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ANNA UNIVERSITY, CHENNAI-25


SYLLABUS COPY
REGULATION 2013

EC6802 WIRELESS NETWORKS LTPC

300 3

UNIT I WIRELESS LAN 9

Introduction-WLAN technologies: Infrared, UHF narrowband, spread spectrum -


IEEE802.11: System architecture, protocol architecture, physical layer, MAC layer,
802.11b, 802.11a – Hiper LAN: WATM, BRAN, HiperLAN2 – Bluetooth: Architecture,

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Radio Layer, Baseband layer, Link manager Protocol, security - IEEE802.16-
WIMAX: Physical layer, MAC, Spectrum allocation for WIMAX

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UNIT II MOBILE NETWORK LAYER 9

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Introduction - Mobile IP: IP packet delivery, Agent discovery, tunneling and
encapsulation, IPV6-bNetwork layer in the internet- Mobile IP session initiation

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protocol - mobile ad-hoc network: Routing, Destination Sequence distance vector,

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Dynamic source routing
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UNIT III MOBILE TRANSPORT LAYER 9

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TCP enhancements for wireless protocols - Traditional TCP: Congestion control, fast

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retransmit/fast recovery, Implications of mobility - Classical TCP improvements:
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Indirect TCP, Snooping TCP,Mobile TCP, Time out freezing, Selective

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retransmission, Transaction oriented TCP - TCP over 3G wireless networks.

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UNIT IV WIRELESS WIDE AREA NETWORK 9

Overview of UTMS Terrestrial Radio access network-UMTS Core network


Architecture: 3G-MSC, 3G- SGSN, 3G-GGSN, SMS-GMSC/SMS-IWMSC, Firewall,
DNS/DHCP-High speed Downlink packet access (HSDPA)- LTE network
architecture and protocol.

UNIT V 4G NETWORKS 9

Introduction – 4G vision – 4G features and challenges - Applications of 4G – 4G


Technologies: Multicarrier Modulation, Smart antenna techniques, OFDM-MIMO
systems, Adaptive Modulation and coding with time slot scheduler, Cognitive Radio.

TOTAL: 45 PERIODS

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TEXT BOOKS:

1. Jochen Schiller, ”Mobile Communications”, Second Edition, Pearson Education


2012.
(Unit I,II,III)
2. Vijay Garg, “Wireless Communications and networking”, First Edition, Elsevier
2007.
(Unit IV,V)

REFERENCES:

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1. Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Skold and Per Beming, "3G Evolution
HSPA and LTE for Mobile Broadband”, Second Edition, Academic Press, 2008.

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2. Anurag Kumar, D.Manjunath, Joy kuri, “Wireless Networking”, First Edition,

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Elsevier 2011.

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3. Simon Haykin , Michael Moher, David Koilpillai, “Modern Wireless
Communications”, First Edition, Pearson Education 2013

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

SI. NO TITLE PAGE NO

A Aim and Objective of the subject 5

B Detailed Lesson Plan 6

C Unit I WIRELESS LAN –Part A 9

wwD Unit I WIRELESS LAN -Part B 11

w.EUnit II MOBILE NETWORK LAYER -Part A 26

D
F Unit II MOBILE NETWORK LAYER -Part B 28

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Unit III MOBILE TRANSPORT LAYER -Part A 41

H
E
Unit III MOBILE TRANSPORT LAYER -Part B

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44

I
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Unit IV WIRELESS WIDE AREA NETWORK -Part A 61

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Unit IV WIRELESS WIDE AREA NETWORK -Part B 64

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K Unit V 4G NETWORKS - Part A 98
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l Unit V 4G NETWORKS - Part B 101

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AIM AND OBJECTIVE OF THE SUBJECT

AIM :

To enable students to study 3G services and 4 G evolution.

To enable students to study wireless networks protocols and standards

OBJECTIVES:

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To study about evolution of 4G Networks, its architecture and applications.
To study about fundamentals of 3G Services, its protocols and applications.

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To study about Wireless networks, protocol stack and standards.

OUTCOMES:
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Upon completion of the course, the students will be able to

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Design and implement wireless network environment for any application using
latest wireless protocols and standards

 nee
Conversant with the latest 3G/4G and WiMAX networks and its architecture.
Implement different type of applications for smart phones and mobile devices
with latest network strategies.

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SCAD GROUP OF INSTITUTIONS


Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering
Detailed Lesson Plan

Name of the Subject & Code: EC 6802/ WIRELWSS NETWORKS


Name of the Faculty: Mr. Vellaisamy S. PROF/ECE/SCADCET
Mr. Gnana Muruga Gandhi N.G. A.P/ECE/SCADCET
Ms.MuthuRamya C. AP/ECE/SCADCET
Sem/Yr/Branch: VIII/IV/ECE
Text Book
T1. Jochen Schiller, ”Mobile Communications”, Second Edition, Pearson Education 2012.
(Unit I,II,III)

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T2. Vijay Garg, “Wireless Communications and networking”, First Edition, Elsevier 2007.
(Unit IV,V)
References
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R1. Erik Dahlman, Stefan Parkvall, Johan Skold and Per Beming, "3G Evolution HSPA

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and LTE for Mobile Broadband”, Second Edition, Academic Press, 2008.

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R2. Anurag Kumar, D.Manjunath, Joy kuri, “Wireless Networking”, First Edition, Elsevier
2011.

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R3.Simon Haykin , Michael Moher, David Koilpillai, “Modern Wireless Communications”,
A
First Edition, Pearson Education 2013

nee Hours Books


SlNo Unit Topic / Portions to be Covered

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Required Cumulativ
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/ Planned Referred
e Hrs

UNIT I WIRELESS LAN g.n


1 1
Introduction-WLAN technologies:
Infrared, UHF narrowband, spread
spectrum
1 e 1 TB1

2 1 IEEE802.11: System architecture, TB1


1 2
protocol architecture
Physical layer, MAC layer, MAC
3 1 2 4 TB1
Management,

4 1 802.11b, 802.11a 1 5 TB1

5 1 1 6 TB1
Hiper LAN: WATM
6 1 BRAN ,HiperLAN2 1 7 TB1

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Bluetooth: Architecture, Radio Layer,


7 1 Baseband layer, Link manager Protocol, 2 9 TB1
security
8 1 1 10 TB1
IEEE802.16
WIMAX: Physical layer, MAC, Spectrum
9 1 1 11 TB1
allocation for WIMAX

UNIT II MOBILE NETWORK LAYER

10 2 Introduction - Mobile IP: 1 12 TB1

IP packet delivery, Agent


11

12
ww 2

2
discovery,Registration

Tunneling and encapsulation


2 14 TB1

TB1

w.E 1 15

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13 2 IPV6-Network layer in the internet 1 16 TB1

14 2
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Mobile IP session initiation protocol 1 17 TB1

15 2

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Mobile ad-hoc network ,Routing

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1 18 TB1
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Destination Sequence distance vector,
16 2 2 20 TB1
Dynamic source routing

UNIT III MOBILE TRANSPORT LAYER nee


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TCP enhancements for wireless TB 1
17 3 1 21
protocols

Traditional TCP: Congestion control, g.n TB 1


18

19
3

3
fast retransmit/fast recovery,
Implications of mobility
Classical TCP improvements
1

1
e 22

23 TB 1

20 3 Indirect TCP, 1 24 TB 1

21 3 Snooping TCP,Mobile TCP 1 25 TB 1

22 3 Time out freezing 1 26 TB 1

23 3 Selective retransmission 1 27 TB 1

24 3 Transaction oriented TCP 1 28 TB 1

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25 3 TCP over 3G wireless networks 1 29 TB 1

UNIT IV WIRELESS WIDE AREA NETWORK


Overview of UTMS Terrestrial Radio TB2
26 4 1 30
access network

27 4 UMTS Core network Architecture 1 31 TB2

28 4 3G-MSC 1 32 TB2

29 4 3G- SGSN 1 33 TB2

30 4 3G-GGSN 1 34 TB2

31
ww 4 SMS-GMSC/SMS-IWMSC 1 35 TB2

32 4
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Firewall, 1 36 TB2

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DNS/DHCP-High speed Downlink RB1
33 4
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packet access (HSDPA
1 37

34 4
E
LTE network architecture and protocol

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1 38 RB1

UNIT V
A
4G NETWORKS

35 5 Introduction
4G vision nee 1 39 TB2

36 5 4G features and challenges


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1 40 TB2
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37

38
5

5
Applications of 4G

Introduction to 4g Technologies:
1

1 g.n 41

42
TB2

TB2

39

40
5

5
Multicarrier Modulation

Smart antenna techniques


1

1
e 43

44
TB2

TB2

41 5 OFDM systems 1 45 TB2

42 5 MIMO systems 1 46 TB2

Adaptive Modulation and coding with TB2


43 5 1 47
time slot scheduler

44 5 Cognitive Radio 1 48 TB2

Total hours: 48

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UNIT – I

WIRELESS LAN

Introduction-WLAN technologies: Infrared, UHF narrowband, spread spectrum -


IEEE802.11: System architecture, protocol architecture, physical layer, MAC layer,
802.11b, 802.11a – Hiper LAN: WATM, BRAN, HiperLAN2 – Bluetooth: Architecture,
Radio Layer, Baseband layer, Link manager Protocol, security - IEEE802.16-WIMAX:
Physical layer, MAC, Spectrum allocation for WIMAX

PART-A

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1. What are the responsibilities of MAC management sublayer in 802.11?

w.E The MAC layer management sublayer is responsible for roaming in ESS,

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power management and association, dissociation and reassociation processes
for registration connection management.
2. What are the functions of physical layer of IEEE 802.11 system.
1.Encoding/Decoding of signals

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2.Preamble generation/removal
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3.Bit transmission/reception
4.Includes specification of the transmission medium.

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3. Write the expansion of Wimax and features of the system
Wimax-Worldwide Inter-operability for Microwave access.

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Features:
Service area range 50km
Very high spectrum utilization;3.8 bit/Hz
Upto 280 Mbps per BS. .ne
4. Distinguish between MAC layers of IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN and
HIPERLAN.

S.No IEEE 802.11 HIPERLAN

1 Carrier sensing is active Carrier sensing is passive

It has four address fields MAC address uses six bytes


because it does not to support IEEE 802.2 LLC
2
support the multihop
operation.

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5. State the difference between on ESS and a BSS on the IEEE 802.11 wireless
LAN.
The basic service set (BSS) is a set of stations controlled by one access point.
The connection of set of BSS creates extended service set (ESS).

6. List the protocols used in HIPERLAN-2.


 Radio Link Control(RLC) Protocol
 DLC connection Protocol
 Radio Resource Protocol (RRP)
 Association Control Function (ACF)

7. List the five types of logical channels n Bluetooth.


1. Link Control (LC)

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3. User Asynchronous (UA)
4. User Isochronous (UI)

w.E 5. User Synchronous (US)


8. Name the four states of Bluetooth.
1.Master
2.Slave
3.Standby
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4.Parked/Hold

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9. What are the advantages of wireless LAN?
 Flexibility
 Planning
 Robustness eer
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 Design
 Cost
10. State the difference between on ESS and a BSS on the IEEE 802.11
wireless
LAN.
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 The basic service set (BSS) is a set of stations controlled by one access
point.
 The connection of set of BSS creates extended service set (ESS).

10

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PART B

1. Explain MAC of IEEE 802.11.

The IEEE 802.11 MAC layer covers three functional areas: reliable data
delivery, medium access control, and security.
Medium Access Control

The 802.11 working group considered two types of proposals for a MAC
algorithm: distributed access protocols, which, like Ethernet, distribute the
decision to transmit over all the nodes using a carrier-sense mechanism; and
centralized access protocols, which involve regulation of transmission by a
centralized decision maker.

The end result for 802.11 is a MAC algorithm called DFWMAC (distributed

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foundation wireless MAC) that provides a distributed access control mechanism
with an optional centralized control built on top of that, below figure illustrates the
architecture.

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Distributed Coordination Function: The DCF sub layer makes use of a
simple CSMA (carrier sense multiple access) algorithm, which functions as
follows. If a station has a MAC frame to transmit, it listens to the medium. To
ensure the smooth and fair functioning of this algorithm, DCF includes a set of
delays that amounts to a priority scheme.
Let us start by considering a single delay known as an interframe space
(IFS). In fact, there are three different IFS values, but the algorithm is best
explained by initially ignoring this detail. Using an IFS,the rules for CSMA access
are as follows(below figure)
To ensure that backoff maintains stability, a technique known as binary
exponential backoff is used. A station will attempt to transmit repeatedly in the
face of repeated collisions, but after each collision, the mean value of the random
delay is doubled up to some maximum value.
The preceding scheme is refined for DCF to provide priority-based access
by the simple expedient of using three values for IFS:
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• SIFS (short IFS): The shortest IFS, used for all immediate response actions
• PIFS (point coordination function IFS): A midlength IFS, used by the centralized
controller in the PCF scheme when issuing polls
• DIFS (distributed coordination function IFS): The longest IFS, used as a
minimum delay for asynchronous frames contending for access. Point
Coordination Function: PCF is an alternative access method implemented on
top of the Dep. The operation consists of polling by the centralized polling master
(point coordinator). The point coordinator makes use of PIFS when issuing polls.

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MAC Frame .ne


The following figure shows the 802.11 frame format when no security features
are used. This general format is used for all data and control frames, but not all fields
are used in all contexts. The fields are as follows:
1.Frame Control: Indicates the type of frame and provides control information
2.Duration/Connection ID: If used as a duration field, indicates the time (in
microseconds) the channel will be allocated for successful transmission of a MAC
frame. In some control frames, this field contains an association, or connection,
identifier.
3. Addresses: The number and meaning of the 48-bit address fields depend on
context.
4. Sequence Control: Contains a 4-bit fragment number subfield used for
fragmentation and reassembly, and a 12-bit sequence number used to number
frames sent between a given transmitter and receiver.
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5.Frame Body: Contains an MSDU or a fragment of an MSDU. The MSDU is a LLC


protocol data unit or MAC control information.
6.Frame Check Sequence: A 32-bit cyclic redundancy check.
7. Protocol Version: 802.11 version, currently version 0.
8.Type: Identifies the frame as control, management, or data.
9.Subtype: Further identifies the function of frame.
10.To DS: The MAC coordination sets this bit to 1 in a frame destined to the
distribution system.
11. From DS: The MAC coordination sets this bit to 1in a frame leaving the
distribution system.
12. More Fragments: Set to 1 if more fragments follow this one.
13.Retry: Set to 1 if this is a retransmission of a previous frame.

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MAC frame types.
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Control Frames: Control frames assist in the reliable delivery of data frames.There
are six control frame subtypes:
1. Power Save-Poll (PS-Poll)
2. Request to Send (RTS)
3. Clear to Send (CTS)
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4. Acknowledgment:
5. Contention-Free (CF)-End
6. CF-End + CF-Ack
Data Frames There are eight data frame subtypes, organized into two groups.
The first four subtypes define frames that carry upper-level data from the source
station to the destination station. The four data-carrying frames are as follows:
1. Data
2. Data + CF-Ack
3. Data + CF-Poll
4. Data + CF-Ack + CF-Poll

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2. Explain MAC Sub layer in detail.

The major responsibilities of the MAC sublayer are to define


the access mechanisms and packet formats. The IEEE 802.11
specifies three access mechanisms that support both contention
and contention-free access.
To allow coordination of a number of options for the MAC
operations, IEEE 802.11 recommends three inter-frame spacings
(IFSs) between the transmissions of the packets. These IFS periods
provide a mechanism for assigning priority that is then used for
implementation of QoS support for time-bounded or other
applications.
After completion of each transmission, all terminals having

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to the level of priority of their information packet.

w.E In CSMA/CA, as soon as the MAC has a packet to transmit, it

and virtually.

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senses the channel to see if the channel is available both physically

If the channel is virtually busy because a NAV signal is turned


on, the operation is delayed until the NAV signal has
disappeared.
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When the channel is virtually available, the MAC layer

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senses the PHY condition of the channel. If the channel is idle,
as shown in figure, the terminal waits for a DIFS period and

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transmits the data. If the channel is sensed busy, MAC runs a
random number generator to set a backoff clock. During the

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transmission of the packet and its associated DIFS,contention is


differed but sensing continues.
When the channel becomes available, as shown in figure a
contention window start in which all terminals having packets for
transmission run down their backoff clocks.
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The first terminal that expires its clock starts transmission.
Other terminals sense the new transmission and freeze their clock
to be restarted after the completion of the current transmission in the
next contention period.

Fig:Primary operation of the CSMA/CA in the IEEE 802.11

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The IEEE 802.11 recommends both CSMA/CA based on the


clear channel assignment signal from the PHY layer and CSMA/CA
with ACK for MAC recovery.The below figure represents a sample
operation of the CSMA/CA with ACK in a communication
between a terminal and an AP.

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Fig :Implementation of the CSMA/CA with ACK in an

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infrastructure network
In the RTS/CTS mechanism in the IEEE 802.11 MAC sublayer,
shown in the following figure a terminal ready for transmission

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sends a short RTS packet (20 bytes) identifying the source
address, destination address, and the length of the data to be
A
transmitted.
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The destination station will respond with a CTS packet (16

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bytes) after a SIFS period. The source terminal receives the CTS
and sends the data after an-other SIFS. The destination terminal

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sends an ACK after another SIFS period.


Other terminals hearing RTS/CTS that is not addressed to

identified in the RTS/CTS communication, by setting their NAV


signal on.
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them will go to the virtual carrier-sensing mode for the entire period

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Fig: Implementation of RTS/CTS mechanism in the IEEE


802.11
. Therefore, the source terminal sends its packet with no
contention. After completion of the transmission, the destination
terminal sends an acknowledgment packet, and the NAV signal
is terminated, opening the contention for other users. This method
provides a unique access right to a terminal to transmit without any
contention.
The PCF mechanism in the IEEE 802.11 MAC sublayer,
shown in figure 11.15, is built on top of the DCF using CSMA to
support contention-free time bounded and asynchronous
transmission operations.

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Fig:Implementation PCF on top of the DCF in the IEEE
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802.11

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This is another optional MAC service that has complicated the

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MAC layer, and all manufacturers have not chosen to implement it
in their products.

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In the PCF operation, only available for infrastructure


networks, the AP takes charge of the operation to provide the
service to all terminals involved.
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3. Explain the Physical and MAC layer of Bluetooth with neat sketch.
OR
Explain physical and MAC layer of Wi max .

Physical layer of Bluetooth


It is embedded in the RF and baseband layers of the Bluetooth protocol stack
The Physical connection of Bluetooth uses a FHSS modem with 10m
antenna coverage. It has an option of 100 m coverage also.

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A 2-level GFSK modem with a transmission rate of 1 Mbps that hops 79


channels in the frequency range of 2.402 GHz to 2.480 GHz is used in the
Bluetooth specification.
Responsible for transferring bits between adjacent systems over the air
interface.Receives a bit stream from the MAC sublayer and transmits the bit
stream via radio waves to the associated station or vice versa
Regulatory requirements
The Bluetooth transceivers operate in 2.4 GHz ISM band.
Products implementing the reduced frequency band will not work with the
products that implement full band.
Transmitter Characteristics

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The equipment can be divided into three power class categories. GFSK
(Gaussian Frequency Shift Keying) is used with Bandwidth Time (BT) product of

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0.5.
Receiver Characteristics

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The Bluetooth receiver sensitivity level is approximately -70 dBm or better.

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The receiver should have the capability to measure its signal strength and
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determine whether the transmitter should increase or decrease the power. This is
the RSSI measurement.

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MAC layer of Bluetooth


The modulation technique and the frequency of operation are almost same
as in FHSS 802.11.But the MAC mechanism is not same in 802.11.It is not
similar to data oriented CSMA/CA(or) voice oriented CDMA,TDMA standards.
Bluetooth is CDMA system which is implemented by using FHSS.
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The DSSS/CDMA is not selected for Bluetooth.Because it needs central


power control which is not possible in Bluetooth applications.

