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Solar power irrigation system with GSM

technology
Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of degree
of

BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY
IN
ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING
Submitted By:

Name Roll No
Name Roll No
Name Roll No
Name Roll No

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING

School of Management Sciences, Lucknow

SUBMITTED TO: …………………………

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Table of Contents
Enrollment no: ............................................................................................................................................. 6

OBJECTIVE .................................................................................................................................................... 6

Introduction: ................................................................................................................................................ 6

Literature survey .......................................................................................................................................... 7

Process: ........................................................................................................................................................ 7

Block diagram:.............................................................................................................................................. 8

Hardware Used: ........................................................................................................................................... 9

Software used: ............................................................................................................................................. 9

Programming Languages Considered .......................................................................................................... 9

Soil moisture sensor................................................................................................................................... 10

Microcontroller Atmega16: ....................................................................................................................... 11

Features: ................................................................................................................................................ 12

16X2 LCD Display........................................................................................................................................ 15

GSM Module SIM300: ................................................................................................................................ 18

Benefits: ..................................................................................................................................................... 22

Application: ................................................................................................................................................ 22

Agriculture ............................................................................................................................................. 22

Landscape irrigation ............................................................................................................................... 22

Disadvantages ............................................................................................................................................ 23

Future scope .............................................................................................................................................. 23

References ................................................................................................................................................. 23

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DECLARATION

I hereby declare that the project report entitled “Solar power irrigation
system with GSM technology” submitted is our original work and the
report has not formed the basis for the award of any degree, associate
ship, fellowship or any other similar title.

Signature:

Name:

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CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that the project report entitled “Solar power irrigation
system with GSM technology” is the bonafide work carried out by
students of “College Name” during the year 2016 in partial fulfillment
of the requirements for the award of the Degree of B. Tech. The
report has not formed the basis for the award previously of any degree,
diploma, associate ship, fellowship or any other similar title.

Signature of the guide:

Date:

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

It gives me great pleasure to express my gratitude and heart full thanks


to all those who are helping me in complete this project.

I want to thank to “guide name”, who has always encouraged


and help me in making this project. In addition to this, I am grateful to
other faculties too who made me in right direction and gave me their
precious time and expert guidance whenever necessary through which
I could achieve this extent.

At last but not the least I am feeling glad to say about my family
whose wishes are always with me, without which it was not possible
for me to reach this extent.

I hope my work is praised and my efforts render fruitful result.

THANK YOU

Signature:
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Name:

Enrollment no:

OBJECTIVE

The objective of the project is to design and develop an Automatic solar


irrigation system will give water to the plants after sensing the moisture level of
the soil. If moisture goes below a certain level then it will turn on water pump
and give water to plants.

Introduction:

Automatic solar irrigation system will give water to the plants after sensing
the moisture of soil. If moisture will go below a certain level then it will turn on
water pump and give water to plants. It will increase the life of plants and will be
beneficial for environment. Another feature of this project is that when water
pump will turn on then owner will receive a SMS. Block diagram of whole system
is given in Figure-1

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Literature survey

in the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important because


the main reason is the lack of rains & scarcity of land reservoir water. The
continuous extraction of water from earth is reducing the water level due to which
lot of land is coming slowly in the zones of un-irrigated land.

Another very important reason of this is due to unplanned use of water due to
which a significant amount of water goes waste. For this purpose; we use this
automatic plant irrigation system. The system derives power from solar energy
through photo-voltaic cells. Hence, dependency on erratic commercial power is
not required.

Process:

 Figure-1 showing the block diagram of whole system.


 Moisture sensor will sense the moisture of soil, output of
Moisture sensor will be in an analog voltage, ADC (analog to
digital converter) will convert this analog voltage in to digital
voltage.
 This digital output data will be given to microcontroller.
 If the moisture of soil is below a certain level then microcontroller
will turn on the water pump and give required amount of water
to plants.
 LCD display will show the status of soil moisture.
 SMS will be received when pump will turn ON.

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Block diagram:
LCD DISPLAY

Soil Microcontroller Atmega16 5V Relay


Moisture
sensor
230V AC
SIM300 GSM supply
Module

PUM
P

WATER
TANK

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Figure-1

Hardware Used:

 Moisture sensor
 Microcontroller Atmega16
 SIM 300 GSM module
 16X2 character LCD
 230V 100W water pump
 5V Relay
 12V 1Amp DC Adaptor

Software used:

 Programming of microcontroller in C programming language.


