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GENERAL & EXCAVATION AND FILLS 3-1

SECTION 301 - GENERAL SECTION 302 - EXCAVATION AND


FILLS
301.1 SCOPE

This chapter sets forth requirements for excavations, fills, 302.1 GENERAL
footings and foundations for any building or structure.
Excavation or fills for buildings or structures shall be
constructed or protected that they do not endanger life or
property. Reference is made to Section 109 of this code for
301.2 QUALITY AND DESIGN
requirements governing excavation, grading and earthwork
construction, including fills and embankments.
The quality and design of materials used structurally in
excavations, fills, footings and foundations shall conform to
the requirements specified in Chapters 4, 5, 6 and 7. 302.2 CUTS

302.2.1 General. Unless otherwise recommended in the


approved geotechnical engineering or engineering geology
301.3 ALLOWABLE BEARING PRESSURES
report, cuts shall conform to the provisions of this section.
In the absence of an approved geotechnical engineering
Allowable stresses and design formulas provided in this
report, these provisions may be waived for minor cuts not
chapter shall be used with the allowable stress design load
intended to support structures.
combinations specified in Section 203.4.
302.2.2 Slope. The slope of cut surfaces shall be no
steeper than is safe for the intended use and shall be no
steeper than 1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50% slope)
unless a geotechnical engineering or an engineering
geology report, or both, stating that the site has been
investigated, and giving an opinion that a cut at a steeper
slope will be stable and not create a hazard to public or
private property, is submitted and approved.

302.3 EXCAVATIONS

302.3.3 Existing footings or foundations which may be


affected by any excavation shall be underpinned adequately
or otherwise protected against settlement and shall be
protected against lateral movement.

302.2.4 Protection of adjoining property. The


requirement for protection of adjacent property and the
depth to which protection is required shall be defined by
prevailing law. Where not defined by law, the following
shall apply:

1. Before commencing the excavation, the person


making or causing the excavation to be made shall
notify in writing the owners of adjoining building not
less than 10 days before such excavation is to be
made and that the adjoining building will be
protected. The condition of the adjoining building
will be documented prior to excavation. Technical
documents pertaining to the proposed underpinning
and excavation plan shall be provided the owner of
the adjacent property.
2. Unless it can shown through a detailed
geotechnical investigation that underpinning is unnecessary,

National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume 1


FOUNDATIONS AND EXCAVATIONS 3-2

Top of
Slope PA*
H/5 but
0.60 m
min. and
Toe of 3 m max.
PA*
Slope

Cut or Fill Natural or Finish


H/2 but 0.6m Slope Grade
min. and 6m
max. H

Natural or Finish
Grade
* Permit Area Boundary

FIGURE 302-1 SETBACK DIMENSIONS FOR CUT AND FILL SLOPES

any person making or causing an excavation shall protect capable of withstanding the additional vertical and
the excavation so that the soil of adjoining property will not horizontal loads caused by the fill or surcharge.
cave in or settle,
Fill slopes shall not be constructed on natural slopes steeper
In cases where the adjacent building will have more than 1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50% slope)
basements than the proposed building, the foundation of the
proposed building should be designed so as not to impart 302.3.2 Preparation of Ground. The ground surface
additional lateral earth pressures on the existing building shall be prepared to receive fill by removing vegetation,
(see section 304.4). non-complying fill, topsoil and other unsuitable materials,
and by scarifying to provide a bond with the new fill.
302.3 FILLS
Where the natural slopes are steeper than 1 unit vertical in 5
302.3.1 General. Unless otherwise recommended in the units horizontal (20% slope) and the height is greater than
approved geotechnical engineering report, fills shall 1.5 meters, the ground surface shall be prepared by
conform to the provisions of this section. In the absence of benching into sound bedrock or other competent material as
an approved geotechnical engineering report, these determined by the geotechnical engineer. The bench under
provisions may be waived for minor fills not intended to the toe of a fill on a slope steeper than 1 unit vertical in 5
support structures. units horizontal (20% slope) shall be at least 3 meters wide.

Fills to be used to support the foundations of any building The area beyond the toe of fill shall be sloped for sheet
or structure shall be placed in accordance with accepted overflow or a paved drain shall be provided. When fill is to
engineering practice. A geotechnical investigation report be placed over a cut, the bench under the toe of fill shall be
and a report of satisfactory placement of fill, both at least 3 meters wide but the cut shall be made before
acceptable to the building official, shall be submitted when placing the fill and acceptance by the geotechnical engineer
required by the building official. as a suitable foundation for fill.

No fill or other surcharge loads shall be placed adjacent to 302.3.3 Fill Material. Detrimental amounts of organic
any building or structure unless such building or structure is material shall not be permitted in fills. Except as permitted
by the geotechnical engineer, no rock or similar irreducible

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FOUNDATIONS AND EXCAVATIONS 3-3

material with a maximum dimension greater than 300 mm work as the building official deems necessary to protect the
shall be buried or placed in fills. adjoining property from damage as a result of such grading.
These precautions may include but are not limited to:
EXCEPTION:
The placement of larger rock may be permitted when the 1. Additional setbacks.
geotechnical engineer properly devises a method of 2. Provision for retaining or slough walls.
placement, and continuously inspects its placement and 3. Mechanical or chemical treatment of the fill slope
approves the fill stability. The following conditions shall surface to minimize erosion.
also apply:
4. Provisions for the control of surface waters.
1. Prior to issuance of the grading permit, potential
rock disposal areas shall be delineated on the 302.4.4 Modification of Slope Location. The building
grading plan. official may approve alternate setbacks. The building
2. Rock sizes greater than 300 mm in maximum official may require an investigation and recommendation
dimension shall be 3 meters or more below grade, by a qualified geotechnical engineer to demonstrate that the
measured vertically. intent of this section has been satisfied.
3. Rocks shall be placed so as to assure filling of all
voids with well-graded soil.
302.5 DRAINAGE AND TERRACING
302.3.4 Compaction. All fills shall be compacted in lifts 301.7.1 General. Unless otherwise indicated on the
not exceeding 20cm in thickness to a minimum of 90 approved grading plan, drainage facilities and terracing
percent of maximum density as determined by ASTM shall conform to the provisions of this section for cut or fill
Standard D-1557. In-place density shall be determined in slopes steeper than 1 unit vertical in 3 units horizontal
accordance with ASTM D-1556, D-2167, D-2922, D-3017 (33.3% slope).
or equivalent. A minimum of three tests for every 500 m2
area should be performed for every lift to verify compliance 302.5.2 Terrace. Terraces at least 2 meters in width shall
with compaction requirements. be established at not more than 10 meters vertical intervals
on all cut or fill slopes to control surface drainage and
302.3.5 Slope. The slope of fill surfaces shall be no debris except that where only one terrace is required, it
steeper than is safe for the intended use. Fill slopes shall be shall be at midheight. For cut or fill slopes greater than 20
no steeper than 1 unit vertical in 2 units horizontal (50% meters and up to 40 meters in vertical height, one terrace at
slope) unless substantiating data justifying steeper slopes approximately midheight shall be 4 meters in width.
are submitted and approved. Terrace widths and spacing for cut and fill slopes greater
than 40 meters in height shall be designed by the civil
engineer and approved by the building official. Suitable
302.4 SETBACKS access shall be provided to permit proper cleaning and
maintenance.
302.4.1 General. Cut and fill slopes shall be set back
from site boundaries in accordance with this section subject Swales or ditches on terraces shall have a minimum
to verification with detailed slope stability study. Setback gradient of 5 percent and must be paved with reinforced
dimensions shall be horizontal distances measured concrete not less than 75 mm in thickness or an approved
perpendicular to the site boundary. Setback dimensions equal paving. They shall have a minimum depth at the
shall be as shown in Figure 302-1. deepest point of 0.3 meter and a minimum paved width of
1.5 meters.
302.4.2 Top of Cut Slope. The top of cut slopes shall not
be made nearer to a site boundary line than one fifth of the A single run of swale or ditch shall not collect runoff from a
vertical height of cut with a minimum of 0.6 meter and a tributary area exceeding 1,000 m2 (projected area) without
maximum of 3 meters. The setback may need to be discharging into a down drain.
increased for any required interceptor drains.
302.5.3 Subsurface Drainage. Cut and fill slopes shall
302.4.3 Toe of Fill Slope. The toe of fill slope shall be be provided with subsurface drainage as necessary for
made not nearer to the site boundary line than one half the stability.
height of the slope with a minimum of 0.6 meter and a
maximum of 6 meters. Where a fill slope is to be located 302.5.4 Disposal. All drainage facilities shall be
near the site boundary and the adjacent off-site property is designed to carry waters to the nearest practicable drainage
developed, special precautions shall be incorporated in the

