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G.R. No.

123782 September 16, 1997 and Employment committed grave abuse of discretion in resolving the instant
labor dispute.
CALTEX REFINERY EMPLOYEES ASSOCIATION (CREA) vs.HON. JOSE S.
BRILLANTES, in his capacity as Acting Secretary of the Department of Labor and HELD: The petition is partly meritorious.
Employment, and CALTEX (PHILIPPINES), Inc.
1. Wage Increase. Petitioner maintains that the salaries of Shell Refinery
FACTS: Anticipating the expiration of their CBA on July 31, 1995, petitioner and employees be used as a “reference point” in upgrading the compensation of
private respondent negotiated the terms and conditions of employment to be private respondent’s employees because these two companies are in the “same
contained in a new CBA. The negotiation between the two parties was industry and their refineries are both in Batangas.” Thus, the wage increase of
participated in by the NCMB and the Office of the Secretary of Labor and petitioner’s members should be “15%/15%/15%.” Private respondent counters
Employment. Some items in the new CBA were amicably arrived at and agreed with a “proposed 9% 7% 7% increase for the same period with automatic
upon, but others were unresolved. adjustment should the increase fall short of the inflation rate.

To settle the unresolved issues, eight meetings between the parties were The alleged “similarity” in the situation of Caltex and Shell cannot be considered a
conducted. Because the parties failed to reach any significant progress in these valid ground for a demand of wage increase, in the absence of a showing that the
meetings, petitioner declared a deadlock. On July 24, 1995, petitioner filed a two companies are also similar in “substantial aspects,” as discussed above.
notice of strike. 6 conciliation meetings conducted by the NCMB failed, failed.
True, union members have the right to demand wage increases through their
Marathon meetings at the plant level, but this remedy proved also unavailing.
collective force; but it is equally cogent that they should also be able to justify
Secretary assumed jurisdiction and ordered “Accordingly, any strike or lockout, an appreciable increase in wages. We observe that private respondent’s detailed
whether actual or intended, is hereby enjoined.”xxx But the members of allegations on productivity are unrebutted. It is noteworthy that petitioner
petitioner defied them and continued their mass action (despite repeated orders) ignored this argument of private respondent and based its demand for wage
increase not on the ground that they were as productive as the Shell employees.
Thereafter, the contending parties filed their position papers pertaining to
Thus, we cannot attribute grave abuse of discretion to public respondent.
unresolved issues. Because of the strike, private respondent terminated the
employment of some officers of petitioner union. The legality of these dismissals 2. Union Security Clause. Petitioner argues that in spite of the provisions on the
brought additional contentious issues. “union security clause,” it may expel a member only on any of three grounds: non-
payment of dues, subversion, or conviction for a crime involving moral turpitude.
Again, the parties tried to resolve their differences through conciliation. Failing to
If the employee’s act does not constitute any of these three grounds, the member
come to any substantial agreement, the parties decided to refer the problem to
would continue to be employed by private respondent. Thus, the disagreement
the secretary of labor and employment.
between petitioner and private respondent on this issue is not only “procedural”
(guys, what the SC did in this case, is to decide upon the conflicting issues ng but also “substantial.”
parties with regard dun sa CBA kaya nilagay ko na lang lahat)
We agree with petitioner. The disagreement between petitioner and private
ISSUE: (1) petitioner questions public respondent’s resolution of five issues in the respondent on the union security clause should have been definitively resolved
CBA, specifically on wage increase, union security clause, retirement benefits or by public respondent. The labor secretary should take cognizance of an issue
application of the new retirement plan, signing bonus and grievance and which is not merely incidental to but essentially involved in the labor dispute
arbitration machineries; and (2) Whether or not the Honorable Secretary of Labor itself, or which is otherwise submitted to him for resolution. The secretary of
labor assumed jurisdiction over this labor dispute in an industry indispensable to
national interest, precisely to settle once and for all the disputes over which he on the issues is another, and it is best accomplished in a hearing conducted by
has jurisdiction at his level. In not performing his duty, the secretary of labor three arbitrators. In effect, the parties are afforded the latitude to decide for
committed a grave abuse of discretion. themselves the composition of the grievance machinery as they find appropriate
to a particular situation. At bottom, we cannot really impute grave abuse of
3. New Retirement Plan. Petitioner contends that “40 of its members who are still
discretion to public respondent on this issue.
covered by the Old Retirement Plan because they were not able to exercise the
option to shift to the New Retirement Plan, for one reason or another, when such 5. Signing Bonus. Petitioner asseverates that the “signing bonus is an existing
option was given in the past” are included in the New Retirement Plan. benefit embodied in the old CBA.” 42 It explains that public respondent erred in
removing the award of a signing bonus xxx
We hold that public respondent did not commit grave abuse of discretion in
respecting the free and voluntary decision of the employees in regard to the Although proposed by petitioner, 45 the signing bonus was not accepted by private
Provident Plan and the irrevocable one-time option provided for in the New respondent. 46 Besides, a signing bonus is not a benefit which may be demanded
Retirement Plan. Although the union has every right to represent its members in under the law. Rather, it is now claimed by petitioner under the principle of
the negotiation regarding the terms and conditions of their employment, it “maintenance of existing benefits” of the old CBA. However, as clearly explained
cannot negate their wishes on matters which are purely personal and individual by private respondent, a signing bonus may not be demanded as a matter of
to them. In this case, the forty employees freely opted to be covered by the Old right. If it is not agreed upon by the parties or unilaterally offered as an
Plan; their decision should be respected. The company gave them every additional incentive by private respondent, the condition for awarding it must
opportunity to choose, and they voluntarily exercised their choice. The union be duly satisfied. In the present case, the condition sine qua non for its grant —
cannot pretend to know better; it cannot impose its will on them. a non-strike — was not complied with.In fact, private respondent categorically
sated in its counter-proposal — to the exclusion of those agreed upon before —
4. Grievance Machinery and Arbitration. Petitioner contends that public
that the new CBA would constitute the only agreement between the parties.
respondent “derailed the grievance and arbitration scheme proposed by the
Union.” Petitioner’s recommendation for a “single arbitrator is based on the II. In the present case, the foregoing requirement has been sufficiently met.
proposition that if voluntary arbitration should be resorted to at all, this recourse Petitioner’s claim of grave abuse of discretion is anchored on the simple fact that
should entail the least possible expense.” public respondent adopted largely the proposals of private respondent. It should
be understood that bargaining is not equivalent to an adversarial litigation where
No particular setup for a grievance machinery is mandated by law. Rather,
rights and obligations are delineated and remedies applied. It is simply a process
Article 260 of the Labor Code, as incorporated by RA 6715, provides for only a
of finding a reasonable solution to a conflict and harmonizing opposite positions
single grievance machinery in the company to settle problems arising from
into a fair and reasonable compromise. When parties agree to submit unresolved
“interpretation or implementation of their CBA and those arising from the
issues to the secretary of labor for his resolution, they should not expect their
interpretation or enforcement of company personnel policies.”
positions to be adopted in toto. It is understood that they defer to his wisdom
We believe that the procedure described by public respondent sufficiently and objectivity in insuring industrial peace. And unless they can clearly
complies with the minimum requirement of the law. Public respondent even demonstrate bias, arbitrariness, capriciousness or personal hostility on the part
provided for two steps in hearing grievances prior to their referral to arbitration. of such public officer, the Court will not interfere or substitute the said officer’s
The parties will decide on the number of arbitrators who may hear a dispute only judgment with its own.
when the need for it arises. Even the law itself does not specify the number of
Kiok Loy vs. NLRC, G.R. L-54334, January 22, 1986
arbitrators. . In this matter, cost is not the only consideration; full deliberation
Doctrine: Unfair labor practice is committed when it is shown that the respondent mutual responsibility of the employer and the Union and is characterized as a
employer, after having been served with a written bargaining proposal by the legal obligation.
petitioning Union, did not even bother to submit an answer or reply to the said
· Article 249, par. (g) of the Labor Code makes it an unfair labor practice for
proposal.
an employer to refuse "to meet and convene promptly and expeditiously in good
Facts: faith for the purpose of negotiating an agreement with respect to wages, hours of
work, and all other terms and conditions of employment including proposals for
· The Pambansang Kilusang Paggawa, a legitimate late labor federation, won
adjusting any grievance or question arising under such an agreement and
and was subsequently certified in a resolution by the Bureau of Labor Relations as
executing a contract incorporating such agreement, if requested by either party.
the sole and exclusive bargaining agent of the rank-and-file employees of Sweden
Ice Cream Plant. · The mechanics of collective bargaining are set in motion only when the
following jurisdictional preconditions are present, namely,
· The Union furnished the Company with two copies of its proposed collective
bargaining agreement. At the same time, it requested the Company for its counter o (1) possession of the status of majority representation of the employees'
proposals. Both requests were ignored and remained unacted upon by the representative in accordance with any of the means of selection or designation
Company. provided for by the Labor Code;

