input signals:
• Switch input: Provides the signal line to battery, ground, or open.
• PWM input: Provides the signal line with a square wave of a specific
frequency and a varying positive duty cycle.
• Speed signal: Provides the signal line with either a repeating, fixed voltage
level pattern signal or a sine wave of varying level and frequency.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -18- Module 1 - Power Train System

The Power Train ECM has three types of output drivers:


• ON/OFF driver: Provides the output device with a signal level of +Battery
voltage (ON) or less than one Volt (OFF).
• PWM solenoid driver: Provides the output device with a square wave of fixed
frequency and a varying positive duty cycle.
• Controlled current output driver: The ECM will energize the solenoid with
1.25 amps for approximately one half second and then decrease the level to
0.8 amps for the duration of the on time. The initial higher amperage gives
the actuator rapid response and the decreased level is sufficient to hold the
solenoid in the correct position. An added benefit is an increase in the life of
the solenoid.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -19- Module 1 - Power Train System

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Engine Speed Sensor

The engine speed sensor (1) is a passive two wire speed sensor that is positioned
on the top of the flywheel housing. The sensor uses the passing teeth of the
flywheel to provide a frequency output. The sensor sends the engine speed signal
to the Power Train ECM. The engine speed sensor signal is used in the Power
Train Torque Strategy.

Also shown are the primary speed timing sensor (2) and the Engine ECM (3).

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -20- Module 1 - Power Train System

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STIC and Steering/Transmission Lock Lever

The STIC (1) is bolted to the seat at the front of the left armrest. The transmission
directional control switch (2) is a three position rocker switch that the operator uses
to select NEUTRAL, FORWARD, or REVERSE. The transmission speed upshift
switch (3) and the transmission speed downshift switch (4) are momentary contact
switches that the operator uses to select the desired speed.

When the operator selects REVERSE by depressing the top of the directional
control switch, the Power Train ECM energizes the reverse directional solenoid.
The Power Train ECM also activates the back-up alarm. When the operator
selects FORWARD by depressing the bottom of the directional control switch, the
Power Train ECM energizes the forward directional solenoid.

When the operator selects NEUTRAL by placing the directional control switch in
the center position, the Power Train ECM de-energizes both the forward and the
reverse directional solenoids. After two seconds, the Power Train ECM energizes
speed solenoid No. 3 and the transmission is in NEUTRAL until the operator
selects a different gear.

When the operator presses the upshift switch, the Power Train ECM energizes
the appropriate speed clutch solenoid to select the next higher gear, and the
transmission upshifts. When the operator presses the downshift switch, the Power
Train ECM energizes the appropriate speed clutch solenoid to select the next lower
gear, and the transmission downshifts.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -21- Module 1 - Power Train System

The switches must be released and pressed again to continue shifting. If the
operator presses and holds the upshift or the downshift switch, the transmission will
shift once and remain in that speed until the switch is released and pressed again.

When the steering and transmission lock lever (5) is moved to the LOCK position
(not shown), the STIC is held in the center position and steering is disabled. In the
LOCK position, the steering lock lever depresses the steering and transmission
lock switch (not visible). The steering and transmission lock switch signals the
Power Train ECM to shift the transmission to NEUTRAL.

When the steering and transmission lock lever is moved to the UNLOCK position,
the steering and transmission functions are enabled.

The power train portion of the STIC sends input signals to the Power Train ECM.
Certain machine operating conditions will override the operator desired function of
the STIC. If the directional switch is in the FORWARD or REVERSE position when
the steering and transmission lock lever is moved to the UNLOCK position, the
Power Train ECM will not shift from NEUTRAL. The directional switch must first
be moved to the NEUTRAL position, then to the direction desired before the Power
Train ECM will engage a directional clutch.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -22- Module 1 - Power Train System

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TORQUE CONVERTER

This image shows the rear of the torque converter, which faces the front of the
machine.

The impeller clutch modulating valve (1) is located on the left side of the torque
converter housing.

The Power Train ECM monitors the status of the impeller clutch solenoid and can
determine certain faults that may affect operation of the impeller clutch. These
faults include: a short to +Battery, a short to ground, an open circuit, or the impeller
clutch not responding properly.

The Power Train ECM receives a signal from the impeller clutch pressure
sensor (2) to monitor the impeller clutch pressure. The Power Train ECM can
compare the control of the impeller clutch solenoid with the response of the
impeller clutch pressure to determine if the impeller clutch is responding properly.

When a fault is detected, controlled throttle shifting is used. When a directional


shift is made above 1400 rpm, the Power Train ECM will request a desired engine
speed of 1400 rpm from the Engine ECM for 1.4 seconds if shifting into forward
and a desired engine speed of 1400 rpm for 1.0 second if shifting into reverse.
This feature helps decrease the energies absorbed in the transmission.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -23- Module 1 - Power Train System

The torque converter pedal position sensor (not shown) and the impeller clutch
solenoid must be calibrated to ensure proper operation.

Also shown are the lockup clutch solenoid (3) and the lockup clutch valve. The
lockup clutch solenoid and lockup clutch valve looks similar to the impeller clutch
solenoid and impeller clutch valve but are different and should not be interchanged.

The Power Train ECM energizes the solenoid for the lockup clutch to allow oil to
flow to the lockup clutch. The pressure increases in the lockup clutch, causing it to
engage and the machine operates in DIRECT DRIVE.

The solenoid for the lockup clutch is a proportional solenoid and is energized by
a modulated signal from the Power Train ECM. The Power Train ECM varies the
amount of current to control the amount of oil flow through the lockup clutch valve
to the lockup clutch.

NOTE: An increase in current to the lockup clutch solenoid from the Power
Train ECM results in an increase in pressure to the lockup clutch.