 AVR studio is used for compiling the code.
 DIP trace for PCB designing
 Eclipse for android software.

Programming Languages Considered

 All the software developed for this project will be loaded into the
memory of the ATmega16 microcontroller.

 The language must be supported by the ATmega16 compiler

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 The ATmega16 compiler supports C and Assembly

Reasons for Selection C Programming Language:

 Vast amount of online resources

 Ease of development

 Team members have experience of coding in C.

Soil moisture sensor


Soil moisture sensors measure the water content in soil. A soil
moisture probe is made up of multiple soil moisture sensors. One
common type of soil moisture sensors in commercial use is a frequency
domain sensor such as a capacitance sensor. Another sensor, the
neutron moisture gauge, utilizes the moderator properties of water for
neutrons. Cheaper sensors -often for home use- are based on two
electrodes measuring the resistance of the soil. Sometimes this simply
consists of two bare (galvanized) wires, but there are also probes with
wires embedded in gypsum. The bare wire sensor is extremely
affected by soil salinity and pH. A driving rain can temporarily remove
ions from water in the soil making it less conductive - similar to a 'dry'
reading. Gypsum probes provide a constant source of ions, but they do
not dry at the same time as the soil surrounding it, and they are
plagued by clogging from small soil particles. Time domain transmission
(TDT) and time domain reflectometry (TDR) is also used to measure
moisture content; water has a high dielectric constant; a higher water
concentration causes a higher average dielectric constant for the soil.
The average dielectric constant can be sensed by measuring the speed

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of propagation along a buried transmission line.A new heat dissipative
sensor using exact heating and cooling profiles from Water Great LLC
provides another accurate method of soil detection that is not affected
by soil salinity, pH, soil compaction and temperature. Heat dissipation
sensors rely on the effective heat R-value (insulation) of soil. Soil with
additional water conducts heat more readily than dry soil. New precise
inexpensive microcontrollers make this type of measurement possible.

Microcontroller Atmega16:
The ATmega16M1/32M1/64M1 is a low-power CMOS 8-bit
microcontroller based on the AVRenhanced RISC architecture. By
executing powerful instructions in a single clock cycle,
theATmega16M1/32M1/64M1 achieves throughputs approaching 1
MIPS per MHz allowing thesystem designer to optimize power
consumption versus processing speed.

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PIN Diagram:

Features:

• High Performance, Low Power Atmel®AVR® 8-bit Microcontroller


• Advanced RISC Architecture
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Figure 2
– 131 Powerful Instructions - Most Single Clock Cycle Execution
– 32 × 8 General Purpose Working Registers
– Fully Static Operation
– Up to 1 MIPS throughput per MHz
– On-chip 2-cycle Multiplier
• Data and Non-Volatile Program Memory
– 16/32/64K Bytes Flash of In-System Programmable Program Memory
– 512B/1K/2K Bytes of In-System Programmable EEPROM
– 1/2/4K Bytes Internal SRAM
– Write/Erase Cycles: 10,000 Flash/ 100,000 EEPROM
– Data Retention: 20 years at 85°C/ 100 years at 25°C(1)
– Optional Boot Code Section with Independent Lock Bits
In-System Programming by On-chip Boot Program
True Read-While-Write Operation
– Programming Lock for Flash Program and EEPROM Data Security
• On Chip Debug Interface (debugWIRE)
• CAN 2.0A/B with 6 Message Objects - ISO 16845 Certified
• LIN 2.1 and 1.3 Controller or 8-Bit UART
• One 12-bit High Speed PSC (Power Stage Controller)
– Non Overlapping Inverted PWM Output Pins With Flexible Dead-Time
– Variable PWM duty Cycle and Frequency
– Synchronous Update of all PWM Registers
– Auto Stop Function for Emergency Event
• Peripheral Features
– One 8-bit General purpose Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler,
Compare Mode
and Capture Mode