Frame Format:
The overall frame format is shown below. Access code consists of 72 bits.
Header field consists of 54 bits. Payload field consists of 0-2744 bits.
Access field consists of,
 4-bit preamble
 64-bit synchronization word
 4-bit trailer

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Fig : Frame Format of the Bluetooth packet

Header Field:
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 18-bits are repeated three times with 1/3 FEC code.


 Different payloads and packet type codes are specified by Bluetooth SIG.By

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using 4-bits packet type,tptally,16 different packet formats can be given.
 Out of 16, 6 formats are asynchronous connectionless(ACL) which is used for
packet data communication and 3 formats synchronous connection
oriented(SCO) which is used for voice communications.
 1 format is used for integrated voice and data communications.
 4 formats are control packets. These are common to SCO and ACL links.

4. Explain HiperLAN in detail.


The HIPERLAN stands for High Performance Radio LAN
and was initiated by the RES-10 group of the ETSI as a pan-
European standard for high-speed wireless local networks.

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The following figure shows the overall format of the HIPERLAN


activities after completion of the HIPERLAN-1. HIPERLAN-2, which
aims at higher data.

ww Fig:Division of the HIPERLAN activities


HIPERLAN-1 Requirements and Architecture

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The original functional requirements for the HIPERLAN-1 were defined by
ETSI.The requirements were,

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• Data rates of 23.529 Mbps
• Coverage of up to 100 m

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• Multi-hop ad hoc networking capabilityD
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• Support of time-bounded services
• Support of power saving
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The frequency of operation was 5.2 GHz, . The difference
between this standard and the IEEE 802.11 was perceived to be

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the data rate, which was an order of magnitude higher than the
original 802.11.
The following figure shows the overall architecture of an ad
hoc network. InHIPER-LAN-1's ad hoc network architecture, a
multihub topology is considered that also allows overlay of two
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WLANs.
As shown in this figure, the multihop routing ex-
tends the HIPERLAN communication beyond the radio range of a
single node. Each HIPERLAN node is either a forwarder,
designated by "F," or a nonforwarder. A nonforwarder node
simply accepts the packet that is intended for it. A forwarder node
retransmits the received packet, if the packet does not have its own
node address, to other terminals in its neighborhood. Each
nonforwarder node should select at least one of its neighbors as a
forwarder.

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Fig : Ad hoc network architecture in the HIPERLAN-1

Inter-HIPERLAN for-warding needs bilateral cooperation and


agreement between two HIPERLANs. The solid lines represent

wwpeer-to-peer communications between two terminals and dashed


lines represent the connections for forwarding.

w.E Three of the terminals, 1, 4, and 6, are designated by letter

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"F" indicating that they have forwarding connections. There are
two overlapping HIPERLANs, A and B, and terminal 4 is a member

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of both WLANs which can also act as a bridge between the
two.

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This architecture does not have an infrastructure, and it has
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a large coverage through the multihop operation.
HIPERLAN-1 did not generate any product development, but

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it had some pioneering impact on other standards. The use of 5
GHz unlicensed bands, first considered in HIPERLAN-1 is used by

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IEEE 802.11a and HIPERLAN-2.


The multihop feature of the HIPERLAN-1 is considered in the
HIPERLAN-2 to be used in an environment with a connection to wired
infrastructure.

HIPERLAN-1 PHY and MAC Layers


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The PHY layer of the HIPERLAN-1 uses 200 MHz at 5.15-5.35
GHz, which is divided in 5 channels (40 MHz spacing) in the European
Union and 6 channels (33 MHz spacing) in the United States.
The transmission power can go as high as 1 W (30 dBm), and
modulation is the single carrier GMSK that can support up to 23 Mbps.
To support such high data rates receivers would include a DFE.
The below figure shows the basic principles of the HIPERLAN-1
MAC protocol. If a terminal senses the medium to be free for at least
1,700 bit durations, it immediately transmits. If the channel is busy,

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the terminal access has three phases when the channel becomes
available.
These phases, shown in figure are prioritization phase,
contention phase, and transmission phase.

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Fig :Channel Access cycle in the HIPERLAN-1

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During the prioritization phase, competing terminals with the
highest priority, among the five available priority levels, will survive,

En
and the rest will wait for the next time that the channel is available.
A
At the end of the prioritization period, all the terminals listen to the

gin
asserted highest priority to make sure that all terminals have understood
the asserted priority level.

eer
This way MSs with the highest priority survive and contend for
the next phase, and others are eliminated from the contention.

ing
SC

This prioritization mechanism is a counterpart of the three priority


level mechanism that was implemented in the 802.11 using SIFS, PIFS,
and DIFS interframing intervals.
.ne
5. Explain the architecture of Bluetooth

BLUETOOTH is an open specification for short range wireless voice and


data communication that was originally developed for cable replacement in
personal area networking to operate all over the world.

Bluetooth is the first popular technology for short range ,adhoc networking
that is designed for an integrated and data voice application. Unlike WAN
Bluetooth has lower data rate ,but it has an embedded mechanism to support
voice application.

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Unlike 3G cellular system ,Bluetooth is an inexpensive personal area


adhoc network operating in unlicensed bands and owned by user. It avoids the
multiple short range wiring surrounding today’s personal computing devices.

Adhoc networking of several different users at very short range in an area


such as a conference room.Bluetooth as an access point to the wide area voice
and data services provided by the cellular networks.

Bluetooth access point is used in an integrated manner to connect to both


voice and data backbone infrastructure.

Features:

ww  Fast frequency hopping to reduce interference.


 Adaptive output power to minimize interference.

w.E  Short data packets to maximize capacity.

D
 Fast acks allowing for low coding overhead for links.

asy
 Flexible packet types that support a wide application range.
 CVSD (Continuous Variable Slope Delta Modulation) voice coding that can

En
withstand high bit error rates.
A
gin
 Transmission/reception interface tailored to minimize power consumption
Bluetooth Architecture:

eer
The topology of Bluetooth is referred to as scattered adhoc topology.In a

ing
SC

scattered adhoc environment ,a number of small networks support few terminals

network we
.ne
To coexist or possibly interoperate with one another.To implement such a
need to plug and play environment.The network should be self
configurable,
providing an easy mechanism to form a new small network and a procedure
for participation in an existing one.
To implement that environment the system should be capable of
providing different states for connecting to the network. The terminals should
have option to associate with multiple networks at the same time.

The access method should allow formation of small ,independent adhoc


cells ,as well as the possibility of interacting with large voice and data networks
considered by Bluetooth.
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Bluetooth Scattered Adhoc Topology:

ww MASTER –M

w.E SLAVE -S
STAND BY-S

asy
PARKED/HOLD- P

En D
A
PICONET:

gin
The Bluetooth specification defines a small cell is called piconet,and
identifies . four states for terminal
eer
ing
SC

1.MASTER –M
2.SLAVE
3.STAND BY-S
-S

4.PARKED/HOLD- P
.ne
The Bluetooth topology however allows “s” terminals to participate in more than
one piconet.An “M”terminal in the Bluetooth can handle seven simultaneous and upto
200 active slaves in piconet.
If access is not available a terminal can enter the SB mode waiting to join the
piconet later.A radio can also be in PARKED/HOLD in a low power connection.
IN the parked mode the terminal releases its MAC address ,while in the SB state
it’s keeps it MAC address.

Bluetooth Protocol Stack:


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One of the distinct features of the Bluetooth is that it provides a complete


protocol stack that allows different applications to communicate over a variety of
devices.

ww
w.E
asy
available through a Bluetooth device

En D
Fig :Bluetooth Protocol Stack
SDP: Provides a mean for applications to discover which services are provided by or

L2CAP: Supports higher level protocol multiplexing, packet segmentation and


reassembly and conveying of QoS information
A
gin
LMP: Used by Link managers for link set up and control
Baseband: Enables the physical RF link between Bluetooth units forming a Piconet.

eer
 RF LAYER:
ing
SC

It specifies the radio modem used for transmission and reception of the
information.
 BASE BAND LAYER:
.ne
It specifies the link control at bit and packet level. it specifies coding and
encryption for packet assembly and frequency hopping operation.

 LINK MANAGEMENT PROTOCOL:(LMP)


It configures the links to other devices by providing for authentication and
encryption ,state of units in the piconet ,power modes, traffic Scheduling and
packet format

 LOGICAL LINK CONTROL AND ADAPTATION PROTOCOL:(L2CAP)

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It provides connection oriented and connectionless data services to the upper


layer protocol these services include protocol multiplexing segmentation,
reassembly and
group abstraction for data packets upto 64kb Length. The audio signal is directly
transferred from the application to the baseband.
 SERVICE DISCOVERY PROTOCOL:(SDP)
It finds the characteristics of the service and connects two or more
Bluetooth devices to support a service such as faxing, printing teleconferencing
or e commerce facilities.
 TELEPHONY CONTROL PROTOCOL:(TCP)
It defines the call control signaling and mobility management for the

ww establishment of speech for cordless telephone application. using these


protocols legacy telecommunication application can be developed.

w.E
asy
En D
A
gin
eer
ing
SC

.ne

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UNIT II

MOBILE NETWORK LAYER

Introduction - Mobile IP: IP packet delivery, Agent discovery, tunneling and encapsulation,
IPV6-bNetwork layer in the internet- Mobile IP session initiation protocol - mobile ad-hoc
network: Routing, Destination Sequence distance vector, Dynamic source routing.

Part – A

1.What are the possible locations of tunnel end point in mobile IP? (Or)What
are the possible locations for care of Address?

ww Tunnel is a secure path from HA to FA that ensures the successful


delivery of packets to the MN.Care of Address is a termination point of a tunnel

w.Etoward a MH, for data grams forwarded to the MH while it is away from home.

registers with.

D
1. Foreign agent care-of address: the address of a foreign agent that MH

asy
2. Co-located care-of address: an externally obtained local address that a MH
gets.
En
A
gin
2. What are the four messages supported by mobile IP? When and why
binding update is generated in mobile IP?
Message Types:
eer
i) Binding Request (BR)

ing
SC

ii) Binding Acknowledgement (BA)


iii)
iv)
Binding Update (BU)
Binding Warning(BW)

3.List the requirements for mobile IP.


.ne
i) Compatibility
ii) Transparency
iii) Scalability
iv) Efficiency and
v) Security

4.Define Triangular routing.


In the mobile IP, packets that are sent to a mobile host by the
correspondent host are first routed to the mobile host's home agent and then
forwarded to the mobile host at its current location by its home agent.

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5.Differentiate Foreign and Home Agent in Mobile IP technology.


Home Agent (HA)
 System in the home network of the MN, typically a router
 Registers the location of the MN, tunnels IP datagrams to the COA
Foreign Agent (FA)
 System in the current foreign network of the MN, typically a router
 Forwards the tunneled datagrams to the MN, typically also the default router for
the MN
6. What are the three basic mechanism associated with Mobile IP?
Mobile IP is associated with the following three basic mechanisms:
• Discovering the care-of-address
• Registering the care-of-address

ww • Tunnelling to the care-of-address


7. Explain usage of Table driven Routing Protocols and Give types of Table

w.E
driven Routing Protocols?

D
Maintains global topology information in the form of tables at every node;

asy
Updated frequently in order to maintain consistent and accurate n/w state
information.
Types:
En
A
Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing Protocol(DSDV),
Wireless Routing Protocol(WRP),
gin
Source Tree Adaptive Routing Protocol (STAR)
Cluster Head Gateway switch routing Protocol(CGSR)
8. Define Dynamic Source routing protocol. eer
ing
SC

Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) is a routing protocol for wireless mesh

transmitting node requests one.


9. List out the important characteristics of MANET.
.ne
networks. It is similar to AODV in that it forms a route on-demand when a

 Dynamic Topologies
 Bandwidth constrained and variable capacity links
 Energy constrained operation
 Limited physical security
10. List the applications of MANETS.
 Defense applications
 Telemedicine
 Virtual navigation
 Education via internet
 Tele-geo processing applications
 Crisis-management applications

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PART-B

1. Explain Table Driven Routing Protocol.(APR/MAY 2014) (OR)

Explain DSDV protocol in brief.


 Each node maintains routing information to all other nodes in the network
 When the topology changes, updates are propagated throughout the network.
Examples are:
1. Destination Sequenced Distance Vector routing (DSDV)
2. Cluster-head Gateway Switch routing (CGSR)
3. Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP)
Destination Sequenced Distance Vector Routing (DSDV)
 Based on the Bellman-Ford algorithm.
 Each mobile node maintains a routing table in terms of number of hops to
each destination.

ww  Routing table updates are periodically transmitted.


 Each entry in the table is marked by a sequence number which helps to

w.E distinguish stale routes from new ones, and thereby avoiding loops.

asy
Cluster-head Gateway Switch Routing (CGSR)
D
 To minimize the routing updates, variable sized update packets are used
depending on the number of topological changes.

 CGSR is a clustered multi-hop mobile wireless network with several


heuristic routing schemes.
En
A
gin
 A distributed cluster-head (CH) selection algorithm is used to elect a node
as the cluster head.

eer
 It modifies DSDV by using a hierarchical CH to route traffic.
 Gateway nodes serve as bridge nodes between two or more clusters.

ing
SC

 A packet sent by a node is first routed to its CH and then the packet is
routed from the CH to a gateway of another cluster and then to the CH

.ne
and so on, until the destination cluster head is reached. The packet is then
transmitted to the destination as shown in below figure.

Frequent changes in the CH may affect the performance of the routing protocol.

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The disadvantage of using this scheme is that frequent changes adversely


affect performance as nodes spend more time selecting a CH rather than
relaying packets.

Hence the Least Cluster Change (LCC) clustering algorithm is used rather
than CH selection every time the cluster membership changes.

Wireless Routing Protocol (WRP)


Each node maintains 4 tables:
-- Distance table
-- Routing table
-- Link cost table
-- Message Retransmission List table (MRL)
MRL contains the sequence number of the update message, a
retransmission counter and a list of updates sent in the update message.Nodes

ww inform each other of link changes using update messages.


Nodes send update messages after processing updates from their

w.E
neighbors or after detecting a change in the link.

D
If a node is not sending messages, it must send a HELLO message within

asy
a specified time to ensure connectivity.

En
If the node receives a HELLO message from a new node, that node is
added to the table.It avoids the “count to infinity” problem.
A
gin
2. Explain Source Initiated on-Demand Routing.
eer
ing
SC

It is essentially reactive in nature. It generates routes only when a source


demands it.

.ne
This process finishes when a route to the destination has been discovered or all
possible routes have been examined without any success.

Some of the popular routing procedures are,

1. Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector (AODV).


2. Dynamic Source Routing (DSR)
3. Temporary Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)
4. Associativity Based Routing (ABR)
5. Signal Stability Routing (SSR)
Ad hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing
 AODV is an improvement over DSDV, which minimizes the number of required
broadcasts by creating routes on demand.

 Nodes that are not in a selected path do not maintain routing information or
participate in routing table exchanges.
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 A source node initiates a path discovery process to locate the other intermediate
nodes (and the destination), by broadcasting a Route Request (RREQ) packet to
its neighbors.

ww
w.E
Dynamic Source Routing


asy D
The protocol consists of two major phases: Route Discovery, Route
Maintenance.

En
A
When a mobile node has a packet to send to some destination, it first consults its

gin
route cache to check whether it has a route to that destination.


If it is an un-expired route, it will use this route.
eer
If the node does not have a route, it initiates route discovery by broadcasting a

ing
SC

Route Request packet.


This Route Request contains the address of the destination, along with the
source address.

Each node receiving the packet checks to see whether it has a route to the
.ne
destination. If it does not, it adds its own address to the route record of the packet
and forwards it.

 A route reply is generated when the request reaches either the destination itself
or an intermediate node that contains in its route cache an un-expired route to
that destination.

 If the node generating the route reply is the destination, it places the the route
record contained in the route request into the route reply.

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ww
Temporarily Ordered Routing Algorithm (TORA)

 TORA is a highly adaptive loop-free distributed routing algorithm based on the

w.E
concept of link reversal.


D
TORA decouples the generation of potentially far-reaching control messages

asy
from the rate of topological changes.
The height metric is used to model the routing state of the network.

En
The protocol performs three basic functions: route creation, route maintenance,
A
route erasure.

 gin
During the route creation and maintenance phases nodes use a height metric to

eer
establish a Directed Acyclic Graph (DAG) rooted at the destination.


ing
SC

Thereafter links are assigned a direction based on the relative heights

.ne

Associativity Based Routing (ABR)

 The three phases of ABR are: route discovery, route reconstruction, route
deletion.

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 In ABR a route is selected based on the degree of stability associated with


mobile nodes.
 Association stability is defined by connection stability of one node with respect to
another node over time and space.
 Each node generates a beacon to signify its existence.
 When received by neighboring nodes, the beacon causes their associativity
tables to be updated.
 The route discovery is accomplished by a Broadcast Query- Reply (BQ-REPLY)
cycle.
 When a discovered route is no longer desired, the source node initiates a Route
Delete broadcast so that all the nodes along the route update their routing tables.
Signal Stability Routing (SSR)
 SSR selects a route based on the signal strength between nodes and a node’s
location stability.

ww
 This route selection criteria has the effect of choosing routes that have a better
link connectivity.

w.EEncapsulation
asy D
3. Explain a) Agent discovery, b) Registration, c) Tunneling and d)

mechanisms in Mobile IP. (Or) Explain the Key Mechanisms in Mobile IP. (16)

En
Mobile IP is associated with three basic mechanisms:
i) Discovering the Care – of – Address (Agent Discovery)
A
gin
ii) Registering the Care – of – Address (Registration)
iii) Tunneling the Care – of – Address (Tunneling and Encapsulation)

a) Agent Discovery
eer
ing
SC

During call establishment, Mobile node determines its foreign agent by agent
discovery process.

.ne

A mobile node uses a method known as agent discovery to determine the


following information:
 When the node has moved from one network to another
 Whether the network is the node's home or a foreign network
 What is the foreign agent care-of address offered by each foreign agent on that
network

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The two discovery methods are: Agent advertisement and Agent solicitation.
Mobility agents transmit agent advertisements to advertise their services on a
network. In the absence of agent advertisements, a mobile node can solicit
advertisements.This is known as agent solicitation.
Agent Advertisement
Generally foreign and home agents advertise their presence through
periodic agent advertisement messages. An agent advertisement message is an
Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) router advertisement.
This message lists one or more CoA’s and a flag indicating whether it is a
home agent or foreign agent. This is the popular method used in agent discovery.
Mobile nodes use agent advertisements to determine their current point of
attachment to the Internet or to an organization's network.
A foreign agent must continue to send agent advertisements. This way,
mobile nodes that are already registered with it will know that they have not

ww moved out of range of the foreign agent and that the foreign agent has not failed.
Agent Solicitation

w.E If a mobile node (MN) does not receive any CoA, then mobile node should

search for a foreign agent(FA).

D
implement agent solicitation message. (Similar to ICMP router solicitation
messages.) The main purpose of this message sent by Mobile node (MN) is to

asy
The rate at which a mobile node sends solicitations is limited by the mobile

En
node. These messages should not flood the network. The mobile node can send
A
three initial solicitations at a maximum rate of one per second while searching for
an agent.
gin
For a dynamic wireless network where the MNs move at a greater speed,

eer
a number of messages are sent per second. After registering with an agent (or) if
the response for the message is very slow, then the rate at which solicitations are

ing
SC

sent is reduced, to limit the overhead on the local network.


Discovering the Care of address:

foreign agents. It has four steps: .ne


Each mobile node uses a discovery protocol to identify the respective home and

1) Mobile agents advertise their presence by periodically broadcasting the agent


advertisement messages.
2) The mobile node receiving the agent advertisement messages observes whether
the message is from its own home agent and determines whether it is on the
home network or on a foreign network.
3) If a mobile node does not wish to wait for the periodic advertisement, it can send
out agent solicitation messages that will be responded to by a mobility agent.
The process of agent advertisements involves:
1) Foreign agents send messages to advertise the available CoA
2) Home agents send advertisements to make themselves known.
3) Mobile hosts can issue agent solicitations to seek information.

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4) If a mobile hosts has not heard from foreign agent to which its CoA belongs , it
takes up another CoA.