The Power Train ECM receives a signal from the torque converter output speed
sensor (4) indicating torque converter output speed. The speed sensor is mounted
on the torque converter housing above the output shaft. The signal is a fixed
voltage level, patterned waveform which the Power Train ECM uses to determine
the speed and direction of the torque converter output.

If the machine is allowed to roll backwards on an incline when a forward gear


is selected, the torque converter can turn in reverse. This condition is called
reverse turbine and can result in high temperatures inside the torque converter. If
the Power Train ECM determines the output of the torque converter is turning in
the reverse direction greater than 300 rpm, the Power Train ECM will ignore the
left pedal position input and increase the impeller clutch pressure to prevent this
condition. The Power Train ECM will also override the reduced rimpull setting, if
necessary, to try to eliminate the reverse turbine.

The Power Train ECM monitors the temperature of oil exiting the torque converter
with the torque converter outlet oil temperature sensor (5).

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -24- Module 1 - Power Train System

TORQUE CONVERTER

Turbine (1) Clutch Discs (7)

Clutch Discs (2) Lockup Clutch


Port (8)

Output Shaft (3)

Housing (4) Torque Converter


Oil Port (9)
Lockup Clutch (5)
Impeller Clutch Port (10)
Stator (6) Impeller Clutch (11)
Impeller (12)

24
The Illustration shows a sectional view of the torque converter. The major
components include the rotating housing (4), the impeller (12), the turbine (1), the
non-free wheel stator (6), the impeller clutch (11), and the lockup clutch (5).

The rotating housing is splined to the engine flywheel and turns with the flywheel.

When the impeller clutch port (10) is pressurized, the impeller is connected to the
rotating housing through the impeller clutch engagement. The clutch discs (7)
are splined to the impeller. The clutch plates are splined to the rotating housing.
Pressure oil at the clutch piston will engage the discs and plates. The impeller
rotates with the housing.

The turbine is splined to the output shaft (3). In torque converter drive, the turbine
is turned by oil from the impeller.

In direct drive, the lockup clutch port (8) is pressurized. The lockup clutch connects
the turbine to the rotating housing. The lockup clutch discs (2) are splined to the
turbine. The lockup clutch plates are splined to the rotating housing. Pressure
oil moves the clutch piston to engage the discs and plates. When the clutch is
engaged, the turbine, the housing, the impeller, and the output shaft rotate as a unit
at engine rpm.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -25- Module 1 - Power Train System

25
Lockup Clutch

The lockup clutch enable switch (arrow) is located in the keypad on the right side
panel in the cab. When the switch is in the ON position (LED illuminated) and the
proper conditions have been met, the Power Train ECM will engage the lockup
clutch to improve the efficiency of the power train.

The Power Train ECM first sends a signal to the lockup clutch modulating valve
to engage the lockup clutch to a Hold Level for .54 seconds to allow time for the
clutch to fill. Then, the current is ramped up to full ON in .38 seconds.

During normal operation, the Power Train ECM will ENERGIZE the torque
converter lockup clutch solenoid based on the following conditions:
1. Lockup clutch enable switch state: (LED illuminated). The lockup clutch is
always active in 3rd gear and higher.
2. Torque converter output speed: When the torque converter output speed is
greater than 1125 ± 50 rpm.
3. Time in gear: The transmission must be in the present speed and direction
for at least two seconds.
4. Time since lockup clutch solenoid was de-energized: At least four
seconds must have passed since the Power Train ECM de-energized the
lockup clutch solenoid.
5. Left pedal and right brake pedal status: Both pedals must be fully released.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -26- Module 1 - Power Train System

Test Port (4)

Ball Orifice
LOCKUP CLUTCH (2) (3)
Valve
Spool (5)
Spring
(6)
SOLENOID VALVE

SOLENOID DE-ENERGIZED

Solenoid Pin Pump


(1) (10) (7)
Clutch (8)

Test Port (4)

Ball Orifice Valve Spring


(2) (3) Spool (5) (6)

SOLENOID ENERGIZED

Solenoid Pin Pump


(1) (10) (7)
Clutch (8)

26
This illustration is a sectional view of the lockup clutch solenoid valve.

When the lockup clutch solenoid (1) is de-energized, the force that held the pin
assembly (9) against the ball (2) is removed. The pump oil (7) flows through the
orifice (3) and past the ball to drain. The spring (6) moves the valve spool to the
left. The valve spool opens the passage between the lockup clutch and drain and
blocks the passage between the lockup clutch and the pump. Pump flow to the
lockup clutch (8) is blocked. The oil in the lockup clutch flows past the valve spool
to drain.

When the lockup clutch solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves the pin
assembly against the ball. The ball blocks pump oil flow through the orifice to
drain. The oil pressure increases at the left end of the valve spool (5) and moves
the valve spool to the right against the spring. The valve spool blocks the passage
between the lockup clutch and drain and opens the passage between the lockup
clutch and the pump. Pump oil flows past the valve spool to the lockup clutch.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -27- Module 1 - Power Train System

27
Impeller Clutch

The Power Train ECM monitors the position of the torque converter pedal (1) with
the torque converter pedal position sensor (2) located behind the panel at the
pivot for the pedal. As the operator depresses the pedal, the Power Train ECM
increases the current to the impeller clutch solenoid and reduces the hydraulic
pressure to the impeller clutch. The rimpull will decrease with pedal travel from the
reduced maximum setting to the minimum setting. When the operator releases the
left pedal, the rimpull will return to the maximum percentage as set by the reduced
rimpull selector switch (not shown).

When the maximum allowable percentage is in the lower values, the total change
of rimpull from maximum to minimum is decreased. This condition results in a
more gradual change of rimpull over the travel of the torque converter pedal.

If the machine is not in FIRST GEAR, the impeller clutch pressure will remain at the
maximum level until the transmission is shifted into FIRST GEAR.

