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Chapter 2

Review Related Literature

Fire is a rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of

combustion, realizing heat, light, and various reaction product. Fire can destroy
structure like building or house and all of your possession less than an hour, and
in can destroy the forest into pile and charred wood.

Some of the Filipino consider as the first physical safety and followed by the
earthquake but most of the household remain ill equipped to handle that incidents
it is a survey by global technology firm noted. (Wrangham 2013)

Fires become the problem in the Manila Area. And the fire incident is the
problem of the fire districts. (Ingal 2016).

Based in the World Wide Statistics Commission (WFSC) estimated that the
annual cost loss of fire was 1 percent on the global economy which is equivalent
to billion dollars direct loses of the property. However, other costs of fires include
direct costs (e.g. health care management of burns) and indirect costs (e.g., lost
wages, prolonged care for deformities and trauma, and commitment of family
resources), which are just as significant but are difficult to measure (World Health
Organization, 2012). Indirect costs are often imprecisely measured because of the
intrinsic inaccuracy of methods used to calculate them (WFSC, 2012).

According to the Honeywell Security and Fire, a unit of Arizona-based

diversified technology firm based on it survey 84 percent of Filipino ranked the fire
as top 1, next is the earthquake which is top 2 at 91 percent. Other potential
physical threats it involves the building collapses (69 percent), terrorism (64
percent), and floods (33 percent). The purpose of this survey is to determine the
fire hazard and security, and the adaption efficacy of fire safety, and security
system, and technology. And the respondent of the survey involved 500 person
worked at reside near airports, hospitals, shopping mall, corporate with the offices
of hotel in Metro Manila.

According to the Bureau of Fire and Protection, there were more than
17,000 fire disaster in 2016, causing more than p3 billion worth of damages in
nationwide. The survey findings were presented at a recent forum titled ‘Towards
a Safe and Secure.

Philippines,’ co-organized by Honeywell and the American Chamber of Commerce


The forum featured a panel discussion among representatives from the

Bureau of Fire Protection, Department of the Interior and Local Government and
the Philippine National Police. “With government-led initiatives such as the
Philippine Development Plan 2011-2016, we are confident in the growth outlook of
the Philippines,” said AmCham president Rick Santos. “Honeywell’s survey shows
a strong need for better fire and security technology, and supports the
government’s focus on expanding infrastructure development. The US is
committed to supporting the advancement of the Philippines in this area.”

A fire triangle is a mode for conveying the components of fire. The fire
triangle three side represent fire which is the heat, fuel, and oxidation. The three
are combined in a right proportion for a fire to occur.

The first element of the fire tringle is the heat, it is the most important of fire
elements. A fire cannot ignite unless it has a certain amount of heat, and it cannot
grow without heat either.

One of the first things firefighters do to extinguish a fire is to apply a cooling

agent — usually water. Another cooling agent is a chemical fire retardant, such as
the ones used in fire extinguishers.

Another method of heat to diffuse heat from a fire is to remove the scrape
from the fire source. Scrape includes the woods embers on burning building. And
the fire fighters will turn off the source of electricity in a burning building to remove
the source of heat.

The second element in the fire triangle is fuel. A fire needs a fuel source in
order to burn. The fuel source can be anything that is flammable, such as wood,
paper, fabric, or chemicals. Once the fuel element of the fire triangle is removed,
the fire will go out.

If a fire is allowed to burn without any attempt to extinguish it, as in the case
of a controlled burn conducted by the Forest Service, it will extinguish on its own
when it is consumed all of the fuel.

The final element of the fire triangle is oxygen, which is also an essential
component of fire. A fire needs oxygen to start and continue. That is why one
recommendation for extinguishing a small fire is to smother it with a non-flammable
blanket, sand or dirt.

A decrease in the concentration of oxygen retards the combustion process.

In large fires where firefighters are called in, decreasing the amount of oxygen is
not usually an option because there is no effective way to make that happen in an
extended area.

An alternative to the fire triangle model is the fire tetrahedron. The fire
tetrahedron adds another element to the fire, which is chemical reaction. Fires
involving metals such as titanium, lithium and magnesium have a chemical
reaction that requires a different approach for firefighters.

This is called a class D fire and the application of water will exacerbate the
combustion. Because of the chain reaction caused by the metals in class D fires,
firefighters must use a different approach involving the introduction of inert agents
like sand to smother it.