· Thereafter, the Union filed a "Notice of Strike", with the Bureau of Labor o (2) proof of majority representation; and
Relations (BLR) on ground of unresolved economic issues in collective bargaining.
o (3) a demand to bargain under Article 251, par. (a) of the New Labor Code.
· Conciliation proceedings then followed during the thirty-day statutory
cooling-off period. But all attempts towards an amicable settlement failed.
· A Company's refusal to make counter proposal if considered in relation to
· The case was brought to the National Labor Relations Commission (NLRC)
the entire bargaining process, may indicate bad faith since the Union's request for
for compulsory arbitration pursuant to Presidential Decree No. 823, as amended.
a counter proposal is left unanswered. Besides, petitioner Company's approach
But the Company requested for a lot of postponements. NLRC ruled that
and attitude-stalling the negotiation by a series of postponements, non-
respondent Sweden Ice Cream is guilty of unjustified refusal to bargain, in
appearance at the hearing conducted, and undue delay in submitting its financial
violation of Section (g) Article 248 (now Article 249), of P.D. 442, as amended.
statements, lead to no other conclusion except that it is unwilling to negotiate and
reach an agreement with the Union.

Issue: Whether the Company is guilty of unfair labor practice for refusal to bargain

Held: Yes. Petition dismissed for lack of merit.