The torque converter pedal functions similarly when the maximum rimpull selector
switch is in the maximum position, except the maximum allowable percentage is
now 100%.

Also shown above is the electronic parking brake switch (3).

NOTE: An increase in current to the impeller clutch solenoid from the


Power Train ECM results in a decrease in pressure to the impeller clutch.
Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow
SERV2070 - 10/15 -28- Module 1 - Power Train System

Test Port (4)

IMPELLER CLUTCH Spring Ball Orifice Valve Spring


(1) (2) (3) Spool (5) (6)
MODULATING VALVE

IMPELLER CLUTCH
SOLENOID DE-ENERGIZED

Solenoid Armature
Pump
(10) Assembly (9)
(7)
Impeller
Clutch (8)

Test Port (4)

Spring Ball Orifice Valve Spring


(1) (2) (3) Spool (5) (6)

IMPELLER CLUTCH
SOLENOID ENERGIZED

Solenoid Armature
(10) Assembly (9) Pump
(7)
Impeller
Clutch (8)

28
This illustration is a sectional view of the impeller clutch solenoid valve.

When the impeller clutch solenoid (10) is de-energized, the spring (6) moves
the pin assembly against the ball (2). The ball blocks the pump flow (7) through the
orifice (3) to drain. The oil pressure increases at the left end of the valve
spool (5) and moves the valve spool to the right against the spring. The valve
spool blocks the passage between the impeller clutch (8) and drain and opens the
passage between the impeller clutch and the pump. Pump oil flows past the valve
spool to the impeller clutch.

When the impeller clutch solenoid is energized, the solenoid moves the pin
assembly against the spring and away from the ball. Pump oil flows through the
center of the valve spool, through the orifice, and past the ball to drain. The valve
spring moves the valve spool to the left. The valve spool blocks the passage
between the impeller clutch and the pump and opens the passage between the
impeller clutch and drain. Pump flow to the impeller clutch is blocked. The oil in
the impeller clutch flows past the valve spool to drain.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -29- Module 1 - Power Train System

29
Rimpull Selection

The level of rimpull that is selected reduces the potential for wheel slippage without
reducing the hydraulic efficiency.

There are a total of four different levels of rimpull that can be selected with the
rimpull selection button (arrow). Each selection level corresponds to a maximum
allowable percentage of maximum rimpull.

LED lights are located above each keypad button. Each time the rimpull selection
button is pressed and released, a different level of rimpull is selected. Each press
and release of the button will also result in a corresponding change in the number
of lights illuminated above the button. The lights provide a visual indication of the
selected level of rimpull.

To select a desired rimpull setting, press and release the rimpull selection button
repeatedly until the desired level of rimpull is indicated by the lights above the
button.

If the machine is in FIRST SPEED FORWARD, the rimpull selection will provide an
impeller clutch pressure which limits the rimpull to the desired level when the pedal
is fully released.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -30- Module 1 - Power Train System

Depressing the left brake pedal will further reduce rimpull from the selected
percentage. The rimpull commanded by the fully released pedal will equal the
reduced rimpull selected on the rimpull selection button.

When a lower rimpull is selected, pedal travel will result in a more gradual decrease
in rimpull. If the machine is not in FIRST SPEED FORWARD, the impeller clutch
pressure will remain at the maximum level until the transmission is placed into
FIRST SPEED.

The rimpull selection button will continue to limit rimpull until the transmission is
shifted out of FIRST SPEED or until the maximum level of rimpull is selected with
the rimpull selection button.

To select a desired rimpull setting, press and release the rimpull selection button
repeatedly until the desired level of rimpull is indicated by the number of lights
below.

Number of Lights Illuminated Percent of Rimpull


3 100
2 90
1 80
none 70

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -31- Module 1 - Power Train System

2 8

9 3 6
7
31
TRANSMISSION

The basic transmission remains unchanged.

The planetary power shift transmission (1) has three FORWARD and three
REVERSE speeds. Electronic solenoids located in the hydraulic control valve (2)
shift the transmission. The solenoids are actuated by the Power Train ECM.

The transmission output speed sensors (3) monitors the transmission output shaft.
The signal is sent to the Power Train ECM. The transmission output speed signal
indicates when the clutches have engaged and the direction of the ground speed.

The three transmission oil screens located in the front of the output transfer gear
housing can be accessed by removing the covers (4).

The oil sump for the transmission pump is located in the bottom of the output
transfer gear case (7).

Shown here are the secondary steering pump and diverter valve (5) and the rear
drive output shaft (6). The transmission fill tube (8) and the transmission liquid
level gauge (9) are also shown.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -32- Module 1 - Power Train System

POWER SHIFT TRANSMISSION

Ring Gears (1) Ring Gears (1)

Input Sun Gears (2)

Input Shaft (4)

Planetary Carrier (3) Output Shaft (5)

5
Output Sun Gears (6)
1 2 3 4

32
This illustration is a sectional view that is showing the transmission planetary
group. The planetary group is equipped with two directional and three speed
clutches.

In this sectional view of the transmission, the input shaft (4) and the input sun
gears (2) are shown in red with the output shaft (5) and the output sun gears (6)
shown in blue. The ring gears (1) are shown in green. The planetary carriers (3)
are shown in brown while the planetary gears and shafts are shown in orange.
The clutch discs, clutch plates, pistons, springs, and bearings are shown in yellow.
Stationary components are shown in gray.
• Speed Engaged Clutches

• First/Forward No. 2 and No. 5

• Second/Forward No. 2 and No. 4

• Third/Forward No. 2 and No. 3

• Neutral No. 3

• First/Reverse No. 1 and No. 5

• Second/Reverse No. 1 and No. 4

• Third/Reverse No. 1 and No. 3

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -33- Module 1 - Power Train System

1
3 5

4
33
Transmission Hydraulic Control Valve

The Power Train ECM shifts the transmission by energizing the solenoid valves
that are located in the transmission control valve group on top of the transmission.