Learning about the fire triangle is a good way to understand the elements
of fire and is an essential component of firefighting education. (Fire Fighting 101;
December 21, 2011).

Class A: These are fires involving flammable solids, e.g. wood, cloth, rubber,
paper, and some types of plastics. An example of this type of fire would be a
campsite fire.

Class B: These are fires involving flammable liquids or liquefiable solids, e.g.
petrol, oil, paint and also some waxes & plastics, but not cooking fats or oils.
Class C: These are fires involving flammable gases, e.g. natural gas, hydrogen,
propane, butane.

Class D: These are fires involving combustible metals, e.g. sodium, magnesium,
and potassium.

Class E: These are fires involving any of the materials found in Class A and B
fires, but including electrical appliances, wiring, or other electrically energized
objects in the vicinity of the fire, with a resultant electrical shock risk if a conductive
agent is used to control the fire.

Class F: These are fires involving cooking fats and oils. The high temperature of
these types of fats and oil when on fire far exceeds that of other flammable liquids
which means that normal fire extinguishers should not be used. (Learning First
Line 2009).

A fire extinguisher is an active fire protection device used to extinguish or

control small fires, often in emergency situations. It is not intended for use on an
out-of-control fire, such as one which has reached the ceiling, endangers the user
(i.e., no escape route, smoke, explosion hazard, etc.), or otherwise requires the
expertise of a fire department. Typically, a fire extinguisher consists of a hand-held
cylindrical pressure vessel containing an agent which can be discharged to
extinguish a fire. Fire extinguishers manufactured with non-cylindrical pressure
vessels also exist, but are less common. (Cope, L.H. 2014)

Grosshandler, W.L (n.d.) Fire extinguishers contain different chemicals,

depending on the application. Handheld extinguishers, which are commonly sold
at hardware stores for use in the kitchen or garage, are pressurized with nitrogen
or carbon dioxide (CO2) to propel a stream of fire-squelching agent to the fire. The
active material may be a powder such as potassium bicarbonate (KHCO3), liquid
water, an evaporating fluorocarbon or the propelling agent itself. The most effective
and common fluorocarbon used until recently for this application had been
bromochlorodifluoromethane (CF2ClBr), referred to as halon 1211. By
international agreement, however, production of all types of halons ceased in 1994
because the bromine and chlorine atoms in the chemical were found to migrate
over time to the stratosphere, where they react to deplete ozone in a very efficient
catalytic cycle. Many fire extinguishing systems are built into the building or other
structure being protected. Water sprinklers are by far the most common type of
fixed system because they are inexpensive, highly reliable and safe for people.
But water damage cannot always be tolerated (say, in a computer room); it is
sometimes ineffective (a fuel storage system); and it is impractical where weight
and space are limited (in an airplane). In these situations, fire extinguishers use
different materials--ones that flood a protected compartment with a fire-fighting
gas. CO2 works well, but is fatal at the concentrations necessary to extinguish a
fire, and so cannot be used where people will be present. Bromotrifluoromethane
(CF3Br, or halon 1301) is a close cousin to halon 1211, but has a much lower
boiling point and toxic level--properties that have made halon 1301 the firefighting
chemical of choice for applications where sprinklers cannot be used.

The manufacturer produced new families of chemical it contains the chlorine,

Bromine called hydrofluorocarbons (HFC’s) it is a physical properties related to the
halons and no ozone depletion potential. But the lack of Br of Cl atoms cannot
disrupt the combustion of the same degree. HFCs extinguish fires in a manner
similar to CO2 orN2--by absorbing heat and reducing the concentration of oxygen.
Even so, several different companies are marketing such HFCs as CHF3,
C2HF5,and C3HF7 for a variety of applications. The need to find halon
replacements remains. Researchers are actively pursuing diverse materials--
including iron- and phosphorous-containing compounds and hydrofluorocarbons--
with the ability to inhibit flames. They are also developing better means of
discharging more conventional chemicals, such as H2O, N2 and CO2. For
example, one idea is to use a solid propellant to generate an inert gas mixture--an
approach identical to the systems in car air bags. Such a system, when activated,
would extinguish a fire just as one blows out a candle. (Conrad, 2015).