· Collective bargaining is one of the democratic frameworks under the New


Labor Code, designed to stabilize the relation between labor and
INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL ALLIANCE OF EDUCATORS (ISAE), petitioner, vs. HON.
management and to create a climate of sound and stable industrial peace. It is a
LEONARDO A. QUISUMBING in his capacity as the Secretary of Labor and
Employment; HON. CRESENCIANO B. TRAJANO in his capacity as the Acting NO. The Constitution, Article XIII, Section 3, specifically provides that labor is
Secretary of Labor and Employment; DR. BRIAN MACCAULEY in his capacity as entitled to “humane conditions of work.” These conditions are not restricted to
the Superintendent of International School-Manila; and INTERNATIONAL the physical workplace – the factory, the office or the field – but include as well
SCHOOL, INC., respondents., the manner by which employers treat their employees.

G.R. No. 128845, June 1, 2000 Discrimination, particularly in terms of wages, is frowned upon by the Labor Code.
Article 248 declares it an unfair labor practice for an employer to discriminate in
regard to wages in order to encourage or discourage membership in any labor
FACTS: organization.

Private respondent International School, Inc. (School), pursuant to PD 732, is a The Constitution enjoins the State to “protect the rights of workers and promote
domestic educational institution established primarily for dependents of foreign their welfare, In Section 18, Article II of the constitution mandates “to afford labor
diplomatic personnel and other temporary residents. The decree authorizes the full protection”. The State has the right and duty to regulate the relations between
School to employ its own teaching and management personnel selected by it labor and capital. These relations are not merely contractual but are so impressed
either locally or abroad, from Philippine or other nationalities, such personnel with public interest that labor contracts, collective bargaining agreements
being exempt from otherwise applicable laws and regulations attending their included, must yield to the common good.
employment, except laws that have been or will be enacted for the protection of
However, foreign-hires do not belong to the same bargaining unit as the local-
employees. School hires both foreign and local teachers as members of its faculty,
hires.
classifying the same into two: (1) foreign-hires and (2) local-hires.
A bargaining unit is a group of employees of a given employer, comprised of all or
The School grants foreign-hires certain benefits not accorded local-hires. Foreign-
less than all of the entire body of employees, consistent with equity to the
hires are also paid a salary rate 25% more than local-hires.
employer indicate to be the best suited to serve the reciprocal rights and duties of
When negotiations for a new CBA were held on June 1995, petitioner ISAE, a the parties under the collective bargaining provisions of the law.
legitimate labor union and the collective bargaining representative of all faculty
The factors in determining the appropriate collective bargaining unit are (1) the
members of the School, contested the difference in salary rates between foreign
will of the employees (Globe Doctrine); (2) affinity and unity of the employees’
and local-hires. This issue, as well as the question of whether foreign-hires should
interest, such as substantial similarity of work and duties, or similarity of
be included in the appropriate bargaining unit, eventually caused a deadlock
compensation and working conditions (Substantial Mutual Interests Rule); (3)
between the parties.
prior collective bargaining history; and (4) similarity of employment status. The
ISAE filed a notice of strike. Due to the failure to reach a compromise in the basic test of an asserted bargaining unit’s acceptability is whether or not it is
NCMB, the matter reached the DOLE which favored the School. Hence this fundamentally the combination which will best assure to all employees the
petition. exercise of their collective bargaining rights.

ISSUE: In the case at bar, it does not appear that foreign-hires have indicated their
intention to be grouped together with local-hires for purposes of collective
Whether the foreign-hires should be included in bargaining unit of local- hires. bargaining. The collective bargaining history in the School also shows that these
RULING: groups were always treated separately. Foreign-hires have limited tenure; local-
hires enjoy security of tenure. Although foreign-hires perform similar functions
under the same working conditions as the local-hires, foreign-hires are accorded
certain benefits not granted to local-hires such as housing, transportation,
shipping costs, taxes and home leave travel allowances. These benefits are
reasonably related to their status as foreign-hires, and justify the exclusion of the
former from the latter. To include foreign-hires in a bargaining unit with local-hires
would not assure either group the exercise of their respective collective
bargaining rights.

WHEREFORE, the petition is GIVEN DUE COURSE. The petition is hereby GRANTED
IN PART.