Two solenoid valves are used to control reverse (1) or forward (2) directional shifts
and three solenoid valves are used to control speed shifts: first (5), second (4),
and third (3).

The solenoid valves are two-position, three-way solenoid valves. The solenoid
valves are normally open to drain. When energized, the solenoid valve spool
moves to direct pressure oil to one end of the transmission control valve spool.
The transmission control valve spool then directs oil to the appropriate clutch.

The solenoids are operated by 12VDC max. The Power Train ECM first energizes
the solenoids with 12VDC for one second and then decreases the voltage
to approximately 8.25 VDC for the remainder of the time that the solenoid is
energized. The decreased voltage level is enough to keep pressure oil to the
control valve spool to maintain position while extending the service life of the
solenoid.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -34- Module 1 - Power Train System

TRANSMISSION
HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE
Torque Converter (11)
P3 Filter (12)
Check Valve (1)
Orifice (13)
Port to Torque P1
Converter Inlet (2) Modulating Relief Valve (14)
Converter Inlet Ratio Valve (3)
Slug Chamber (15)
Solenoid (No. 3 Clutch) (16)
Solenoid (No. 2 Clutch) (4)
Passage Clutch No. 3 (17)
Slug Chamber (5)
Passage Clutch No. 5 (18)
Passage Clutch No. 2 (6) P2

Passage Clutch No. 1 (7)


1st and 3rd Speed
Directional Selector Spool (8) Selector Spool (19)

Solenoid (No. 5 Clutch) (20)


Pressure Differential Valve (9)
Load Piston (21)
Solenoid (No. 1 Clutch) (10)

Solenoid (No. 4 Clutch) (22)

2nd Speed Selector Spool (23)

Passage Clutch No. 4 (24)

34
Modulating relief valve (14): Limits the maximum clutch pressure.

First and third speed selector spool (19): Directs oil flow to the No. 5 and No. 3
clutches.

Load piston (21): Works with the modulation relief valve to control the rate of
pressure increase in the clutches.

Second speed selector spool (23): Directs oil flow to the No. 4 clutch.

Pressure differential valve (9): Controls speed and directional clutch sequencing.

Directional selector spool (8): Directs oil to the FORWARD and REVERSE
directional clutches.

Converter inlet ratio valve (3): Limits the pressure to the torque converter.

Passage to Clutch No. 1 (7): Passage to the port to energize clutch No. 1
(Reverse).

Passage to Clutch No. 2 (6): Passage to the port to energize clutch No. 2
(Forward).

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -35- Module 1 - Power Train System

Passage to Clutch No. 3 (17): Passage to the port to energize clutch No. 3 (Third
Speed).

Passage to Clutch No. 4 (24): Passage to the port to energize clutch No. 4
(Second Speed).

Passage to Clutch No. 5 (18): Passage to the port to energize clutch No. 5 (First
Speed).

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -36- Module 1 - Power Train System

TRANSMISSION
HYDRAULIC CONTROL VALVE Torque Converter (11)
NEUTRAL Filter (12)
P3
Check Valve (1) Orifice (13)
P1
Port to Torque Modulating Relief Valve (14)
Converter Inlet (2)
Converter Inlet Ratio Valve (3) Slug Chamber (15)
Solenoid (No. 3 Clutch) (16)
Solenoid (No. 2 Clutch) (4)
Slug Chamber (5) Passage Clutch No. 3 (17)

Passage Clutch No. 2 (6) Passage Clutch No. 5 (18)

P2
Passage Clutch No. 1 (7)
1st and 3rd Speed
Directional Selector Spool (8) Selector Spool (19)

Pressure Differential Valve (9) Solenoid (No. 5 Clutch) (20)

Load Piston (21)


Solenoid (No. 1 Clutch) (10)

Solenoid (No. 4 Clutch) (22)

2nd Speed Selector Spool (23)

Passage Clutch No. 4 (24)

36
The transmission hydraulic control valve is shown with the transmission in the
NEUTRAL position. Supply oil from the transmission filter is directed to either the
solenoid valve manifolds (not shown) or to the top of the modulating relief valve.
The pressure of the supply oil overrides the check valve (1). Oil flows through the
passage (red) around the modulating valve (14) through the ball check valve and
fills the slug chamber (15). The pressure in the slug chamber will override the
spring and the modulating valve will move downward. As the modulating valve
moves downward, oil will flow around the modulating valve to the cavity (orange).
The oil will flow through the passage (orange) to the port for the torque converter
inlet (not shown).

The supply oil flows through the flow control orifice to the chamber for the 1st and
3rd speed selector spool (19). In NEUTRAL, the speed selector spool directs oil
flow to the clutch No. 3. Also, the oil flows through the passage (red) to the slug
chamber of the converter ratio valve (3) and the center of the pressure differential
valve (9). The oil sump for the transmission pump (not shown) is located in the
bottom of the output transfer gear case.

Oil flows around the center of the differential valve and through the orifice to the
lower end of the load piston (21).

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -37- Module 1 - Power Train System

The oil pressure at approximately 380 kPa (55 psi) in the upper cavity of the
differential valve shifts the valve downward against the spring. The differential
valve moves downward. Oil flows around the differential valve to cavity P2. When
the pressure at P2 reaches 380 kPa (55 psi), the load piston starts moving upward
compressing the spring from the lower end. The oil pressure at P2 will always
be approximately 380 kPa (55 psi) less than the pressure at P1. The differential
pressure between P1 and P2 will ensure that the speed clutch will always engage
before the direction clutch.