Aerosol spray is a type of dispensing system which creates an aerosol mist of

liquid particles. This is used with a can or bottle that contains a payload and
propellant under pressure. When the container's valve is opened, the payload is
forced out of a small hole and emerges as an aerosol or mist. As propellant
expands to drive out the payload, only some propellant evaporates inside the can
to maintain a constant pressure. Outside the can, the droplets of propellant
evaporate rapidly, leaving the payload suspended as very fine particles or droplets.
(Bellis, 2017)

Baking soda is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. It is a salt

composed of sodium ions and bicarbonate ions. Sodium bicarbonate is a white
solid that is crystalline but often appears as a fine powder. It has a slightly salty,
alkaline taste resembling that of washing soda (sodium carbonate). The natural
mineral form is nahcolite. It is a component of the mineral natron and is found
dissolved in many mineral springs.

Chalkdust is a soft, white, porous sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of limestone

composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is calcium carbonate or CaCO3. It is used
in the mixture containing calcium carbonate (CaCO3)

Cocos nucifera vinegar is similar to other fermented vinegars such as apple cider
and balsamic vinegars. It can either be made with coconut water or from the sap,
or "tuba," of the coconut tree. Coconut vinegar is a staple condiment in Southeast
Asia, particularly in the Philippines, where it is called suka ng niyog, and is also
used in some regions of India. Coconut vinegar is white and cloudy with a very
pungent acidic taste and a hint of yeast. As with apple cider vinegar, coconut
vinegar includes the "mother," or culture of organisms that caused the

Eggshell is the outer covering of a hard-shelled egg and of some forms of eggs
with soft outer coats. It is used in the study, pounded and grained in the mixture,
contains calcium carbonate (CaCO3).

Fermentation sometimes refers specifically to the chemical conversion of sugars

into ethanol, producing alcoholic drinks such as wine, beer, and cider. It had been
used in the study in the formation of coconut vinegar to achieve the acidic property

Fire Extinguisher it is a portable container usually filled with special chemicals for
putting out fire.

Pressure Vessel is a container designed to hold gases or liquids at a pressure

substantially different from the ambient pressure for the fire extinguisher.
Vinegar - is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH), water,
and other trace chemicals, which may include flavorings. It is the main ingredient
in producing carbon dioxide (CO2) for the study.

Vinegar is a liquid consisting of about 5–20% acetic acid (CH3COOH),

water, and other trace chemicals, which may include flavorings. The acetic acid is
produced by the fermentation of ethanol by acetic acid bacteria. Vinegar is now
mainly used as a cooking ingredient, or in pickling. Historically, as the most easily
available mild acid, it had a great variety of industrial, medical, and domestic uses,
some of which (such as its use as a general household cleanser) are still practiced

Commercial vinegar is produced either by fast or slow fermentation

processes. In general, slow methods are used with traditional vinegars, and
fermentation proceeds slowly over the course of months or a year. The longer
fermentation period allows for the accumulation of a nontoxic slime composed of
acetic acid bacteria. Fast methods add mother of vinegar (bacterial culture) to the
source liquid before adding air to oxygenate and promote the fastest fermentation.
In fast production processes, vinegar may be produced in 20 hours to three days.

Vinegar is mainly a dilute aqueous solution of acetic acid and this is

reflected in its physical and chemical properties. It’s the product of two biochemical
processes. These processes are alcoholic fermentation and acid fermentation.
Alcoholic fermentation converts natural sugar to alcohol. Acid fermentation
converts alcohol to acid via microorganisms, which are present in the air, we
breathe, called acetobacter. The acid part of vinegar is what gives it its sour taste
and its antiseptic (germ killing) properties as well as its cleaning properties.


Density is mass per unit a volume of solution. It’s used in many mathematical
calculations that is utilized in analysis and it is measured by hydrometer. The
hydrometer measures in density or specific gravity. A specific gravity is the ratuio
of any density in a substance to the density of some other substance used as
standard, water is being the standard for liquids and solid, and hydrogen or air
being the standard of the gases. The typical commercial vinegar that has a 5
percent acetic acid content has a density about 1.01 grams per millimeter.
(Brinkley, 2009).