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FOUNDATIONS AND EXCAVATIONS 3-4

way approved by the building official or other appropriate


jurisdiction as a safe place to deposit such waters. Erosion
of ground in the area of discharge shall be prevented by
installation of non-erosive down drains or other devices.

Building pads shall have a drainage gradient of 2 percent


toward approved drainage facilities, unless waived by the
building official.

EXCEPTION:
The gradient from the building pad may be 1 percent if all
of the following conditions exist throughout the permit
area:
1. No proposed fills are greater than 3 meters in
maximum depth.
2. No proposed finish cut or fill slope faces have a
vertical height in excess of 3 meters.
3. No existing slope faces steeper than 1 unit vertical in
10 units horizontal (10% slope) have a vertical
height in excess of 3 meters.

302.5.5 Interceptor Drains. Paved interceptor drains


shall be installed along the top of all cut slopes where the
tributary drainage area above slopes toward the cut and has
a drainage path greater than 12 meters measured
horizontally. Interceptor drains shall be paved with a
minimum of 75 mm of concrete or gunite and reinforced.
They shall have a minimum depth of 300 mm and a
minimum paved width of 750 mm measured horizontally
across the drain. The slope of drain shall be approved by
the building official.

302.6 EROSION CONTROL

302.6.1 Slopes. The faces of cut and fill slopes shall be


prepared and maintained to control against erosion. This
control may consist of effective planting. The protection for
the slopes shall be installed as soon as practicable and prior
to calling for final approval. Where cut slopes are not
subject to erosion due to the erosion-resistant character of
the materials, such protection may be omitted.

302.6.2 Other Devices. Where necessary, check dams,


cribbing, riprap or other devices or methods shall be
employed to control erosion and provide safety.

National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume 1


FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION 3-5

SECTION 303 - FOUNDATION EXCEPTION:


INVESTIGATION The building official may waive this evaluation upon receipt
303.1 GENERAL of written opinion of a qualified geotechnical engineer that
liquefaction is not probable.
Foundation investigation shall be conducted at each
building site when required by the building official. 303.4 EXPANSIVE SOIL

For structures three storeys or higher, it is recommended Soils meeting all four of the following provisions shall be
that an exhaustive geotechnical study be performed to considered expansive, except that tests to show compliance
evaluate in-situ soil parameters for foundation design and with Items 1, 2 and 3 shall not be required if the test
analysis. It is recommended that a minimum of one prescribed in Item 4 is conducted:
borehole per two hundred (200) square meters of the 1. Plasticity index (PI) of 15 or greater, determined in
structure’s footprint be drilled to a depth of at least five accordance with ASTM D 4318.
meters into hard strata or until a suitable bearing layer is 2. More than 10 percent of the soil particles pass a No.
reached unless otherwise specified by the consulting 200 sieve (75 _m), determined in accordance with
geotechnical engineer. The total number of boreholes per ASTM D 422.
structure should be no less than two (2) for structures whose 3. More than 10 percent of the soil particles are less than
footprints are less than three hundred (300) sq.m and no 5 micrometers in size, determined in accordance with
less than three (3) for those structures with larger footprints. ASTM D 422.
4. Expansion index greater than 20, determined in
For buildings with basements, it is recommended that the accordance with ASTM D 4829.
depth of boring should extend to twice the least dimension
of the structure’s footprint (2B). 303.4.1 Design for expansive soils. Footings or
foundations for buildings and structures founded on
The building official may require that the interpretation and expansive soils shall be designed in accordance with
evaluation of the results of the foundation investigation be Section 1805.8.1 or 1805.8.2.
made by a registered civil engineer experienced and
knowledgeable in the field of geotechnical engineering. Footing or foundation design need not comply with Section
303.4.3 or 303.4.4 where the soil is removed in accordance
303.2 SOIL CLASSIFICATION with Section 303.4.4, nor where the building official
approves stabilization of the soil in accordance with
For the purposes of this chapter, the definition and Section 303.4.5.
classification of soil materials for use in Table 304-1 shall
be according to ASTM D-2487. 303.4.2 Foundations. Footings or foundations placed on or
within the active zone of expansive soils shall be designed
Soil classification shall be based on observation and any to resist differential volume changes and to prevent
necessary tests of the materials disclosed by borings or structural damage to the supported structure. Deflection
excavations made in appropriate locations. Additional and racking of the supported shall be limited to that which
studies may be necessary to evaluate soil strength, the effect will not interfere with the usability and serviceability of the
of moisture variation on soil-bearing capacity, structure.
compressibility, liquefaction and expansiveness.
Foundations placed below where volume change occurs or
303.3 LIQUEFACTION STUDY below expansive soil shall comply with the following
provisions:
The building official may require a geotechnical evaluation 1. Foundations extending into or penetrating expansive
in accordance with Section 303.6 when, during the course soils shall be designed to prevent uplift of the
of the foundation investigation, all of the following
supported structure.
conditions are discovered: 2. Foundations penetrating expansive soils shall be
1. Shallow ground water, 2 meters or less. designed to resist forces exerted on the foundation due
2. Unconsolidated saturated sandy alluvium (N < 15) to soil volume changes or shall be isolated from the
expansive soil.
3. Seismic Zone 4.

