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and Strength Assessment

[English]

Copyright © 2018 ClassNK

All rights reserved

Introduction

Ships need to ensure and maintain their structural functions whenever they are in service,

and today’s ships are more diversified and larger than ever before. This means that ClassNK is

always looking to as much new knowledge as it can from recent research, and organizations

such as IACS (the International Association of Classification Societies), etc. Our goal is to

constantly being reviewing our requirements related to structural strength assessment to

develop safer and more rational requirements that continuously ensure ship structural integrity,

even under the harshest sea and weather conditions.

Structural strength assessment methods based upon direct strength calculations specified in

classification society requirements such as the ClassNK Rules and various ClassNK

guidelines as well as the IACS CSRs (Common Structural Rules) are one type of structural

strength assessment criteria. In these requirements, dominant loads to structural strength are

specified as simplified formulae, which vary depending on ship type, to be evaluated, and

strength assessments are specified to be carried out based upon structural responses to these

loads. These simplified formulae for loads, however, were developed to comprehensively

cover load conditions estimated from actual ships, thus, where ships of new structural

configurations or of sizes lacking sufficient records of service are evaluated, the ships may be

necessary to be evaluated taking the ships particular characteristics into account.

One of the latest structural strength assessment methods to be used is called “Load and

Structural Consistent Analysis” and it employs direct load analysis and direct strength

calculations. This method directly simulates the wave-induced loads acting upon ships and

uses structural strength assessments carried out by direct strength calculation to reproduce

these loads. This method makes it possible to reproduce actual ship states to a high degree of

accuracy and thus evaluate the details of each ship characteristic correctly.

Hence, ClassNK clarifies the basic concepts related to direct load analysis and direct

strength calculations and specifies necessary requirements for structural strength assessments

in this Guidelines.

Furthermore, this Guidelines will be further reviewed at future date to incorporate new

research results; therefore, the standards, etc. contained therein are only intended to be treated

as optional requirements at this stage.

March 2018

Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment ClassNK

Contents

1 General············································································································ 1

1.1 Application ···································································································· 1

1.2 General ········································································································ 1

1.3 Submissions ································································································· 1

2 Definitions ······································································································· 3

3 Evaluation Procedures ······················································································ 4

4 Dominant Ship Motions and Load Parameters (DLP) for Structural Strength 5

Assessment ·····································································································

5 Direct Load Analysis and RAO Calculations ························································ 6

5.1 Computer Program Verification ········································································· 6

5.2 Loading Condition Selection ············································································· 6

5.3 Direct Load Analysis ······················································································· 6

6 Statistical Predictions of Ship Response in Irregular Waves (Short-Term and 7

Long-Term) ······································································································

6.1 Short-Term Predictions ···················································································· 7

6.2 Long-Term Predictions ···················································································· 7

7 Design Regular Waves and Design Loads···························································· 8

7.1 Determination of Wave Periods and Wave Directions ············································ 8

7.2 Determination of Wave Heights ········································································· 8

7.3 Design Loads ································································································ 8

8 Structural Analysis ··························································································· 9

8.1 Verification of Calculation Method and Analysis Accuracy ······································· 9

8.2 FE Models ···································································································· 9

8.3 Load and Boundary Conditions ········································································· 9

9 Structural Strength Assessments ······································································· 10

Structural Strength Assessments based upon Worst Short-Term Sea

States ·································································································

Annex 2 Terms and Conditions for DLP and Direct Load Analysis ·························· 13

Annex 3 Loading Conditions for Direct Load Analysis and Structural Analysis ········ 14

Annex 4 Short-Term and Long-Term Predictions ·················································· 15

Annex 5 Structural Strength Assessments ··························································· 17

‐i‐

Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment ClassNK

1 General

1.1 Application

-1. This Guidelines is applicable to steel ships of mono hull type.

-2. The concepts contained in this Guidelines may be applied correspondingly to floating structures

with shapes other than mono hull types (e.g., catamarans, high-speed craft, offshore structures, etc.)

as long as the structure’s particular characteristics are taken into account.

-3. Regarding the application of this Guidelines, evaluation areas, target members and target strength

requirements applicable to the evaluation and scope of application in the Rules and the Guidelines

are to be approved by the Society beforehand.