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– One 16-bit General purpose Timer/Counter with Separate Prescaler,
Compare
Mode and Capture Mode
– One Master/Slave SPI Serial Interface
– 10-bit ADC
Up To 11 Single Ended Channels and 3 Fully Differential ADC Channel
Pairs
Programmable Gain (5×, 10×, 20×, 40×) on Differential Channels
Internal Reference Voltage
Direct Power Supply Voltage Measurement
– 10-bit DAC for Variable Voltage Reference (Comparators, ADC)
– Four Analog Comparators with Variable Threshold Detection
– 100μA ±2% Current Source (LIN Node Identification)
– Interrupt and Wake-up on Pin Change
– Programmable Watchdog Timer with Separate On-Chip Oscillator
– On-chipTemperature Sensor
• Special Microcontroller Features
– Low Power Idle, Noise Reduction, and Power Down Modes
– Power On Reset and Programmable Brown Out Detection
– In-System Programmable via SPI Port
– High Precision Crystal Oscillator for CAN Operations (16MHz)
– Internal Calibrated RC Oscillator ( 8MHz)
– On-chip PLL for fast PWM ( 32MHz, 64MHz) and CPU (16MHz)
• Operating Voltage: 2.7V - 5.5V
• Extended Operating Temperature:
– -40°C to +85°C
• Core Speed Grade:
– 0 - 8MHz @ 2.7 - 4.5V
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– 0 - 16MHz @ 4.5 - 5.5V

16X2 LCD Display

LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen is an electronic display module and


find a wide range of applications. A 16x2 LCD display is very basic
module and is very commonly used in various devices and circuits.
These modules are preferred over seven segments and other multi
segment LEDs. The reasons being: LCDs are economical; easily
programmable; have no limitation of displaying special & even custom
characters (unlike in seven segments), animations and so on.

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A 16x2 LCD means it can display 16 characters per line and there are 2
such lines. In this LCD each character is displayed in 5x7 pixel matrix.
This LCD has two registers, namely, Command and Data.
The command register stores the command instructions given to the
LCD. A command is an instruction given to LCD to do a predefined task
like initializing it, clearing its screen, setting the cursor position,
controlling display etc. The data register stores the data to be displayed
on the LCD. The data is the ASCII value of the character to be displayed
on the LCD. Click to learn more about internal structure of a LCD.

V0 (Set Lcd contrast)

Set lcd contrast here. Best way is to use variable resistor such as
potentiometer. Output of the potentiometer is connected to this pin.
Rotate the potentiometer knob forward and backward to adjust the lcd
contrast.

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RS(Register select)

There are two registers in every lcd

1 Command Register
2 Data Register

Command Register

When we send commands to lcd these commands go to Command


register and are processed there.
Commands with their full description are given in the picture below.
When RS=0 Command Register is Selected.

Data Register

When we send Data to lcd it goes to data register and is processed


there.
When RS=1 Data Register is selected.

RW(Read - Write)

When RW=1 We want to read data from lcd.


When RW=0 We want to write to lcd.

EN(Enablesignal)

When you select the register(Command and Data) and set RW(read -
write) now its time to execute the instruction. By instruction i mean
the 8-bit data or 8-bit command present on Data lines of lcd.
This requires an extra voltage push to execute the instruction and

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EN(enable) signal is used for this purpose. Usually we make it en=0 and
when we want to execute the instruction we make it high en=1 for
some milli seconds. After this we again make it ground en=0

GSM Module SIM300:

GSM stands for Global System for Mobile Communications.It is a


standard set developed by the EuropeanTelecommunications
Standards Institute (ETSI) to describe protocols for second generation
(2G) digital cellular networks used by mobilephones.
A Modem is a device which modulates and demodulates signals as
required to meet the communication requirements.It modulates an
analog carrier signal to encode digital information, and also
demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted
information.
A GSM Modem is a device that modulates and demodulates the GSM
signals and in this particular case 2G signals. The modem we are using
is SIMCOM SIM300. It is a Tri-band GSM/GPRS Modem as it can detect
and operate at three frequencies (EGSM 900 MHz, DCS 1800 MHz and
PCS1900 Mhz). Default operating frequencies are EGSM 900MHz and
DCS 1800MHz.
Sim300 is a widely used in many projects and hence many variants of
development boards for this have been developed. These development
boards are equipped with various features to make it easy to
communicate with the SIM300 module. Some boards provide only TTL
interface while some boards include an RS232 interface and some
others include an USB interface. If your PC has a serial port(DB9) you
can buy a GSM Modem that has both TTL and RS232 interfacings in
economy.
Sim300 GSM module used here, consists of a TTL interface and an
RS232 interface. The TTL interface allows us to directly interface with a
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microcontroller while the RS232 interface includes a MAX232 IC to
enable communication with the PC. It also consists of a buzzer, antenna
and SIM slot. Sim300 in this application is used as a DCE (Data Circuit-
terminating Equipment) and PC as a DTE (Data Terminal Equipment).
Why use a GSM Modem
GSM Technology has grown so much, that literally there isn’t a place on
earth where there is no GSM signal. In such a scenario GSM provides us
a wide scope in controlling things remotely from any place just with our
finger tips. GSM also provides ease to easily communicate in a more
robust way.
Some AT Commands
Sim300 GSM Module can be used to send and receive SMS connecting
it to a PC when a SIM is inserted. The GSM Modem can be sent
commands to send or receive SMS from the PC through a com port
(serial port or an usb). These commands are called as AT commands.
Through AT commands we can perform several actions like sending and
receiving SMS, MMS, etc. Sim300 has an RS232 interface and this can
be used to communicate with the PC. Sim300 usually operates at a
baudrate of 9600, with 1 stopbits, No parity, No Hardware control and
8 databits. We shall see at some of the AT Commands necessary for
sending and receiving SMS.