Boiling Point

The boiling point of vinegar also depends on the acetic acid content.The
typical commercial distilled white vinegar, which contains 5 percent acetic acid and
of course 95 percent water boils at about 100.6 degrees Celcius or 213 degrees
Fahrenheit. (Brinkley, 2009)

Freezing Point

Just as with the density and boiling point, the freezing point of vinegar will
depend on the acetic acid content. The typical 5 percent commercial vinegar has
a freezing point of about – 2 degrees Celcius or 28 degrees Fahrenheit. (Brinkley,


The term pH means “potential hydrogen” and refers to the amount of

hydrogen ions present in solution. Mathematically, pH is equal to the negative
logarithm, using base 10, of the hydrogen ion concentration in mole per liter. If the
pH of a solution decreases by 1 pH unit, then its hydrogen ion concentration
increases by 10 times. Pure water has a neutral pH of 7. Neutral means that
anything less than 7 is acidic and anything greater than 7 is basic or alkaline.

The pH of vinegar is dependent on the amount of acid present in the

vinegar. Most commercial vinegar is a 5 percent solution and therefore, will have
a pH of 2.4. (Properties of Vinegar 2014) (Brinkley, 2009)

Vinegar is an alcoholic liquid that has been allowed to sour. It is primarily

used to flavor and preserve foods and as an ingredient in salad dressings and
marinades. Vinegar is also used as a cleaning agent. The word is from the French
vin (wine) and aigre (sour).

Raw Materials

Vinegar is made from a variety of diluted alcohol products, the most

common being wine, beer, and rice. Balsamic vinegar is made from the Trebbiano
and Lambrusco grapes of Italy's Emilia-Romagna region. Some distilled vinegars
are made from wood products such as beech. Acetobacters are microscopic
bacteria that live on oxygen bubbles. Whereas the fermentation of grapes or hops
to make wine or beer occurs in the absence of oxygen, the process of making
vinegars relies on its presence. In the natural processes, the acetobacters are
allowed to grow over time. In the vinegar factory, this process is induced by feeding
acetozym nutrients into the tanks of alcohol. Mother of vinegar is the gooey film
that appears on the surface of the alcohol product as it is converted to vinegar. It
is a natural carbohydrate called cellulose. This film holds the highest concentration
of acetobacters. It is skimmed off the top and added to subsequent batches of
alcohol to speed the formation of vinegar. Acetozym nutrients are manmade
mother of vinegar in a powdered form.Herbs and fruits are often used to flavor
vinegar. Commonly used herbs include tarragon, garlic, and basil. Popular fruits
include raspberries, cherries, and lemons. (Mcnulty, 2001)


The design step of making vinegar is essentially a recipe. Depending on the

type of vinegar to be bottled at the production plant—wine vinegar, cider vinegar,
or distilled vinegar—food scientists in the test kitchens and laboratories create
recipes for the various vinegars. Specifications include the amount of mother of
vinegar and/or acetozym nutrients added per gallon of alcohol product. For
flavored vinegars, ingredients such as herbs and fruits are macerated in vinegar
for varying periods to determine the best taste results. (Mcnulty, 2001)

Vinegar Varieties

Vinegar is great for a healthy, light style of cooking. The tangy taste often
reduces the need for salt, especially in soups and bean dishes. It can also cut the
fat in a recipe because it balances flavors without requiring the addition of as much
cream, butter, or oil. Vinegar flavors range from mild to bold, so you're sure to find
one with the taste you want. A brief look at some of the various vinegars available
may help you choose a new one for your culinary escapades.

Rice Vinegar
Clear or very pale yellow, rice vinegar originated in Japan, where it is
essential to sushi preparation. Rice vinegar is made from the sugars found in rice,
and the aged, filtered final product has a mild, clean, and delicate flavor that is an
excellent complement to ginger or cloves, sometimes with the addition of
sugar.Rice vinegar also comes in red and black varieties, which are less common
in the United States but very popular in China. Both are stronger than the clear
(often called white) or pale yellow types. Red rice vinegar's flavor is a combination
of sweet and tart. Black rice vinegar is common in southern Chinese cooking and
has a strong, almost smoky flavor.