-4. The application of the Rules and this Guidelines may be requested in accordance with ship type,

evaluation area, target member and target strength requirement when deemed necessary by the

Society.

1.2 General

-1. This Guidelines specifies procedures for structural strength assessments based upon direct load

analysis and direct strength calculations.

-2. Structural strength assessments specified in -1 above include yield strength assessments, buckling

strength assessments and fatigue strength assessments, or any combination thereof.

-3. Anticipated periods of ship service are to be selected; such periods, however, are not to be less than

25 years.

-4. The anticipated sea state for structural strength assessments is to be the North Atlantic (all seasons),

and the wave scatter diagrams specified in IACS Recommendation No.34 (November 2001) are to

be taken as the standard diagram. Other sea states and wave scatter diagrams, however, may be used

when deemed appropriate by the Society.

1.3 Submissions

For application of this Guidelines, the following documents are to be submitted to the Society. Additional

document submissions may be requested when deemed necessary by the Society.

-1. Trim for design loading conditions and stability calculation sheets, which include information about

the drafts at AP and FP, mean draft, weight distribution, centre of gravity and metacentre height.

-2. Offset data

-3. Documents which include the information specified in the following (1) to (8):

(1) Outlines of computer programs for direct load analysis, which include how to consider fluid

force, bilge keel and roll damping, etc.

(2) Loading conditions to be considered

(3) Dominant ship motions and loads parameter to structural strength assessments (hereinafter,

DLP)

(4) Calculation conditions of direct load analysis (wave heights, incident wave frequencies or

periods, wave angles and ship speeds)

(5) Outlines of short-term and long-term predictions

(6) RAO, short-term and long-term prediction results, wave angle/period/height of design regular

wave for each DLP

(7) Ship motions, accelerations, hydrodynamic pressure and hull girder moments at times when

‐1‐

ClassNK Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment

(8) Documents which include information related to the conditions for direct strength calculations

and summaries of calculation and assessment results

‐2‐

Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment ClassNK

2 Definitions

Terms Definitions

Direct Load Method to evaluate ship motions and wave-induced loads acting upon

Analysis the ship

DLP Dominant ship motions and loads used for structural strength

assessments

RAO Function showing response amplitude values for regular waves with

wave heights of 2 meters.

Short-Term

superimposing responses in regular waves using wave spectrums

Prediction

which express the short-term sea state to be considered

Long-Term of responses in anticipated periods using the response statistics of

Prediction short-term sea states and the occurrence frequencies of short–term sea

states in the sea area to be considered.

‐3‐

ClassNK Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment

3 Evaluation Procedures

-1. Procedures for structural strength assessments by direct load analysis and direct strength

calculations are to be in accordance with the following (1) to (5): (See Fig. 3.1)

(1) Evaluation areas and target members are to be selected and the DLP for each area and target

member for structural strength assessments is to be selected.

(2) Direct load analysis in regular waves is to be carried out and a RAO is to be calculated for

each DLP selected in (1) above.

(3) Statistical predictions for DLPs are to be carried out through short-term and long-term

predictions. For yield strength assessments and buckling strength assessments, maximum and

minimum values of DLPs within the anticipated periods during which the ship is in service

are to be calculated. For fatigue strength assessments, response values of DLPs at the

dominant level for fatigue strength are to be calculated.

(4) Design regular waves reproducing responses equivalent to (3) above are to be created for each

DLP.

(5) Design loads are to be created based upon the design regular waves specified in (4) above,

and then structural analysis and structural strength assessments are to be carried out.

-2. Notwithstanding the requirements specified in -1 above, structural strength assessments based upon

RAOs or the worst short-term sea states may be carried out. Refer to Annex 1 for details.

Fig. 3.1 Flow chart for structural strength assessments based upon direct load analysis and direct strength

calculations

‐4‐

Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment ClassNK

4 Dominant Ship Motions and Load Parameters (DLP) for Structural Strength

Assessment

-1. DLPs are to be selected for each evaluation target and approved by the Society. The DLPs specified

in the following (1) to (6) are common to all ship types. Refer to Annex 2 for details.