G.R. No. 110399 August 15, 1997


SAN MIGUEL CORPORATION SUPERVISORS AND EXEMPT UNION AND ERNESTO
L. PONCE, President V. HONORABLE BIENVENIDO E. LAGUESMA IN HIS CAPACITY
AS UNDERSECRETARY OF LABOR AND EMPLOYMENT, HONORABLE DANILO L. They are not qualified to be classified as managerial employees who, under Article
REYNANTE IN HIS CAPACITY AS MED-ARBITER AND SAN MIGUEL CORPORATION 245 of the Labor Code, are not eligible to join, assist or form any labor
organization. In the very same provision, they are not allowed membership in a
FACTS: Petitioner union filed before DOLE a Petition for Direct Certification or
labor organization of the rank-and-file employees but may join, assist or form
Certification Election among the supervisors and exempt employees of the SMC
separate labor organizations of their own.
Magnolia Poultry Products Plants of Cabuyao, San Fernando and Otis.
Confidential employees are those who (1) assist or act in a confidential capacity,
Med-Arbiter Danilo L. Reynante issued an Order ordering the conduct of
(2) to persons who formulate, determine, and effectuate management policies in
certification election among the abovementioned employees of the different
the field of labor relations. The two criteria are cumulative, and both must be met
plants as one bargaining unit.
if an employee is to be considered a confidential employee — that is, the
San Miguel Corporation filed a Notice of Appeal with Memorandum on Appeal, confidential relationship must exist between the employee and his supervisor, and
pointing out, among others, the Med-Arbiter’s error in grouping together all three the supervisor must handle the prescribed responsibilities relating to labor
(3) separate plants, into one bargaining unit, and in including supervisory levels 3 relations.
and above whose positions are confidential in nature.
The exclusion from bargaining units of employees who, in the normal course of
The public respondent, Undersecretary Laguesma, granted respondent company’s their duties, become aware of management policies relating to labor relations is a
Appeal and ordered the remand of the case to the Med-Arbiter of origin for principal objective sought to be accomplished by the ”confidential employee
determination of the true classification of each of the employees sought to be rule.” The broad rationale behind this rule is that employees should not be placed
included in the appropriate bargaining unit. in a position involving a potential conflict of interests. “Management should not
be required to handle labor relations matters through employees who are
Upon petitioner-union’s motion, Undersecretary Laguesma granted the represented by the union with which the company is required to deal and who in
reconsideration prayed for and directed the conduct of separate certification the normal performance of their duties may obtain advance information of the
elections among the supervisors ranked as supervisory levels 1 to 4 (S1 to S4) and company’s position with regard to contract negotiations, the disposition of
the exempt employees in each of the three plants at Cabuyao, San Fernando and grievances, or other labor relations matters.”
Otis.
The Court held that “if these managerial employees would belong to or be
ISSUE: affiliated with a Union, the latter might not be assured of their loyalty to the
1. Whether Supervisory employees 3 and 4 and the exempt employees of the Union in view of evident conflict of interest. The Union can also become company-
company are considered confidential employees, hence ineligible from joining a dominated with the presence of managerial employees in Union membership.”
union. An important element of the “confidential employee rule” is the employee’s need
2. If they are not confidential employees, do the employees of the three plants to use labor relations information. Thus, in determining the confidentiality of
constitute an appropriate single bargaining unit. certain employees, a key question frequently considered is the employee’s
necessary access to confidential labor relations information.
RULING:
(2) The fact that the three plants are located in three different places, namely, in
(1) On the first issue, this Court rules that said employees do not fall within the Cabuyao, Laguna, in Otis, Pandacan, Metro Manila, and in San Fernando,
term “confidential employees” who may be prohibited from joining a union.
Pampanga is immaterial. Geographical location can be completely disregarded if
the communal or mutual interests of the employees are not sacrificed.

An appropriate bargaining unit may be defined as “a group of employees of a


given employer, comprised of all or less than all of the entire body of employees,
which the collective interest of all the employees, consistent with equity to the
employer, indicate to be best suited to serve the reciprocal rights and duties of
the parties under the collective bargaining provisions of the law.”

A unit to be appropriate must effect a grouping of employees who have


substantial, mutual interests in wages, hours, working conditions and other
subjects of collective bargaining.

SAN MIGUEL CORP. VS HON. LAGUESMA and NORTH LUZON MAGNOLIA SALES
LABOR UNION-INDEPENDENT

G.R. No. 100485. September 21, 1994


FACTS: evinced by the type of work they perform. In the case at bench, respondent union
sought to represent the sales personnel in the various Magnolia sales offices in
Private respondent union filed for a petition for certification election
northern Luzon. There is similarity of employment status for only the regular sales
among all the regular sales personnel of Magnolia Dairy Products in the North
personnel in the north Luzon area are covered. They have the same duties and
Luzon Area. This was opposed by the petitioner and questioned the
responsibilities and substantially similar compensation and working conditions.
appropriateness of the bargaining unit to be represented by the union. It claimed
The commonality of interest among the sales personnel in the north Luzon sales
that its bargaining history in its sales offices, plants and warehouses is to have a
area cannot be gainsaid. Further, the petitioner cannot insist that there should be
separate bargaining unit for each sales office. During the hearing of the petition,
one bargaining unit. What greatly militates against this position is the meager
the substitute lawyer of the petitioner withdrew its opposition and agreed to
number of sales personnel in each of the Magnolia sales office in northern Luzon.
consider one bargaining unit in the mentioned sales office. Upon the order of the
Even the bargaining unit sought to be represented by respondent union in the
Mediator-Arbiter certifying the union as the sole and exclusive bargaining agent
entire north Luzon sales area consists only of approximately
for all the regular sales personnel in the North Luzon area, the petitioner
fifty-five (55) employees. Surely, it would not be for the best interest of these
appealed to the Secretary of Labor contending a mistake in the decision brought
employees if they would further be fractionalized. The adage "there is strength in
by its substitute lawyer. In a petition for certiorari,the petitioner contends that the
number" is the very rationale underlying the formation of a labor union.
prior collective bargaining is the most pervasive criterion in determining the
approriateness of the CBA.

ISSUE: Whether or not the union represents an appropriate bargaining unit.

