Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 9

TO SETUP LCR PARALLEL CIRCUIT AND

STUDY ANTI- RESONANCE FREQUENCY,


IMPEDANCE, SELECTIVITY AND
MODIFY THE CIRCUIT TO INTRODUCE
DESIRED PHASE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN
INPUT AND OUTPUT

Aim of the Experiment:


After conducting the LCR parallel circuit experiment students will understand

1) the meaning and condition of anti-resonance,


2) admittance and impedance of the circuit,
3) the selectivityof the circuit (far/BW), and
4) how to create desired phase difference between the input and the optput.

Apparatus Required: Signal generator, inductor, capcitor, resistors, oscilloscope etc.

Theory:
a) Resistor in the L-branch
LCR parallelcircuit with a resistor in the L-branch is shown in Figure
1. As shown in Figure 1, a sinusoidal voltage Vs sets up a sinusoidal
current Iin an LCR parallelcircuit. The source current I is divided into
IL and ICin the tank.Student are expected to plot the graphs of I and
ICwith respect to frequency.

By neglecting the impedance of the current meter, the admittance of the tank circuit
can be calculated to be
The anti-resonance condition of the circuit is obtained when the imaginary part of the admittance is
equal to zero. Therefore, the anti-resonance frequency

The impedance of the tank circuit at antiresonance condition is:

Sensitivity:
Parallel LCR circuit is usally used for selecting a particular signal from a mixture. For example, tunning
radio signal means separating right signal from a mixture of many radio waves. Sensitivity of parallel LCR
circuit depends not only on the impedance of the tank circuit but also on the value of the series
resistance R1. Sensitivity of parallel LCR circuit increases with increase in the value of R1 as can be seen
in Figure 2. Sensitivity (S) of a resonating circuit can be defined as:
b) Resistors in both branches

LCR parallel circuit with resistors in both branchesis shown in Figure 3.Eventhough the position of
antiresonance frequency changes with the inclusion of resitances in both branches, this circuit is useful
to find out relative phases of currents through the inductor and the capacitor in the LCR parallel circuit.
Since the current and voltage are in phase in the resistor, the phase difference between V2 and V3 in
the circuit shown in

Figure 3 is also the phase difference between IL and IC.

Anti-resonance frequency of LCR Parallel Circuit with resestances present in both branch can be
calculated to be

A special situation comes when the term in the bracket of equation 2 becomes indeterminate. In this
case the circuit will be at anti-resonance at all frequencies. Circuit shown in Figure 2 reduces to the
circuit shown in Figure 1 when resistors R2 and R3 become zero. If the values of R2 and R3 are very small
compared to the magnitudes of inductive and capcitive reactances, the phase difference between V2
and V3 can approximately be taken as the phase difference between the currents flowing through the
inductive and the capacitive branches in the absence of R2 and R3.In order to have net current in the L-C
tank there should be some phase difference between IL and IC. In the ideal case and at anti-resonance
condition the IL and ICcurrents will have equal magnitude but 180° phase difference.
c) Resistor in the C-branch

LCR parallel circuit with resistors in the capacitive branch is shown in Figure 4. This circuit is useful to
introduce desired phase difference between the output voltage and the circuit current without altering
the magnitude of the output impedance.

The impedance of the tank circuit shown in Figure 3 is

When we choose frequency such that 𝜔𝐿= 𝜔𝐶 , the impedance given in equation 6 reduces to

where θ = Tan-1(1/ωRC).One can change the phase angle from – π/2 to π/2 by varying R from zero to
infinity keeping the impedance constant.

1) I-V characteristics

I-V characteristics of the parallel LCR circuit can be plotted using the circuit shown in Figure 1. Students
can set R1 equal to zero for simplicity.

Table 1. Observation Table for I-f curve using the circuit shown in Figure 1.