With a directional shift out of NEUTRAL, the directional selector spool (8) will be
shifted in either direction and oil in cavity P2 will be directed to No. 1 clutch or No.
2 clutch.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -38- Module 1 - Power Train System

TRANSMISSION HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


NEUTRAL

Lube - Front
Lube - Output Lube - Output Pump Drive (25) Lube - Rear
Transfer Gear (1) Transfer Bearings (2) Pump Drive (5)
Transmission
Lube (3)
Dump Pump
Orifice (4) Pressure
(6)
2 3 Impeller Clutch
Modulating
Valve (10)

Priority
Valve (7)

1 5 4
Lube - Input
Impeller
Transfer (8)
Clutch
Pressure
(11)
LUC
Pressure
(9) Lockup Clutch
Modulating Valve (12)
P3
Lube - Rear
Pump Drive (13)

P1

Torque
Transmission Torque
Converter
Filter (14) Converter (16)
3 Filter (15)
2
P2 5 Oil to Water Cooler (17)
1

4 Transmission
Oil to Water Cooler (18)
Pump (23)

Transmission
Control Valve (24) Air to Oil Cooler (19)
Magnetic
Screens (22) Sump (21)

Air to Oil Cooler (20) 38


POWER TRAIN HYDRAULIC SYSTEM OPERATION

This illustration shows the components and the oil flow for the power train hydraulic
system in NEUTRAL.

In this schematic, the engine is running and the transmission is in neutral. With
the transmission direction switch in the NEUTRAL position, the Power Train ECM
energizes the No. 3 clutch solenoid. The Power Train ECM also de-energizes the
lockup clutch solenoid.

The transmission pump (23) draws oil from the sump (21) (located in the bottom
of the transmission transfer case) through three magnetic screens (22) that are
located in the sump by the transmission pump.

Oil from the left section of the transmission pump flows through the transmission
filter (14) to the priority valve (7). From the right side of the priority valve, oil flows
to the lockup clutch modulating valve (12) and to the impeller clutch modulating
valve (10).

During a shift, the priority valve maintains 2205 kPa (320 psi) oil pressure to the
lockup clutch modulating valve and impeller clutch modulating valve. When the
transmission is in neutral, the lockup clutch is disengaged. Also, the solenoid for
the impeller clutch is de-energized and the impeller clutch is engaged.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -39- Module 1 - Power Train System

When the transmission pump supply pressure increases above the priority valve
setting, the priority valve opens and sends oil flow to the manifold for clutch
solenoid valves No. 2 and 3, the manifold for clutch solenoid valves No. 1, 5, and 4,
and the inlet passage for the transmission valve (24).

The oil at the clutch solenoid valve manifolds becomes the pilot oil for the
transmission speed and directional selector spools.

When the No. 3 clutch solenoid is ENERGIZED, the No. 3 solenoid valve sends
pilot oil to the upper end of the first and third speed selector spool. The pilot oil
pressure overcomes the force of the selector valve spring and moves the spool
from its center position. Oil from the inlet passage flows through the orifice, past
the speed selector spool, and into the No. 3 speed clutch.

When directional solenoids No. 1 and 2 are DE-ENERGIZED, pilot oil is blocked at
the directional solenoid valves. The directional clutch selector spool spring centers
the spool. Oil flow between the direction selector spool and the directional clutches
is blocked.

When the oil requirements of the selector and pressure control valve have been
satisfied, the remaining power train pump oil flows to the torque converter.

Oil from right side of the transmission pump is directed to the torque converter
filter (15). Oil flows from the filter and joins with the oil from the selector and
pressure control valve. The combined oil flows to the inlet of the torque
converter (16). Flow continues through the torque converter to either the sump
or the power train coolers (17-20). Then the oil flows to various lube points in the
transmission lubrication circuit.

When the transmission is in NEUTRAL, the Power Train ECM disengages the
optional lockup clutch. The turbine is disconnected from the rotating housing. No
power is transmitted from the housing through the turbine.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -40- Module 1 - Power Train System

TRANSMISSION HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


FIRST SPEED FORWARD
CONVERTER DRIVE

Lube - Output Lube - Output Lube - Front Lube - Rear


Transfer Gear (1) Transfer Bearings (2) Pump Drive (25) Pump Drive (5)
Transmission
Lube (3)
Dump Pump
Orifice (4) Pressure
(6)
2 3 Impeller Clutch
Modulating
Valve (10)

Priority
Valve (7)

1 5 4 Lube - Input Impeller


Transfer (8) Clutch
Pressure
(11)
LUC
Pressure
(9) Lockup Clutch
Modulating Valve (12)

P3
Lube - Rear
Pump Drive (13)

P1

Torque
Transmission Torque
Converter
Filter (14) Converter (16)
3 Filter (15)
2
P2 5 Oil to Water Cooler (17)
1

4 Transmission
Oil to Water Cooler (18)
Pump (23)

Transmission
Control Valve (24) Air to Oil Cooler (19)
Magnetic
Screens (22) Sump (21)

Air to Oil Cooler (20)


40
In this illustration, the engine is running and the transmission is in 1st speed
forward in torque converter drive.

Flow from the transmission pump (23) is directed through the transmission filter
(14) to the priority valve (7), the impeller clutch modulating valve (10), and the
lockup clutch modulating valve (12). The priority valve maintains a minimum
oil pressure to the impeller clutch solenoid valve and the lockup clutch solenoid
valve during transmission shifts. When the transmission pump supply pressure
increases above the spring setting of the priority valve, the priority valve opens and
oil is directed to the speed manifold and the direction manifold. Also, pump supply
oil is directed past the orifice to the inlet port for the 1st and 3rd speed selector
spool and the inlet port for the 2nd speed selector spool.

When the operator moves the directional switch and upshift or downshift switch to
the 1st speed forward position, the Power Train ECM energizes the impeller clutch
solenoid (the impeller clutch solenoid will be energized and then de-energized).
The solenoid for the lockup clutch is also de-energized. Then, the No. 5 solenoid is
energized first and No. 2 solenoid will be energized next.