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FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION 3-6

303.6 REPORTS
303.4.3 Slab-on-ground foundations. Moments, shears The soil classification and design-bearing capacity shall be
and deflections for use in designing slab-on-ground, mat or shown on the plans, unless the foundation conforms to
raft foundations on expansive soils shall be determined in Table 305-1. The building official may require submission
accordance with WRI/CRSI Design of Slab-on-Ground of a written report of the investigation, which shall include,
Foundations or PTI Standard Requirements for Analysis of but need not be limited to, the following information:
Shallow Concrete Foundations on Expansive Soils. Using
the moments, shears and deflections determined above, 1. A plot is showing the location of all test borings
nonprestressed slabs-on-ground, mat or raft foundations on and/or excavations.
expansive soils shall be designed in accordance with PTI
Standard Requirements for Design of Shallow Post- 2. Descriptions and classifications of the materials
Tensioned Concrete Foundations on Expansive Soils. It encountered.
shall be permitted to analyze and design such slabs by other
methods that account for soil-structure interaction, the 3. Elevation of the water table, if encountered.
deformed shape of the soil support, the place or stiffened 4. Recommendations for foundation type and design
plate action of the slab as well as both center lift and edge criteria, including bearing capacity, provisions to
lift conditions. Such alternative methods shall be rational mitigate the effects of expansive soils, provisions to
and the basis for all aspects and parameters of the method mitigate the effects of liquefaction and soil strength,
shall be available for peer review. and the effects of adjacent loads.

303.4.4 Removal of expansive soil. Where expansive soil 5. Expected total and differential settlement.
is removed in lieu of designing footings or foundations in
accordance with Section 302.3.2, the soil shall be removed 6. Laboratory test results of soil samples.
to a depth sufficient to ensure a constant moisture content in
the remaining soil. Fill material shall not contain expansive 7. Field borehole log containing the following
soils and shall comply with Section 302.3.3. information

Exception: Expansive soil need not be removed to the a). Project location
depth of constant moisture, provided the confining pressure b). Depth of borehole
in the expansive soil created by the fill and supported c). Ground elevation
structure exceeds the swell pressure. d). Ground water table elevation
e). Date started and finished
303.4.5 Stabilization. Where the active zone of expansive When expansive soils are present, the building official may
soils is stabilized in lieu of designing footings or require that special provisions be made in the foundation
foundations in accordance with Section 305.2, the soil shall design and construction to safeguard against damage due to
be stabilized by chemical, dewatering, presaturation or this expansiveness. The building official may require a
equivalent techniques. special investigation and report to provide these design and
construction criteria.
303.5 COMPRESSIBLE SOILS 303.7 SOIL TESTS
If the boreholes show that the proposed structures are to be Tables 303-2 and 303-3 summarize the commonly used
built above compressible fine-grained soils (with N< 6 ), it field and laboratory tests needed in determining the in-situ
is recommended that consolidation tests be performed in soil parameters for use in foundation design and analysis.
accordance with ASTM D 2435 to determine the settlement
parameters for the site.

If wide, massive loads within the structures to be built on


compressible fine-grained soils are to be expected for
prolonged periods of time built, the settlement effects on
adjacent structures should be evaluated as well.

National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume 1


FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION 3-7

Table 303-2 Laboratory and Field Tests Table 303-3 Geophysical Tests

Laboratory / ASTM Output Data / Field Test ASTM Output Data /


Field Test Designation Parameter Obtained Designation Parameter Obtained
Classification of Soils Geophysical Tests
Moisture content D2216-05 Moisture/ water Seismic refraction
content Seismic D5777-00 Maps subsurface
Grain size D422-63 Soil gradation reflection geologic conditions,
analysis lithologic units and
Atterberg Limits D4318-05 Liquid limit, plastic fractures.
limit Ground D7128 Maps lateral
USCS D2487-00 Classification of Penetrating continuity of
soils Radar lithologic units and
Specific Gravity D854-05 Specific gravity detects changes in
Shrinkage Limit D427-04 Shrinkage limit the acoustic
Organic Matter D2974-00 Moisture content, properties of
ash content and subsurface
percent organic geomaterials.
matter in soil Crosshole D6432-99 Subsurface geologic
Swedish Weigh D422-63 seismic survey mapping, detection
Sounding Test of buried structures
UCT Test (Soils) D2166-00 Strength parameters and utilities
Tri-axial (UU D2850-03a Strength parameters Geo-resistivity D4428 Determine
Test) Survey horizontal traveling
Tri-axial (CU D4767-04 Strength parameters compression and
Test) shear seismic waves
Oedometer (1-D D2435-04 Consolidation at test sites.
Consolidation) parameters
Laboratory Vane D4648-05 Strength parameters 303.8 LIQUEFACTION POTENTIAL AND
Shear SOIL STRENGTH LOSS
Direct Shear D3080-04 Strength parameters
Test When required by Section 303.3, the potential for soil
UCT for Intact D2938-95 Strength parameters liquefaction and soil strength loss during earthquakes shall
Rock be evaluated during the geotechnical investigation. The
Standard D1586-99 N-value geotechnical evaluation shall assess potential consequences
Penetration Test of any liquefaction and soil strength loss, including
Modified Proctor D1557-02 Maximum dry estimation of differential settlement, lateral movement or
Test density reduction in foundation soil-bearing capacity, and discuss
mitigating measures. Such measures shall be given
Standard Proctor D698-00a Maximum dry
consideration in the design of the building and may include,
Test density
but are not limited to, ground stabilization, selection of
Field Density D1556-00 Maximum dry
appropriate foundation type and depths, selection of
Test density
appropriate structural systems to accommodate anticipated
CBR Lab Test D1883-05 CBR displacements, or any combination of these measures.
Cone Penetration D3441-05 Soil strength
Test parameters The potential for liquefaction and soil strength loss shall be
evaluated for a site peak ground acceleration that, as a
minimum, conforms to the probability of exceedance
specified in Section 208.6.2. Peak ground acceleration may
be determined based on a site-specific study taking into
account soil amplification effects.

In the absence of such a study, peak ground acceleration


may be assumed equal to the seismic zone factor in Table
208-3.

National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume 1


FOUNDATION INVESTIGATION 3-8

303.9 ADJACENT LOADS

Where footings are placed at varying elevations, the effect


of adjacent loads shall be included in the foundation design.

303.10 DRAINAGE

Provisions shall be made for the control and drainage of


surface water around buildings. (See also Section 305.5.5.)

National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume 1


ALLOWABLE FOUNDATION AND LATERAL 3-9

SECTION 304 - ALLOWABLE inspection of the site and has become familiar with the
predominant soil or rock characteristics of the site.
FOUNDATION AND LATERAL
PRESSURES Presumptive load-bearing values shall apply to materials
with similar physical characteristics and dispositions. Mud,
organic silt, organic clays, peat or unprepared fill shall not
304.1 FROM GEOTECHNICAL SITE be assumed to have a presumptive load-bearing capacity
INVESTIGATION AND ASSESSMENT. unless data from a geotechnical site assessment and
investigation to substantiate the use of such a value are
The recommended allowable foundation and lateral submitted.
pressures shall be estimated from a reasonably exhaustive
geotechnical site investigation and assessment, which shall For clay, sandy clay, silty clay and clayey silt, in no case
include at least the following: shall the lateral sliding resistance exceed one-half the dead
load.
a) Description of regional geologic characteristics;
b) Characterization of in-situ geotechnical conditions; 304.3 MINIMUM ALLOWABLE PRESSURES.
c) Factual report on the in-situ and laboratory tests
performed to characterize the site (See Section The recommended allowable foundation and lateral values
303.7 for a list of in-situ and laboratory tests shall be with the allowable stress design load combinations
commonly carried out for geotechnical site specified in Section 203.4.
characterization);
d) Disclosure of the assumptions and the applicable 304.4 FOUNDATIONS ADJACENT TO EXISTING
analytical or empirical models used in estimating RETAINING/BASEMENT WALLS
the allowable foundation and lateral pressures;
e) Calculations carried out and Factor of Safety (FS) In cases where the adjacent building will have more
assumed in arriving at the recommended allowable basements than the proposed building, the foundation of the
foundation and lateral pressures; and proposed building should be designed so as not to impart
f) Evaluation of existing potential geologic hazards additional lateral earth pressures on the existing building
and those that may be induced or triggered by the (see section).
construction/installation of the structure.