(1) Vertical wave induced bending moment (x/L=0.5)

(2) Vertical wave induced shear force (x/L=0.25, 0.75)

(3) Hydrodynamic pressure at the intersection of bottom shell plating and the centreline for the

cross section under consideration

(4) Hydrodynamic pressure at bilge parts for the cross section under consideration

(5) Hydrodynamic pressure at the intersection of side shell plating and waterline for the cross

section under consideration

(6) Ship motions (roll, heave and pitch) and the corresponding accelerations invoked by these

motions

-2. Any of the DLPs listed in -1 above which are expected to only have a slight impact on the structural

strength of the evaluation target may not be considered; in such cases, however, relevant

documentation related to the decrease in the number of DLPs is to be submitted to the Society for

approval beforehand .

‐5‐

ClassNK Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment

Direct load analysis is to be carried out in regular waves and a RAO is to be calculated for each DLP. In

principle, direct load analysis is to be linear analysis, and any application of non-linear programs is to be

approved by the Society beforehand.

-1. Outlines of direct load analysis are to be approved by the Society beforehand.

-2. The documents specified in 1.3-1. and 1.3-2. are to be submitted beforehand and the analysis

program to be used for the direct load analysis is to verified by the Society.

The loading conditions to be considered during direct load analysis are to be determined and approved

by the Society. Refer to Annex 3 for details.

-1. Direct load analysis in regular waves is to be carried out and a RAO for each DLP is to be

calculated.

-2. The analysis is to be carried out in regular waves with multiple wave angles and periods to select

the dominant regular waves for each DLP. Refer to Annex 2 for details.

‐6‐

Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment ClassNK

Long-Term)

-1. Short-term predictions are to be carried out for each DLP based upon the RAO calculated from the

requirements specified in 5.3.

-2. The wave spectrum and relative spreading around the main wave heading to be considered are to be

approved by the Society beforehand.

-3. Refer to Annex 4 for details on short-term predictions.

-1. Long-term predictions are to be carried out for each DLP based upon the results of the short-term

predictions calculated in accordance with the requirements specified in 6.1.

-2. Refer to Annex 4 regarding the details of long-term prediction.

‐7‐

ClassNK Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment

Design loads used for the structural analysis specified in Chapter 8 are to be created based upon the

design regular waves specified in this chapter and the results of direct load analysis corresponding to the

design regular waves. Design regular waves and design loads are to be created for each DLP.

Dominant wave directions and wave periods to response in regular waves are to be taken as the wave

period and wave direction of the design regular wave. Consideration of more than one design regular wave

may be requested for one DLP when deemed necessary by the Society.

-1. Wave heights of the design regular waves used in yield strength assessments and buckling strength

assessments are to reproduce the maximum and minimum responses of the target DLP for in the

periods when the ship is in service.

-2. Wave heights of design regular waves used in fatigue strength assessments are to reproduce the

response of the DLP corresponding to the occurrence probability which significantly affects the

fatigue strength assessment.

-3. For the application of the requirements specified in -1 and -2 above, the times when the target DLP

reaches a maximum and minimum during a single wave period is to be considered.

-1. Design loads are to be created based upon responses (e.g., hydrodynamic pressure, ship motions,

acceleration due to ship motions, and hull girder moments) in the design regular waves determined

in 7.1 and 7.2.

-2. Where design loads are created, static sea pressures, hydrodynamic pressures, loads generated by

cargoes or ballast water, etc., inertial forces acting on loaded cargo, the weights of the ship hull and

each cargo tank as well as the inertial forces acting on the ship hull and cargo tanks are all to be

considered together with the loading conditions specified in 8.3-2.

-3. Loads are to be applied according to their respective type.

-4. Where analysis based upon partial structural models is to be carried out, hull girder loads acting

upon the model are also to be considered in addition to lateral loads. In principle, hull girder loads

are to be applied using the direct method.

-5. Notwithstanding any loading conditions under consideration, the permissible maximum and

minimum vertical still water bending moments described in the loading manual are, in principle, to

be used for the design loads.

-6. Where hydrodynamic pressures are to be applied to structural models, the hydrodynamic pressure

above waterline is to be considered in cases where the hydrodynamic pressure at the water line is

positive. Furthermore, any negative pressure below the waterline is not to be applied when static

pressure is taken into account in cases where the hydrodynamic pressure at the water line is

negative.