Registration Procedure in Mobile IP:


Mobile IP registration provides a flexible mechanism for mobile nodes to
communicate their current reach ability information to their home agent.
It is the method by which mobile nodes request forwarding services when
visiting a foreign network, inform their home agent of their current care-of
address, renew a registration which is due to expire, and/or deregister when they
return home.
Two Types of Registration
Mobile IP defines two different registration procedures,
 one via a foreign agent that relays the registration to the mobile node’s home
agent,

ww
 one directly with the mobile node’s home agent (co-located care-of address).
If a mobile node is registering a foreign agent care-of address, the mobile

w.E
node must register via that foreign agent.

D
If a mobile node is using a co-located care-of address, and receives an Agent
Advertisement from a foreign agent on the link on which it is using this care-of

asy
address, the mobile node should register via that foreign agent (or via another
foreign agent on this link). If a mobile node is otherwise using a co-located care-

En
of address, the mobile node must register directly.
A
gin
eer
ing
SC

Fig:Registration
.ne
Registering CoA:If a mobile node discovers that it is on the home network, it
operates without mobility services. If a mobile node obtains a CoA from a foreign
agent, then this address should be registered with the home agent.
Step 1: If the mobile node is on a new network , it registers with the foreign agent by
sending a registration request message which includes Permanent IP address of
MN and IP address of its home agent.
Step 2: The foreign agent in turn performs the registration process by sending a
registration request with IP of MN and IP of foreign agent to the home agent.
Step 3: When the home agent receives the request , it updates the mobility binding
by
associating the CoA of mobile node with its home address.
Step 4: The home agent then sends an acknowledgement to the foreign agent.
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Step 5: The foreign agent in turn updates its visitor list by inserting the entry for the
mobile node and relays the reply to the mobile node.

Fig: Registration Process in mobile IP


c) Tunneling and encapsulation in Mobile IP.(8)
Tunnel:

ww Tunnel is a secure path from HA to FA that ensures the successful delivery of


packets to the MN. Care of Address is a termination point of a tunnel toward a

w.EMH, for data grams forwarded to the MH while it is away from home.
Types of Care of Address (CoA)

with
D
1. Foreign agent care-of address: the address of a foreign agent that MH registers

asy
2. Co-located care-of address: an externally obtained local address that a MH gets.
Tunneling:
En
A
gin
Tunneling establishes a virtual pipe for the packets available between a
tunnel entry and an endpoint. Tunneling is the process of sending a packet via
tunnel and it is achieved by a mechanism called encapsulation.

eer
The packet agent is forwarded by the home agent to the foreign agent.

ing
When the packet comes to the foreign agent (CoA), it delivers the packet to the
SC

mobile node.

.ne
Two primary functions of tunneling:
 Encapsulation of data packet to reach the tunnel endpoint.
 Decapsulation when packet is delivered at the endpoint.
Steps involved in tunneling:
i) When a home agent receives a packet to mobile host, it forwards the packet to
the CoA
ii) using IP- in – IP encapsulation.
iii) Home agent inserts a new IP header in front of the IP header of any datagram.
iv) Destination address is set to CoA
v) Source address is set to the Home Agent’s Address.
vi) After stripping out the first header, IP processes the packet again.
d) Encapsulation:
Encapsulation refers to arranging a packet header and data in the data part of
the new packet.Encapsulation of one packet into another as payload
e.g. IPv6 in IPv4 (6Bone), Multicast in Unicast (Mbone)

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Types: IP-in-IP-encapsulation, minimal encapsulation or GRE

i) IP-in-IP-encapsulation (mandatory, RFC 2003)


ii) Minimal encapsulation (optional)
iii) Generic Encapsulation

4. a) Explain the goals, requirements and packet delivery for mobile IP. (16)(Or)
b) Sketch the schematic of a mobile IP network and explain the packet
delivery between the mobile and corresponding node. (16) (Or)
c) Explain how end to end packet delivery is done in mobile IP. (8)
Mobile IP:
Mobile IP is standard communications protocol that allows mobile device
users to move from one network to another while maintaining their permanent IP

ww
address.
Mobile IP extends the Internet Protocol (IP) for forwarding Internet traffic to
mobile devices(known as mobile nodes) when they are not connecting through their

w.E
home network.

D
Mobile IP makes the mobility transparent to applications and higher level

asy
protocols. It allows the users to stay connected to Internet from any location
without any change in theirIP address.
Goals of Mobile IP:
En
A
The main goal of Mobile IP is to have a topologically correct address. The goal

gin
of mobile IP is to enable packet transmission efficiently without any packet loss and
disruptions in the presence of host and/or destination mobility.
Requirements of Mobile IP: [ SETCS ]
eer
i) Compatibility - Applications need not be changed to achieve mobility.

ing
SC

ii) Transparency - Mobility should remain invisible for many higher layer
protocols and applications. Higher layers must continue to work

attachment to the network. .ne


even if the mobile computer has changed its point of

The node must keep its IP address and if the interruption of


connectivity is short then it must survive the change of the
attachment point.
Only effects of mobility should be higher delay and lower
bandwidth.
iii) Scalability - Mobile IP should be scalable over a large number of
participants.
iv) Efficiency - Adding mobility should not compromise the efficiency of the
system. It must consider the lower bandwidth of wireless links.
Enhancing IP for mobility must not generate too many new
messages flooding the whole network.
v) Security - All of the messages related to the management of Mobile IP
should be authenticated. IP layer must guarantee that the IP
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address of the receiver is correct.

Packet Delivery in Mobile IP:


When the corresponding node (CN) wants to send an IP packet to a
mobile node, CN sends the packet to the IP address of the mobile node as
shown in Fig.
1. The IP address of the MN is the destination address, whereas the address of CN
is the source address.
2. The packet is passed to the Internet that does not have any information about the
MN’s current location. So the Internet routes the packet to the router of the MN’s
home network.
3. The home agent examines the packet to determine whether the MN is present in
its current home network or not.
4. In case that MN is not present, then the packet is encapsulated by a new header

ww that is placed in front of the existing IP header. The encapsulated packet is


tunnelled to the COA, which act as the new destination address and the HA acts

w.E
as the source address of the packet .

(CN) asy D
5. The encapsulated packet is routed to the foreign agent which performs
decapsulation to remove the additional header and forwards the decapsulated
packet to the MN, which is the actual destination, as specified by the source node

En
A
gin
eer
ing
SC

Fig:IP Packet Delivery


.ne
6. The MN after receiving the packet from CN, forwards a reply packet to the CN by
specifying its own IP address along with the address of the CN.

7. The MN’s IP address acts as the source address and the CN’s IP address acts as
the destination address. The packet is routed to the FA. After receiving the
packet, FA forwards the packet to CN.
Route Optimization:
In the mobile IP protocol, all the data packets to the mobile node go through the
home agent. because of this there will be heavy traffic between HA and CN in the
network, causing latency to increase. Therefore, the following route optimization
needs to be carried out to overcome this problem.
 Enable direct notification of the corresponding host
 Direct tunnelling from the corresponding host to the mobile host
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 Binding cache maintained at the corresponding host


The association of the home address with the care of address is called binding.

5. Explain in detail about IPV6 network layer in the internet.


The IP (Internet Protocol) is a protocol that uses datagrams to
communicate over a packet-switched network. When the IETF defined IPv4, it
specified a 32-bit address space [RFC3330], from which people and companies
now receive allocations of Internet addresses.
A set of addresses have been assigned for special purposes (multicast,
private addressing, loopback, etc). The remainder (219,914 blocks, each with
16,777,216 addresses) is being currently allocated by the Internet Assigned
Numbers Agency (IANA). IANA regularly delegate address blocks to each of a
number of Regional Internet Registries (RIR's).
These, in-turn, allocate addresses to operators (e.g. ISPs or large

ww organisations), responsible for assigning addresses to individual users and


companies.

w.E It was commonly held in the 1990’s that the Internet would run out of IPv4


D
addresses, and to avoid this, the world would need to transition to use a new
version of the IP protocol that permitted a larger address space.

asy
The key features introduced by IPv6 are:

Simplified Header Format


En
A
 Expanded Addressing Capability

 gin
Improved Support for Extensions and Options
Flow Labeling
 Authentication and Privacy Capabilities.
eer
ing
SC

Simplified Header Format


The network header of the currently deployed IPv4 protocol is 20 bytes

IPv4 header. A decision was made that IPv6 routers would not support .ne
(plus options).IPv6 omits the group of fields in the second 32-byte word of the

fragmentation within the network, following poor performance for router-based


IPv4 fragmentation.
IPv6 still supports host-fragmentation and transparent link/tunnel
fragmentation (where the packet is reassembled at the next-hop).
The IPv6 header also omits the network checksum. This was removed on
the basis that routers were reliable, and that checksum processing incurred an
unnecessary overhead in high-speed routers. Instead, IPv6 relies upon the
presence of the pseudo-header in the transport checksum to validate that a
packet has been delivered to the intended recipient.
The resulting IPv6 base header is 40 bytes. This increase in header size
was not accompanied by an increase in complexity; the IPv6 base header is
much simpler, comprising just 8 fields. The main reason for the larger size is to

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accommodate a pair of larger network addresses, increasing the size from 32 to


128 bits

IPv6 Addressing
While the larger address space is a major feature, IPv6 also benefits from
a new hierarchical addressing architecture [RFC2491].
Each IPv6 address is formed of a scope, prefix and interface ID. Various
types of prefixes are specified: global, link-local, Unique Local (ULA), Multicast,
Anycast, or Reserved. A site-local and IPv4-compatible scope were previously
defined, but have since been deprecated.
Based on this structured approach to addressing, scalable IP routing
protocols are being developed. Each IPv6 unicast address refers to a single
interface, rather than the address of a host or router (as in IPv4).
Representing IPv6 Addresses

ww An IPv6 address is written as eight sets of four hex characters separated


by colons, e.g. 2001:0db8:0001:0035:0bad:beef:0000:cafe. To simplify reading,

w.E
the leading zeros within each group of four hex digits may be omitted, allowing

D
this to be written as 2001:db8:d:46:bad:beef:0:cafe. Further, one can use ‘::’ once

asy
in an address to abbreviate a sequence of consecutive zeros, e.g.
2001:db8:d0:0:0:0:0:1 can be more concisely written as 2001:db8:d0::1.

Neighbour Discovery
En
A
gin
Neighbour Discovery (ND) [RFC 2461] replaces the function of the
Address Resolution Protocol in IPv4. It uses IP multicast to determine which

eer
hosts and routers are available on-link, or to determine the link address of a
specific neighbouring node. Key ND functions are: Router Discovery, Parameter

ing
discovery, Redirect, Duplicate Address Detection (DAD) and Neighbour
SC

Unreachability Detection (NUD).

to address major security concerns associated with ARP.

Address Configuration
.ne
The Secure Neighbour Discovery (SEND) protocol [RFC3971] extends ND

IPv6 defines both stateful and stateless autoconfiguration. The choice


depends upon the expected deployment scenario.

 Stateless Address Autoconfiguration (SLAAC) supports ‘plug and play’. Nodes


dynamically discover the network to which they are connected and can provide
an appropriate network-layer configuration [RFC4861].
 Stateful configuration for IPv6 allows a router to assign Interface IDs and prefixes
using a set of extensions to the Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP)
[RFC 3315].
Extension Headers

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IPv6 differs from IPv4 in the way the protocol can be extended. IPv4 may
be extended by either assigning the (few) reserved bits in the header for new
functions, or by including an option field between the network and transport
headers.
In practice, most IPv4 routers do not efficiently process packets with
options, and IPv4 options are therefore normally only used for packets that need
to be inspected by all routers along a path.IPv6 uses a modular ‘Next Header’
mechanism, consisting of zero or more extension headers each containing a field
identifying the next header.
The last header (or base header, if no extensions) identifies the type of the
payload. This eases processing and frees IPv6 from a limit to the maximum
number of option bytes.

Flow Label and QoS

ww IPv6 refined the QoS model for the Internet, and defined a new header
element, the Flow Label, to assist router look-up and to identify sub-flows

w.E
encrypted using IPsec. Since publishing the base specification of IPv6, IPv4 and

D
IPv6 QoS models have converged. This is not now a major differentiator between

asy
the protocols, and the merits of the flow label field remain a matter of controversy
among the networking community.

En
A
IPv6 Security

gin
From the outset, security was seen as an important part of the IPv6 stack.
The security solution advocated use of IPsec by hosts (required in full IPv6

eer
implementations), however this model did not see widespread use, with IPsec
now mostly used in tunnel mode, and additional security commonly implemented

ing
SC

above the network layer. IPsec continued to evolve for both IPv4 and IPv6 and is
no longer a major differentiator in favour of IPv6.

.ne
IPv6 does provide other features that can improve security (e.g. SEND)
and its addressing architecture can provide greater resilience to some forms of
denial of service attacks.

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UNIT – III

MOBILE TRANSPORT LAYER

TCP enhancements for wireless protocols - Traditional TCP: Congestion control, fast
retransmit/fast recovery, Implications of mobility - Classical TCP improvements: Indirect
TCP, Snooping TCP,Mobile TCP, Time out freezing, Selective retransmission,
Transaction oriented TCP - TCP over 3G wireless networks.

ww
w.E Part – A

1. How do you classify TCPs?

asy D
TCP in single hop wireless networks
 Indirect TCP (I-TCP)
 Fast retransmission
En
A
 Snooping TCP(S-TCP)
 Mobile TCP(M-TCP) gin
 Freeze TCP
 TCP in multihop wireless networks
eer
ing
SC

2. List the advantages in transaction - oriented TCP.

RFC1644, T-TCP, describes a TCP version to avoid this overhead.

Thus, only 2 or 3 packets are needed.


It is highly efficient.
.ne
Connection setup, data transfer and connection release can be combined.

3. What is Selective retransmission?

Selective retransmission allows for acknowledgements of single packets, not


only acknowledgements of in-sequence packet streams without gaps. Sender can now
retransmit only the missing packets

4. Why does I –TCP isolate problems on Wireless Link?

I-TCP splits the connection into two parts – a wired/fixed and a wireless/mobile
part. This isolates problems on the wireless link from the fixed network. However, this
also requires that intermediate systems are able to look into IP packets to split the

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connection. This prevents the usage of IPsec – end-to-end security and I-TCP (or
proxy solutions in general) does not go together.

5. What is Timeout freezing?

Mobile hosts can be disconnected for a longer time - no packet exchange is


possible, e.g., in a tunnel, disconnection due to overloaded cells or mux.
With higher priority traffic TCP disconnects after time-out
completely TCP freezing
MAC layer is often able to detect interruption in
advance. MAC can inform TCP layer of upcoming
loss of connection. TCP stops sending, but does

ww now not assume a congested link. MAC layer


signals again if reconnected.

w.E
6. Differentiate Snoopy and mobile TCP.

asy
Snoopy TCP

En
Foreign agent buffers all packets
D Mobile TCP

Splits the TCP connection into an


A
with destination mobile host and
gin
additionally snoops the packet flow
unmodified TCP between the
standard host and supervisory host
in both direction that is (MH-FA and
FA-CH)
eer
(SH) and an optimized TCP between
the SH and MH. SH is responsible for

ing
SC

exchanging data between both parts.

7. Give the advantages and disadvantages of Indirect – TCP.

Advantages:
.ne
 I-TCP segments a TCP connection into a fixed and wireless part.
 It does not require any changes in the TCP protocol.
 Transmission errors on wireless link do not propagate into the fixed network.
 Allows the use of a different transport layer protocol between foreign agent
and mobile host.
 Optimizations of new mechanisms are easy.

Disadvantages:

 The loss of the end to end semantics of TCP cause problems if the foreign
agent portioning the TCP connection crashes.

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 An_ increased handover latency is more problematic in practical use


 The_ foreign agent must be a trusted entity because the TCP connections end
at this point.

8. What led to the development of Indirect TCP?

 TCP performs poorly together with wireless links


 TCP within the fixed network cannot be changed.
This led to the development of I-TCP which segments a TCP connection into a fixed
part and a wireless part.

ww
9. What is the goal of M-TCP?

w.E
The goal of M-TCP is to prevent the sender window from shrinking if bit errors or

It wants
• To provide overall throughput
• To lower the delay
En D
disconnection but not congestion cause current problems.

asy
A
gin
• To maintain end-to-end semantics of TCP
• To provide a more efficient handover.
10. What is fast retransmit?
eer
ing
SC

The gap in the packet stream is not due to severe congestion, but a simple packet
loss due to a transmission error. The sender can now retransmit the missing
packet before the timer expires. This behavior is called fast retransmit.
11. What is fast recovery?
.ne
The receipt of acknowledgement shows that there is no congestion justifying a
slow start. The sender can continue with the current congestion window. The
sender performs a fast recovery from the packet loss. This mechanism can
improve the efficiency of TCP dramatically.

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Part-B

1 Describe the TCP / IP Protocol Suite and Architecture of TCP/IP. (10) TCP /
IP Protocol Suite:
The TCP/IP protocol suite was developed by DARPA to provide seamless
communication services across an internetwork consisting of a large number of
different networks. The TCP/IP protocol suite is a collection of a large number of
protocols. The protocol suite has been named after the two most important protocols
of the protocol suite:
Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and Internet Protocol (IP).
The TCP/IP protocol stack consists of four layers of protocols. The four layers of the

ww
protocol are: Application layer, Transport layer, Internet layer, and Network interface
layer

w.E
asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
e
Fig.3.1 TCP / IP Protocol Stack
Application layer protocols:

The application programmers and end-users are mainly concerned with the
application layer protocols. The application layer protocols, in turn, make use of the
services provided by the lower layer protocols. An application layer protocol requiring
to send a message to another application (that may possibly be running on a different

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host either in the same local network or in some remote network) makes use of a
transport layer protocol and passes it with the message to be transmitted.
Transport Layer:
The specific transport layer protocol converts the message into small parts and
attaches certain information to it. The transport layer protocol first converts a
message into segments and passes these segments to the Internet layer protocol
(IP).
IP Layer:
The IP layer protocol attaches certain information to the segments such as the
destination host address to form packets. A TCP segment is carried in one or more IP
packets. The IP passes on the packets to the network interface layer protocol.
Network Access Layer:

ww
It converts the IP Packets to frames by adding certain additional information to the
packets such as checksum and then transmits them on the network.

w.E
Packet transfer in TCP/IP:

D
The reverse operation takes place when a frame arrives at a host. The network

asy
interface layer protocol removes the information added by the corresponding network
interface layer protocol at the sender-end and passes on the packet to the IP layer.

layer
E
The IP layer protocol at the destination removes the information added by the IP

ngi
A
The transport layer protocol at the receiver strips the information added by the

nee
transport layer protocol at the sender, reconstructs the message and sends it to the
application layer.

rin
The application layer deals with messages; the transport layer deals with
SC
segments; the internet layer deals with packets; and the data link layer deals with
frames.
Architecture of TCP / IP:
g.n
e
The TCP/IP protocol consists of four layers. These layers are: Application layer, Transport
layer, Internet layer, and Network access layer

Fig. 3.2 TCP / IP Architecture

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Application layer:

The protocols at this layer are used by applications to establish communication with
other applications which may possibly be running on separate hosts. Examples of
application layer protocols are http, ftp, and telnet.

Transport layer:
It provides reliable end-to-end data transfer services. The term end-to-end
means that the end points of a communication link are applications or processes.
Therefore, sometimes protocols at this layer are also referred to as host-to-host
protocols. Several applications or processes run on a host.

ww Thus, to identify the end point, it is not only the computer that needs to be
identified, but also the exact process or application that would receive the message

w.E
needs to be identified. This is efficiently accomplished by using the concept of a port
number.

asy
D
An application or a process specifies a port number on which it would receive a
message. Once a message reaches a host, it is demultiplexed using the port number

E
at the transport layer for delivery to the appropriate application.

ngi
A
The transport layer provides its services by making use of the services of its

nee
lower layer protocols. This layer includes both connection-oriented (TCP) and
connectionless (UDP) protocols.

rin
SC
Internet layer:

g.n
The Internet layer packs data into data packets that are technically known as
IP datagrams. Each IP datagram contains source and destination address (also called

across networks. e
IP address) information that is used to forward the datagrams between hosts and

The Internet layer is also responsible for routing of IP datagrams. In a nutshell,


this layer manages addressing of packets and delivery of packets between networks
using the IP address.
The main protocols included at the Internet layer are IP (Internet Protocol),
ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol), ARP (Address Resolution Protocol),
RARP (Reverse Address Resolution Protocol) and IGMP (Internet Group
Management Protocol).