The geotechnical site investigation and assessment shall be


performed by a registered civil engineer experienced and
knowledgeable in the field of geotechnical engineering.

A geotechnical investigation and assessment shall be


presented in a report. The report, together with a brief
resume and a sworn statement of accountability of the
geotechnical engineering consultant who prepared it, shall
be included in the submittals to be reviewed and examined
by the building official or government authority in charge
of issuing the relevant permits such as environmental
compliance certificate and/or building permit.

304.2 PRESUMPTIVE LOAD-BEARING AND


LATERAL RESISTING VALUES.

When no exhaustive geotechnical site assessment and


investigation is performed, especially when no in-situ or
very limited tests are carried out, the presumptive load-
bearing and lateral resisting values provided in Table 304-1
shall be used. Use of these values requires that the
foundation design engineer has, at the least, carried out an

National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume 1


ALLOWABLE FOUNDATION AND LATERAL 3-10

Table 304-1 Allowable Foundation and Lateral Pressure


Lateral
Allowable Bearing 4
Lateral Sliding
1 Foundation Below Natural
Class of Materials 2
Grade3
Pressure 6
(kPa) (kPa/m of 5 Resistance
Coefficient
depth) (kPa)

1. Massive Crystalline Bedrock 200 200 0.70 -

2. Sedimentary and Foliated Rock 100 60 0.35 -

3. Sandy Gravel and /or Gravel(GW & GP) 100 30 0.35 -

4. Well-graded Sand, Poorly-graded Sand, Silty Sand,


Clayey Sand, Silty Gravel and Clayey Gravel (SW, 75 25 0.25 -
SP, SM, SC, GM and GC)
5. Clay, Sandy Clay, Silty Clay and Clayey Silt (CL, ML,
50 a 15 - 7
MH, and CH)
1
A geotechnical site investigation is recommended for soil
classification (Refer to Section 303).
2
All values of allowable foundation pressure are for
footings having a minimum width of 300mm and a
minimum depth of 300mm into the natural grade. Except as
noted in Footnote ‘a’, an increase of 20% is allowed for
each additional 300mm of width and/or depth to a
maximum value of three times the designated value. An
increase of one-third is permitted when using the alternate
load combinations in Section 203.4 that include wind or
earthquake loads.
3
The resistance values derived from the table are permitted
to be increased by the tabular value for each additional foot
(305mm) of depth to a maximum of 15 times the tabular
value. Isolated poles for uses such as flagpoles or signs and
poles used to support buildings that are not adversely
affected by a 0.5inch (12.7mm) motion at the ground
surface due to short-term lateral loads are permitted to be
designed using lateral-bearing values equal to two times the
tabular values.
4
Lateral bearing and sliding resistance may be combined.
5
Coefficient to be multiplied by the dead load.
6
Lateral sliding resistance value to be multiplied by the
contact area. In no case shall the lateral sliding resistance
exceed one-half the dead load.
a
No increase for an increase of width shall be allowed.

National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume 1


PILES - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 3-11

SECTION 305 - FOOTINGS 305.3 BEARING WALLS

Bearing walls shall be supported on masonry or concrete


foundations or piles or other permitted foundation system
305.1 GENERAL that shall be of sufficient size to support all loads.
Footings and foundations shall be constructed of masonry, Where a design is not provided, the minimum foundation
concrete or treated wood in conformance with Chapters 4, 6 requirements for stud bearing walls shall be as set forth in
and 7. Footings of concrete and masonry shall be of solid Table 305-1, unless expansive soils of a severity to cause
material. Foundations supporting wood shall extend at least differential movement are known to exist.
150 mm above the adjacent finish grade. Footings shall
have a minimum depth as indicated in Table 305-1, unless EXCEPTIONS:
another depth is warranted, as established by a foundation
investigation. 1. A one-story wood or metal-frame building not used
for human occupancy and not over 40 m2 in floor
The provisions of this section do not apply to building and area may be constructed with walls supported on a
foundation systems in those areas subject to scour and wood foundation plate when permitted by the
water pressure by wind and wave action. Buildings and building official.
foundations subject to such loads shall be designed in
accordance with approved national standards. 2. The support of buildings by posts embedded in earth
shall be designed as specified in Section 305.7.
Wood posts or poles embedded in earth shall be
TABLE 305-1 Minimum Requirements for pressure treated with an approved preservative. Steel
1,2,3
Foundations posts or poles shall be protected as specified in
Thickness of Depth Section 306.10.
Number of Width Thickness Below
Floors Foundation Wall
Supported
of of Undisturbed
(mm) Ground
by the Footing Footing
Foundations Concrete Unit (mm) (mm) Surface 305.4 STEPPED FOUNDATIONS
Masonry (mm)

1 150 150 300 150 300 Foundations for all buildings where the surface of the
ground slopes more than 1 unit vertical in 10 units
2 200 200 375 175 450 horizontal (10% slope) shall be level or shall be stepped so
that both top and bottom of such foundation are level.
3 250 250 450 200 600
1
Where unusual conditions are found, footings and foundations
shall be as required in Section 305.1. 305.5 FOOTINGS ON OR ADJACENT TO
2
The ground under the floor may be excavated to the elevation of SLOPES
the top of the footing.
3
Foundation may support a roof in addition to the stipulated
number of floors. Foundations supporting roofs only shall be as
305.5.1 Scope. The placement of buildings and structures
required for supporting one floor. on or adjacent to slopes steeper than 1 unit vertical in 3
units horizontal (33.3% slope) shall be in accordance with
this section.
305.2 FOOTING DESIGN
305.5.2 Building clearance from ascending slopes. In
Except for special provisions of Section 307 covering the general, buildings below slopes shall be set a sufficient
design of piles, all portions of footings shall be designed in distance from the slope to provide protection from slope
accordance with the structural provisions of this code and drainage, erosion and shallow failures. Except as provided
shall be designed to minimize differential settlement when for in Section 305.5.6 and Figure 305-1, the following
necessary and the effects of expansive soils when present. criteria will be assumed to provide this protection. Where
the existing slope is steeper than 1 unit vertical in 1 unit
Slab-on-grade and mat-type footings for buildings located horizontal (100% slope), the toe of the slope shall be
on expansive soils may be designed in accordance with the assumed to be at the intersection of a horizontal plane
geotechnical recommendation as permitted by the building drawn from the top of the foundation and a plane drawn
official. tangent to the slope at an angle of 45 degrees to the
horizontal. Where a retaining wall is constructed at the toe

National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume 1


PILES - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 3-12

Face of Footing

Top of Slope

Face of Structure Toe of Slope


H/2 but
need not
exceed H
4.5m max.
H/3 but need not
exceed 12 m max.