Vs = V, L = mH, C = µF.
S.N F(Hz) I (mA) Z(Ω) IC (MA) I-IC

1. 1.67 0.61 1.15 0.02 0.59


2. 4.16 0.49 1.14 0.22 0.37
3. 5.00 0.43 1.64 0.41 0.12
4. 6.25 0.36 1.96 0.67 -0.25
5. 7.14 0.33 2.14 0.79 -0.46
6. 8.33 0.34 3.07 0.8 -0.47
7. 10.00 0.38 1.86 0.77 -0.39
8. 11.11 0.40 1.76 0.74 -0.34
9. 12.00 0.42 1.68 0.71 -0.29
10. 13.33 0.44 1.60 0.68 -0.24
11. 15.38 0.48 1.47 0.70 -0.22
12. 16.67 0.53 1.33 0.71 -0.18
13 20.00 -0.55 1.28 0.70 -0.15

From the above observations we came to find the antiresonance condition of given LCR parallel set up.
For this, the antiresonance frequency was found to be 714 KHZ with minimum value of current
corresponding to it i.e. 0.33 mA which implies the antiresonance condition with maximum impedance of
2.14K Ω

From eqn (3).


1
Zar = 𝑅
𝐿

Where L = 50mH, C = 0.01uF. and R = 1086 Ω , Zar = 4.60 Ω

Zexpt = 2.84 K Ω

The Error or deviation in the impedance at antiresonance condition is due to the internal resistance of
the current measuring device and other device used in the circuit.

2) Sensitivity and phase angle measurement

Table 2. Observation Table for V0-f and θ-f curves using the circuit shown in Figure 1. Remove the
current meters and use oscilloscope to measure voltages.

Vs = 8 V, L =50mH, C =0.01µF

S.N Freq (KHZ) R1 = 200 Ω R2 = 5000 Ω R3 = 7000 Ω


1 1 30 80 1.2 52 10 190
2 2 3.2 45 1.6 38 12 45
3 3 4.6 68.50 2.4 90 1.8 90
4 4 6.2 60.12 3.6 60 2.4 60
5 5 7.6 54.0 52 54 4.2 54
6 6 8.4 45.0 7.2 45 54 45
7 7 88 0.0 7.4 0 6.4 0
8 8 8.2 36.0 6.4 36 4.8 42
9 9 6.8 45.1 4.0 45 3.0 72
10 10 4.8 60.1 2.8 60 2.0 60
11 11 3.4 90 1.2 90 1.6 90
12 12 1.2 180 0.8 180 0.6 180

From plot V0-f , we got increase in sensitivity of LCR parallel with increase in value of R.

For R1 = 2000 Ω. Sensitivity = 1.3

R2 = 5000 Ω , Sensitivity = 2

R3 = 7000 Ω, Sensitivity = 2.5

3) Phase relations between IL and IC

Table 3. Observation Table for measuring the difference (θ) between IL and IC using the circuit shown in
Figure 3. Use oscilloscope to measure voltages. Value of R1 can be zero.

Vs = 8 V, L =50mH, C =0.01µF, RL =1086Ω, R2 = 1 Ω, R3 = 10 Ω

SN f(KHZ) V2 V3 T (div) ∆T(div) θType equation here.


1 3 1.4 1.2 8×0.2 4×0.2 180
2 4 1.4 1.8 6×0.2 3×0.2 780
3 5 1.4 2.2 5×0.2 2×0.2 144
4 6 1.4 2.8 4×0.2 2×0.2 180
5 7 1.4 3.0 2×0.2 1×0.2 180
6 8 1.4 3.4 6×0.1 3×0.1 180
7 9 1.4 3.6 12× 0.1 6× 0.1 180
8 10 1.4 4.0 10×0.05 5×0.05 180
9 11 1.4 4.2 6×0.05 3×0.05 180

The phase diff betn IL and IC was always found to be 180 for diff values of freq

4) Introduction of desired phase difference between the output voltage and the circuit current

Table 4. Observation Table for measuring the difference (θ) between V0 and I using the circuit shown
in Figure 4. Use oscilloscope to measure voltages.