HELD:

Yes. The court ruled in accordance with the tests in determining an


appropriate bargaining unit. The fundamental factors in determining the
appropriate collective bargaining unit are: (1) the will of the employees (Globe
Doctrine); (2) affinity and unity of the employees' interest, such as substantial
similarity of work and duties, or similarity of compensation and working
conditions (Substantial Mutual Interests Rule); (3) prior collective bargaining
history; and (4) similarity of employment status. Contrary to petitioner's assertion,
the Court has categorically ruled that the existence of a prior collective bargaining
history is neither decisive nor conclusive in the determination of what constitutes St James School vs Samahang Manggagawa ng St James
an appropriate bargaining unit. GR 151326

Indeed, the test of grouping is mutuality or commonality of interests. The Facts:


employees sought to be represented by the collective bargaining agent must have Respondent Samahang Manggagawa filed a petition for a certification election to
substantial mutual interests in terms of employment and working conditions as determine the collective bargaining representative of the motorpool, construction
and transportation employees of St. James School of QC. The certification election employees of St. James School of Quezon City. St. James filed a certification
was held at the DOLE office in which there were 149 eligible voters. 84 cast their election protest challenging 84 votes on the ground that they were not its regular
votes. St. James filed a protest challenging the 84 votes, alleging that it had 179 employees but construction workers of an independent contractor, Architect
rank and file employees and none of them voted in the certification election. It Bacoy. The DOLE ruled that Samahang Manggagawa seeks to represent the non-
argued that those who voted were not its regular employees but construction academic personnel or the rank and file employees from the motor pool,
workers of an independent contractor. construction and transportation departments, and not all the rank
and file employees of St. James. According to the DOLE, Med-Arbiter Falconitin
Issue:
erred in including all the rank and file employees of St. James, whether teaching
1. WON the formation of the labor union was valid or non-teaching personnel, in the computation of the total number of employees.
2. WON the certification election was valid The DOLE ruled that the list submitted by St. James contained only the
administrative, teaching and office personnel of the school. St. James questions
Held: the validity of the formation of the labor union and the validity of the certification
1. Yes. The records show that prior to the holding of a certification election, St. election on the ground that there was no quorum.
James filed a petition for cancellation of Samahang Manggagawa on the ground of HELD:
lack of employer-employee relations between the union members and St. James.
This went all the way up to the CA which ruled that the independent contractor is The petition has no merit. St. James may no longer question the validity of the
a labor only contractor, and thus, an agent of St. James which is the real employer. formation of the labor union. The records show that prior to the holding of the
certification election, St. James filed a petition for cancellation of Samahang
2. Yes. St. James has five campuses. The members of the Samahan are employees Manggagawa’s union registration. The Court of Appeals had already ruled that
of the Tandang Sora campus. The Samahan seeks to represent the motor pool, the construction workers are actually St. James’ regular employees in its motor
construction, and transportation employees of the T. Sora campus. Thus, the pool, construction and transportation departments. St. James has five campuses ‘
computation of the quorum should be based on it, not on the total number of the Philamlife and Scout Alcaraz, Quezon City campuses which are pre-schools;
employees in all five campuses of St. James. the Paraaque City and Calamba, Laguna campuses which
offer elementary, secondary and college education; and the Tandang Sora, Quezon
City campus which offers elementaryand secondary education

The members of Samahang Manggagawa are employees in the Tandang Sora


campus. Under its constitution and by-laws, Samahang Manggagawa seeks to
represent the motor pool, construction and transportation employees of the
Tandang Sora campus. Thus, the computation of the quorum should be based on
ST. JAMES SCHOOL VS SAMAHANG MANGGAGAWA SA ST. JAMES SCHOOL the rank and file motor pool, construction and transportation employees of the
Tandang Sora campus and not on all the employees in St. James’ five campuses.
G.R. No. 151326 [November 23, 2005]
The motor pool, construction and transportation employees of the Tandang Sora
The Samahang Manggagawa sa St. James School of Quezon City (Samahang
campus had 149 qualified voters at the time of the certification election. Hence,
Manggagawa’) filed a petition for certification election to determine the collective
the 149 qualified voters should be used to determine the existence of a quorum.
bargaining representative of the motor pool, construction and transportation
Since a majority or 84 out of the 149 qualified voters cast their votes, a quorum
existed in the certification election.

St. James further alleges that the names of the 84 voters are not on the list of its
rank and file employees. On this score, we sustain the factual finding of the DOLE
that the listsubmitted by St. James consists of its administrative, teaching and
office personnel. These administrative, teaching and office personnel are not
members of Samahang Manggagawa. They do not belong to the bargaining unit
that Samahang Manggagawa seeks to represent. Hence, the list submitted by St.
James may not be used as basis to determine the members of Samahang
Manggagawa.

PHILTRANCO SERVICE ENTERPRISES, petitioner,


vs.
BUREAU OF LABOR RELATIONS and KAPISANAN NG MGA KAWANI, ASSISTANT,
MANGGAGAWA AT KONPIDENSIYAL SA PHILTRANCO, respondents.