‐8‐

Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment ClassNK

8 Structural Analysis

-1. Structural analysis is to be carried out using the finite element method (FEM).

-2. Verification of the accuracy of analysis programs may be requested when deemed necessary by the

Society.

8.2 FE Models

-1. Modelling is to be carried out to reproduce the stress conditions of evaluation areas.

-2. Members to be modelled are to be selected according to evaluation area and target member and are

to be approved by the Society beforehand. In general, longitudinal members, primary structural

members (bottom structure, side structure, deck structure, bulkhead structure, etc.), longitudinal

stiffeners, stiffeners attached to transverse stiffened structures, and stiffeners attached to bulkheads

and girders are to be modelled.

-3. Each member is to be modelled using an appropriate element type.

-4. Meshing is to be carried out so that structural response can be reproduced accurately in the

evaluation areas. Where fatigue strength assessments are carried out, target locations are to be

modelled using fine mesh to ensure adequate evaluations of local stresses.

-5. Corrosion effects are to be considered by strength evaluations based upon scantlings deducted from

the scantlings described in the relevant drawings (i.e., gross scantlings). Corrosion deductions are to

be as deemed appropriate by the Society.

-1. Boundary conditions taking the model area into account are to be applied to adequately reproduce

structural model behaviour.

-2. Loading conditions for structural analysis are to be selected and approved by the Society

beforehand. Refer to Annex 3 for details.

-3. Where fatigue strength is assessed using zooming models which are modelled around target

locations, the load and boundary conditions applied to the zooming models are to be approved by

the Society beforehand.

‐9‐

ClassNK Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment

-1. For yield strength assessments, the stress for each element in evaluation areas is to be confirmed to

not be greater than its permissible stress. Relevant permissible stresses are to be as deemed

appropriate by the Society.

-2. All plating and girders in evaluation areas are to be modelled as panels separated by stiffeners or

girders, etc., and buckling strength assessments are to be carried out for each panel and stiffener.

The methods used for buckling strength assessments are to be as deemed appropriate by the Society.

-3. The locations subjected to fatigue strength assessments are to be discussed with the Society before

being selected. The methods used for fatigue strength assessments are to be as deemed appropriate

by the Society.

-4. Refer to Annex 5 for additional details.

‐10‐

Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment ClassNK

Annex 1 Structural Strength Assessments based upon Stress RAOs and Structural

Strength Assessments based upon Worst Short-Term Sea States

A.1.1 General

This annex states procedures for structural strength assessments based upon stress RAOs or worst

short-term sea states.

A.1.2 Procedures for structural strength assessments based upon stress RAOs

The procedure for structural strength assessments based on stress RAOs is as given in the following (1)

to (5): (See Fig, A.1.1)

(1) Evaluation areas and target members are to be selected.

(2) Direct load analysis is to be carried out in regular waves and then loads corresponding to each

regular wave are to be applied to structural FE models. The stress RAOs for target members are to

be calculated through structural analysis.

(3) Short-term and long-term statistical predictions are to be carried out for each stress component

generated in target members. For yield strength assessments and buckling strength assessments, the

maximum and minimum stresses for anticipated service periods are to be calculated. For fatigue

strength assessments, stresses at levels expected to be dominant to fatigue strength are to be

calculated.

(4) For yield strength and buckling strength, design regular waves which reproduce responses

equivalent to those specified in (3) above and design loads based upon such waves are to be

created and structural analysis is to be carried out.

(5) For fatigue strength assessments, structural analysis under static conditions is to be carried out

separately and fatigue damage is to be calculated after taking into account the results of (4) above.

Fig. A.1.1 Flow chart for structural strength assessments based upon stress RAOs

‐11‐

ClassNK Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment

A.1.3 Procedures for structural strength assessments based upon worst short-term sea states

The procedure for structural strength assessments based upon worst short-term sea states is as given in the

following (1) to (5). This assessment method may be applied to yield strength assessments and buckling

strength assessments, however, fatigue strength assessments are to be in accordance with the procedures

specified in Chapter 3 or A.1.2.

(1) Evaluation areas and target members are to be selected and then their respective DLPs are to be

selected.