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Network access layer:


The functions of this protocol layer include encoding data and transmitting at
the signaling determined by the physical layer. It also provides error detection and
packet framing functionalities.
The functionalities of this layer actually consist of the functionalities of the two
lowermost layers of the ISO/ OSI protocol suite, namely data link and physical layers.

Data link Layer : The data link layer protocols help deliver data packets by making
use of physical layer protocols. A few popular data link layer protocols are Ethernet,
Token Ring, FDDI, and X.25. Ethernet is possibly the most common data link layer
protocol

ww
Physical Layer:. The physical layer defines how data is physically sent through the
network, including how bits are electrically or optically signalled by hardware devices

w.E
that interface with a network medium, such as coaxial cable, optical fibre, or twisted

D
pair of copper wires.

asy
b) Explain the structure of TCP segment and IP Datagram. (6) (Reg. 2013)

E
The message in the form of a block of data is passed to TCP by the sending

ngi
A
application. The TCP breaks it into many small parts and attaches certain control
information (called TCP header) to each small part. Each small part of the data along
with the TCP header is called a segment
nee
The TCP header includes several items of information including the following:

rin
SC
(i) Destination Port
(ii) Checksum
(iii) Sequence number
g.n
e
Fig. 3.3 Structure of TCP segment
IP datagram

An IP packet is also called a datagram. A datagram is of variable length which


can be up to 65,536 bytes. It has two fields, namely header and data. The structure of
an IP datagram is schematically shown in Fig. below

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Fig. 3.4 Structure of IP Datagram

ww
Version (Ver): The IP version number is defined in this field, e.g. IPV4 or IPV6.
Header length (Hlen): It defines the header length as multiples of four bytes.

w.E
D
Service type: It has bits that define the priority of the datagram itself.

asy
Total length: This field is allotted 16 bits to define the length of IPdatagram.
Identification: It is mainly used to identify fragmentation that belongs todifferent

E
networks. 16 bits are allotted for this job.

ngi
A
Flags: It deals with fragmentation of the data.

nee
Fragmentation offset: It is a pointer to the offset of the data in the originaldatagram.

Time to live: This field is used to define the total number of hops that adatagram has
to travel before discarding the operation.
rin
SC
Protocol: This field has 16-bits. It defines which upper layer protocol data is
encapsulated at that time, say, for example TCP or UDP or ICMP, etc.
g.n
Header checksum: It has a 16-bit field to check the integrity of the packets.

destination of datagram.
8 e
Source address: It is a four byte (4 Destination address: It is a four byte (4 identify the

= 32) internet address to define the original source.

= 32) internet address to


8
The IP datagrams are sent to the link layer and become ready for transmission to the
first sub- network in the path to its destination. The IP datagrams are also called
packets.

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2. Discuss in detail about classical TCP improvements (or) TCP


Enhancements.
(Or)
a) Explain in detail Snooping TCP and its advantages and disadvantages.(8)
b) What is Transaction oriented TCP? Explain. (8)
Classical TCP improvements
Indirect TCP / I – TCP :

Two reasons that led to the development of indirect TCP are (I-TCP)


ww One is that TCP performs poorly together with wireless links;
The other is that TCP within the fixed network cannot be changed.

w.E
I-TCP segments a TCP connection into a fixed part and a wireless part. Figure

D
below shows an example with a mobile host connected via a wireless link and an

asy
access point to the ‘wired’ internet where the correspondent host resides. The
correspondent node could also use wireless access.

E ngi
The following would then also be applied to the access link of the correspondent host.
A
 Standard TCP is used between the fixed computer and the access point. No

nee
computer in the internet recognizes any changes to TCP. Instead of the mobile host,
the access point now terminates the standard TCP connection, acting as a proxy.

rin
This means that the access point is now seen as the mobile host for the fixed host
SC
and as the fixed host for the mobile host. Between the access point and the mobile
host, a special TCP, adapted to wireless links, is used.
Foreign Agent:
g.n

e
A good place for segmenting the connection between mobile host and
correspondent host is at the foreign agent of mobile IP. The foreign agent controls the
mobility of the mobile host anyway and can also hand over the connection to the next
foreign agent when the mobile host Indirect TCP segments a TCP connection into two
parts moves on.
 The correspondent host in the fixed network does not notice the wireless link or
the segmentation of the connection.
 The foreign agent acts as a proxy and relays all data in both directions.
Mechanisms
 If the correspondent host sends a packet, the foreign agent acknowledges this
packet and tries to forward the packet to the mobile host. If the mobile host receives
the packet, it acknowledges the packet. However, this acknowledgement is only used

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by the foreign agent.


 If a packet is lost on the wireless link due to a transmission error, the
correspondent host would not notice this. In this case, the foreign agent tries to
retransmit this packet locally to maintain reliable data transport.
 Similarly, if the mobile host sends a packet, the foreign agent acknowledges this
packet and tries to forward it to the correspondent host.
 If the packet is lost on the wireless link, the mobile hosts notice this much faster
due to the lower round trip time and can directly retransmit the packet. Packet loss in
the wired network is now handled by the foreign agent.

ww
w.E

asy
E D
Fig. 3.5 Indirect TCP
I-TCP requires several actions as soon as a handover takes place. As

ngi
A
Figure below demonstrates, not only the packets have to be redirected using, e.g.,
mobile IP. In the example shown, the access point acts as a proxy buffering packets

nee
for retransmission. After the handover, the old proxy must forward buffered data to
the new proxy because it has already acknowledged the data.

rin
After registration with the new foreign agent, this new foreign agent can inform
SC
the old one about its location to enable packet forwarding. Besides buffer content, the
sockets of
accesspoint. g.n
the proxy, too, must migrate to the new foreign agent located in the

Fig. 3.6 Socket and state migration after handover of a mobile host
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Advantages with I-TCP:


 I-TCP does not require any changes in the TCP protocol as used by the hosts
in the fixed network or other hosts in a wireless network that do not use this
optimization.
 Due to the strict partitioning into two connections, transmission errors on the wireless
link,
i.e., lost packets cannot propagate into the fixed network.
 Optimizing of these new mechanisms is quite simple because they only cover one
single hop.
 A very fast retransmission of packets is possible, the short delay on the mobile hop

ww
is known.

Disadvantages with I – TCP:

w.E
 Loss of end-to-end semantics, an acknowledgement to a sender does now not

D
any longer mean that a receiver really got a packet, foreign agents might crash

asy
 higher latency possible due to buffering of data within the foreign agent and
forwarding to a new foreign agent

E ngi
Snooping TCP: (S- TCP)
A
 One of the drawbacks of I-TCP is the segmentation of the single TCP connection

nee
into two TCP connections. This loses the original end-to-end TCP semantic.
 The TCP enhancement (S-TCP) works completely transparently and leaves the

rin
SC
TCP end-to-end connection intact.
 The main function of the enhancement is to buffer data close to the mobile host
to perform fast local retransmission in case of packet loss.
g.n
Snooping:
e
 S- TCP is a protocol that improves TCP performance by modifying the software at
the base station while preserving the end-to-end TCP semantic. The modified
software at the base station is known as snoop. It monitors every packet that passes
through the TCP connection in both directions,
 A good place for the enhancement of TCP could be the foreign agent in the
Mobile IP. In this approach, the foreign agent buffers all packets with destination
mobile host and additionally ‘snoops’ the packet flow in both directions to recognize
acknowledgements. The reason for buffering packets toward the mobile node is to
enable the foreign agent to perform a local retransmission in case of packet loss on
the wireless link. The foreign agent buffers every packet until it receives an
acknowledgement from the mobile host.
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 If the foreign agent does not receive an acknowledgement from the mobile host
within a certain amount of time, either the packet or the acknowledgement has been
lost.
 Alternatively, the foreign agent could receive a duplicate ACK which also shows
the loss of a packet. Now the foreign agent retransmits the packet directly from the
buffer, performing a much faster retransmission compared to the correspondent
host.
 To remain transparent, the foreign agent must not acknowledge data to the
correspondent host. This would make the correspondent host believe that the mobile
host had received the data and would violate the end-to-end semantic in case of a
foreign agent failure.
 However, the foreign agent can filter the duplicate acknowledgements to avoid

ww
unnecessary retransmissions of data from the correspondent host.

w.E
asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
rin
SC
Fig 3.7 Snooping TCP

g.n
 If the foreign agent now crashes, the time-out of the correspondent host still works

e
and triggers a retransmission. The foreign agent may discard duplicates of packets
already retransmitted locally and acknowledged by the mobile host. This avoids
unnecessary traffic on the wireless link.
 Data transfer from the mobile host with destination correspondent host works as
follows. The foreign agent snoops into the packet stream to detect gaps in the
sequence numbers of TCP. As soon as the foreign agent detects a missing packet, it
returns a negative acknowledgement (NACK) to the mobile host. The mobile host can
now retransmit the missing packet immediately. Reordering of packets is done
automatically at the correspondent host by TCP.
Advantages of Snooping TCP
 The end-to-end TCP semantic is preserved.
 The correspondent host does not need to be changed; most of the enhancements
are in the foreign agent.
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 It does not matter if the next foreign agent uses the enhancement or not. If not,
the approach automatically falls back to the standard solution. This is one of the
problems of I- TCP, since the old foreign agent may have already signaled the correct
receipt of data via acknowledgements to the correspondent host and now has to
transfer these packets to the mobile host via the new foreign agent.
Disadvantages of Snooping TCP:

 Snooping TCP does not isolate the behavior of the wireless link as well as I-TCP.
 Using negative acknowledgements between the foreign agent and the mobile
host assumes additional mechanisms on the mobile host
 All efforts for snooping and buffering data may be useless if certain encryption
schemes are applied end-to-end between the correspondent host and mobile host.

ww
Mobile TCP
Special handling of lengthy and/or frequent disconnections, M-TCP splits as I-TCP
does. In mobile wireless networks, users would badly suffer from unacceptable delays

w.E
in TCP communications and frequent disconnections caused by events such as signal

D
fades, lack of bandwidth, handoff, unless these are explicitly handled by the protocol.

asy
The M-TCP protocol tries to avoid the sender window from shrinking or reverting to
slow-start when bit errors cause a packet loss.

E
The TCP connection between the fixed host and the mobile host is segmented
into wired and wireless parts — the wired part connection between the fixed host (FH)

ngi
A
and the supervisory host (SH) and the wireless part connection between the SH and
the mobile host (MH).

nee
Many MHs are connected to SH through several base stations as shown in Fig. .
The SH supervises all the packets transmitted to MH and the acknowledgements sent

rin
by MH. It is also used as an interface between FH and MH and vice versa.
SC

g.n
When a packet is sent to FH by MH using SH, the wired part uses the normal
unmodified TCP and the wireless part uses the modified version of TCP known as M-
TCP to deliver data to MH. This packet is acknowledged only when the MH receives
the packet.
e

Fig: Mobile TCP

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Thus, it maintains the TCP semantics, unlike the I-TCP. In case the
acknowledgement is not received by FH, SH decides that MH is disconnected and
sets the sender FH window size to zero. This prevents re-transmission. When SH
notices that the MH is connected, it sets the fullwindows size of the sender FH. When
MH moves from its current SH region to a new SH region, a state transfer take
places, so that the new SH can maintain TCP connection between FH and MH.
Advantages
 maintains semantics, supports disconnection, no buffer forwarding
Disadvantages
 loss on wireless link propagated into fixed network
 adapted TCP on wireless link
Transaction oriented TCP

ww
TCP phases

w.E
Connection setup, data transmission, connection release using 3-way-
handshake needs 3 packets for setup and release, respectively. Thus, even short

D
messages need a minimum of 7 packets.

asy
Transaction oriented TCP
RFC1644, T-TCP, describes a TCP version to avoid this

E
overhead connection setup, data transfer and connection release

ngi
A
can be combined thus, only 2 or 3 packets are needed
Advantage:
Efficiency
Disadvantage: nee
rin
SC
Requires changed TCP
Mobility not longer
transparent
g.n
Fast ReTransmit /Recovery
e
This approach overcomes the delay in transmissions caused due to
intermittent disconnections such as those that occurs when a mobile host (MH)
moves to a foreign agent (FA) during a TCP communication.
TCP transmission behavior after a disruption depends on its duration. The
extremely short disruptions (lasting for a time much less than RTO) would appear as
short bursts of packet losses.
In this case, the TCP retransmits those packets for which the timeout occurs
and recovers them without slow-start. However, for long disruptions (lasting for a time
much greater than RTO), TCP resorts to slow-start. This results in inefficiency.
As soon as a mobile host registers at a foreign agent, it starts sending duplicate
acknowledgements. As is standard with TCP, three consecutive acknowledgements

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for the same TCP segment are inferred as a packet loss by the host-end TCP, and it
is also inferred that the connection is live, thereby causing the fast retransmit
behaviour of TCP.
Advantage:
 The advantage of this scheme is that it reduces the time for the MH to get
reconnected, otherwise FH would wait for RTO unnecessarily.
Disadvantages:
 The disadvantage of this approach is that it does not propose a general
approach for TCP communication in mobile wireless networks.
 It does not address the specific error characteristics of the wireless medium.
Transmission / Time out Freezing (Or) Freeze TCP :

ww
The basic idea in this scheme is to “freeze” the TCP senders’ streams, little before a
disconnection is to occur. This is done by artificially sending a “Zero Windows

w.E
Advertisement” informing the sender that the receiver cannot receive data at the

D
moment.
When the sender resumes its connectivity, the receiver can unfreeze the sender by

asy
sending the value of its actual receiver window.
Advantages:

E
The avoidance of the slow-start period upon re-establishment of connectivity.

ngi

A
It does not require the involvement of the intermediate nodes and hence it can
be used if the IP payload is encrypted.

nee
This method offers a promising approach for use in Virtual Private Networks
(VPNs)
Selective retransmission
rin
SC

g.n
Change of foreign agent often results in packet loss
• TCP reacts with slow-start although there is no congestion


Forced fast retransmit
e
as soon as the mobile host has registered with a new foreign agent, the MH
sends duplicated acknowledgements on purpose
• This forces the fast retransmit mode at the communication partners
• Additionally, the TCP on the MH is forced to continue sending with the actual
window size and not to go into slow-start after registration
Advantage
 simple changes result in significant higher performance
Disadvantage
 Further mix of IP and TCP, no transparent approach

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3. a) Discuss in detail about traditional TCP in detail. (8)


b) Explain the implications of mobility. (8)

Traditional TCP

Congestion control

A transport layer protocol such as TCP has been designed for fixed
networks with fixed end-systems. Data transmission takes place using network
adapters, fiber optics, copper wires, special hardware for routers etc. This hardware
typically works without introducing transmission errors. If the software is mature
enough, it will not drop packets or flip bits, so if a packet on its way from a sender to a
receiver is lost in a fixed network, it is not because of hardware or software errors.

ww The probable reason for a packet loss in a fixed network is a temporary

w.E
overload some point in the transmission path, i.e., a state of congestion at a node.
Congestion may appear from time to time even in carefully designed networks. The

D
packet buffers of a router are filled and the router cannot forward the packets fast

asy
enough because the sum of the input rates of packets destined for one output link is
higher than the capacity of the output link. The only thing a router can do in this

E
situation is to drop packets. A dropped packet is lost for the transmission, and the

ngi
A
receiver notices a gap in the packet stream. Now the receiver does not directly tell the
sender which packet is missing, but continues to acknowledge all in-sequence
packets up to the missing one.
nee
rin
The sender notices the missing acknowledgement for the lost packet and
SC
assumes a packet loss due to congestion. Retransmitting the missing packet and

g.n
continuing at full sending rate would increase the congestion. Although it is not
guaranteed that all packets of the TCP connection take the same way through the

e
network, this assumption holds for most of the packets. To mitigate congestion, TCP
slows down the transmission rate dramatically. All other TCP connections
experiencing the same
congestion do exactly the same so the congestion is soon resolved. This cooperation
of TCP connections in the internet is one of the main reasons for its survival as it is
today. Using UDP is not a solution, because the throughput is higher compared to a
TCP connection just at the beginning. As soon as everyone uses UDP, this
advantage disappears. After that, congestion is standard and data transmission
quality is unpredictable. Even under heavy load, TCP guarantees at least sharing of
the bandwidth.

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Slow start
TCP’s reaction to a missing acknowledgement is quite drastic, but it is
necessary
to get rid of congestion quickly. The behavior TCP shows after the detection of
congestion is called slow start. The sender always calculates a congestion window for
a receiver. The start size of the congestion window is one segment (TCP packet). The
sender sends one packet and waits for acknowledgement. If this
acknowledgement arrives, the sender increases the congestion window by one,
now sending two packets (congestion window = 2). After arrival of the two
corresponding acknowledgements,the sender again adds 2 to the congestion window,
one for each of the acknowledgements. Now the congestion window equals 4. This
scheme doubles the congestion window every time the acknowledgements come

ww
back, which takes one round trip time (RTT). This is called the exponential growth of
the congestion window in the slow start mechanism. It is too dangerous to double the

w.E
congestion window each time because the steps might become too large. The
exponential growth stops at the congestion threshold.

D
As soon as the congestion window reaches the congestion threshold,

asy
further increase of the transmission rate is only linear by adding 1 to the congestion
window each time the acknowledgements come back. Linear increase continues until

E
a time-out at the sender occurs due to a missing acknowledgement, or until the

ngi
A
sender detects a gap in transmitted data because of continuous acknowledgements
for the same packet. In either case the sender sets the congestion threshold to half of

nee
the current congestion window. The congestion window itself is set to one segment
and the sender starts sending a single segment. The exponential growth (as

rin
described above) starts once more up to the new congestion threshold, then the
SC
window grows in linear fashion.

Fast retransmit/fast recovery g.n


e
Two things lead to a reduction of the congestion threshold. One is a
sender receiving continuous acknowledgements for the same packet. This informs the
sender of two things. One is that the receiver got all packets up to the acknowledged
packet in sequence. In TCP, a receiver sends acknowledgements only if it receives
any packets from the sender. Receiving acknowledgements from a receiver also
shows that the receiver continuously receives something from the sender. The gap in
the packet stream is not due to severe congestion, but a simple packet loss due to a
transmission error. The sender can now retransmit the missing packet(s) before the
timer expires. This behavior is called Fast retransmit.