FACTS:
Petitioner Philtranco Service Enterprises, Inc. is a land transportation company 2. WON there exists substantial differences between the work performed by
engaged in the business of carrying passengers and freight. The company respondents and the rank and file employees (NO)
employees included field workers consisting of drivers, conductors, coach drivers,
RATIO:
coach stewards and mechanics and office employees like clerks, cashiers,
programmers, telephone operators, etc. 1. Section 11 of Rule II, Book V of the Omnibus Rules implementing the Labor
Code did away with existing supervisors' unions classifying the members either as
On February 15, 1988, the Kapisanan ng mga Kawani, Assistant, Manggagawa at
managerial or rank and file employees depending on the work they perform. If
Konpidensyal sa Philtranco (KASAMA KO) filed a petition for certification election
they discharge managerial functions, supervisors are prohibited from forming or
with the Department of Labor and Employment, alleging among others that it
joining any labor organization. If they do not perform managerial work, they may
desires to represent all professional, technical, administrative, and confidential
join the rank and file union and if none exists, they may form one such rank and
employees personnel of respondent at its establishments in Luzon, Visayas and
file organization. This rule was emphasized in the case of Bulletin Publishing Corp.
Mindanao for purposes of collective bargaining.
v. Sanchez,
They claim that the employees which they seek to represent were always
It, therefore, follows that the members of the KASAMA KO who are professional,
excluded from participating in the certification election among rank and file
technical, administrative and confidential personnel of PHILTRANCO performing
employees and are also excluded from the bargaining unit covered by the CBA
managerial functions are not qualified to join, much less form a union.
between the company and its rank and file employees.
The respondents claim that their status as rank and file employees was allegedly
On February 24, 1988, the National Mines and Allied Workers Union (NAMAWU-
recognized by this Court in the case of Pantranco South Express, Inc. v. NAMAWU.
MIF) filed a motion for intervention alleging that it is the bargaining agent of the
However, their reliance in this cse is misplaced because we denied their petition
workers at Philtranco and as such it has a substantial interest in the outcome of
for lack of merit in a minute resolution. There was absolutely no discussion on the
the petition.
recognition of another separate rank and file union in addition to the existing
On April 4, 1988, a resolution was rendered dismissing the Petition of Certification bargaining unit.
Election filed by KASAMA KO.
Managers by any name may not join the rank and file union. On the other hand,
KASAMA KO appealed to the Bureau of Labor Relations (BLR) On September 5, those who are rank and file workers may join the existing bargaining unit instead
1988 the BLR reversed the resolution of the Med-Arbiter. A motion for of organizing another bargaining unit and compelling the employer to deal with it.
reconsideration was denied in an order dated October 10, 1988.
We are constrained to disallow the formation of another union. There is no
dispute that there exists a labor union in the company, herein intervenor, the
NAMAWU-MIF which is the collective bargaining agent of the rank and file
employees in PHILTRANCO.
ISSUE:
We see no need for the formation of another union in PHILTRANCO. The qualified
1. WON the BLR’s decision of granting KASAMA KO’s Petition for Certification members of the KASAMA KO may join the NAMAWU-MIF if they want to be union
Election was proper (NO) members, and to be consistent with the one-union, one-company policy of the
Department of Labor and Employment, and the laws it enforces.
It would not be in the interest of sound labor-management relations if each group SO ORDERED.
of employees assigned to a specialized function or section would decide to break
away from their fellow-workers and form their own separate bargaining unit. We
cannot allow one unit for typists and clerks, one unit for accountants, another
unit for messengers and drivers, and so on in needless profusion.