FIGURE 305-1 SETBACK DIMENSIONS FOR BUILDING CLEARANCE FROM SLOPES

of the slope, the height of the slope shall be measured from of slope, slope gradient, load intensity and erosion
the top of the wall to the top of the slope. characteristics of slope material.

305.5.3 Footing setback from descending slope surface.


Footings on or adjacent to slope surfaces shall be founded 305.6 FOUNDATION PLATES OR SILLS
in firm material with an embedment and setback from the
slope surface sufficient to provide vertical and lateral Wood plates or sills shall be bolted to the foundation or
support for the footing without detrimental settlement. foundation wall. Steel bolts with a minimum nominal
Except as provided for in Section 305.5.6 and Figure 305-1, diameter of 12 mm shall be used in Seismic Zone 2. Steel
the following setback is deemed adequate to meet the bolts with a minimum nominal diameter of 16 mm shall be
criteria. Where the slope is steeper than 1 unit vertical in 1 used in Seismic Zone 4. Bolts shall be embedded at least
unit horizontal (100% slope), the required setback shall be 180 mm into the concrete or masonry and shall be spaced
measured from an imaginary plane 45 degrees to the not more than 2 meters apart. There shall be a minimum of
horizontal, projected upward from the toe of the slope. two bolts per piece with one bolt located not more than 300
mm or less than seven bolt diameters from each end of the
305.5.4 Pools. The setback between pools regulated by piece. A properly sized nut and washer shall be tightened
this code and slopes shall be equal to one half the building on each bolt to the plate. Foundation plates and sills shall be
footing setback distance required by this section. That the kind of wood specified in Chapter 6.
portion of the pool wall within a horizontal distance of 2
meters from the top of the slope shall be capable of
supporting the water in the pool without soil support. 305.7 DESIGNS EMPLOYING LATERAL
BEARING
305.5.5 Foundation elevation. On graded sites, the top
of any exterior foundation shall extend above the elevation 305.7.1 General. Construction employing posts or poles
of the street gutter at point of discharge or the inlet of an as columns embedded in earth or embedded in concrete
approved drainage device a minimum of 300 mm plus 2 footings in the earth may be used to resist both axial and
percent. The building official may permit alternate lateral loads. The depth to resist lateral loads shall be
elevations, provided it can be demonstrated that required determined by means of the design criteria established
drainage to the point of discharge and away from the herein or other methods approved by the building official.
structure is provided at all locations on the site.
305.7.2 Design Criteria
305.5.6 Alternate setback and clearance. The building
official may approve alternate setbacks and clearances. The 305.7.2.1 Nonconstrained. The following formula
building official may require an investigation and may be used in determining the depth of embedment
recommendation of a qualified engineer to demonstrate that required to resist lateral loads where no constraint is
the intent of this section has been satisfied. Such an provided at the ground surface, such as rigid floor or rigid
investigation shall include consideration of material, height ground surface pavement.

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PILES - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 3-13

the normal force imposed on the soil by the weight of the


A 4.3h 
footing or slab.
d 1  1   (305-1)

2 A  305.7.4.1 Posts embedded in earth shall not be used to
provide lateral support for structural or nonstructural
Where:
materials such as plaster, masonry or concrete unless
2.3P
A bracing is provided.
S1b
b = diameter of round post or footing or diagonal
dimension of square post or footing, meters. 305.8 GRILLAGE FOOTINGS
d = depth of embedment in earth in meters but not
over 3.5 meters for purpose of computing When grillage footings of structural steel shapes are used
lateral pressure. on soils, they shall be completely embedded in concrete.
h = distance in meters from ground surface to point Concrete cover shall be at least 150 mm on the bottom and
of application of “P.” at least 100 mm at all other points.
P = applied lateral force in kilonewtons .
S1 = allowable lateral soil-bearing pressure as set
forth in Table 304-1 based on a depth of one 305.9 BLEACHER FOOTINGS
third the depth of embedment (kPa).
S3 = allowable lateral soil-bearing pressure as set Footings for open-air seating facilities shall comply with
forth in Table 304-1 based on a depth equal to Chapter 3.
the depth of embedment (kPa).
EXCEPTIONS:
305.7.2.2 Constrained. The following formula may
be used to determine the depth of embedment required to Temporary open-air portable bleachers may be supported
resist lateral loads where constraint is provided at the upon wood sills or steel plates placed directly upon the
ground surface, such as a rigid floor or pavement. ground surface, provided soil pressure does not exceed 50
kPa.
Ph
d 2  4.25 (305-2)
S3 b

305.7.2.3 Vertical load. The resistance to vertical


loads is determined by the allowable soil-bearing pressure
set forth in Table 304-1.

305.7.3 Backfill. The backfill in the annular space


around column not embedded in poured footings shall be by
one of the following methods:

1. Backfill shall be of concrete with an ultimate


strength of 15 MPa at 28 days. The hole shall not be
less than 100 mm larger than the diameter of the
column at its bottom or 100 mm larger than the
diagonal dimension of a square or rectangular
column.

2. Backfill shall be of clean sand. The sand shall be


thoroughly compacted by tamping in layers not more
than 200 mm in thickness.

305.7.4 Limitations. The design procedure outlined in


this section shall be subject to the following limitations:

305.7.4.1 The frictional resistance for retaining walls


and slabs on silts and clays shall be limited to one half of

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PILES - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 3-14

SECTION 306 - PILES - GENERAL 306.4 STATIC LOAD TEST


REQUIREMENTS Static axial compressive pile load test shall be in
accordance with ASTM Standard D-1143. The building
306.1 GENERAL official may require that the test be conducted under the
supervision of a registered civil engineer experienced and
Pile foundations shall be designed and installed on the basis knowledgeable in the practice of static pile load testing
of a foundation investigation as defined in Section 303
where required by the building official. When the allowable axial compressive load of a single pile
is determined by a static load test, one of the following
The investigation and report provisions of Section 303 shall methods shall be used:
be expanded to include, but not be limited to, the following:
1. Recommended pile types and installed capacities. Method 1. It shall not exceed 50 percent of the yield point
under test load. The yield point shall be defined as that
2. Driving criteria. point at which an increase in load produces a
3. Installation procedures. disproportionate increase in settlement.
4. Field inspection and reporting procedures (to include
Method 2. It shall not exceed one half of the load, which
procedures for verification of the installed bearing
causes a net settlement, after deducting rebound, of
capacity where required).
0.03mm/kN of test load, which has been applied for a
5. Pile load test requirements. period of at least 24 hours.