When the No. 5 solenoid is ENERGIZED, oil pressure is directed to the lower end
of the 1st and 3rd speed selector spool. The force of the oil pressure overcomes
the force of the speed selector spool spring, the spool shifts upwards and No. 5
clutch is engaged. The No. 2 solenoid is ENERGIZED, pilot oil is directed to the
upper end of the directional selection spool. The oil pressure overcomes the force
of the selector spool spring and the spool shifts downward. The No. 2 clutch will be
engaged.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -41- Module 1 - Power Train System

When the oil requirements of the selector and pressure control valve have been
satisfied, the remaining oil combines with the oil from the transmission pump
(orange). The combined oil flows to the torque converter (16). Flow continues
through the torque converter through the power train coolers (17-20) to the
transmission lubrication circuit.

When the transmission is in NEUTRAL, the Power Train ECM pressurizes the
impeller clutch in response to the engine speed. When the engine speed is less
than 1100 rpm, the impeller clutch pressure is maintained at a holding pressure of
550 ± 207 kPa (80 ± 30 psi). When the engine rpm increases from 1100 to 1300
rpm, the Power Train ECM increases the impeller clutch pressure from 550 ± 207
kPa (80 ± 30 psi) to 2580 ± 207 kPa (375 ± 30 psi) for one second. The Power
Train ECM then reduces the impeller clutch pressure to 2274 ± 207 kPa (330 ± 30
psi). The impeller clutch pressure remains at 2274 ± 207 kPa (330 ± 30 psi) for all
engine speeds above 1300 rpm. The torque converter housing and impeller rotate
at engine speed.

When the engine rpm decreases from 1300 to 1100 rpm, the Power Train ECM
decreases the impeller clutch pressure from 2274 ± 207 kPa (330 ± 30 psi) to
550 ± 207 kPa (80 ± 30 psi). The impeller clutch pressure remains at a holding
pressure of 550 ± 207 kPa (80 ± 30 psi) for all engine speeds below 1100 rpm.
The low pressure allows the impeller clutch to remain filled without engaging.
The torque converter housing rotates with the engine while the torque converter
impeller is only partially engaged without transmitting torque.

NOTE: The impeller clutch pressure is reduced because the pressure


to the impeller clutch is reduced after the first second (1/60 of a minute)
of engagement to extend the life of the seals and pistons in the impeller
clutch. This can be demonstrated by connecting a pressure gauge to the
impeller clutch pressure tap and viewing the gauge during a directional
shift. Cat ET can also be used to view the impeller clutch pressure and the
impeller clutch solenoid valve current during a directional shift.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -42- Module 1 - Power Train System

TRANSMISSION HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


SECOND SPEED FORWARD
CONVERTER DRIVE

Lube - Front
Lube - Output Lube - Output Lube - Rear
Pump Drive (25)
Transfer Gear (1) Transfer Bearings (2) Pump Drive (5)
Transmission
Lube (3)
Dump Pump
Orifice (4) Pressure
(6)
2 3 Impeller Clutch
Modulating
Valve (10)

Priority
Valve (7)

1 5 4
Lube - Input
Transfer (8)

LUC
Pressure
(9)
Lockup Clutch
Modulating Valve (12)
P3 S•O•S S•O•S Lube - Rear
(11) (11) Pump Drive (13)

P1

Torque
Transmission Converter Torque
Filter (14) Filter (15) Converter (16)
3
2
P2 5 Oil to Water Cooler (17)
1

Transmission
4
Pump (23) Oil to Water Cooler (18)

Transmission
Control Valve (24) Air to Oil Cooler (19)
Magnetic
Screens (22) Sump (21)

Air to Oil Cooler (20) 42


When the transmission is shifted from FIRST SPEED FORWARD to SECOND
SPEED FORWARD (speed shift), the Power Train ECM de-energizes the No. 5
clutch solenoid, and energizes the No. 4 clutch solenoid. The Power Train ECM
also continues to de-energize the impeller clutch solenoid and the lockup clutch
solenoid.

When de-energized, the No. 5 clutch solenoid valve interrupts the flow of pilot oil to
the speed selector spool and directs the pilot oil to the sump.

When energized, the No. 4 clutch solenoid valve sends oil to the end of the 2nd
speed selector spool. The force of the oil pressure overcomes the force of the
selector valve spring and moves the spool from its center position. Oil from the
inlet passage flows through the orifice, into the No. 4 speed clutch.

The empty No. 4 clutch causes the pressure at P1 and P2 to be less than 375 kPa
(55 psi). The decrease in P1 oil pressure allows the pressure differential valve
spring to move the differential valve up. When the differential valve moves up, the
differential valve opens a passage for oil in the differential valve spring chamber
and the load piston cavity to flow to drain. The transmission control valve then
repeats the fill and modulation cycle.

During a speed shift, the Power Train ECM maintains maximum pressure in the
impeller clutch. The transmission directional clutch picks up the load after a
direction shift.

Caterpillar: Confidential Yellow


SERV2070 - 10/15 -43- Module 1 - Power Train System

TRANSMISSION HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


SECOND SPEED REVERSE
CONVERTER DRIVE

Lube - Front
Lube - Output Lube - Output Pump Drive (25) Lube - Rear
Transfer Gear (1) Transfer Bearings Pump Drive (5)
(2) Transmission
Lube (3)
Dump Pump
Orifice (4) Pressure
(6)
2 3 Impeller Clutch
Modulating Valve
(10)

Priority
Valve (7)

1 5 4
Lube - Input
Transfer (8)

LUC
Pressure
(9) Lockup Clutch
Modulating Valve (12)
P3 S•O•S S•O•S Lube - Rear
(11) (11) Pump Drive (13)

P1

Torque
Transmission Torque
Converter
Filter (14) Converter (16)
3 Filter (15)
2
P2 5 Oil to Water Cooler (17)
1

Transmission
4
Pump (23) Oil to Water Cooler (18)

Transmission
Control Valve (24) Air to Oil Cooler (19)
Magnetic
Screens (22) Sump (21)

Air to Oil Cooler (20)


43
When the transmission is shifted from First Speed Forward to Second Speed
Reverse (directional shift), the Power Train ECM de-energizes clutch solenoids No.
2 and 5 and energizes clutch solenoids No. 1 and 4. The ECM also energizes the
impeller clutch solenoid and de-energizes the lockup clutch solenoid.