2. The respondents state that this case is an exception to the general rule
considering that substantial differences exist between the office employees or
professional, technical, administrative and confidential employees vis-a-vis the
field workers or drivers, conductors and mechanics of the petitioner. Against this
contention, we find that the "substantial differences" in the terms and conditions
of employment between the private respondent's members and the rest of the
company's rank and file employees are more imagined than real. PHILTRANCO is a
large bus company engaged in the business of carrying passengers and freight,
servicing Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Certainly there is a commonality of
interest among filing clerks, dispatchers, drivers, typists, and field men. They are
all interested in the progress of their company and in each worker sharing in the
fruits of their endeavors equitably and generously. Their functions mesh with one
another. One group needs the other in the same way that the company needs
them all. The drivers, mechanics and conductors are necessary for the company
but technical, administrative and office personnel are also needed and equally
important for the smooth operation of the business. There may be differences as
to the nature of their individual assignments but the distinctions are not enough
to warrant the formation of separate unions. The private respondent has not even
shown that a separate bargaining unit would be beneficial to the employees
concerned. Office employees also belong to the rank and file. There is an existing
employer wide unit in the company represented by NAMAWU-MIF. And as earlier
stated, the fact that NAMAWU-MIF moved to intervene in the petition for
certification election filed by KASAMA KO negates the allegations that "substantial
differences" exist between the employees concerned. We find a commonality of
interest among them. There are no compelling reasons for the formation of
another union.
[G.R. No. 79526 : December 21, 1990.]
WHEREFORE, the decision of the Bureau of Labor Relations, dated September 5, NATIONAL ASSOCIATION OF FREE TRADE UNIONS (NAFTU) vs. MAINIT LUMBER
1988 and the Order dated October 10, 1988 are hereby SET ASIDE. The resolution DEVELOPMENT COMPANY WORKERS UNION-UNITED LUMBER AND GENERAL
of the Med-Arbiter dated April 4, 1988 is REINSTATED. The restraining order issued WORKERS OF THE PHILIPPINES. (MALDECOWU-ULGWP)
by the Court on November 7, 1988 is made permanent.
FACTS: On July 26, 1986, NAFTU filed an election protest alleging massive vote buying
On January 28, 1985, private respondent Mainit Lumber Development Company accompanied with grave and serious threat force and intimidation on the lives of
Workers Union-United Lumber and General Workers of the Philippines, 25 applicants as stated in a Joint Affidavit attached thereto
MALDECOWU-ULGWP (ULGWP, for short), a legitimate labor organization duly
MALDECO filed its Manifestation on August 3, 1986, which corroborated
registered with the Ministry of Labor and Employment under Registry No. 2944-IP,
petitioner’s stand. Attached to the said Manifestation was a joint affidavit
filed with Regional Office No. 10, Ministry of Labor and Employment at Cagayan
executed by thirty five (35) of its employees/workers
de Oro City, a petition for certification election to determine the sole and
exclusive collective bargaining representative among the rank and file On September 3, 1986, private respondent filed its position paper. On September
workers/employees of Mainit Lumber Development Company Inc. (MALDECO), a 8, 1986 petitioner filed its opposition to private respondent’s position paper. On
duly organized, registered and existing corporation engaged in the business of September 24, 1986, the Med-Arbiter dismissed the election protest.
logging and saw-mill operations employing approximately 136 rank and file
employees/workers. The case was scheduled for hearing two (2) times. During the On October 10, 1986, petitioner NAFTU appealed the order of the Med-Arbiter to
first scheduled hearing on February 20, 1985, the counsel for compulsory the Bureau of Labor Relations in Manila which denied the appeal and the two
intervenor (now petitioner), National Association of Free Trade Union (NAFTU) motions for reconsideration.
requested for postponement on the ground that he was leaving for abroad. ISSUE:
During the scheduled hearing of March 13, 1985, they, however, agreed to submit HELD:
simultaneously their respective position papers within twenty (20) days. In the case at bar, petitioner alleges that the employer MALDECO was composed
Petitioner ULGWP, private respondent herein, in its petition and position paper of two bargaining units, the Sawmill Division in Butuan City and the Logging
alleged, among others: (1) that there was no certification election conducted Division, in Zapanta Valley, Kitcharao, Agusan Norte, about 80 kilometers distant
within 12 months prior to the filing of the petition; (2) that the petition was filed from each other and in fact, had then two separate CBA’s, one for the Sawmill
within the 60 day freedom period, i.e. CBA expired on February 28, 1985; (3) that Division and another for the Logging Division, both the petition and decision
the petition is supported by the signatures of 101 rank and file employees out of a referred only to one bargaining unit; that from 1979 to 1985, the Ministry of
total of 201 employees of the employer or more than thirty percent (30%) than Labor and Employment recognized the existence of two (2) separate bargaining
that required by law units at MALDECO, one for its Logging Division and another for its Sawmill
Division.
On April 11, 1985, the Med-Arbiter granted the petition for certification election.
On April 26, 1985, NAFTU appealed the decision of the Med-Arbiter on the Significantly, out of two hundred and one (201) employees of MALDECO, one
ground that MALDECO was composed of two (2) bargaining units, the Sawmill hundred seventy-five (175) consented and supported the petition for certification
Division and the Logging Division, but both the petition and decision treated these election, thereby confirming their desire for one bargaining representative
separate and distinct units only as one Moreover, while the existence of a bargaining history is a factor that may be
On April 28, 1986, the Bureau of Labor Relations affirmed the decision. Thus, a reckoned with in determining the appropriate bargaining unit, the same is not
certification election was held on separate dates at the employer’s sawmill decisive or conclusive. Other factors must be considered. The test of grouping is
division and logging area respectively. In said election MALDECOWU-ULGWP community or mutuality of interests. This is so because “the basic test of an
garnered a total vote of 146 while NAFTU garnered a total of 2 votes asserted bargaining unit’s acceptability is whether or not it is fundamentally the
combination which will best assure to all employees the exercise of their
collective bargaining rights.” (Democratic Labor Association v. Cebu Stevedoring Division and the Logging Division. Their functions mesh with one another. One
Company, Inc., et al., 103 Phil. 1103 [1958]). group needs the other in the same way that the company needs them both. There
may be difference as to the nature o their individual assignments but the
Certainly, there is a mutuality of interest among the employees of the Sawmill
distinctions are not enough to warrant the formation af a separate bargaining
Division and the Logging Division. Their functions mesh with one another. One
unit.
group needs the other in the same way that the company needs them both. There
may be difference as to the nature of their individual assignments but the
distinctions are not enough to warrant the formation of a separate bargaining
unit.

TOPIC: Bargaining History


CASE: National Association of Free Trade Union (NAFLU) vs Mainit Lumber
Development Company Workers Union (MALDECO)
CITATION: GR No. 79526. December 21, 1990

Petitioner alleges that the employer MALDECO was composed of two bargaining
units, the Sawmill Division in Butuan City and the Logging Division in Zapanta
Valley, Kitcharao, Agusan Norte, about 80 kilometers distant from each other.
They had two separate CBA's. from 1979-1985, the Ministry of Labor and
Employment recognized the existence of two separate bargaining unit at
MALDECO, one for its Logging Division and another for its Sawmill Division.

But significantly, out of 201 employees of MALDECO, 175 consented and


supported the petition for certification election, thereby confirming their desire
for just one bargaining representative.

Moreover, while the existence of a bargaining history is a factor that may be


reckoned with in determining the appropriate bargaining unit, the same is not
decisive or conclusive. Other factors must be considered. The test of grouping its
community or mutuality of interests. This is so because "the basic test of asserted
bargaining unit's acceptability is whether or not it is fundamentally the
combination which will best assure to all employees the exercise of their TOPIC: Bargaining History
collective bargaining rights". CASE: Philippine Land-Air-Sea Labor Union vs. Court of Industrial Relations
CITATION: GR No. 14656. November 29, 1960
Certainly, there is a mutuality of interest among the employers of the Sawmill
FACTS:

On March 25, 1956, the Industrial Court held a certification election to determine
which of the two contending labor unions shall be the sole collective bargaining
agent of San Carlos Milling Co., the two unions are: Philippine Land-Air-Sea
(PLASLU) and Allied Workers' Association of the Philippines (AWA).