The use of piles not specifically mentioned in this chapter Method 3. It shall not exceed one half of that load under
shall be permitted, subject to the approval of the building which, during a 40-hour period of continuous load
official upon submission of acceptable test data, application, no additional settlement takes place.
calculations or other information relating to the properties
and load-carrying capacities of such piles.
306.5 DYNAMIC LOAD TEST
306.2 INTERCONNECTION High-strain dynamic load test may be used to determine the
bearing capacity of piles, in accordance with ASTM
Individual pile caps and caissons of every structure Standard D-4945. The building official may require that
subjected to seismic forces shall be interconnected by ties. the test be conducted by a registered civil engineer
Such ties shall be capable of resisting, in tension or experienced and knowledgeable in the practice of dynamic
compression, a minimum horizontal force equal to 10 load testing.
percent of the largest column vertical load.
306.6 COLUMN ACTION
EXCEPTION:
All piles standing unbraced in air, water or material not
Other approved methods may be used where it can be capable of lateral support shall conform with the applicable
demonstrated that equivalent restraint can be provided. column formula as specified in this code. Such piles driven
into firm ground may be considered fixed and laterally
supported at 1.5 meters below the ground surface and in
306.3 DETERMINATION OF ALLOWABLE soft material at 3 meters the ground surface unless
LOADS otherwise prescribed by the building official after a
foundation investigation by an approved agency.
The allowable axial and lateral loads on piles shall be
determined by an approved formula, by a foundation 306.7 GROUP ACTION
investigation or by load tests. Static axial compressive pile
load test shall be in accordance with ASTM Standard D- Consideration shall be given to the reduction of allowable
1143, and lateral load testing of piles shall conform with pile load when piles are placed in groups.
ASTM Standard D-3966. Dynamic pile tests shall be in
accordance with ASTM Standard D-4945. Static axial Where soil conditions make such load reductions advisable
tensile load testing to determine the uplift capacity of pile- or necessary, the allowable axial and lateral loads
soil systems shall be in accordance with ASTM Standard determined for a single pile shall be reduced by any rational
D-3689. method or formula submitted to the building official.

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PILES - GENERAL REQUIREMENTS 3-15

306.8 PILES IN SUBSIDING AREAS 306.12 USE OF HIGHER ALLOWABLE PILE


STRESSES
Where piles are driven through subsiding fills or other
subsiding strata and derive support from underlying firmer Allowable compressive stresses greater than those specified
materials, consideration shall be given to the downward in Section 307 shall be permitted when substantiating data
frictional forces, which may be imposed on the piles by the justifying such higher stresses are submitted to and
subsiding upper strata. approved by the building official. Such substantiating data
shall be included in the foundation investigation report in
Where the influence of subsiding fills is considered as accordance with Section 306.1.
imposing loads on the pile, the allowable stresses specified
in this chapter may be increased if satisfactory
substantiating data are submitted.

306.9 JETTING

Jetting shall not be used except where and as specifically


permitted by the building official. When used, jetting shall
be carried out in such a manner that the carrying capacity of
existing piles and structures shall not be impaired. After
withdrawal of the jet, piles shall be driven down until the
required resistance is obtained.

306.10 PROTECTION OF PILE MATERIALS

Where the boring records of site conditions indicate


possible deleterious action on pile materials because of soil
constituents, changing water levels or other factors, such
materials shall be adequately protected by methods or
processes approved by the geotechnical engineer.

The effectiveness of such methods or processes for the


particular purpose shall have been thoroughly established
by satisfactory service records or other evidence, which
demonstrates the effectiveness of such protective measures.

306.11 ALLOWABLE LOADS

The allowable loads based on soil conditions shall be


established in accordance with Section 306.

EXCEPTION:

Any uncased cast-in-place pile may be assumed to develop


a frictional resistance equal to one sixth of the bearing
value of the soil material at minimum depth as set forth in
Table 305-1 but not to exceed 25 kPa unless a greater value
is allowed by the building official after a foundation
investigation as specified in Section 303 is submitted.
Frictional resistance and bearing resistance shall not be
assumed to act simultaneously unless recommended after a
foundation investigation as specified in Section 303.

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PILES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS 3-16

SECTION 307 - PILES - SPECIFIC 307.3.2 Installation. Every metal casing for a concrete
pile shall have a sealed tip with a diameter of not less than
REQUIREMENTS 200 mm.

Concrete piles cast in place in metal shells shall have shells


307.1 ROUND WOOD PILES driven for their full length in contact with the surrounding
soil and left permanently in place. The shells shall be
307.1.1 Material. Except where untreated piles are sufficiently strong to resist collapse and sufficiently
permitted, wood piles shall be pressure treated. Untreated watertight to exclude water and foreign material during the
piles may be used only when it has been established that the placing of concrete.
cutoff will be below lowest groundwater level assumed to
exist during the life of the structure. Piles shall be driven in such order and with such spacing as
to ensure against distortion of or injury to piles already in
307.1.2 Allowable stresses. The allowable unit stresses place. No pile shall be driven within four and one-half
for round woodpiles shall not exceed those set forth in average pile diameters of a pile filled with concrete less
Chapter 6. than 24 hours old unless approved by the geotechnical
engineer.
The allowable values listed in, for compression parallel to
the grain at extreme fiber in bending are based on load 307.3.3 Allowable stresses. Allowable stresses shall not
sharing as occurs in a pile cluster. For piles which support exceed the values specified in Section 307.2.2, except that
their own specific load, a safety factor of 1.25 shall be the allowable concrete stress may be increased to a
applied to compression parallel to the grain values and 1.30 maximum value of 0.40f’c for that portion of the pile
to extreme fiber in bending values. meeting the following conditions:

1. The thickness of the metal casing is not less than 1.7


307.2 UNCASED CAST-IN-PLACE mm (No. 14 carbon sheet steel gage).
CONCRETE PILES
2. The casing is seamless or is provided with seams of
307.2.1 Material. Concrete piles cast in place against equal strength and is of a configuration that will
earth in drilled or bored holes shall be made in such a provide confinement to the cast-in-place concrete.
manner as to ensure the exclusion of any foreign matter and
to secure a full-sized shaft. 3. The specified compressive strength f’c shall not
exceed 35 MPa and the ratio of steel minimum
The length of such pile shall be limited to not more than 30 specified yield strength Fy to concrete specified
times the average diameter. Concrete shall have a specified compressive strength f’c shall not be less than 6.
compressive strength f’c of not less than 17.5 MPa.
4 The pile diameter is not greater than 400 mm.
EXCEPTION:

The length of pile may exceed 30 times the diameter 307.4 PRECAST CONCRETE PILES
provided the design and installation of the pile foundation
is in accordance with an approved foundation investigation 307.4.1 Materials. Precast concrete piles shall have a
report. specified compressive strength f’c of not less than 20 MPa,
and shall develop a compressive strength of not less than 20
307.2.2 Allowable stresses. The allowable compressive MPa before driving.
stress in the concrete shall not exceed 0.33f’c. The
allowable compressive stress of reinforcement shall not 307.4.2 Reinforcement ties. The longitudinal
exceed 34 percent of the yield strength of the steel or 175 reinforcement in driven precast concrete piles shall be
MPa. laterally tied with steel ties or wire spirals. Ties and spirals
shall not be spaced more than 75 mm apart, center to center,
for a distance of 600 mm from the ends and not more than
307.3 METAL-CASED CONCRETE PILES 200 mm elsewhere. The gage of ties and spirals shall be as
follows:
307.3.1 Material. Concrete used in metal-cased concrete
piles shall have a specified compressive strength f’c of not 1. For piles having a diameter of 400 mm or less, wire
less than 17.5 MPa. shall not be smaller than 5.5 mm (No. 5 B.W.gage).