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This is a plug and play GSM Modem with a simple to interface serial
interface. Use it to send SMS, make and receive calls, and do other
GSM operations by controlling it through simple AT commands from
micro controllers and computers. It uses the highly popular SIM300
module for all its operations. It comes with a standard RS232 interface
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which can be used to easily interface the modem to micro controllers
and computers.

The modem consists of all the required external circuitry required to


start experimenting with the SIM300 module like the power regulation,
external antenna, SIM Holder, etc.

Features

 Uses the extremely popular SIM300 GSM module


 Provides the industry standard serial RS232 interface for easy
connection to computers and other devices
 Provides serial TTL interface for easy and direct interface to
microcontrollers
 Power, RING and Network LEDs for easy debugging
 Onboard 3V Lithium Battery holder with appropriate circuitry for
providing backup for the modules’ internal RTC
 Can be used for GSM based Voice communications, Data/Fax,
SMS,GPRS and TCP/IP stack
 Can be controlled through standard AT commands
 Comes with an onboard wire antenna for better reception.
 Board provides an option for adding an external antenna through
an SMA connector
 The SIM300 allows an adjustable serial baud rate from 1200 to
115200 bps (9600 default)
 Modem a low power consumption of 0.25 A during normal
operations and around 1 A during transmission
 Operating Voltage: 7 – 15V AC or DC (board has onboard rectifier

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Benefits:
 It will provide required amount of water at proper time.
 It is an autonomous system so it will save manpower and time.
 Providing required amount of water at proper time will increase

the life of plants, so it beneficial for environment.

Application:

 Agriculture
 Landscape irrigation

Agriculture

Measuring soil moisture is important in agriculture to help farmers


manage their irrigation systems more efficiently. Not only are farmers
able to generally use less water to grow a crop, they are able to
increase yields and the quality of the crop by better management of
soil moisture during critical plant growth stages.

Besides agriculture, there are many other disciplines using soil


moisture sensors. Golf courses are now using sensors to increase the
efficiencies of their irrigation systems to prevent over watering and
leaching of fertilizers and other chemicals offsite.

Landscape irrigation

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In urban and suburban areas, landscapes and residential lawns are
using soil moisture sensors to interface with an irrigation controller.
Connecting a soil moisture sensor to a simple irrigation clock will
convert it into a "smart" irrigation controller that prevents an irrigation
cycle when the soil is wet.

Disadvantages

The GSM modules will improper function due to network problem.

The moisture sensors will improper function due to corrosion.

Future scope

This system can be used in homes for the irrigation of the port

References
1. Augarten, Stan (1983). The Most Widely Used Computer on a Chip: The TMS
1000. State of the Art: A Photographic History of the Integrated Circuit
(New Haven and New York: Ticknor & Fields). ISBN 0-89919-195-9.
Retrieved 2009-12-23.
2. "Oral History Panel on the Development and Promotion of the Intel 8048
Microcontroller" (PDF). Computer History Museum Oral History, 2008. p. 4.
Retrieved 2011-06-28.
3. "Atmel’s Self-Programming Flash Microcontrollers" (PDF). 2012-01-24.
Retrieved 2008-10-25. by Odd JosteinSvendsli 2003
4. Jim Turley. "The Two Percent Solution" 2002.

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5. Tom Cantrell "Microchip on the March". Circuit Cellar. 1998.
6. http://www.semico.com
7. Momentum Carries MCUs Into 2011
http://semico.com/content/momentum-carries-mcus-2011
8. "MCU Market on Migration Path to 32-bit and ARM-based Devices". April
25, 2013. It typically takes a global economic recession to upset the diverse

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