Prior to the election AWA filed an urgent motion to exclude 144 employees from
participating in the election. The motion however is denied.

After the election and within 72 hours after such election, AWA filed a petition
contesting the election on the ground of ineligibility of 148 votes which is
challenged. The Industrial Court ordered that all the challenged be opened and
canvassed. PLASLU moved for reconsideration which was however denied. Adding
the votes to the results of the certification election the final count was: AWA=377
votes and PLASLU=239. Hence, the petition of PLASLU for review by certiorari of
the order of the CIR.

ISSUE: WON casual employees and those employed on day to day basis must be
considered separate to the regular employees.

RULING:

Yes. The employees whose vote were challenged wore hired on temporary or
casual basis and had work of a different nature from those of the laborers
permitted to vote in the certification election.

The most efficacious bargaining unit is one which comprised of constituents


enjoying a community or mutuality of interest. This is so because the basic test of
a bargaining unit's acceptability whether it will best secure to all employees the
exercise of their collective bargaining rights. Hence, piece workers employed on
casual basis or day to day basis cannot considered to have such mutuality of BELYCA CORPORATION vs. FERRER CALLEJA
interest as to justify their inclusion in a bargaining unit.
G.R. No. 77395 November 29, 1988

Facts:
June 3, 1986, Associated Labor Union (ALU)-TUCP, a legitimate labor organization
filed a petition for direct certification as the sole and exclusive bargaining agent of
all the rank and file employees/workers of Belyca Corporation (Livestock and
Agro-Division). But petitioner contends that the bargaining unit must include all
the workers in its integrated business concerns ranging from piggery, poultry, to
supermarts and cinemas so as not to split an otherwise single bargaining unit into
fragmented bargaining units.

Issue:

whether or not the proposed bargaining unit is an appropriate bargaining


unit.

Held:

It is beyond question that the employees of the livestock and agro division of
petitioner corporation perform work entirely different from those performed by
employees in the supermarts and cinema. Among others, the noted difference
are: their working conditions, hours of work, rates of pay, including the categories
of their positions and employment status. As stated by petitioner corporation in
its position paper, due to the nature of the business in which its livestock-agro
division is engaged very few of its employees in the division are permanent, the
overwhelming majority of which are seasonal and casual and not regular
employees. Definitely, they have very little in common with the employees of the
supermarts and cinemas. To lump all the employees of petitioner in its integrated
business concerns cannot result in an efficacious bargaining unit comprised of
constituents enjoying a community or mutuality of interest. Undeniably, the rank
and file employees of the livestock-agro division fully constitute a bargaining unit
that satisfies both requirements of classification according to employment status
and of the substantial similarity of work and duties which will ultimately assure its
members the exercise of their collective bargaining rights.

DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY vs. DE LA SALLE UNIVERSITY EMPLOYEES ASSOCIATION


(DLSUEA-NAFTEU), G.R. No. 169254, 23 August 2012

FACTS:
BLR Regional Director Alex E. Maraan,in its Decision, ordered the conduct of an el esnot constitute a valid ground to refuse to negotiate because petitioner’s] duty t
ection of union officers to be presided by the Labor Relations Division of the Depa o bargain under the law is due and demandable under the law by respondent as a
rtment of Labor and Employment-National Capital Region considering that the me whole and not by any faction within the union. Besides, it was clarified that there
mbers of the Bañez faction were not elected by the general membership but were was no void in the leadership in the first place. Furthermore, when Bañez faction
appointed by the Executive Board to their positions since 1985, therefore in a hold won the election eventually, still, the petitioner refused.
-over capacity. Relying on this, DLSU said that there is a conclusion of fact that th
ere is an absolute void in the leadership of respondent. Furthermore, that normal
relations with the union cannot occur until the said void in the leadership is appro
priately filled. Affected by the temporary suspension of normal relations is the ren
egotiation of the economic provisions of the 2002-2005 CBA. No renegotiation ca
n occur given the void in the leadership. However, the petitioner seemed to disreg
ard the Decision of BLR Director Cacdac that there is no void in respondent’sleade
rship. That the decision of BLR Regional Director should not be construed as an au
tomatic termination of the incumbent officers’ tenure of office

ISSUE:

Whether or not an employer is guilty of unfair labor practice when it refuses to ba


rgain considering the intra union dispute concerning the election of officers, is not
yet settled.

RULING:

Yes. In the case at bar, the Supreme Court affirmed the Decision of the Secretary o
f Labor which said that the University is guilty of refusal to bargain amounting to a
n unfair labor practice under Article 248(g) of the Labor Code. Indeed there was a
requirement on both parties of the performance of the mutual obligation to meet
and convene promptly and expeditiously in good faith for the purpose of negotiati
ng an agreement.

Such an act constituted an intentional avoidance of a duty imposed by law. There


was nothing in orders of Director Maraan and Cacdac which restrained or enjoine
d compliance by the parties with their obligations under the CBA and under the la
w. The issue of union leadership is distinct and separate from the duty to bargain.
Anent the so called void in the Union leadership, it was declared that the same do