Vs = 8V, L = ----- mH, C = 0.01 µF, R1 =10KΩ


𝟏 𝟐
f = 𝟐𝝅 √𝟐.𝟐×𝟏𝟎−𝟑×𝟎.𝟎𝟏×𝟏𝟎−𝟔 = 48.01KHZ

S.N R (Ω) V0 (Volts) ‫׀‬V0/VS ‫׀‬ θ (°) Comments


1 0 0.80 0.1000 -85 VS leads V0 by θ
2 20 0.75 0.0930 -75 “
3 50 0.70 0.0875 -72 “
4 100 0.65 0.0812 -54 “
5 200 0.65 0.0818 -36 “
6 300 0.60 0.0750 0 Resonance
7 500 0.65 0.8125 25 V0 leads VS by θ
8. 700 0.65 0.8125 28 “
9 1000 0.70 0.0975 47 “
10 1500 0.75 0.0930 56 “
11 2000 0.78 0.0985 66 “
12 3000 0.80 0.1062 75 V0 leads VS

When the freq of 48 KHZ was set and phase diff. betn V0 and VS are measured by varying R from 0 to
3000. The pahase diff first when the resistance wsa 0 was 85 whjich is maxm and literally equal to
𝜋
theoretical phase diff 2 . As the value of resistance was increased the phase diff decreases i.e leads of
supply voltage is decreases. At the antiresonance freq, the phase diff, is equal to zero (i.e V0 and VS are
in same phase). For the anti-resonance freq R is set to 300. Further increase of resistance then V leads V.
At antiresonance the output voltage was minimum i.e .0.6V. After increasing the resistance the V leads V
𝜋
upto 90 i.e
2

Hence, we have found the impedance of ckt remained almost constant throughout all obs carried out
with varied resistance

Impedance from eqn 7 is

Innovation

Since Sinewave replaced by square wave the output of wave have distorted nature til the freq reach
34KHZ after tat input square wave resulted in output with square wave. The input voltage was 8v but
output was 2.1V with no power lost.

On further increasing the freq to 50KHZ the nature of outoput changed to triangular wave with output
voltage 7V and high input of square wave resulted increasing side of traingula wave where as low input
resulted decreasing side. It is due to tank circuit present in LCR .
When freq was increased to 70KHZ output was sawtooth wave, the output voltage was only 0.5V. when
the value of freq was around 2000KHZ, the output was almost st. line. We calculated,LCR can acts as
rectifier depending on input of sin wave and it’s nature changes wih frequency.

Result

From above experiment it was found that antiresonance freq of given LCR parallel ckt is 7 KHZ.
Sensitivity was measured at R1 = 200Ω, S = 1.3, R2 = 5000Ω, S = 2 and R3 = 7000Ω, S = 2.5, which
indicates sensitivity increases with increase in resistance. The impedance was kept const. while
measuring phase diff. betn IL and IC.

DISCUSSION

From I-f curve, we see that current is maximum at low freq and the current decreases to the lowest and
again increased to high. the condition of anti-resonance freq is due to condition when resultant current
through parallel combination is in phase with input supply voltage. Resulting in instantaneous values of I
and I alwasys equal and opp. And therefore the current drawn from Supply is vector addition of these
two currents. LC ckt tank acts as open ckt in parallel combination.

The Z-f curve shows the increase in impedance with increase in freq, it approaches antiresonance
condition and then slightly takes downwards value with further increase in freq. the theoretical
impedance at antiresonance condition was calculated to be 4.60k . the variation of impedance in
theoretical and experimental measurement is due to the internal resistance of inductor and
milliammeter.

For sensitivity measurement current meters removed and diff. value of Sensitivity was noted with diff.
resistances values. Sensitivity increases with increase in value of resistance.

While studying θ -F plot in case of Sensitivity measurement θ varied high-low-high from -90 to 90.
Reaching min value at resonant Condition.

For phase reln of IL and IC resistances were added in each branch of Capacitor and Inductor. The phase
diff from obs. Was found to be out of phase by it. The value of current in L branch is almost constant for
any freq but it increases with increase in freq in case of capacitor branch.

The deviation in the theoretical and experiment values of antiresonant impedance is due to presence of
undetermined values of antiresonant impedance is due to presence of undetermined resistance in the
parallel resonant ckt.

Innovation was done by replacing sine wave by square wave leading the change of nature of output
from tank ckt at different values of frequencies.

f