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PILES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS 3-17

2. For piles, having a diameter of more than 400 mm The compressive stress in the concrete due to externally
and less than 500 mm, wire shall not be smaller than applied load shall not exceed:
6 mm (No.4 B.W.gage).
fc = 0.33f’c - 0.27 fpc (307-1)
3. For piles having a diameter of 500 mm and larger,
wire shall not be smaller than 6.5 mm Where:
(No.3 B.W. gage).
fpc = effective prestress stress on the gross section.
307.4.3 Allowable stresses. Precast concrete piling shall
be designed to resist stresses induced by handling and Effective prestress shall be based on an assumed loss of 200
driving as well as by loads. The allowable stresses shall not MPa in the prestressing steel. The allowable stress in the
exceed the values specified in Section 307.2.2. prestressing steel shall not exceed the values specified in
Section 418.5.

307.5 PRECAST PRESTRESSED CONCRETE


PILES (PRETENSIONED) 307.6 STRUCTURAL STEEL PILES

307.5.1 Materials. Precast prestressed concrete piles 307.6.1 Material. Structural steel piles, steel pipe piles
shall have a specified compressive strength f’c of not less and fully welded steel piles fabricated from plates shall
than 35 MPa and shall develop a compressive strength of conform to one of the material specifications listed in
not less than 27 MPa before driving. Section 501.3.

307.5.2 Reinforcement 307.6.2 Allowable stresses. The allowable axial stresses


shall not exceed 0.35 of the minimum specified yield
307.5.2.1 Longitudinal reinforcement. The strength Fy or 85 MPa, whichever is less.
longitudinal reinforcement shall be high-tensile seven-wire
strand conforming to ASTM Standards. Longitudinal EXCEPTION:
reinforcement shall be laterally tied with steel ties or wire
spirals. When justified in accordance with Section 306.12, the
allowable axial stress may be increased above 85 MPa and
307.5.2.2 Transverse reinforcement. Ties or spiral 0.35Fy, but shall not exceed 0.5Fy.
reinforcement shall not be spaced more than 75 mm apart,
center to center, for a distance of 600 mm from the ends 307.6.3 Minimum dimensions. Sections of driven H-
and not more than 200 mm elsewhere. piles shall comply with the following:

At each end of the pile, the first five ties or spirals shall be 1. The flange projection shall not exceed 14 times the
spaced 25 mm center to center. minimum thickness of metal in either the flange or
the web, and the flange widths shall not be less than
For piles having a diameter of 600 mm or less, wire shall 80 percent of the depth of the section.
not be smaller than 5.5 mm (No. 5 B.W.gage).
2. The nominal depth in the direction of the web shall
For piles having a diameter greater than 600 mm but less not be less than 200 mm.
than 900 mm, wire shall not be smaller than 6 mm
(No. 4 B.W.gage). 3. Flanges and webs shall have a minimum nominal
thickness of 10 mm.
For piles having a diameter greater than 900 mm, wire shall
not be smaller than 6 mm (No.3 B.W.gauge). Sections of driven pipe piles shall have an outside diameter
of not less than 250 mm and a minimum thickness of not
307.5.3 Allowable stresses. Precast prestressed piling less than 6 mm.
shall be designed to resist stresses induced by handling and
driving as well as by loads. The effective prestress in the 307.7 CONCRETE-FILLED STEEL PIPE
pile shall not be less than 2.5 MPa for piles up to 10 meters PILES
in length, 4 MPa for piles up to 15 meters in length, and 5
MPa for piles greater than 15 meters in length. 307.7.1 Material. The steel pipe of concrete-filled steel
pipe piles shall conform to one of the material
specifications listed in Section 501.3. The concrete in

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PILES - SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS 3-18

concrete-filled steel pipe piles shall have a specified


compressive strength f’c of not less than 17.5 MPa.

307.7.2 Allowable stresses. The allowable axial stresses


shall not exceed 0.35 of the minimum specified yield
strength Fy of the steel plus 0.33 of the specified
compressive strength f’c of concrete, provided Fy shall not
be assumed greater than 250 MPa for computational
purposes.

EXCEPTION:

When justified in accordance with Section 306.12, the


allowable stresses may be increased to 0.50 Fy.

307.7.3 Minimum dimensions. Driven piles of uniform


section shall have a nominal outside diameter of not less
than 200 mm.

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FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION - SEISMIC ZONE 4 3-19

SECTION 308 - FOUNDATION reinforced concrete beams within slabs on grade or


reinforced concrete slabs on grade.
CONSTRUCTION-SEISMIC ZONE 4
308.1 GENERAL 308.4 PIER AND PILE FOUNDATIONS

In Seismic Zones 4, the further requirements of this section Where a structure is assigned to Seismic Zone 4 in
shall apply to the design and construction of foundations, accordance with Section 208.4, the following shall apply.
foundation components and the connection of Individual pile caps, piers or piles shall be interconnected
superstructure elements thereto. See Section 421.9 for by ties. Ties shall be capable of carrying, in tension and
additional requirements for structural concrete foundations compression, unless it can be demonstrated that equivalent
resisting seismic forces. restraint is provided by reinforced concrete beams within
slabs on grade, reinforced concrete slabs on grade,
confinement by competent rock, hard cohesive soils or very
308.2 FOUNDATION AND GEOTECHNICAL dense granular soils. Concrete shall have a specified
INVESTIGATIONS compressivestrength of not less than 3,000 psi (20.68 MPa)
at 28 days.
Where a structure is determined to be in Seismic Zone 4 in
accordance with Section 208.4, an investigation shall be Exception: Piers supporting foundation walls, isolated
conducted and shall include an evaluation of the following interior posts detailed so the pier is not subject to lateral
potential hazards resulting from earthquake motions: slope loads, lightly loaded exterior decks and patios and
instability, liquefaction and surface rupture due to faulting occupancy category IV and V specified in Section 103 not
or lateral spreading. exceeding two stories of light-frame construction, are not
subject to interconnection if it can be shown the soils are of
In addition, the following investigations shall also be met: adequate stiffness, subject to the approval of the building
official.
1. A determination of lateral pressures on basement and
retaining walls due to earthquake motions. 308.4.1 Connection to pile cap. For piles required to resist
uplift forces or provide rotational restraint, design of
2. An assessment of potential consequences of any anchorage of piles into the pile cap shall be provided
liquefaction and soil strength loss, including estimation considering the combined effect of axial forces due to uplift
of differential settlement, lateral movement or and bending moments due to fixity to the pile cap.
reduction in foundation soil-bearing capacity, and shall Anchorage shall develop a minimum of 25 percent of the
address mitigation measures. Such measures shall be strength of the pile in tension. Anchorage into the pile cap
given consideration in the design of the structure and shall be capable of developing the following: In the case of
can include but are not limited to ground stabilization, uplift, the lesser of the nominal tensile strength of the
selection of appropriate foundation type and depths, longitudinal reinforcement in a concrete pile, or the
selection of appropriate structural systems to nominal tensile strength of a steel pile, or the pile uplift soil
accommodate anticipated displacements or any nominal strength factored by 1.3 or the axial tension force
combination of these measures. The potential for resulting from the load combinations of Section 203. In the
liquefaction and soil strength loss shall be evaluated for case of rotational restraint, the lesser of the axial and shear
site peak ground acceleration magnitudes and source forces, and moments resulting from the load combinations
characteristics consistent with the design earthquake of Section 203 or development of the full axial, bending
ground motions. Peak ground acceleration shall be and shear nominal strength of the pile.
determined from a site-specific study taking into
account soil amplification effects, as specified in 308.4.2 Design details for piers, piles and grade beams.
Section 208.4. Piers or piles shall be designed and constructed to withstand
maximum imposed curvatures from earthquake ground
motions and structure response. Curvatures shall include
308.3 FOOTINGS AND FOUNDATIONS free-field soil strains modified for soil-pile-structure
interaction coupled with pier or pile deformations induced
Where a structure is assigned to Seismic Zone 4 in
by lateral pier or pile resistance to structure seismic forces.
accordance with Section 208.4, individual spread footings
Concrete piers or piles on soil type SE or SF sites, as
founded on soil defined in Section 208.4.3 as Soil profile
determined in Section 208.4.3, shall be designed and
Type SE or SF shall be interconnected by ties. Ties shall be
detailed in accordance with Sections 410 within seven pile
capable of carrying, in tension or compression, unless it is
diameters of the pile cap and the interfaces of soft to
demonstrated that equivalent restraint is provided by