The receipt of acknowledgements shows that there is no congestion to


justify a slow start. The sender can continue with the current congestion window. The
sender performs a fast recovery from the packet loss. This mechanism can improve
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the efficiency of TCP dramatically The other reason for activating slow start is a time-
out due to a missing acknowledgement. TCP using fast retransmit/fast recovery
interprets this congestion in the network and activates the slow start mechanism.

b) Implications of Mobility:

While slow start is one of the most useful mechanisms in fixed networks,
it drastically decreases the efficiency of TCP if used together with mobile receivers
or senders. The reason for this is the use of slow start under the wrong assump-
tions. From a missing acknowledgement, TCP concludes a congestion situation.
While this may also happen in networks with mobile and wireless end-systems, it is

ww
not the main reason for packet loss.
Error rates on wireless links are orders of magnitude higher compared

w.E
to fixed fiber or copper links. Packet loss is much more common and cannot
always be compensated for by layer 2 retransmissions (ARQ) or error correction

D
(FEC). Trying to retransmit on layer 2 could, for example, trigger TCP retrans-

asy
mission if it takes too long. Layer 2 now faces the problem of transmitting the same
packet twice over a bad link. Detecting these duplicates on layer 2 is not an option,

E
because more and more connections use end-to-end encryption, making it

ngi
A
impossible to look at the packet.
Mobility itself can cause packet loss. There are many situations where a

nee
soft handover from one access point to another is not possible for a mobile end-
system. For example, when using mobile IP, there could still be some packets in

rin
transit to the old foreign agent while the mobile node moves to the new foreign
SC
agent. The old foreign agent may not be able to forward those packets to the new

g.n
foreign agent or even buffer the packets if disconnection of the mobile node takes
too long. This packet loss has nothing to do with wireless access but is caused by
the problems of rerouting traffic.
e
The TCP mechanism detecting missing acknowledgements via time-outs
and concluding packet loss due to congestion cannot distinguish between the
different causes. This is a fundamental design problem in TCP: An error control
mechanism (missing acknowledgement due to a transmission error) is misused for
congestion control (missing acknowledgement due to network overload). In both
cases packets are lost (either due to invalid checksums or to dropping in routers).
However, the reasons are completely different. TCP cannot distinguish between
these two different reasons. Explicit congestion notification (ECN) mechanisms are
currently discussed and some recommendations have been already given (RFC
3168, Ramakrishnan, 2001). However, RFC 3155 (Dawkins, 2001b) states that ECN
cannot be used as surrogate for explicit transmission error notification. Standard
TCP reacts with slow start if acknowledgements are missing, which does not help in
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the case of transmission errors over wireless links and which does not really help
during handover. This behavior results in a severe performance degradation of an
unchanged TCP if used together with wireless links or mobile nodes.
However, one cannot change TCP completely just to support mobile
users or wireless links. The same arguments that were given to keep IP
unchanged also apply to TCP. The installed base of computers using TCP is too
large to be changed and, more important, mechanisms such as slow start keep the
internet operable. Every enhancement to TCP, therefore, has to remain compatible
with the standard TCP and must not jeopardize the cautious behavior of TCP in
case of congestion. The following sections present some classical solutions before
discussing current TCP tuning recommendations.

ww
4) Explain about TCP over 3G wireless networks. (10)

w.E
The current internet draft for TCP over 2.5G/3G wireless networks

D
(Inamura, 2002) describes a profile for optimizing TCP over today’s and tomorrow’s

asy
wire- less WANs such as GSM/GPRS, UMTS, or cdma2000. The configuration
optimizations recommended in this draft can be found in most of today’s TCP

E
implementations so this draft does not require an update of millions of TCP stacks.

ngi
The focus on 2.5G/3G for transport of internet data is important as already more
A
than 1 billion people use mobile phones and it is obvious that the mobile phone

nee
systems will also be used to transport arbitrary internet data.
The following characteristics have to be considered when deploying appli-
cations over 2.5G/3G wireless links:

rin
SC
● Data rates: While typical data rates of today’s 2.5G systems are 10–

g.n
20 kbit/s uplink and 20–50 kbit/s downlink, 3G and future 2.5G systems will initially
offer data rates around 64 kbit/s uplink and 115–384 kbit/s downlink. Typically,

e
data rates are asymmetric as it is expected that users will down- load more data
compared to uploading. Uploading is limited by the limited battery power. In cellular
networks, asymmetry does not exceed 3–6 times, however, considering broadcast
systems as additional distribution media (digital radio, satellite systems),
asymmetry may reach a factor of 1,000. Serious problems that may reduce
throughput dramatically are bandwidth oscillations due to dynamic resource
sharing. To support multiple users within a radio cell, a scheduler may have to
repeatedly allocate and deallo- cate resources for each user. This may lead to a
periodic allocation and release of a high-speed channel.
● Latency: All wireless systems comprise elaborated algorithms for
error cor- rection and protection, such as forward error correction (FEC), check
summing, and interleaving. FEC and interleaving let the round trip time (RTT)
grow to several hundred milliseconds up to some seconds. The cur- rent GPRS
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standard specifies an average delay of less than two seconds for the transport
class with the highest quality.
● Jitter: Wireless systems suffer from large delay variations or ‘delay
spikes’. Reasons for sudden increase in the latency are: link outages due to
temporal loss of radio coverage, blocking due to high-priority traffic, or handovers.
Handovers are quite often only virtually seamless with outages reaching from some
10 ms (handover in GSM systems) to several seconds (intersystem handover,
e.g., from a WLAN to a cellular system using Mobile IP without using additional
mechanisms such as multicasting data to multiple access points).
● Packet loss: Packets might be lost during handovers or due to
corruption. Thanks to link-level retransmissions the loss rates of 2.5G/3G systems
due to corruption are relatively low (but still orders of magnitude higher than, e.g.,

ww
fiber connections!). However, recovery at the link layer appears as jitter to the
higher layers.

w.E
Based on these characteristics, (Inamura, 2002) suggests the following

D
con- figuration parameters to adapt TCP to wireless environments:

asy
● Large windows: TCP should support large enough window sizes

E
based on the bandwidth delay product experienced in wireless systems. With the

ngi
A
help of the windows scale option (RFC 1323) and larger buffer sizes this can be
accomplished (typical buffer size settings of 16 kbyte are not enough). A larger

nee
initial window (more than the typical one segment) of 2 to 4 seg- ments may
increase performance particularly for short transmissions (a few segments in total).
● Limited transmit: This mechanism, defined in RFC 3042 (Allman,

rin
SC
2001) is an extension of Fast Retransmission/Fast Recovery (Caceres, 1995)

g.n
and is particularly useful when small amounts of data are to be transmitted (stan-
dard for, e.g., web service requests).

e
● Large MTU: The larger the MTU (Maximum Transfer Unit) the faster
TCP increases the congestion window. Link layers fragment PDUs for trans-
mission anyway according to their needs and large MTUs may be used to increase
performance. MTU path discovery according to RFC 1191 (IPv4) or RFC 1981
(IPv6) should be used to employ larger segment sizes instead of assuming the
small default MTU.
● Selective Acknowledgement (SACK): SACK (RFC 2018) allows
the selective retransmission of packets and is almost always beneficial compared
to the standard cumulative scheme.
● Explicit Congestion Notification (ECN): ECN as defined in RFC
3168 (Ramakrishnan, 2001) allows a receiver to inform a sender of congestion in
the network by setting the ECN-Echo flag on receiving an IP packet that has
experienced congestion. This mechanism makes it easier to distinguish packet
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loss due to transmission errors from packet loss due to congestion. However, this
can only be achieved when ECN capable routers are deployed in the network.
● Timestamp: TCP connections with large windows may benefit from
more frequent RTT samples provided with timestamps by adapting quicker to
changing network conditions. With the help of timestamps higher delay spikes
can be tolerated by TCP without experiencing a spurious timeout. The effect of
bandwidth oscillation is also reduced.
● No header compression: As the TCP header compression
mechanism according to RFC 1144 does not perform well in the presence of
packet losses this mechanism should not be used. Header compression according
to RFC 2507 or RFC 1144 is not compatible with TCP options such as SACK or
timestamps.

ww It is important to note that although these recommendations are still at

w.E
the draft-stage, they are already used in i-mode running over FOMA as deployed
in Japan and are part of the WAP 2.0 standard.

asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
e

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UNIT – IV

WIRELESS WIDE AREA NETWORK

Overview of UTMS Terrestrial Radio access network-UMTS Core network


Architecture: 3G-MSC, 3G- SGSN, 3G-GGSN, SMS-GMSC/SMS-IWMSC, Firewall,
DNS/DHCP-High speed Downlink packet access (HSDPA)- LTE network architecture
and protocol.
Part – A
1. State the functions performed by the physical layer in UTRAN?
 Forward error correction, bit-interleaving, and rate matching

ww  Signal measurements
 Micro-diversity distribution/combining and soft handoff execution

w.E
 Multiplexing/mapping of services on dedicated physical codes

D
 Modulation, spreading, demodulation, despreading of physical channels

asy
 Frequency and time (chip, bit, slot, frame) synchronization
 Fast closed-loop power control

E
 Power weighting and combining of physical channels
 Radio frequency (RF) processing.
ngi
A
2. What are the responsibilities of RNCs?

• Intra UTRAN handover


nee
• Macro diversity combining/splitting of Iub data streams

rin
SC
• Frame synchronization
• Radio resource management
g.n
• Outer loop power control
• Iu interface user plane setup
• Serving RNS (SRNS) relocation
e
• Radio resource allocation (allocation of codes, etc.)
• Frame selection/distribution function necessary for soft handover (functions
of UMTS radio interface physical layer)
• UMTS radio link control (RLC) sublayers function execution
• Termination of MAC, RLC, and RRC protocols for transport channels,
i.e., DCH, DSCH, RACH, FACH

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• Iub’s user plane protocols termination


3. What is the use of ALCAP?
The transport network control plane contains access link control application part
(ALCAP) required to set up the transport bearers (data bearers) for the user plane.
4. State the four functions provided by the ?
 Basic inter-RNC mobility support
 Dedicated channel traffic support
 Common channel traffic support
 Global resource management support
5. How UMTS differs from 2G networks?

UMTS networks are different from the 2G networks in the following respects:

ww Higher speech quality – It supports the adv the UMTS supports the advanced
data and information services and can be called a true multimedia network.

w.E
 Higher data rate - The UMTS supports 2 Mbps data rate, which is much higher

D
than that supported by the 2G mobile systems.

asy
 Virtual home environment (VHE) - A user roaming from his network to other
UMTS networks will not feel any discontinuity or service difference, thus giving a

6.
E
“feeling” of being in the home network.
What are the elements of UMTs network?
ngi
A
There are three elements included in UMTs network architecture:

nee
 User Equipment (UE): The User Equipment (UE) is the name by which a cell
phone is referred.

rin
SC
 Radio Network Subsystem (RNS): The RNS is the equivalent of the Base

g.n
Station Subsystem (BSS) in GSM. It provides and manages the wireless
interface for the overall network.

e
 Core Network: The core network is the equivalent of the GSM Network
Switching Subsystem (NSS).

7. Mention the functional entities of core network architecture.


 Functional entities needed to support PS services (e.g. 3G-SGSN, 3G-GGSN)
 Functional entities needed to support CS services (e.g. 3G-MSC/VLR)
 Functional entities common to both types of services (e.g. 3G-HLR)
8. What is the function of DNS/DHP?
The DNS server is used, as in any IP network, to translate host names into IP
addresses, i.e., logical names are handled instead of raw IP addresses. Also, the
DNS server is used to translate the access point name (APN) into the GGSN IP
address. It may optionally be used to allow the UE to use logical names instead of
physical IP addresses.
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A dynamic host configuration protocol server is used to manage the allocation of IP


configuration information by automatically assigning IP addresses to systems
configured to use DHCP.
9. What are all the performance improvement achieved by HSDPA in WCDMA?

• Bringing some key functions, such as scheduling of data packet transmission and
processing of retransmissions (in case of transmission errors) into the base
station — that is, closer to the air interface.
• Using a short frame length to further accelerate packet scheduling for
transmission.
• Employing incremental redundancy for minimizing the air-interface load caused by

ww retransmissions.
• Adopting a new transport channel type, known as high-speed downlink shared

w.E
channel (HS-DSCH) to facilitate air interface channel sharing between several
users.

10.
link
asy
E D
• Adapting the modulation and coding scheme according to the quality of the radio

What is the primary objective behind the HSDPA?

ngi
The primary objective behind HSDPA is to provide a cost-effective,
A
high bandwidth, low-delay, packet-oriented service within UMTS.
11.

nee
Summarize the various protocol entities present in the LTE architecture.
Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) performs IP header compression
to reduce the number of bits necessary to transmit over the radio interface.

rin
SC
Radio Link Control (RLC) is responsible for segmentation/concatenation,

g.n
retransmission handling, and in-sequence delivery to higher layers.
Medium Access Control (MAC) handles hybrid-ARQ retransmissions and uplink

e
and downlink scheduling.
Physical Layer (PHY), handles coding/decoding, modulation/demodulation,
multi-antenna mapping, and other typical physical layer functions.
12. What are the logical channels specified for LTE.
 Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH)
 Paging Control Channel (PCCH)
 Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH)
 Multicast Control Channel (MCCH)
 Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH)
 Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH)
13. What are the transport channels specified for LTE?
 Broadcast Channel (BCH)
 Paging Channel (PCH)
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 Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH)


 Multicast Channel (MCH)
 Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH)

Part – B

1. Discuss in detail about Universal Mobile Telecommunication systems.

CDMA 2000 and UMTS were developed separately and are two separate ITU
approved 3G standards. In these networks, coverage is provided by a combination of
various cell sizes, ranging from “in building” pico cells to global cells provided by
satellites, giving service to the remote regions of the world.

ww The UMTS was developed mainly for countries with GSM networks, and it is
expected that all GSM networks will be upgraded to UMTS networks. Because it is a
new technology, a whole new radio access network has to be built. An important

w.E
advantage of UMTS is that it gives significantly enhanced capacities to operators.

D
The UMTS specification has been designed so that the UMTS systems are

asy
compatible with GSM networks. Therefore, the UMTS networks can easily work with any
existing GSM/GPRS network. The UMTS systems use different frequency bands, so the

E
BTSs do not interfere with each other. UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications

ngi
Service) is a third- generation (3G) broadband, packet-based transmission of text,
A
digitized voice, video, and multimedia at data rates up to 2 megabits per second (Mbps).

nee
UMTS offers a consistent set of services to mobile computer and phone users,
no matter where they are located in the world. UMTS is based on the Global System for

rin
Mobile (GSM) communication standard. It is also endorsed by major standards bodies
SC
and manufacturers as the planned standard for mobile users around the world.

g.n
Once UMTS is fully available, computer and phone users can be constantly

e
attached to the Internet wherever they travel and, as they roam, will have the same set
of capabilities. Users will have access through a combination of terrestrial wireless and
satellite transmissions. Until UMTS is fully implemented, users can use multi-mode
devices that switch to the currently available technology (such as GSM 900 and 1800)
where UMTS is not yet available.

The UMTS networks are different from the 2G networks in the following respects:

Higher speech quality: In addition to speech traffic, the UMTS supports the advanced
data and information services and can be called a true multimedia network.

Higher data rate: The UMTS supports 2 Mbps data rate, which is much higher than
that supported by the 2G mobile systems.

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Virtual home environment (VHE): A user roaming from his network to other UMTS
networks will not feel any discontinuity or service difference, thus giving a “feeling” of
being in the home network. In contrast, in a 2G network, a user is registered to a visitor
location and is also charged a roaming overhead.

UMTS specifies a complete network system, which includes the radio access
network (UMTS Terrestrial Radio Access Network, or UTRAN), the core network
(Mobile Application Part, or MAP) and the authentication of users via SIM (subscriber
identity module) cards. The technology described in UMTS is sometimes also referred
to as Freedom of Mobile Multimedia Access (FOMA). UMTS should also provide several
bearer services, real-time and non real time services, circuit and packet switched
transmission, and many different data rates.

ww Handover should be possible between UMTS cells, but also between UMTS and
GSM or satellite networks. To reflect the asymmetric bandwidth needs of typical users,

w.E
UMTS should provide a variable division of uplink and downlink data rates. Finally,
UMTS has to fit into the IMT-2000 framework. As the global UMTS approach is rather

D
ambitious, a more realistic alternative for the initial stages would be UMTS cells in cities

asy
providing a subset of services.

E ngi
Features of UMTS
A
nee
UMTS supports maximum theoretical data transfer rates of 42 M bit/s. UMTS
networks in many countries have been or are in the process of being upgraded with

rin
High-Speed Downlink Packet Access (HSDPA), sometimes known as 3.5G. The high
SC
data speeds of UMTS are now most often utilized for Internet access

UMTS system architecture


g.n
e
Fig 4.1 UMTS System

The above diagram shows the very simplified UMTS reference architecture which
applies to both UTRA solutions. The UTRA network (UTRAN) handles cell level mobility
and comprises several radio network subsystems (RNS). The functions of the RNS
include radio channel ciphering and deciphering, handover control, radio resource
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management etc. UTRAN communicates with the core network (CN). The CN contains
functions for inter-system handover, gateways to other networks (fixed or wireless), and
performs location management if there is no dedicated connection between UE and
UTRAN.

UMTS further subdivides the above simplified architecture into so-called domains
The user equipment domain is assigned to a single user and comprises all the functions
that are needed to access UMTS services. Within this domain are the USIM domain and
the mobile equipment domain. The USIM domain contains the SIM for UMTS which
performs functions for encryption and authentication of users, and stores all the
necessary user-related data for UMTS.

Typically, this USIM belongs to a service provider and contains a micro processor

ww
for an enhanced program execution environment (USAT, UMTS SIM application toolkit).
The end device itself is in the mobile equipment domain. All functions for radio

w.E
transmission as well as user interfaces are located here.

D
The infrastructure domain is shared among all users and offers UMTS services to

asy
all accepted users. This domain consists of the access network domain, which contains
the radio access networks (RAN), and the core network domain, which contains access

E
network independent functions. The core network domain can be separated into three
domains with specific tasks.

ngi
A
The serving network domain comprises all functions currently used by a user for

nee
accessing UMTS services. All functions related to the home network of a user, e.g.,
user data look-up, fall into the home network domain. Finally, the transit network domain

rin
may be necessary if, for example, the serving network cannot directly contact the home
SC
network.

g.n
The UMTS network architecture can be divided into three main elements:
User Equipment (UE)
e
The User Equipment (UE) is the name by which a cell phone is referred to. The
new name was chosen because of the considerably greater functionality that the UE
incorporates compared to a cell phone. It can be thought of as both a mobile phone
used for talking and a data terminal attached to a computer with no voice capability.

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ww
w.E
D
Fig. 4.2 UMTS Domain and Reference points

asy
Radio Network Subsystem (RNS)

E
The RNS is the equivalent of the Base Station Subsystem (BSS) in GSM. It

ngi
A
provides and manages the wireless interface for the overall network.

Core Network
nee
rin
The core network is the equivalent of the GSM Network Switching Subsystem
SC
(NSS). The CN contains functions for inter-system handover, gateways to other

g.n
networks (fixed or wireless) and performs location management if there is no dedicated
connection between UE and UTRAN

e
2. (a) Discuss the responsibilities of the RNC,Node B in the UMTS network.
(b) Discuss the role of the access link control application part (ALCAP) in the
UMTS.

Responsibilities of the RNC,Node B in the UMTS network


The UTRAN consists of a set of radio network subsystems (RNSs) (see Figure
15.21). The RNS has two main logical elements: Node B and an RNC. The RNS is
responsible for the radio resources and transmission/reception in a set of cells. A
cell (sector) is one coverage area served by a broadcast channel.
An RNC is responsible for the use and allocation of all the radio resources of the
RNS to which it belongs. The RNC also handles the user voice and packet data

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traffic, performing the actions on the user data streams that are necessary to access
the radio bearers. The responsibilities of an RNC are:

• Intra UTRAN handover


• Macro diversity combining/splitting of Iub data streams
• Frame synchronization
• Radio resource management
• Outer loop power control
• Iu interface user plane setup
• Serving RNS (SRNS) relocation
• Radio resource allocation (allocation of codes, etc.)
• Frame selection/distribution function necessary for soft handover (functions

wwof UMTS radio interface physical layer)


• UMTS radio link control (RLC) sublayers function execution
• Termination of MAC, RLC, and RRC protocols for transport channels,

w.E
i.e., DCH, DSCH, RACH, FACH

D
• Iub’s user plane protocols termination

asy
A Node B is responsible for radio transmission and reception in one or more cells

Figure 15.22.
E
to/from the user equipment (UE). The logical architecture for Node B is shown in

ngi
A
The following are the responsibilities of the Node B:

• Termination of Iub interface from RNC


nee
• Termination of MAC protocol for transport channels RACH, FACH

rin
• Termination of MAC, RLC, and RRC protocols for transport channels:
SC
BCH, PCH

g.n
• Radio environment survey (BER estimate, receiving signal strength, etc.)
• Inner loop power control
• Open loop power control
• Radio channel coding/decoding e
• Macro diversity combining/splitting of data streams from its cells (sectors)
• Termination of Uu interface from UE
• Error detection on transport channels and indication to higher layers
• FEC encoding/decoding and interleaving/deinterleaving of transport channels
• Multiplexing of transport channels and demultiplexing of coded composite transport
channels

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ww Fig. 4.3 UTRAN Logical Architecture

w.E
asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
Fig. 4.4 Node B Logical Architecture
• Power weighting and combining of physical channels e
• Modulation and spreading/demodulation and despreading of physical channels
• Frequency and time (chip, bit, slot, frame) synchronization
• RF processing

(b) Role of the access link control application part (ALCAP) in the UMTS.