(2) Direct load analysis in regular waves is to be carried out and RAOs for the DLPs selected in (1)

above are to be calculated.

(3) Short-term predictions are to be carried out for each DLP and the maximum expected value for

1000 waves of the DLP in the worst short-term sea state is to be calculated. Average wave period in

which the result of the short-term prediction (i.e., the standard deviation of response) becomes the

maximum is to be taken as the average wave period of the worst short-term sea state. Significant

wave height of the worst short-term sea state is to be as deemed appropriate by the Society.

(4) Design regular waves reproducing responses equivalent to those in (3) above are to be created for

each DLP.

(5) Design loads based upon the design regular waves obtained from (4) above are to be created and

then structural analysis and structural strength assessments are to be carried out.

A.1.4 Others

-1. For the applications of A.1.2 and A.1.3, the requirements of this Guidelines may be modified

accordingly and applied to each procedure.

-2. For concepts taking more than one stress component into account (e.g., Von-mises stress and

buckling strength assessments), assessments based upon RAOs or statistical predictions based upon

short-term and long-term predictions cannot be applied in the strict sense. Hence, for yield strength

assessments and buckling strength assessments, it is recommended that RAO calculations and

statistical predictions be carried out for each stress component (e.g., stress in longitudinal direction,

stress in transverse direction and shear stress), design regular waves and design loads be created

based upon the results of these predictions, and then structural strength assessments be carried out.

‐12‐

Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment ClassNK

Annex 2 Terms and Conditions for DLP and Direct Load Analysis

-1. For container carriers and bulk carriers, the following loads are to be taken as DLPs in addition to

the requirements specified in 4-1.

Container carrier

・ Torsional moment around shear center at midship section (x/L=0.25, 0.5, 0.75)

Bulk carrier ・ Torsional moment around shear center at midship section (x/L=0.25, 0.5, 0.75)

-2. For assessments at locations far from midship such as foremost cargo holds, vertical wave induced

bending moments at the middle of evaluation areas are to be considered as DLPs in addition to the

requirements specified in 4-1. In cases where evaluation areas correspond to more than one cargo

hold, vertical bending moments at the middle of each cargo hold are to be considered as the DLPs.

-3. Where locations far from midship such as foremost cargo holds are evaluated, yaw and acceleration

invoked by yaw are to be considered as DLPs in addition to the requirements specified in 4-1..

-1. The following (1) to (3) are to be taken as standard conditions for direct load analysis.

(1) 75 % of maximum service speed as ship speed

(2) Analysis is to be carried out at intervals of wave headings of 30 degrees within the range of 0

to 330 degrees.

(3) Analysis is to be carried out at intervals of 0.1 within the range of L / 0.5 ~ 2.0

-2. RAOs are to be drawn with a horizontal axis of / L (or value related to wave period) and a

vertical axis of response amplitude corresponding to a wave height of 2 m (equal to a wave

amplitude of 1 m).

-3. Peak values of responses are to be sufficiently obtained for each DLP.

-4. In general, definitions of coordinates, plus and minus of parameters, etc. differ between programs

for direct load analysis and structural analysis. Thus, careful attention is to be paid when the design

loads specified in 7.3 are created.

‐13‐

ClassNK Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment

Annex 3 Loading Conditions for Direct Load Analysis and Structural Analysis

For yield strength assessments and buckling strength assessments, the most severe load conditions for

evaluation targets are to be selected and considered as design loading conditions. For each strength

assessment, Table A.3.1 is the standard concept for loading conditions to be considered in direct load

analysis and structural analysis. Cases where design loads can be created when loading conditions to be

considered are different between direct load analysis and structural analysis are shown in the same line in

Table A.3.1

Refer also to A.5.3-3 for details regarding loading conditions to be considered for fatigue strength

assessments.

(Even in cases where loading conditions are different between direct load analysis and structural analysis,

design loads for structural analysis can be created based upon the results of direct load analysis

under loading conditions shown in the left row of the same line.)