When the Power Train ECM de-energizes the No. 2 clutch solenoid, the No. 2
clutch solenoid valve blocks the pilot oil flow and sends the pilot oil at the end of the
selector spool to drain. The force of the selector valve spring moves the spool to
its center position. When the selector spool moves to the center position, oil in the
No. 2 clutch flows to the sump.

When the Power Train ECM energizes the No. 1 clutch solenoid, the No. 1 clutch
solenoid valve sends pilot oil to the lower end of the directional selector spool. The
force of the oil pressure overcomes the force of the selector valve spring and shifts
the spool from its center position. Directional clutch oil flows from the pressure
differential valve, past the directional selector spool, and into the REVERSE clutch
(No. 1).

When the Power Train ECM de-energizes the No. 5 clutch solenoid, the No. 5
clutch solenoid valve blocks the flow of pilot oil and sends the pilot oil at the end of
the 1st and 3rd selector spool to the sump. The selector spool moves to the center
position, oil in the No. 5 clutch flows to the sump.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -44- Module 1 - Power Train System

When the ECM energizes the No. 4 clutch solenoid, the No. 4 clutch solenoid valve
sends pilot oil to the right side of the 2nd speed selector spool. The force of the
oil pressure overcomes the force of the selector spool spring and moves the spool
from its center position. Oil from the inlet passage flows through the orifice, past
the 1st and 3rd speed selector spool, past the 2nd speed selector spool, and into
the No. 4 speed clutch.

As the empty No. 1 and 4 clutches fill, they cause the P1 and P2 pressures to
decrease to less than 375 kPa (55 psi) momentarily. The momentary decrease in
P1 oil pressure allows the differential valve spring to move the differential valve up.
When the differential valve moves up, the differential valve opens a passage for oil
in the differential valve spring chamber and the load piston cavity to flow to drain.
The transmission control valve then repeats the fill and modulation cycle.

During a directional shift, the Power Train ECM reduces the pressure in the impeller
clutch allowing the impeller clutch to slip. The ECM monitors the torque converter
output speed sensor and the transmission output speed sensor to determine when
the transmission clutches are engaged. When the transmission clutches are
engaged, the ECM engages the impeller clutch in the torque converter. The torque
converter absorbs the energy of a directional shift.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -45- Module 1 - Power Train System

TRANSMISSION HYDRAULIC SYSTEM


SECOND SPEED FORWARD
DIRECT DRIVE

Lube - Front
Lube - Output Lube - Output Pump Drive (25) Lube - Rear
Transfer Gear (1) Transfer Bearings Pump Drive (5)
(2) Transmission
Lube (3)
Dump Pump
Orifice (4) Pressure
(6)
2 3 Impeller Clutch
Modulating Valve
(10)

Priority
Valve (7)

1 5 4
Lube - Input
Transfer (8)

LUC
Pressure
(9) Lockup Clutch
Modulating Valve (12)
P3 S•O•S S•O•S Lube - Rear
(11) (11) Pump Drive (13)

P1

Transmission Torque Torque


Filter (14) Converter Converter (16)
3
2 Filter (15)
P2 5 Oil to Water Cooler (17)
1

Transmission
4 Oil to Water Cooler (18)
Pump (23)

Transmission
Control Valve (24) Air to Oil Cooler (19)
Magnetic
Screens (22) Sump (21)

Air to Oil Cooler (20)


45
When the machine is operating in torque converter drive, six conditions must be
present before the Power Train ECM will energize the solenoid for the lockup clutch
and shift the torque converter to direct drive.
1. The transmission is in second or third gear.
2. The lockup clutch enable switch is in the ON position.
3. The torque converter output speed is above 1375 ± 5 rpm.
4. The machine has been in the present speed and direction for more than two
seconds.
5. Neither brake pedal is depressed.
6. The lockup clutch has been released by the Power Train ECM for at least four
seconds.

When the solenoid for the lockup is energized, the lockup clutch modulating valve
opens. The transmission pump oil flows past the lockup clutch modulating valve
and fills the lockup clutch. The lockup clutch engages and connects the turbine to
the rotating housing.

In DIRECT DRIVE, both the impeller clutch and the lockup clutch are engaged.
The torque converter rotating housing, the impeller, and the turbine turn as a unit.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -46- Module 1 - Power Train System

COLD POWER TRAIN ENGINE SPEED LIMITING

Power Train Engine


ECM (1) ECM (6)
Engine Speed
Sensor (3)

Injectors
Cat Data Link (4) (7)

Key Start Switch (2) Torque Converter


Oil Temperature
Sensor (5)

46
Cold Power Train Engine Speed Limiting

The torque converter oil temperature sensor (5) and the engine speed sensor (3)
are monitored by the Power Train ECM (1). The Power Train ECM will look for the
torque converter oil temperature before limiting the engine acceleration or exiting
the cold power train engine speed limiting feature.

If the engine is started and the oil temperature at the torque converter is below the
40°C (104°F) threshold, the Power Train ECM will request an engine speed limit of
1300 rpm and limit the engine speed acceleration to 50 rpms/second. The Power
Train ECM will cycle through the loop monitoring for an increase in torque converter
oil temperature.