 The transport network control plane carries all control signaling within the transport
layer. It does not include radio network layer information. It contains access link control
application part (ALCAP) required to set up the transport bearers (data bearers) for the
user plane. It also includes the signaling bearer needed for the ALCAP.
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 The transport plane lies between the control plane and the user plane. The addition
of the transport plane in UTRAN allows the application protocol in the radio network
control plane to be totally independent of the technology selected for the data bearer in
the user plane.
 With the transport network control plane, the transport bearers for data bearers in
the user plane are set up in the following way. There is a signaling transaction by
application protocol in the control plane that initiates set-up of the data bearer by the
ALCAP protocol specific for the user plane technology.
 The independence of the control plane and user plane assumes that an ALCAP
signaling occurs. The ALCAP may not be used for all types of data bearers. If there is
no ALCAP signaling transaction, the transport network control plane is not required.
 This situation occurs when preconfigured data bearers are used. Also, the ALCAP

ww
protocols in the transport network control plane are not used to set up the signaling
bearer for the application protocol or the ALCAP during real-time operation.

w.E
3.


asy
E D
Discuss Iu, Iur, and Iub interfaces in the UMTS.

In UTRAN protocol structure is designed so that layers and planes are logically

ngi
independent of each other and, if required, parts of protocol structure can be
A
changed in the future without affecting other parts.

nee
The protocol structure contains two main layers, the radio network layer (RNL)
and the transport network layer (TNL). In the RNL, all UTRAN-related functions
are visible, whereas the TNL deals with transport technology selected to be used

rin
SC
for UTRAN but without any UTRAN-specific changes. A general protocol model


for UTRAN interfaces is shown in Figure 15.23.
g.n
The control plane is used for all UMTS-specific control signaling. It includes the

e
application protocol (i.e., radio access network application part (RANAP) in Iu,
radio network subsystem application part (RNSAP) in Iur and node B application
part (NBAP) in Iub). The application protocol is used for setting up bearers to the
UE. In the three-plane structure the bearer parameters in the application protocol
are not directly related to the user plane technology, but rather they are general
bearer parameters.
 The control plane is used for all UMTS-specific control signaling. It includes the
application protocol (i.e., radio access network application part (RANAP) in Iu,
radio network subsystem application part (RNSAP) in Iur and node B application
part (NBAP) in Iub). The application protocol is used for setting up bearers to the
UE. In the three-plane structure the bearer parameters in the application protocol
are not directly related to the user plane technology, but rather they are general
bearer parameters.
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 User information is carried by the user plane. The user plane includes data
stream(s), and data bearer(s) for data stream(s). Each data stream is
characterized by one or more frame protocols specified for that interface.

lu Interface
The UMTS Iu interface is the open logical interface that interconnects one UTRAN to
the UMTS core network (UCN). On the UTRAN side the Iu interface is terminated at
the RNC, and at the UCN side it is terminated at U-MSC.
The Iu interface consists of three different protocol planes — the radio network control
plane (RNCP), the transport network control plane (TNCP), and the user plane (UP).
The RNCP performs the following functions:
• It carries information for the general control of UTRAN radio network operations.

ww
• It carries information for control of UTRAN in the context of each specific call.
• It carries user call control (CC) and mobility management (MM) signaling messages.

w.E
asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
e
Fig. 4.5 General Protocol Model for UTRAN interfaces

The control plane serves two service domains in the core network, the
packet-switched (PS) domain and circuit-switched (CS) domain. The CS domain
supports circuit-switched services. Some examples of CS services are voice and
fax. The CS domain can also provide intelligent services such as voice mail and free
phone. The CS domain connects to PSTN/ISDN networks. The CS domain is
expected to evolve from the existing 2G GSM
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The PS domain deals with PS services. Some examples of PS services are


Internet access and multimedia services. Since Internet connectivity is provided, all
services currently available on the Internet such as search engines and e-mail are
available to mobile users. The PS domain connects to IP networks. The PS domain
is expected to evolve from the GPRS PLMN.
The Iu circuit-switched and packet-switched protocol architecture are shown
in Figures 15.24 and 15.25.
The control plane protocol stack consists of RANAP on the top of signaling system 7
(SS7) protocols. The protocol layers are the signaling connection control part
(SCCP), the message transfer part (MTP3-B), and signaling asynchronous transfer
mode (ATM) adaptation layer for network-to-network interface (SAAL-NNI). The
SAAL-NNI is divided into service-specific coordination function (SSCF), the service-

ww
specific connection-oriented protocol (SSCOP), data to ATM cells. As an
alternative, an IP-based signaling bearer is specified for the Iu PS control plane. The
IP-based signaling bearer consists of SS7-MTP3—user adaptation layer (M3UA),

w.E
simple control transmission protocol (SCTP), IP, and AAL5. The SCTP layer is

D
specifically designed for signaling transport on the Internet. The transport network

asy
control plane (TNCP) carries information for the control of transport network used
within UCN.

E ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
e

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Fig. 4.6 PS Protocol architecture on lu interfaces

The user plane (UP) carries user voice and packet data information. AAL2 is used for
the following services: narrowband speech (e.g., EFR, AMR); unrestricted digital
information service (up to 64 kbps, i.e., ISDN B channel); any low to average bit rate
CS service (e.g., modem service to/from PSTN/ISDN). AAL5 is used for the
following services: non-real-time PS data service (i.e., best effort packet access) and
real-time PS data.

ww
w.E
asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
e
Fig. 4.7 CS Protocol architecture on lu interfaces

Iur Interface
The connection between two RNCs (serving RNC (SRNC) and drift RNC (DRNC)) is
the Iur interface. It is used in soft handoff scenarios when different macro diversity
streams of one communication are supported by Node Bs that belong to different
RNCs. Communication between one RNC and one Node B of two different RNCs
are realized through the Iur interface. Three different protocol planes are defined for
it:
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• Radio network control plane (RNCP)


• Transport network control plane (TNCP)
• User plane (UP)
The Iur interface is used to carry:
• Information for the control of radio resources in the context of specific service request
of one mobile on RNCP
• Information for the control of the transport network used within UTRAN on TNCP
• User voice and packet data information on UP
The protocols used on this interface are:
• Radio access network application part (RANAP)
• DCH frame protocol (DCHFP)

ww
• RACH frame protocol (RACHFP)
• FACH frame protocol (FACHFP)
• Access link control application part (ALCAP)
• Q.aal2
w.E
D
• Message transfer part 3-B (MTP3-B)

asy
• Signaling ATM adaptation layer for network-to-network interface (SAAL- NNI) (SAAL-
NNI is further divided into service specific coordination function for network to

E
network interface (SSCF-NNI), service specific connection oriented protocol

ngi
(SSCOP), and ATM adaptation layer 5 (AAL5)).
A
The bearer is AAL2. The protocol structure of the Iur interface is shown in

nee
Figure 15.26. Initially, this interface was designed to support the inter-RNC soft
handoff, but more features were added during the development of the standard. The
Iur provides the following four functions:

rin
SC
1. Basic inter-RNC mobility support
• Support of SRNC relocation

g.n
• Support of inter-RNC cell and UTRAN registration area update
• Support of inter-RNC packet paging
• Reporting of protocol errors
2. Dedicated channel traffic support
e
• Establishment, modification, and release of a dedicated channel in the
DRNC due to hard and soft handoff in the dedicated channel state
• Setup and release of dedicated transport connections across the Iur interface
• Transfer of DCH transport blocks between SRNC and DRNC
• Management of radio links in the DRNS via dedicated measurement report
procedures and power setting procedures
3. Common channel traffic support
• Setup and release of the transport connection across the Iur for common
channel data streams
• Splitting of the MAC layer between the SRNC (MAC-d) and DRNC
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(MAC-c and MAC-sh); the scheduling for downlink data transmission is


performed in the DRNC
• Flow control between the MAC-d and MAC-c/MAC-sh
4. Global resource management support
• Transfer of cell measurements between two RNCs
• Transfer of Node B timing between two RNCs
lub Interface
• The connection between the RNC and Node B is the Iub interface. There is one
Iub interface for each Node B. The Iub interface is used for all of the
communications between Node B and the RNC of the same RNS. Three
different protocol planes are defined for it.
• Radio network control plane (RNCP)

ww • Transport network control plane (TNCP)


• User plane (UP)

w.E
asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
e

Fig. 4.8 Protocol structure of lur interface


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The Iub interface is used to carry:


• Information for the general control of Node B for radio network operation on RNCP
• Information for the control of radio resources in the context of specifi service request of
one mobile on RNCP
• Information for the control of a transport network used within UTRAN on TCNP
• User CC and MM signaling message on RNCP
• User voice and packet data information on UP
The protocols used on this interface include:
• Node B application part protocol (NBAP)
• DCH frame protocol (DCHFP)
• RACH frame protocol (RACHFP)

ww
• FACH frame protocol (FACHFP)
• Access link control application part (ALCAP)
• Q.aal2

w.E
• SSCP or TCP and IP

D
• MTP3-B

asy
• SAAL-UNI (SSCF-UNI, SSCOP, and AAL5)
When using multiple low-speed links in the Iub interface, Node B supports inverse

E
multiplexing for ATM (IMA). The bearer is AAL2. The protocol structure for the interface
Iub is shown in Figure 15.27.
ngi
A
Uu Interface

nee
The UMTS Uu interface is the radio interface between a Node B and one of its UE. The
Uu is the interface through which UE accesses the fixed part of the system.
Distribution of UTRAN Functions

rin
SC
Located in the RNC
• Radio resource control (L3 Function)
• Radio link control (RLC)
• Macro diversity combining
g.n
• Active cell set modification
e
• Assign transport format combination set (centralized data base function)
 Multiplexing/demultiplexing of higher layer PDUs into/from transport block delivered
to/from the physical layer on shared dedicated transport channels (used for soft
handover)
• L1 function: macro diversity distribution/combining (centralized multipoint termination)
• Selection of the appropriate transport format for each transport channel depending upon
the instantaneous source rate — collocate with RRC
• Priority handling between data flows of one user
. Basic inter-RNC mobility support
• Support of SRNC relocation
• Support of inter-RNC cell and UTRAN registration area update
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• Support of inter-RNC packet paging


• Reporting of protocol errors
2. Dedicated channel traffic support
• Establishment, modification, and release of a dedicated channel in the
DRNC due to hard and soft handoff in the dedicated channel state
• Setup and release of dedicated transport connections across the Iur interface
• Transfer of DCH transport blocks between SRNC and DRNC
• Management of radio links in the DRNS via dedicated measurement report
procedures and power setting procedures

ww
w.E
asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
e

Fig. 4.9 Protocol structure of lur interface

3. Common channel traffic support


• Setup and release of the transport connection across the Iur for common
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channel data streams


• Splitting of the MAC layer between the SRNC (MAC-d) and DRNC
(MAC-c and MAC-sh); the scheduling for downlink data transmission is
performed in the DRNC
• Flow control between the MAC-d and MAC-c/MAC-sh
4. Global resource management support
• Transfer of cell measurements between two RNCs
• Transfer of Node B timing between two RNCs
lub Interface
• The connection between the RNC and Node B is the Iub interface. There is one
Iub interface for each Node B. The Iub interface is used for all of the
communications between Node B and the RNC of the same RNS. Three

ww different protocol planes are defined for it.


• • Radio network control plane (RNCP)
• • Transport network control plane (TNCP)

w.E
• • User plane (UP)

asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
e

Fig. 4.10 Protocol structure of lur interface

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The Iub interface is used to carry:


• Information for the general control of Node B for radio network operation on RNCP
• Information for the control of radio resources in the context of specifi service request of
one mobile on RNCP
• Information for the control of a transport network used within UTRAN on TCNP
• User CC and MM signaling message on RNCP
• User voice and packet data information on UP
The protocols used on this interface include:
• Node B application part protocol (NBAP)
• DCH frame protocol (DCHFP)

ww
• RACH frame protocol (RACHFP)
• FACH frame protocol (FACHFP)
• Access link control application part (ALCAP)
• Q.aal2
w.E
D
• SSCP or TCP and IP
• MTP3-B
asy
• SAAL-UNI (SSCF-UNI, SSCOP, and AAL5)

E
When using multiple low-speed links in the Iub interface, Node B supports inverse

ngi
multiplexing for ATM (IMA). The bearer is AAL2. The protocol structure for the
A
interface Iub is shown in Figure 15.27.
Uu Interface
nee
The UMTS Uu interface is the radio interface between a Node B and one of its UE. The
Uu is the interface through which UE accesses the fixed part of the system.

rin
SC
Distribution of UTRAN Functions
Located in the RNC
• Radio resource control (L3 Function)
g.n
• Radio link control (RLC)
• Macro diversity combining
• Active cell set modification
e
• Assign transport format combination set (centralized data base function)
 Multiplexing/demultiplexing of higher layer PDUs into/from transport block delivered
to/from the physical layer on shared dedicated transport channels (used for soft
handover)
• L1 function: macro diversity distribution/combining (centralized multipoint termination)
• Selection of the appropriate transport format for each transport channel depending upon
the instantaneous source rate — collocate with RRC
• Priority handling between data flows of one user

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ww
w.E
asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
Fig. 4.11 Protocol structure of lub interface

Located in Node B
e
• Scheduling of broadcast, paging, and notification messages; location in Node B — to
reduce data repetition over Iub and reduce RNC CPU load and memory space
• Collision resolution on RACH (in Node B — to reduce nonconstructive traffic over Iub
interface and reduce round trip delay)
• Multiplexing/demultiplexing of higher layer PDUs to/from transport blocks delivered
to/from the physical layer on common transport channels

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4. Explain in detail about UMTS Core Network Architecture.


UMTS Core Network Architecture

Figure shows the UMTS core network (UCN) in relation to all otherentities
within the UMTS network and all of the interfaces to the associated
networks. The UCN consists of a CS entity for providing voice and CS data
services and a PS entity for providing packet-based services. The logical
architecture offers a clear separation between the CS domain and PS

domain. The CS domain contains the functional entities: mobile switching

ww center (MSC) and gateway MSC (GMSC) (see Figure 15.28). The PS
domain comprises the functional entities: serving GPRS support node

w.E
(SGSN), gateway GPRS support node (GGSN), domain name server

D
(DNS), dynamic host configuration protocol (DHCP) server, packet

asy
charging gateway, and firewalls. The core network can be split into the
following different functional areas:

En
A gin
• Functional entities needed to support PS services (e.g. 3G-SGSN, 3G-
GGSN)

e
• Functional entities needed to support CS services (e.g. 3G-MSC/VLR)
eri
• Functional entities common to both types of services (e.g. 3G-HLR)

ng.
SC
Other areas that can be considered part of the core network include:
• Network management systems (billing and provisioning, service manage-
ment, element management, etc.)
n
• IN system (service control point (SCP), service signaling point (SSP), etc.)
• ATM/SDH/IP switch/transport infrastructure
e
Figure 15.29 shows all the entities that connect to the core network —
UTRAN, PSTN, the Internet and the logical connections between
terminal equipment (MS,UE), and the PSTN/Internet.

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ww
w.E
asy
D
Fig. 4.12 UMTS Core Network Archtecture

En
A gin
e eri
ng.
SC
n e

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ww
w.E
asy
En
D
A gin
e eri
Fig. 4.13 Logical architecture of the UMTS Core Network

ng.
SC
4.1 3G-MSC

3G-MSC also provides the necessary control and corresponding


n
The 3G-MSC is the main CN element to provide CS services. The

signaling interfaces including SS7, MAP, ISUP (ISDN user part), etc. e
The 3G MSC provides the interconnection to external networks like
PSTN and ISD N. The following functionality is provided by the 3G-
MSC:
 Mobility management: Handles attach, authentication, updates to the
HLR, SRNS relocation, and intersystems handover.
 Call management: Handles call set-up messages from/to the UE.
 Supplementary services: Handles call-related supplementary services
such as call waiting, etc.
 CS data services: The IWF provides rate adaptation and message

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translation for circuit mode data services, such as fax.


 Vocoding
 SS7, MAP and RANAP interfaces: The 3G-MSC is able to complete
originating or terminating calls in the network in interaction with other
entities of a mobile network, e.g., HLR, AUC (Authentication center). It
also controls/ communicates with RNC using RANAP which may use
the services of SS7.
 ATM/AAL2 Connection to UTRAN for transportation of user plane
traffic across the Iu interface. Higher rate CS data rates may be
supported using a different adaptation layer.
ww
 Short message services (SMS): This functionality allows the user to
send and receive SMS data to and from the SMS-GMSC/SMS-

w.E

D
IWMSC (Inter working MSC).
 VLR functionality: VLR is a database that may be located within the

asy
3G-MSC and can serve as intermediate storage for subscriber data in
order to support subscriber mobility.

En
IN and CAMEL.

A gin
OAM (operation, administration, and maintenance) agent functionality.

4.2 3G-SGSN
e eri
The 3G-SGSN is the main CN element for PS services. The

ng.
SC
3G-SGSN provides the necessary control functionality both toward the
UE and the 3G-GGSN. It also provides the appropriate signaling and

the 3G-GGSN, SS7 toward the HLR/EIR/AUC andTCP/IP or SS7


toward the UTRAN.
n
data interfaces including connection to an IP-based network toward

e
The 3G-SGSN provides the following functions:
• Session management: Handles session set-up messages from/to the
UE and the GGSN and operates Admission Control and QoS
mechanisms.
• Iu and Gn MAP interface: The 3G-SGSN is able to complete originating
or terminating sessions in the network by interaction with other entities
of a mobile network, e.g., GGSN, HLR, AUC. It also
controls/communicates with UTRAN using RANAP.
• ATM/AAL5 physical connection to the UTRAN for transportation of user

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data plane traffic across the Iu interface using GPRS tunneling


protocol (GTP).
• Connection across the Gn interface toward the GGSN for transportation
of user plane traffic using GTP. Note that no physical transport layer is
defined for this interface.
• SMS: This functionality allows the user to send and receive SMS data to
and from the SMS-GMSC /SMS-IWMSC.
• Mobility management: Handles attach, authentication, updates to the
HLR and SRNS relocation, and intersystem handover.
• Subscriber database functionality: This database (similar to the VLR) is
ww located within the 3G-SGSN and serves as intermediate storage for
subscriber data to support subscriber mobility.

w.E

D
 Charging: The SGSN collects charging information related to radio network
usage by the user.

asy
• OAM agent functionality.

4.3 3G-GGSN
En
A gin
The GGSN provides interworking with the external PS network.
It is connected with SGSN via an IP-based network. The GGSN may

terminated packet sessions. e


optionally support an SS7 interface with the HLR to handle mobile

eri
ng.
SC
The 3G-GGSN provides the following functions:
• Maintain information locations at SGSN level (macro-mobility)

(e.g. IP, X.25) n


• Gateway between UMTS packet network and external data networks

• Gateway-specific access methods to intranet (e.g. PPP termination) e


• Initiate mobile terminate Route Mobile Terminated packets
• User data screening/security can include subscription based, user
controlled, or network controlled screening.
• User level address allocation: The GGSN may have to allocate
(depending on subscription) a dynamic address to the UE upon PDP
context activation. This functionality may be carried out by use of the
DHCP function.
• Charging: The GGSN collects charging information related to external
data network usage by the user.