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FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION - SEISMIC ZONE 4 3-20

medium stiff clay or liquefiable strata. Grade beams shall ductile region shall occur through the length of the pile.
be designed as beams in accordance Section 4. When grade Where the pile length exceeds 35 feet (10 668 mm), the
beams have the capacity to resist the forces from the load ductile pile region shall be taken as the greater of 35 feet
combinations in Section 203. (10 668 mm) or the distance from the underside of the pile
cap to the point of zero curvature plus three times the least
308.4.3 Flexural strength. Where the vertical lateral- pile dimension.
force-resisting elements are columns, the grade beam or
pile cap flexural strengths shall exceed the column flexural In the ductile region, the center-to-center spacing of the
strength. The connection between batter piles and grade spirals or hoop reinforcement shall not exceed one-fifth of
beams or pile caps shall be designed to resist the nominal the least pile dimension, six times the diameter of the
strength of the pile acting as a short column. Batter piles longtitudinal strand, or 8 inches (203 mm), whichever is
and their connection shall be capable of resisting forces and smaller.
moments from the load combinations of Section 203.
Circular spiral reinforcement shall be spliced by lapping
308.5 DRIVEN PILE FOUNDATIONS one full turn and bending the end of the spiral to a 90-
degree hook or by use of a mechanical or welded splice.
308.5.1 Precast Concrete Piles. Where a structure is
assigned to Seismic Zone 4 the longitudinal reinforcement Where the transverse reinforcement consists of circular
with a minimum steel ratio of 0.01 shall be provided spirals, the volumetric ratio of spiral transverse
throughout the length of precast concrete piles. Within three reinforcement in the ductile region shall comply with the
pile diameters of the bottom of the pile cap, the longitudinal following:
reinforcement shall be confined with closed ties or spirals f A   1 1.4 P 
of a minimum 3/8 inch (9.5 mm) diameter. Ties or spirals  s  0.12 c  g  1    (308.5.2)
f yh  Ach   2 f c Ag 
shall be provided at a maximum spacing of eight times the
diameter of the smallest longitudinal bar, not to exceed 6 but not less than:
inches (152 mm). Throughout the remainder of the pile, the
closed ties or spirals shall have a maximum spacing of 16  1 1.4 P 
fc
times the smallest longitudinal bar diameter not to exceed 8  s  0.12    (308.5.3)
inches (203 mm).  2 f c Ag 
f yh
and need not exceed:
308.5.2 Precast Prestressed piles. Where a structure is s  0.021 (308.5.4)
assigned to Seismic Zone 4, the following shall apply. The
minimum volumetric ratio of spiral reinforcement shall not Where:
be less than 0.007 or the amount required by the following
Ag = Pile cross-sectional area, square inches
formula for the upper 20 feet (6096 mm) of the pile.
(mm2).
Ach = Core area defined by spiral outside diameter,
s  0.12 fc f yh (308.5.1)
square inches (mm2).
fc = Specified compressive strength of concrete,
Where: psi (MPa).
fyh = Yield strength of spiral reinforcement
fc = Specified compressive strength of concrete, psi
(MPa). P = Axial load on pile, pounds (kN).
fyh = Yield strength of spiral reinforcement, s = Volumetric ratio (vol. spiral/ vol. core).
psi (586 MPa).
s = Spiral reinforcement index (vol. spiral/vol. This required amount of spiral reinforcement is permitted to
core). be obtained by providing an inner and outer spiral. When
transverse reinforcement consists of rectangular hoops and
At least one-half the volumetric ratio required by Equation cross ties, the total cross-sectional area of lateral transverse
4-1 shall be provided below the upper 20 feet (6096 mm) of reinforcement in the ductile region with spacings, and
the pile. The pile cap connection by means of dowels. Pile perpendicular to dimension, hc, shall conform to:
cap connection by means of developing pile reinforcing
strand is permitted provided that the pile reinforcing strand  f  A  1 P 
Ash  0.3s hc  c   g  1   1.4  (308.5.5)
results in a ductile connection. f  A
 yh   ch   2 f c Ag 
Where the total pile length in the soil is 35 feet (10 668 but not less than:
mm) or less, the lateral transverse reinforcement in the

National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume 1


FOUNDATION CONSTRUCTION - SEISMIC ZONE 4 3-21

 f   1 1.4 P  (308.5.6)
Ash  0.12s hc  c   
 f   2 f A 
 yh   c g 

where:

fyh = 70,000 psi (483 MPa).


hc = Cross-sectional dimension of pile core
measured center to center of hoop
reinforcement, inch (mm).
s = Spacing of transverse reinforcement measured
along length of pile, inch (mm).
Ash = Cross-sectional area of tranverse
reinforcement, square inches (mm2).
f c = Specified compressive strength of concrete,
psi (MPa).

The hoops and cross ties shall be equivalent to deformed


bars not less than 10mm in size. Rectangular hoop ends
shall terminate at a corner with seismic hooks. Outside of
the length of the pile requiring transverse confinement
reinforcing, the spiral or hoop reinforcing with a volumetric
ratio not less than one-half of that required for transverse
confinement reinforcing shall be provided.

308.6 CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE


FOUNDATIONS

Where a structure is assigned to Seismic Zone 4 a minimum


longitudinal reinforcement ratio of 0.005 shall be provided
for uncased cast-in-place drilled or augered concrete piles,
piers or caissons in the top one-half of the pile length a
minimum length of 10 feet (3048 mm) below ground or
throughout the flexural length of the pile, whichever length
is greatest. The flexural length shall be taken as the length
of the pile to a point where the concrete section cracking
moment strength multiplied by 0.4 exceeds the required
moment strength at that point. There shall be a minimum of
four longitudinal bars with transverse confinement
reinforcement provided in the pile within three times the
least pile dimension of the bottom of the pile cap. A
transverse spiral reinforcement ratio of not less than one-
half of that required in Section 410 for other than Soil
Profile Type SE, SF or as determined in Section 208.4.3 or
liquefiable sites is permitted. Tie spacing throughout the
remainder of the concrete section shall neither exceed 12-
longitudinal-bar diameters, one-half the least dimension of
the section, nor 12 inches (305 mm). Ties shall be a
minimum of 10mm bars for piles with a least dimension up
to 20 inches (508 mm), and 12mm bars for larger piles.

National Structural Code of the Philippines, Volume 1