Coconut Vinegar

This staple of Southeast Asian cooking is made from the sap of the coconut
palm and is especially important to Thai and Indian dishes. (Alleman, 2006)


The sap is harvested for commercial use in southeast Asia, yielding a sugar
known in India as gur or in Indonesia as gula aren, and is also fermented into
vinegar and wine. Edmund Roberts talks about drinking an alcoholic beverage
made in the Cavite area. He described it as a "fermented" and "intoxicating liquor."
He said that it was "the pith furnished with sugar – when the liquor was properly
boiled down, a farina...and of the inside of its triangular-shaped fruit a sweetbread
was made."


An eggshell it is a hard-shelled egg and some of forms of eggs with soft outer
cover. Bird eggshells contain calcium carbonate and dissolve in various acids,
including the vinegar used in cooking. While dissolving, the calcium carbonate in
an eggshell reacts with the acid to form carbon dioxide.

The main ingredient in eggshells is calcium carbonate (the same brittle

white stuff that chalk, limestone, cave stalactites, sea shells, coral, and pearls are
made of). The shell itself is about 95% CaCO3 (which is also the main ingredient
in sea shells). The remaining 5% includes calcium phosphate and magnesium
carbonate and soluble and insoluble proteins. (Fred Senese 2010)
The eggshell is a highly specialized mineralized structure, which provides
protection against physical damage and penetration by micro-organisms. The egg
shell consists of the inner and outer shell membranes, the true shell and the cuticle.
The crystalline layer of the shell, which is responsible for its mechanical strength,
consists of more than 90% calcium in the form of calcium carbonate. Calcium is
absorbed from the feed in the intestine. Provided that sufficient calcium (3.8–4.2%)
is present in the feed, the process of calcium uptake, deposition and excretion is
regulated by vitamin D3 and its metabolites.

Vitamin D3 is absorbed from the intestine in association with fats and

requires the presence of bile salts for absorption. It is transported via the portal
circulation to the liver, where it is accumulated. The first transformation occurs in
the liver, where vitamin D3 is hydroxylated to become 25-hydroxyvitamin D3(25-
OH D3). This vitamin D3 metabolite is then transported to the kidney where it is
converted to the most active hormonal compound 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-
(OH)2 D3). The production of 1,25-(OH)2 D3 is tightly regulated by parathyroid
hormone (PTH) in response to serum calcium. If plasma calcium is low, PTH
secretion is induced, which stimulates the hydroxylation of 25-OH D3 to 1,25-
(OH)2 D3. This compound will increase calcium absorption in the intestine,
mobilize calcium from the bones and reduce calcium excretion via the kidney. If
plasma calcium is high, first PTH secretion and then 1,25-(OH)2 D3 production are
suppressed, which result in a reduction of calcium absorption in the gut as well as
calcium resorption from the bones and an increase in calcium excretion. Therefore
it is of utmost importance for an optimum egg shell quality to optimize calcium
supply and secure sufficient vitamin D3 activity available to the laying hen.

Despite adequate fortification of layer feeds with vitamin D3, clinical signs
of vitamin D3 deficiency such as rickets or cagelayer- fatigue can frequently be
observed in laying hens kept under commercial conditions. Such disorders indicate
insufficient utilization of the dietary vitamin D3, which can be counteracted by a
special feed product such as ROVIMIX® Hy•D®.

Chemically, Hy•D® is 25-OH D3, representing the first metabolite in the

cascade of vitamin D mobilization. In numerous studies, Hy•D® has been
demonstrated to support the homeostatic function of vitamin D3, which is important
to provide sufficient minerals for incorporation into the bone matrix as well as for
optimizing the stability of the eggshell. Hy•D® also helps to maximize bone mass
before the onset of lay and thus prevents layers from a fatal demineralization of
the bones, resulting in osteoporosis. Therefore, Hy•D® is an effective and more
flexible source of vitamin D3activity for optimizing vitamin nutrition and ultimately
maximizing profitability of modern layer production. (The Poultry Site 2007)


Chalk is a soft, white, porous sedimentary carbonate rock, a form of

limestone composed of the mineral calcite. Calcite is calcium carbonate or CaCO3.
It forms under reasonably deep marine conditions from the gradual accumulation
of minute calcite shells (coccoliths) shed from Micro-organisms called
coccolithophores. Chalk is a substance used for drawing on rough surfaces, as it
readily crumbles leaving particles that stick loosely to these surfaces.