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• OAM functionality

4.4 SMS-GMSC/SMS-IWMSC
The overall requirement for these two nodes is to handle the
SMS from point to point. The functionality required can be split into
two parts. The SMS-GMSC is an MSC capable of receiving a
terminated short message from a service center, interrogating an HLR
for routing information and SMS information, and delivering the short
message to the SGSN of the recipient UE. The SMS-GMSC provides
the following functions:
ww • Reception of short message packet data unit (PDU)

w.E

D
• Interrogation of HLR for routing information
• Forwarding of the short message PDU to the MSC or SGSN using the

asy
routing information
The SMS-IWMSC is an MSC capable of receiving an originating short

En
message from within the PLMN and submitting it to the recipient
service center.
A gin
The SMS-IWMSC provides the following functions:

MSC e
• Reception of the short message PDU from either the 3G-SGSN or 3G-

eri
ng.
SC
Establishing a link with the addressed service center
• Transferring the short message PDU to the service center

n
Note: The service center is a function that is responsible for relaying,
storing, and forwarding a short message. The service center is not
part of UCN, although the MSC and the service center may be e
integrated.
4.5 Firewall
This entity is used to protect the service providers’ backbone
data networks from attack from external packet data networks. The
security of the backbone data network can be ensured by applying
packet filtering mechanisms based on access control lists or any other
methods deemed suitable.
4.6 DNS/DHCP
The DNS server is used, as in any IP network, to translate host

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names into IP addresses, i.e., logical names are handled instead of


raw IP addresses. Also, the DNS server is used to translate the
access point name (APN) into the GGSN IP address. It may optionally
be used to allow the UE to use logical names instead of physical IP
addresses.
A dynamic host configuration protocol server is used to manage the
allocation of IP configuration information by automatically assigning IP
addresses to systems configured to use DHCP.

ww
5. Discuss in detail about High-Speed Downlink Packet

w.E
Access (HSDPA)

D
In third-generation partnership project (3GPP) standards,

asy
Release 4 specifications provide efficient IP support enabling
provision of services through an all-IP core network (see Figures

En
15.32 and 15.33). Release 5 specifications focus on HSDPA to
A
provide data rates up to approximately 8–10 Mbps to support packet-
gin
based multimedia services. Multi input and multi output (MIMO)
systems are the work item in Release 6 specifications, which will
e eri
support even higher data transmission rates of up to 20 Mbps. HSDPA
is evolved from and backward compatible with Release 99 WCDMA
ng.
SC
systems.

(HDR) to improve spectral efficiency for data services — such as


shared downlink packet data channel and high peak data rates —
n
HSDPA is based on the same set of technologies as high data rate

e
using high-order modulation and adaptive modulation and coding,
hybrid ARQ (HARQ) retransmission schemes, fast scheduling and
shorter frame sizes.
HSDPA marks a similar boost for WCDMA that EDGE does for GSM.
It provides a two-fold increase in air interface capacity and a five-fold
increase in data speeds in the downlink direction. HSDPA also
shortens the round-trip time between the network and terminals and
reduces variance in downlink transmission delay. The improvements
in performance are achieved by:

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• Bringing some key functions, such as scheduling of data packet


transmission and processing of retransmissions (in case of
transmission errors) into the base station — that is, closer to the air
interface.
• Using a short frame length to further accelerate packet scheduling for
transmission.
• Employing incremental redundancy for minimizing the air-interface load
caused by retransmissions.
• Adopting a new transport channel type, known as high-speed downlink
ww shared channel (HS-DSCH) to facilitate air interface channel sharing
between several users.

w.E

D
• Adapting the modulation and coding scheme according to the quality of
the radio link

asy
En
A gin
e eri
ng.
SC
n e

Fig. 4.14 A Simplified all-IP UMTS Architecture

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ww
w.E
asy
En
D
A gin
Fig. 4.15 All-IP core network architecture for UMTS

e eri
The primary objective behind HSDPA is to provide a cost-effective, high

ng.
SC
bandwidth, low-delay, packet-oriented service within UMTS. Backward
compatibility is critical, so the HSDPA architecture adheres to an

a straightforward enhancement of the UMTS Release ’99 (R99) n


evolutionary philosophy. From an architectural perspective, HSDPA is

architecture, with the addition of a repetition/scheduling entity within e


the Node B that resides below the R99 media-access control (MAC)
layer. From a cellular-network perspective, all R99 techniques can be
supported in a network supporting HSDPA, since HSDPA mobile
terminals (UEs) are designed to coexist with R99 UEs. HSDPA is
particularly suited to extremely asymmetrical data services, which
require significantly higher data rates for the transmission from the
network to the UE, than they do for the transmission from the UE to
the network.
HSDPA introduces enablers for the high-speed transmission at the

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physical layer like the use of a shorter transmission time interval (TTI)
(2 ms), and the use of adaptive modulation and coding. HS-DPCCH is
used to carry the acknowledgment signals to Node B for each block. It
is also used to indicate channel quality (CQI) used for adaptive
modulation and coding. HS-DSCH uses 2 ms TTI to reduce trip time,
to increase the granularity in the scheduling process, and to track the
time varying radio channel better.
The basic operational principles behind HSDPA are relatively simple.
The RNC routes data packets destined for a particular UE to the
appropriate Node B. Node B takes the data packets and schedules
ww
their transmission to the mobile terminal over the air interface by
matching the user’s priority and estimated channel operating

w.E

D
environment with an appropriately chosen coding and modulation
scheme (that is, 16-QAM vs. QPSK).

asy
The UE is responsible for acknowledging receipt of the data packet
and providing Node B with information regarding channel condition,

En
power control, and so on. Once it sends the data packet to the UE,
A gin
Node B waits for an acknowledgment. If it does not receive one within
a prescribed time, it assumes that the data packet was lost and
retransmits it.
e eri
HSDPA continuously strives, with some modest constraints, to give

ng.
SC
the maximal bandwidth to the user with the best channel conditions.
The data rates achievable with HSDPA are more than adequate for

n
supporting multimedia streaming services (refer to Table 15.10).
Although conceptually simple, HSDPA’s implementation within the
context of a Node B does raise some architectural issues for the e
designer. In a typical network deployment, the Node B radio cabinet
sits in proximity to the radio tower and the power cabinet. For indoor
deployments the radio cabinet may be a simple rack, while in outdoor
deployments it may be an environmental-control unit. The guts of the
radio cabinet are an antenna interface section (filters, power
amplifiers, and the like), core processing chassis (RF transceivers,
combiner, high performance channel cards, network interface and
system controller card, timingcard, back-plane, and so on), plus
mechatronics (power supply, fans, cables, etc.) and other

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miscellaneous elements. The core processing chassis is the


cornerstone of Node B and bears most of the cost. It contains the RF
transceiver, combiner, network interface and system controller, timing
card, channel card and backplane. Of the core processing chassis
elements, only the channel card needs to be modified to support
HSDPA.

ww
w.E
asy
En
Table. 4.1 HSDPA Data Rates

D
A gin
The typical UMTS channel card comprises a general-purpose
processor that handles the miscellaneous control tasks, a pool of
e eri
digital signal processor (DSP) resources to handle symbol-rate
processing and chip-rate assist functions, and a pool of specialized

ng.
SC
ASIC (application specific intergrated circuit) devices to handle
intensive chip-rate operations such as spreading, scrambling,
modulation, rake receiving, and preamble detection.
n
To support HSDPA, two changes must be made to the channel card. e
First, the downlink chip-rate ASIC must be modified to support the
new 16-QAM modulation schemes and new downlink slot formats
associated with HSDPA. In addition, the downlink symbol-rate
processing section must be modified to support HSDPA extensions.
The next change requires a new processing section, called the MAC-
hs, which must be added to the channel card to support the
scheduling, buffering, transmission, and retransmission of data blocks
that are received from the RNC. This is the most intrusive
augmentation to the channel card because it requires the introduction

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of a programmable processing entity together with a retransmission


buffer.
Since the channel card already contains both a general-purpose
processor and a DSP, one can make convincing arguments that the
MAC-hs could be effectively realized using either of the two types of
devices. Nonetheless, many designers are finding that, because of the
close ties between the MAC-hs function and the lower-layer symbol
and chip-rate functions, the DSP is the more practical choice.
Simulations have shown that a retransmission buffer of approximately
2.5 Mbits in size is adequate to handle the buffering requirement of a
ww
standard cell with 75 or so users.
The new channels introduced in HSDPA are high-speed downlink

w.E

D
shared channel (HS-DSCH), high-speed shared control channel (HS-
SCCH), and high- speed dedicated physical control channel (HS-

asy
DPCCH). The HS-DSCH is the primary radio bearer. Its resources can
be shared among all users in a particular sector. The primary channel

En
multiplexing occurs in a time domain, where each TTI consists of three
A gin
time slots (each 2 ms). TTI is also referred to as a sub-frame. Within
each 2 ms TTI, a constant spreading factor (SF) of 16 is used for code

e
multiplexing, with a maximum of 15 parallel codes allocated to HS-

eri
DSCH. Codes may all be assigned to one user, or may be split across

ng.
SC
several users. The number of codes allocated to each user depends
on cell loading, QoS requirements, and UE code capabilities (5, 10, or
15 codes).
The HS-SCCH (a fixed rate 960 kbps, SF 128) is used to carry n
downlink signaling between Node B and UE before the beginning of e
each scheduled TTI. It includes UE identity, HARQ-related information
and the parameters of the HS-DSCH transport format selected by the
link-adaptation mechanism. Multiple HS-SCCHs can be configured in
each sector to support parallel HS-DSCH trans- missions. A UE can
be allocated a set of up to four HS-SCCHs, which need to be
monitored continuously.
The HS-DPCCH (SF 256) carries ACK/NACK signaling to indicate
whether the corresponding downlink transmission was successfully
decoded, as well as a channel quality indicator (CQI) to be used for

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the purpose of link adaptation. The CQI is based on a common pilot


channel (CPICH) and is used to estimate the transport block size,
modulation type, and number of channelization codes that can be
supported at a given reliability level in downlink transmission. The
feedback cycle of CQI can be set as a network parameter in
predefined steps of 2 ms.
UE capabilities include the maximum number of HS-DSCHs
supported simultaneously (5, 10, or 15), minimum TTI time (minimum
time between the beginning of two consecutive transmissions to the
UE), the maximum number of HS-DSCH transport block (TB) bits
ww received within an HS-DSCH TTI, the maximum number of soft
channel bits over all HARQ and supported modulations (QPSK only or

w.E

D
both QPSK and 16-QAM). Table 15.11 gives UE categories.

asy
En
6. Explain in detail about LTE network architecture and protocol
A gin
A general overview of the LTE protocol architecture for the downlink is illus-
trated in Figure 15.1. As will become clear in the subsequent discussion,

e
not all the entities illustrated in Figure 15.1 are applicable in all situations.
eri
For example, neither MAC scheduling, nor hybrid ARQ with soft combining,

ng.
SC
is used for broad- cast of system information. Furthermore, the LTE
protocol structure related to uplink transmissions is similar to the downlink

transport format selection and multi-antenna transmission as will be


discussed.
n
structure in Figure 15.1, although there are differences with respect to

e
Data to be transmitted in the downlink enters in the form of IP packets on one
of the SAE bearers. Prior to transmission over the radio interface, incoming
IP packets are passed through multiple protocol entities, summarized below
and described in more detail in the following sections:

• Packet Data Convergence Protocol (PDCP) performs IP header


compression to reduce the number of bits necessary to transmit over

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the radio interface.


The header-compression mechanism is based on ROHC [64], a
standardized header-compression algorithm used in WCDMA as well
as several other mobile-communication standards. PDCP is also
responsible for ciphering and integrity protection of the transmitted data.
At the receiver side, the PDCP pro- tocol performs the corresponding
deciphering and decompression operations. There is one PDCP entity
per radio bearer configured for a mobile terminal.
• Radio Link Control (RLC) is responsible for

wwsegmentation/concatenation, retransmission handling, and in-sequence


delivery to higher layers. Unlike WCDMA, the RLC protocol is located in
the eNodeB since there is only a sin- gle type of node in the LTE radio-
w.E

D
access-network architecture. The RLC offers services to the PDCP in
the form of radio bearers. There is one RLC entity per radio bearer

asy
configured for a terminal.
• Medium Access Control (MAC) handles hybrid-ARQ retransmissions

En
and uplink and downlink scheduling. The scheduling functionality is
A gin
located in the eNodeB, which has one MAC entity per cell, for both
uplink and downlink.

e eri
The hybrid-ARQ protocol part is present in both the transmitting and
receiving end of the MAC protocol. The MAC offers services to the RLC

ng.
SC
in the form of logical channels.
• Physical Layer (PHY), handles coding/decoding,
modulation/demodulation, multi-antenna mapping, and other typical
n
physical layer functions. The physical layer offers services to the MAC e
layer in the form of transport channels.

The following sections contain a more detailed description of the LTE RLC
and MAC protocols. An overview of the physical layer as seen from the
MAC layer is also provided, while the full details of the LTE physical layer
are captured in Chapter 16. Additional details can be found in the LTE
specification [110] and references therein.

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RLC: radio link control


The LTE RLC is, similar to WCDMA/HSPA, responsible for segmentation of
(header-compressed) IP packets, also known as RLC SDUs, from the
PDCP into smaller units, RLC PDUs.2 It also handles retransmission of
erroneously received PDUs, as well as duplicate removal and
concatenation of received PDUs. Finally, RLC ensures in-sequence
delivery of RLC SDUs to upper layers.

ww
w.E
asy
En
D
A gin
e eri
ng.
SC
n e

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ww
w.E
asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
Fig. 4.16 LTE protocol architecture (Downlink)
The RLC retransmission mechanism is responsible for providing error-free deliv- ery of

rin
SC
data to higher layers. To accomplish this, a retransmission protocol operates between the
RLC entities in the receiver and transmitter. By monitoring the incom- ing sequence
numbers, the receiving RLC can identify missing PDUs.
g.n
Status reports are fed back to the transmitting RLC, requesting retransmission of

e
missing PDUs. When to feedback a status report is configurable, but a report typically con-
tains information about multiple PDUs and is transmitted relatively infrequently. Based on
the received status report, the RLC entity at the transmitter can take the appropriate
action and retransmit the missing PDUs if requested.
When the RLC is configured to request retransmissions of missing PDUs as described
above, it is said to be operating in Acknowledged Mode (AM). This is similar to the
corresponding mechanism used in WCDMA/HSPA. AM is typically used for TCP-based
services such as file transfer where error-free data delivery is of primary interest.
Similarly to WCDMA/HSPA, the RLC can also be configured in Unacknowledged Mode
(UM) and Transparent Mode (TM). In UM, in-sequence delivery to higher layers is
provided, but no retransmissions of missing PDUs are requested. UM is typically used
for services such as VoIP where error-free delivery is of less importance compared to

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short delivery time. TM, although supported, is only used for specific purposes such as
random access.

Fig. 4.17 RLC segmentation and concatenation.

Although the RLC is capable of handling transmission errors due to noise, unpre-
dictable channel variations, etc, this is in most cases handled by the MAC-based

ww
hybrid-ARQ protocol. The use of a retransmission mechanism in the RLC may
therefore seem superfluous at first. However, as will be discussed in Section 15.2.4

w.E
below, this is not the case and the use of both RLC and MAC-based retransmission
mechanisms is in fact well motivated by the differences in the feedback signaling.

asy
D
In addition to retransmission handling and in-sequence delivery, the RLC is also
responsible for segmentation and concatenation as illustrated in Figure 15.2.

E
Depending on the scheduler decision, a certain amount of data is selected for

ngi
A
transmission from the RLC SDU buffer and the SDUs are segmented/concatenated to
create the RLC PDU. Thus, for LTE the RLC PDU size varies dynamically, whereas

nee
WCDMA/HSPA prior to Release 7 uses a semi-static PDU size.3 For high data rates, a
large PDU size results in a smaller relative overhead, while for low data rates, a small

rin
PDU size is required as the payload would otherwise be too large. Hence, as the LTE
SC
data rates may range from a few kbit/s to well above one hundred Mbit/s, dynamic PDU

g.n
sizes are motivated for LTE. Since the RLC, scheduler and rate adaptation
mechanisms are all located in the eNodeB, dynamic PDU sizes are easily sup ported
for LTE.

MAC: medium access control


e
The Medium Access Control (MAC) layer handles logical-channel multiplexing, hybrid-
ARQ retransmissions, and uplink and downlink scheduling. In contrast to HSPA, which
uses uplink macro-diversity and therefore defines both serving and non-serving cells
(see Chapter 10), LTE only defines a serving cell as there is no uplink macro-diversity.
The serving cell is the cell the mobile terminal is connected to and the cell that is
responsible for scheduling and hybrid-ARQ operation.

Logical channels and transport channels


The MAC offers services to the RLC in the form of logical channels. A logical channel is
defined by the type of information it carries and are generally classified into control
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channels, used for transmission of control and configuration informa- tion necessary for
operating an LTE system, and traffic channels, used for the user data. The set of logical-
channel types specified for LTE includes:

• Broadcast Control Channel (BCCH), used for transmission of system control


information from the network to all mobile terminals in a cell. Prior to accessing the
system, a mobile terminal needs to read the information transmitted on the BCCH to
find out how the system is configured, for example the bandwidth of the system.
• Paging Control Channel (PCCH), used for paging of mobile terminals whose location
on cell level is not known to the network and the paging message therefore needs to
be transmitted in multiple cells.
• Dedicated Control Channel (DCCH), used for transmission of control informa- tion

ww
to/from a mobile terminal. This channel is used for individual configuration of mobile
terminals such as different handover messages.
• Multicast Control Channel (MCCH), used for transmission of control informa- tion

w.E
required for reception of the MTCH, see below.

D
• Dedicated Traffic Channel (DTCH), used for transmission of user data to/from a mobile

asy
terminal. This is the logical channel type used for transmission of all uplink and non-
MBMS downlink user data.

E
• Multicast Traffic Channel (MTCH), used for downlink transmission of MBMS services.

ngi
A
A similar logical-channel structure is used for WCDMA/HSPA. However, compared to

nee
WCDMA/HSPA, the LTE logical-channel structure is somewhat simplified, with a
reduced number of logical-channel types.

rin
From the physical layer, the MAC layer uses services in the form of Transport Channels.
SC
A transport channel is defined by how and with what characteristics the information is

g.n
transmitted over the radio interface. Following the notation from HSPA, which has been
inherited for LTE, data on a transport channel is organized into transport blocks. In each

e
Transmission Time Interval (TTI), at most one transport block of a certain size is
transmitted over the radio interface in absenceof spatial multiplexing. In case of spatial
multiplexing (‘MIMO’), there can be up to two transport blocks per TTI.

Associated with each transport block is a Transport Format (TF), specifying how the
transport block is to be transmitted over the radio interface. The transport format includes
information about the transport-block size, the modulation scheme, and the antenna
mapping. Together with the resource assignment, the resulting code rate can be derived
from the transport format. By varying the transport format, the MAC layer can thus
realize different data rates. Rate control is therefore also known as transport-format
selection.
The set of transport-channel types specified for LTE includes:

• Broadcast Channel (BCH) has a fixed transport format, provided by the spec-
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ifications. It is used for transmission of the information on the BCCH logical channel.
• Paging Channel (PCH) is used for transmission of paging information on the PCCH
logical channel. The PCH supports discontinuous reception (DRX) to allow the mobile
terminal to save battery power by sleeping and waking up to receive the PCH only at
predefined time instants. The paging mechanism is described in somewhat more
details in Chapter 17.
• Downlink Shared Channel (DL-SCH) is the transport channel used for trans- mission
of downlink data in LTE. It supports LTE features such as dynamic rate adaptation and
channel-dependent scheduling in the time and frequency domains, hybrid ARQ, and
spatial multiplexing. It also supports DRX to reduce mobile-terminal power
consumption while still providing an always- on experience, similar to the CPC
mechanism in HSPA. The DL-SCH TTI is 1 ms.

ww
Multicast Channel (MCH) is used to support MBMS. It is characterized by a semi-
static transport format and semi-static scheduling. In case of multi-cell transmission
using MBSFN, the scheduling and transport format configuration is coordinated among

w.E
the cells involved in the MBSFN transmission.

D
• Uplink Shared Channel (UL-SCH) is the uplink counterpart to the DL-SCH.

asy
Part of the MAC functionality is multiplexing of different logical channels and mapping of

E
the logical channels to the appropriate transport channels. Unlike the MAC-hs in

ngi
A
HSDPA,4 the MAC in LTE supports multiplexing of RLC PDUs from different radio
bearers into the same transport block.

nee
rin
SC

g.n
e
Fig. 4.18 Example of mapping of logical channels to transport channels.