Ship type Loading conditions for direct load analysis Loading conditions for structural analysis

Liquefied gas carrier ・ 1 tank / 2 tanks / 3 tanks empty condition

condition

Container carrier ・ Full load condition ・ 1 bay empty condition

・ Light weight container cargo condition

Oil/Chemical

・ Partial load condition ・ Partial load condition

tanker

・ Ballast condition ・ Ballast condition

Vehicles carrier

・ Ballast condition ・ Ballast condition

・ Homogenous full load condition

(1) ・ Partial load condition

Bulk carrier

Ore carrier

・ Ballast condition ・ Ballast condition

(1): In cases where holds are for both ballast and cargo, the case where ballast is loaded in the hold is to be

considered.

‐14‐

Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment ClassNK

A.4.1 General

This annex specifies the standards for short-term and long-term predictions for estimating responses in

irregular waves.

-1. The standard wave spectrum is the wave spectrum specified in IACS Recommendation No. 34.

-2. The standard relative spreading around the main wave heading is the one specified in IACS

Recommendation No. 34.

-3. Where a structure is registered for use in a restricted sea area, the wave spectrum and relative

spreading for the concerned sea area can be applied.

-1. The standard wave scatter diagram is the diagram specified in IACS Recommendation No. 34 (See

A.4.1)

-2. Where a structure is registered for use in a restricted sea area, the wave scatter diagram for the

concerned sea area can be applied.

-3. The standard wave heading acting upon a ship is considered to be uniform in all directions.

-4. In general, the response corresponding to an exceedance probability of 10-8 is to be taken as the

maximum response for a ship service period of 25 years. However, the value may be modified when

taking into account operational effects in rough sea weather, etc. when deemed appropriate by the

Society.

-5. A wave height corresponding to an exceedance probability of 10-2 is to be taken as the standard

wave height of design regular waves used for fatigue strength assessments.

-6. The H design height of a design regular wave, which reproduces the responses of -3. or -4 above, is

to be obtained from the following formula.

Rmax

H design 2 (m)

RAO

Rmax : Response decided by the requirements specified in -4 or -5 above

specified in 7.1.

‐15‐

ClassNK Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment

Fig. A.4.1 Wave scatter diagram specified in IACS Rec. No. 34 (November 2001)

‐16‐

Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment ClassNK

For structural strength assessments, A.5.1, A.5.2 and A.5.3 are the standards methods to be followed.

-1. Yield strength assessments are to be carried out using Von-mises stresses for the plating of structural

members. Stress at the centre of thickness and at the centre of the concerned element are to be used

for assessments.

-2. For beam elements and rod elements, axial stresses at the middle of element length are to be used

for assessments

-1. Buckling strength assessment which consider ultimate strength after elastic buckling strength may

be carried out for both panels and stiffeners. The stresses acting on panels or stiffeners are to be

confirmed to not be greater than the relevant buckling capacity.

-2. Buckling strength assessments are to be carried out in consideration of any tensile stresses,

compression stresses, shear stresses and lateral pressures such as water pressures acting on panels.

-1. Fatigue strength assessments are to be carried out using hot spot stresses in consideration of

localized stress concentrations.

-2. Fatigue strength assessments are to be carried out based upon linear cumulative damage

summations (i.e., Palmgren-Miner rules).

-3. Fatigue strength assessments are to be carried out for representative loading conditions according to

the ship’s intended operation. Cumulative fatigue damage may be estimated in consideration of the

periods for each loading condition during the service period of ship.

-4. Design S-N curves are to be as deemed appropriate by the Society. A typical design S-N curve in air

is shown in Fig. A.5.1.

-5. Long-term distributions of stresses are to be assumed to comply with a Weibull distribution, and a

Weibull coefficient of 1.0 is to be taken as standard. In cases where stress long-term distributions

are calculated directly in accordance with Annex 1, said long-term distribution may be used.

-6. Regarding the requirements of -5 above, long-term distributions of stresses based upon anticipated

sea routes of ships may be applied.

-7. Regarding the requirements of -5 above, long-term distributions of stresses may be calculated under

the assumed condition that stress wave headings acting on ships are uniformly distributed in all

directions.

‐17‐

ClassNK Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis and Strength Assessment

‐18‐

Guidelines for Direct Load Analysis

and Strength Assessment

[English]

ClassNK

Development Operations Headquarters

Hull Rules Development Department

3-3 Kioi-cho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0094, JAPAN

Tel: 03-5226-2181

E-mail: dhd@classnk.or.jp

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