Based on the study of Matin Hubbe (n.d.) Chalk is a form of calcium

carbonate, having the same chemical composition as ground calcium carbonate,
limestone, marble, and precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC). In fact, all of the
calcium carbonates listed in the previous sentence have the same crystal form,
calcite. What makes chalk different is its origin as the shells of little "coccolith"
organisms. Generations of coccoliths gradually built up deposits. Since most of us
have experience with chalk-board chalk it should come as no surprise that the
deposited mineral is quite easy to grind. The particles released by grinding the
chalk have a highly desirable property; almost all of them are in an excellent
particle size range for use at relatively high levels as a filler. The moderately large
size and low surface area (about 4 m2/g) relative to other common fillers means

that chalk has less adverse effect on strength than most kinds of filler at any given
filler content in paper. Especially abundant and high-quality chalk deposits are
found in England and Denmark - but not in North America. This fact is probably
part of the reason that the European paper industry was earlier in its widespread
adoption of alkaline papermaking technology. The modest brightness of chalk
(typically 80 to 86%) can be an issue, especially when it is compared against
ground limestone and precipitated calcium carbonate products (both about 95 to
99% brightness). Also, chalk cannot be expected to achieve a high opacity.
Opacity can be improved more by using something with a high surface area,
bulking ability, and open structure, e.g. scalenohedral PCC. Chalk typically is
dispersed with anionic materials such as phosphates or polyacrylates.


Chalk is a source of quicklime by thermal decomposition, or slaked lime

following quenching with water. In southeast England, deneholes are a notable
example of ancient chalk pits. Such bell pits may also mark the sites of ancient flint
mines, where the prime object was to remove flint nodules for stone tool
manufacture. The surface remains at Cissbury are one such example, but perhaps
the most famous is the extensive complex at Grimes Graves in Norfolk. (Walker,

Woodworking joints may be fitted by chalking one of the mating surfaces. A

trial fit will leave a chalk mark on the high spots of the corresponding surface. Chalk
transferring to cover the complete surface indicates a good fit. Builder's putty also
mainly contains chalk as a filler in linseed oil. (Walker, 2005)

Chalk may be used for its properties as a base. In agriculture, chalk is used
for raising pH in soils with high acidity. The most common forms are CaCO3
(calcium carbonate) and CaO (calcium oxide). Small doses of chalk can also be
used as an antacid. Additionally, the small particles of chalk make it a substance
ideal for cleaning and polishing. For example, toothpaste commonly contains small
amounts of chalk, which serves as a mild abrasive. Polishing chalk is chalk
prepared with a carefully controlled grain size, for very fine polishing of metals.
Chalk can also be used as fingerprint powder. (Walker, 2005)

Portable fire extinguisher means an operable portable device, carried and

operated by hand, containing an extinguishing agent that can be expelled under
pressure for the purpose of suppressing or extinguishing a fire, and which is: (1)
rated for residential use consisting of an ABC type; (2) no larger than a 10-pound
rated extinguisher, and (3) mounted within 10 feet of the kitchen area, unless
otherwise permitted by the enforcing agency.Portable fire extinguishers are
appliances to be used principally by the occupants of a fire-endangered building
or area who are familiar with the location and operation of the extinguisher through
education or training. Portable fire extinguishers are primarily of value for
immediate use on small fires. They have a limited quantity of extinguishing material
and, therefore, need to be used properly so that this material is not wasted. The
not-for-profit Underwriters Laboratories (UL) developed Standard UL 711,
Standard for Safety Rating and Fire Testing of Fire Extinguishers, seventh edition,
2004, for rating and testing fire extinguishers. Experienced personnel conduct the
tests. The operator of the extinguisher is to be protected against heat by wearing
a safety helmet with a heat-resistant face guard, a long coat, and gloves. A self-
contained breathing apparatus (SCBA), or the equivalent, is recommended. If the
fire extinguisher is to achieve the purpose for which it is intended, it must be
properly installed and maintained. The NFPA recommends that the extinguisher
be within easy access of adults, be in good working order, be located near exits,
and be checked monthly to ensure it is operable. A nonoperating fire extinguisher
could lead to a fire’s growing out of control, which could result in property damage,
injuries, or death. It is critical that occupants read the instructions and become
familiar with the extinguisher before the fire breaks out. Although the fire
extinguisher can be an effective fire safety tool, the primary objective in a fire is a
safe escape. (Ramachandran, 2005)

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