In the event of a fault with either sensor (engine speed sensor or torque converter
oil temperature sensor), the transmission requested engine speed limit will go to
2500 rpm.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -47- Module 1 - Power Train System

POWER TRAIN TORQUE STRATEGY

Power Train Torque Transmission Engine


ECM (1) Converter Output ECM (5)
Output Speed Speed
Sensor (2) Sensors
(4)
Injectors
Cat Data Link (7) (6)

Torque Converter Pedal


Position Sensor (3)
Throttle Pedal
Position Sensor (8)

Lift Implement
Linkage Fixed Pump
Position Pressure
Sensor Sensor
(10) (11)
Implement ECM (9)

47
994K Wheel Loader Torque Strategy

Torque strategy is another feature of the Power Train ECM (1). The purpose of
this feature is to control the torque delivered through the power train while digging.
This action allows more available torque to the implement pumps. By controlling
engine speed, the Power Train ECM is able to manage the loads on the power
train, extending power train life while maintaining digging performance.

By decreasing the engine speed, the amount of torque that is delivered to the
power train through the torque converter is reduced. Since the implement pump
drives are connected directly to the engine, maximum torque is delivered to the
pumps when the engine speed decreases. This feature results in a net gain of
available torque for the pumps.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -48- Module 1 - Power Train System

994K WHEEL LOADER


TORQUE CURVES FOR POWER TRAIN TORQUE STRATEGY

Torque Absorbed by
Torque Converter

Torque Available
for Pumps
TORQUE

Engine Torque
Output

1253 1550
ENGINE RPM
48
Torque strategy is automatically enabled when the Power Train ECM determines
machine conditions are appropriate for digging. The conditions are:
1. Transmission in FIRST SPEED FORWARD for at least 2.5 seconds.
2. The B-pin is 15° below the horizontal line of the A-Pin.
3. Ground speed is less than 3.2 km/h (2 mph).
4. Bucket angle relative to ground is less than 30°.
5. Engine load factor is greater than 70%.

When torque strategy is initiated, the Power Train ECM uses internal data and
information communicated over the Cat Data Link from the implement ECM, and
the Engine ECM to determine the torque strategy parameters.

The Implement ECM signals hydraulic pressure from the implement fixed
displacement pump and signals the lift linkage position as part of the digging
status. The Power Train ECM uses the transmission output speed sensors and
the torque converter output speed sensor to determine ground speed. The Power
Train ECM also evaluates reduced rimpull status and torque converter pedal
position. The Engine ECM uses the throttle pedal position sensor in order to
provide the engine rpm signal.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -49- Module 1 - Power Train System

When torque strategy is activated, the Power Train ECM sends a transmission
requested engine speed limit to the Engine ECM over the Cat Data Link. The
transmission requested engine speed limit will vary between 1250 and 2500 rpm.
The actual value varies based on the engine speed, torque converter output speed,
highest of the two implement valve supply pressures, torque converter pedal
position, and reduced rimpull status.

When torque strategy is inactive, the Power Train ECM sends a transmission
requested engine speed limit of 2500 rpm to the Engine ECM. The Engine ECM
high idle of 1700 rpm does not allow the engine speed to exceed 1700 rpm.

Two different engine stall speeds can be measured during a torque converter stall
check. One stall speed (1550) will be measured when torque strategy is active and
another (1605) will be measured when torque strategy is inactive.

When torque strategy is active:


• An increase in the implement control valve supply pressure will lower the
transmission requested engine speed limit.
• A reduction in the desired rimpull with the reduced rimpull selector switch or
the torque converter pedal will increase the transmission requested engine
speed limit.

When torque strategy is enabled, any of the following conditions will cause torque
strategy to be disabled:
• Machine speed greater than 4 km/h (2.5 mph).
• Transmission not in FIRST SPEED FORWARD.
• The B-Pin is above the horizontal line of the A-Pin.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -50- Module 1 - Power Train System

3
4
5

8
7 1

6
9
50
front and rear axle assembly

Power from the transmission is transferred through the front and rear drive shafts
to the yoke (1) of the front and rear axle assemblies. The yoke turns the pinion
gear (2), which turns the bevel gear (3). The bevel gear is bolted to the differential
(4). The differential turns a axle shaft (5). As the axle shaft rotates, it rotates a sun
gear (6). The sun gear drives a double reduction planetary final drive. Both the first
(not shown) and second (7) reduction planet gears of the final drive rotate around a
fixed ring gear (8). The second reduction planetary carrier assembly is connected
to and drives the wheels (9) of the machine.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -51- Module 1 - Power Train System

51
AUTO LUBE SYSTEM

The auto lube system is located on the right side of the platform.

Note: For additional information on the auto lube system, refer to


RENR5397.

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -52- Module 1 - Power Train System

PURPOSE

This module was designed to ensure you are able to


locate, identify, and describe the function of all major
components and service points of the Power Train
System.

52
Purpose review

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -53- Module 1 - Power Train System

REASON

This training was necessary to properly locate and


identify all major components and service points as well
as describe the operation of the Power Train System to
be able to diagnose and correct system problems.

53
Reason review

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -54- Module 1 - Power Train System

COMPETENCY Statement

You have successfully completed the following


exercises:
• Lab 1 Exercise
• Post-Assessment

54
Competency Statement review

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -55- Module 1 - Power Train System

LEARNING OUTCOMES

You have met the following learning outcomes


during this Power Train System module of the 994K
Wheel Loader course:
• Located, identified, and described the function of all
major components and service points of the 994K Wheel
Loader.
• Tested and adjusted the Power Train System.

55
Learning Outcomes Review

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SERV2070 - 10/15 -56- Module 1 - Power Train System

Module Conclusion

This concludes the Power Train System module for the


994K Wheel Loader course.

56
Module Conclusion

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