As there is some relation between the type of information and the way it should be
transmitted, there are certain restrictions in the mapping of logical channels to transport
chan- nels. An example of mapping of logical channels to transport channels is given in
Figure 15.3. Other mappings may also be envisioned.
PHY: physical layer
The physical layer is responsible for coding, physical-layer hybrid-ARQ pro- cessing,
modulation, multi-antenna processing, and mapping of the signal to the appropriate
physical time-frequency resources. A simplified overview of the pro- cessing for the DL-
SCH is given in Figure 15.7. Physical-layer blocks which are dynamically controlled by
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the MAC layer are shown in grey, while semi-statically configured physical-layer blocks
are shown in white.

When a mobile terminal is scheduled during a TTI on the DL-SCH, the phys- ical layer
receives one transport block (two transport blocks in case of spatial
multiplexing) of data to transmit. To each transport block, a CRC is attached and each
such CRC-attached transport block is separately coded. The channel coding rate,
including the rate matching necessary, is implicitly determined by the transport-block size,
the modulation scheme, and the amount of resources assigned for transmission. All these
quantities are selected by the downlink scheduler. The redundancy version to use is
controlled by the hybrid-ARQ protocol and affects the rate-matching processing to
generate the correct set of coded bits. Finally, in case of spatial multiplexing, the

ww
antenna mapping is also under control of the downlink scheduler.

w.E
asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
e
Fig. 4.19 Simplified physical-layer processing for DL-SCH.

The scheduled mobile terminal receives the transmitted signal and performs the reverse
physical-layer processing. The physical layer at the mobile terminal also informs the
hybrid-ARQ protocol whether the transmission was successfully decoded or not. This
information is used by the MAC part of the hybrid-ARQ functionality in the mobile
terminal to determine whether a retransmission shall be requested or not.

The physical-layer processing for the UL-SCH follows closely the processing for the DL-
SCH. However, note that the MAC scheduler in the eNodeB is responsible for selecting
the mobile terminal transport format and resources to be used for uplink transmission as

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described in Section 15.2.3. The UL-SCH physical layer processing is shown, in


simplified form, in Figure 15.8.

LTE states
In LTE, a mobile terminal can be in several different states as illustrated in Figure 15.9.
At power-up, the mobile terminal enters the LTE_DETACHED state. In this state, the
mobile terminal is not known to the network. Before any fur- ther communication can
take place between the mobile terminal and the network, the mobile terminal need to
register with the network using the random-access
procedure to enter the LTE_ACTIVE state. LTE_DETACHED is mainly a state used at
power-up; once the mobile terminal has registered with the network, it is typically in one
of the other states, LTE_ACTIVE or LTE_IDLE.

ww
w.E
asy
E D
ngi
A
Fig. 4.20 LTE States
nee
rin
SC
LTE_ACTIVE is the state used when the mobile terminal is active with transmitting and
receiving data. In this state, the mobile terminal is connected to a specific cell within the

g.n
network. One or several IP addresses have been assigned to the mobile terminal, as well
as an identity of the terminal, the Cell Radio-Network Temporary Identifier (C-RNTI), used
for signaling purposes between the mobile terminal and the network.
e
LTE_ACTIVE can be said to have two substates, IN_SYNC and OUT_OF_SYNC,
depending on whether the uplink is synchronized to the network or not. Since LTE uses an
orthogonal FDMA/TDMA-based uplink, it is necessary to synchronize the uplink
transmission from different mobile terminals such that they arrive at the eNodeB at
(approximately) the same time. The procedure for obtaining and maintaining uplink
synchronization is described in Chapter 16, but in short the eNodeB measures the arrival
time of the transmissions from each actively transmitting mobile terminal and sends
timing-correction commands in the downlink. As long as the uplink is in IN_SYNC, uplink
transmission of user data and L1/L2 control signaling is possible. In case no uplink
transmission has taken place within a given time window, timing alignment is obviously not
possible and the uplink is declared to be OUT-OF-SYNC. In this case, the mobile terminal
needs to perform a random-access procedure to restore uplink synchronization.

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LTE_IDLE is a low activity state in which the mobile terminal sleeps most of the time in
order to reduce battery consumption. Uplink synchronization is not maintained and
hence the only uplink transmission activity that may take place is random access to move
to LTE_ACTIVE. In the downlink, the mobile terminal can periodically wake up in order to be
paged for incoming calls as described in Chapter
17. The mobile terminal keeps its IP address(es) and other internal information in order
to rapidly move to LTE_ACTIVE when necessary. The position of the mobile terminal is
partially known to the network such that the network knows at least the group of cells in
which paging of the mobile terminal is to be done.

Data flow
To summarize the flow of downlink data through all the protocol layers, an example

ww
illustration for a case with three IP packets, two on one radio bearer and one on another
radio bearer, is given in Figure 15.10. The data flow in case of uplink transmission is
similar. The PDCP performs (optional) IP header compression, followed by ciphering. A

w.E
PDCP header is added, carrying information required for deciphering in the mobile

D
terminal. The output from the PDCP is fed to the RLC.

asy
E ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
Fig. 4.21 Example for LTE data flow
e
The RLC protocol performs concatenation and/or segmentation of the PDCP SDUs and
adds an RLC header. The header is used for in-sequence delivery (per logical channel) in
the mobile terminal and for identification of RLC PDUs in case of retransmissions. The
RLC PDUs are forwarded to the MAC layer, which takes a number of RLC PDUs,
assembles those into a MAC SDU, and attaches the MAC header to form a transport
block. The transport-block size depends on the instantaneous data rate selected by the
link adaptation mechanism. Thus, the link adaptation affects both the MAC and RLC
processing. Finally, the physical layer attaches a CRC to the transport block for error-
detection purposes, performs coding and modulation, and transmits the resulting signal
over the air.

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UNIT – V

4G NETWORKS

Introduction – 4G vision – 4G features and challenges - Applications of 4G – 4G


Technologies: Multicarrier Modulation, Smart antenna techniques, OFDM-MIMO
systems, Adaptive Modulation and coding with time slot scheduler, Cognitive Radio.

Part – A

1. Compare key parameters of 4G with 3G.

wwDetails
3G including 2.5G
(EDGE) 4G

w.E
Major requirement Predominantly voice

D
driving driven, Converge data and voice

architecture
Network asy data was always add
on over IP

architecture
E Wide area cell-based

ngi
Hybrid-integration of
A WLAN (WiFi, Bluetooth)
and wireless wide-area

Speeds 384 kbps to 2 Mbps


nee networks
20 to 100 Mbps in mobile
mode

rin
SC
Dependent on country
Frequency band or Higher frequency bands
continent (1.8 to 2.4
GHz) g.n
(2 to 8 GHz)
Bandwidth
Switching design
basis
5 to 20 MHz

Circuit and packet e


100 MHz or more

All digital with packetized


voice
Access
technologies WCDMA, cdma2000 OFDM and multicarrier
(MC)-CDMA
Convolutional codes
Forward error rate 1/2,
1/
correction 3 Concatenated coding
schemes
Component Optimized antenna
design design, Smart antenna, software-
multiband adapters defined multiband and
wideband radios
Internet protocol Number of airlink All IP (IPv6.0)
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(IP) protocol
including IPv5.0
Mobile top speed 200 km/h 200 km/h

2.What are the key features of 4G?


 High usability: anytime, anywhere, and with any technology

 Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost

 Personalization

ww Integrated services

w.E
3.What are the applications of 4G?

D
The following are some of the applications of the 4G system:

asy
Virtual presence — 4G will provide user services at all times, even if the user is
off-site.

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Virtual navigation — 4G will provide users with virtual navigation through which a
user can access a database of streets, buildings, etc., of a large city. This
requires high speed transmission.
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Tele-medicine — 4G will support the remote health monitoring of patients via

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SC
video conference assistance for a doctor at anytime and anywhere.

g.n
Tele-geo-processing applications — 4G will combine geographical informa-tion

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systems (GIS) and global positioning systems (GPS) in which a user will get
location querying.
Education — 4G will provide a good opportunity to people anywhere in the world
to continue their education on-line in a cost-effective manner.
4. What is multi carrier modulation(MCM)?
Multicarrier modulation (MCM) is a derivative of frequency-division multiplexing.
MCM is a baseband process that uses parallel equal bandwidth subchannels to
transmit information and is normally implemented with fast Fourier transform (FFT)
techniques.
5. What is MIMO system?
Multiple Input Multiple Output System
We get a linear increase in capacity with respect to the transmitting antennas.
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6.What is meant by MAGIC?


4G is described as MAGIC —Mobile multimedia, Anytime anywhere, Global mobility
support, Integrated wirelesssolution, and Customized personal service.

7. What is OFDM?
Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing.
The OFDM-MIMO system transmits independent OFDM modulated data from
multiple antennas simultaneously. At the receiver, after OFDM demodulation, MIMO
decodes each subchannel to extract data from all transmit antennas on all the

ww subchannels.

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8.How high throughput is achieved through Adaptive Modulation and Coding
with Time-Slot Scheduler?

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E D
High throughput is achieved by using a suitable automatic repeat request (ARQ)
scheme combined with an adaptive modulation and coding sys-tem, and a time-slot
scheduler that uses channel predictions.

ngi
A
This way, the lower layers are adapted to channel conditions while still providing

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some robustness through retransmission. The time-slot scheduler shares the
spectrum efficiently between users while satisfying the QoS requirements.

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9. List some of the new technologies tha will be used by 4G system.
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OFDM-MIMO
BLAST – Space division Multiplexing SDO-MIMO g.n
10. What is Cognitive Radio? e
The Cognitive Radio focuses on applying software capabilities that have been
developed to sup-port algorithm control across a wide spectrum of signal
processing technologies to add smarts to the software that allows it to determine
when frequencies are free to use and then use them in the most efficient manner
possible.

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Part – B

1. Explain 4G Features and Challenges.

Some key features (primarily from users’ points of view) of 4G mobile networks are
as follows:

 High usability: anytime, anywhere, and with any technology


 Support for multimedia services at low transmission cost
 Personalization
 Integrated services
4G networks will be all-IP-based heterogeneous networks that will allow users to

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use any system at anytime and anywhere.
Users carrying an integrated terminal can use a wide range of applications
provided by multiple wireless networks.

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4G systems will provide not only telecommunications services, but also data and

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multimedia services.

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To support multimedia services, high-data-rate ser-vices with system reliability will
be provided. At the same time, a low per-bit transmission cost will be maintained by an

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improved spectral efficiency of the system.

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Personalized service will be provided by 4G networks. It is expected that when 4G
A
services are launched, users in widely different locations, occupations, and economic

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classes will use the services.

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SC

g.n
e
Fig:4G Features

In order to meet the demands of these diverse users, service providers will design
personal and customized service for them. 4G systems will also provide facilities for
integrated services.
Users can use multiple services from any service provider at the same time.
To migrate current systems to 4G with the above-mentioned features, we have to face
a number of challenges. Table lists the key challenges and their proposed solutions
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Table : 4G Key challenges and their proposed solutions.

Key challenges Proposed solutions

Mobile Station

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w.E
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g.n
e

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System

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w.E
asy
E D
ngi
A
nee
rin
SC

g.n
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Multi Carrier Modulation.

Multicarrier modulation (MCM) is a derivative of frequency-division multiplexing. It is


not a new technology. Forms of multicarrier systems are currently used in DSL
modems and digital audio/video broadcast (DAB/DVB).

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MCM is a baseband process that uses parallel equal bandwidth subchannels to


transmit information and is normally implemented with fast Fourier transform (FFT)
techniques.

MCM’s advantages are better performance in the inter-symbol-interference


environment, and avoidance of single-frequency interferers. However, MCM increases
the peak-to-average ratio of the signal, and to overcome inter-symbol-interference a
cyclic extension or guard band must be added to the data.

The difference, D, of the peak-to-average ratio between MCM and a single carrier
system is a function of the number of subcarriers, N, as:

D(dB) = 10 log N (5.1)

ww Any increase in the peak-to-average ratio of a signal requires an increase in

w.E
linearity of the system to reduce distortion. Linearization techniques can be used, but

D
they increase the cost of the system.

asy
If Lb is the original length of block, and the channel’s response is of length Lc, the
cyclically extended symbol has a new length Lb Lc 1. The new sym-bol of length Lb Lc 1

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sampling periods has no inter-symbol interference.

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The cost is an increase in energy and uncoded bits are added to the data. At the
A
MCM receiver, only Lb samples are processed and Lc 1 samples are discarded,
resulting in a loss in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) as:

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Lb−Lc−1

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SC
(SNR)Loss = 10log (dB) (5.2)
La

g.n
Two different types of MCM are likely candidates for 4G. These include multi carrier
code division multiple access (MC-CDMA) and orthogonal frequency division

actually OFDM with a CDMA overlay. e


multiplexing (OFDM) using time division multiple access (TDMA). (MC-CDMA is

Similar to single-carrier CDMA systems, the users are multiplexed with orthogonal
codes to distinguish users in MC-CDMA.
However, in MC-CDMA, each user can be allocated several codes, where the data
is spread in time or frequency. Either way, multiple users simultaneously access the
system. In OFDM with TDMA, the users are assigned time slots to transmit and receive
data.
Typically MC-CDMA uses quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) for modu-lation,
while OFDM with TDMA could use more high-level modulations, such as multilevel
quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) (where M 4 to 256).

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However, to optimize overall performance, adaptive modulation can be used, where


the level of quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM) for all subcarriers is chosen based
on measured parameters. In OFDM the subcarrier pulse shape is a square wave.
The task of pulse forming and modulation is performed by a simple inverse fast
Fourier transform (IFFT) which can be implemented very efficiently.
To decode the transmission, a receiver needs only to implement FFT.The OFDM
divides a broadband channel into many parallel subchannels. The subchannel pulse
shape is a square wave.
The OFDM receiver senses the channel and corrects distortion on each
subchannel before the transmitted data can be extracted.
In OFDM, each of the frequencies is an integer multiple of a fundamental
frequency.This ensures that even though subchannels overlap, they do not interfere

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with each other.

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3. Explain Smart Antenna Techniques.

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Smart antenna techniques, such as multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)

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systems, can extend the capabilities of the 3G and 4G systems to provide customers
with increased data throughput for mobile high-speed data applications.

E ngi
MIMO systems use multiple antennas at both the transmitter and receiver to
A
increase the capacity of the wireless channel (see Figure 23.7). With MIMO systems, it

nee
may be possible to provide in excess of 1 Mbps for 2.5G wireless TDMA EDGE and as
high as 20 Mbps for 4G systems.

rin
SC
With MIMO, different signals are transmitted out of each antenna simul-taneously in

g.n
the same bandwidth and then separated at the receiver. With four antennas at the
transmitter and receiver this has the potential to provide four times the data rate of a

e
single antenna system without an increase in transmit power or bandwidth.
MIMO techniques can support multiple independent channels in the same
bandwidth, provided the multipath environment is rich enough.

What this means is that high capacities are theoretically possible, unless there is a
direct line-of-sight between the transmitter and receiver.The number of transmitting
antennas is M, and the number of receiving antennas is N, where N M. We examine
four cases:

 Single-Input, Single-Output (SISO)


 Single-Input, Multiple-Output (SIMO)
 Multiple-Input, Single-Output (MISO)
 Multiple-Input, Multiple-Output (MIMO)

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Single-input, single-output: The channel bandwidth is B, the transmitter power is Pt,


the signal at the receiver has an average signal-to-noise ratio of SNR0, then the
Shannon limit on channel capacity C is

C= B log2 (1- SNR0) (5.3)

Single-input, multiple-output: There are N antennas at the receiver. If the signals


received on the antennas have on average the same amplitude, then they can be
added coherently to produce an N2 increase in signal power. There are N sets of
noise sources that are added coherently and result in an N-fold increase in noise
power. Hence, the overall increase in SNR will be:

ww 𝑆𝑁𝑅 =
N2 ×Signal Power
N ×Noise
=
N ×Signal Power
Noise
(5.4)

w.E
The capacity for this channel is approximately equal to

D
C = B log2 (1+ N× SNR0) (5.5)

asy
Multiple-input, single-output: We have M transmitting antennas. The total power is
divided into M transmitter branches. If the signals add coherently at the receiving

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antenna, we get an M-fold increase in SNR as compared to SISO. Because there is

ngi
A
only one receiving antenna, the noise level is same as SISO. The overall increase
in SNR is approximately

M2 [(signal power)/M]
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SNR =
rin (5.6)
SC
noise
g.n
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Multiple-input, multiple-output: MIMO systems can be viewed as a combination of
MISO and SIMO channels. In this case, it is possible to achieve approximately an
MN-fold increase in the average SNR0 giving a channel capacity equal to

C = B log2 (1+ M× N× SNR0) (5.7)

Assuming N ≥ M, we can send different signals using the same bandwidth and still be
able to decode correctly at the receiver. Thus, we are creating a channel for each one
of the transmitters. The capacity of each one of these channels is roughly equal to
N
C = B log( 1 + ×SNR0 ) (5.8)
M

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Since we have M of these channels (M transmitting antennas), the total capacity of the
system is
N
𝐶 = MB log(1 + M ×SNR0) (5.9)

We get a linear increase in capacity with respect to the transmitting antennas.

4.Explain Adaptive Modulation and Coding with Time-Slot Scheduler.

In general, TCP/IP is designed for a highly reliable transmission medium in wired

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networks where packet losses are seldom and are interpreted as congestion in the net-
work [1].

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On the other hand, a wireless network uses a time varying channel where packet

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losses may be common due to severe fading.

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This is misinterpreted by TCP as congestion which leads to inefficient utilization of
the available radio link capacity. This results in significant degradation of the wireless

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system performance.

ngi
A
There is a need for a system with efficient packet data transmission using TCP in

nee
4G [2,3,5]. This can be achieved by using a suitable automatic repeat request (ARQ)
scheme combined with an adaptive modulation and coding sys-tem, and a time-slot
scheduler that uses channel predictions.

rin
SC
This way, the lower layers are adapted to channel conditions while still providing

g.n
some robustness through retransmission. The time-slot scheduler shares the spectrum
efficiently between users while satisfying the QoS requirements.

e
If the channel quality for each radio link can be predicted for a short duration (say
about 10 ms) into the future and accessible by the link layer, then ARQ along with an
adaptive modulation and coding system can be selected for each user to satisfy the bit
error rate (BER) requirement and provide high through-put.

The scheduler uses this information about individual data streams (along with
predicted values of different radio links and selected modulation and coding systems
by the link layer) and distributes the time slots among the users.

The planning is done so that the desired QoS and associated priority to different
users are guaranteed while channel spectrum is efficiently utilized.

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5.What is Cognitive Radio?

With the CR paradigm, spectrum can be efficiently shared in a more flexible


fashion by a number of operators/users/systems.
The CR can be viewed as an enabling technology that will benefit several types
of users by introducing new communications and networking models for the whole
wireless world, creating better business opportunities for the incumbent operators and
new technical dimensions for smaller operators, and helping shape an overall more
efficient approach regarding spectrum requirements and usage in the next generation
wire-less networks.
The CR can be regarded as an extension of SDR. In 2003, the IEEE Committee

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on Communications and Information Policy (CCIP) recommended CR for consideration
by the FCC as a means to conserve valuable spectrum utilization.
The CR focuses on applying software capabilities that have been developed to

w.E
sup-port algorithm control across a wide spectrum of signal processing technologies to

D
add smarts to the software that allows it to determine when frequencies are free to use

asy
and then use them in the most efficient manner possible.

E
Most of the research work currently is focusing on spectrum sensing cogni-tive radio

ngi
particularly on the utilization of TV bands for communication.
A
The essential problem of spectrum sensing CR is the design of high quality sensing
devices and algorithms for exchanging spectrum sensing data between nodes.

nee
It has been shown in [6] that a simple energy detector cannot guarantee accurate
detection of signal presence.

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SC
This calls for more sophisticated spectrum sensing techniques and requires that
information about spectrum sensing be exchanged between nodes regularly.

g.n
It is not implicit that a CR must be software-defined radio. It is possible to implement
CR features — the ability to detect and avoid (protect) incumbent users — while using

e
relatively conventional radio transmitter/receiver architectures and techniques.

The goal of CR is to relieve radio spectrum overcrowding, which actually translates


to a lack of access to full radio spectrum utilization.

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