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Soil & Tillage Research 109 (2010) 61–67

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Soil & Tillage Research


journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/still

Water energy and economic analysis of wheat production under raised bed and
conventional irrigation systems: A case study from a semi-arid area of Pakistan
Zahid Hussain a, Mohammad Azam Khan b,*, Muhammad Irfan b
a
Raised Bed Project, Ministry of Food and Agriculture, Government of Pakistan, Islamabad, Pakistan
b
Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, Pakistan

A R T I C L E I N F O A B S T R A C T

Article history: The project’s aim was to reduce Pakistan’s water use and consequently its costs in semi-arid crop
Received 2 November 2009 production system by increasing awareness, benchmarking water use and targeting practical solutions
Received in revised form 25 February 2010 for optimising water use with raised bed irrigation system. The aim of this study was to compare water as
Accepted 28 April 2010
well as energy used in wheat production on raised bed (RB) and conventional farming systems in
Pakistan in terms of energy ratio, energy and water productivity and benefit/cost ratio of the two
Keywords: systems. The values of all energy inputs and output were converted to energy farm. Economic analysis
Raised bed
was performed for each crop. The total energy requirement under RB farming on two understudy sites
Basin
were 3653 kWh ha1 and 4455 kWh ha1, whereas 3910 kWh ha1 and 4752 kWh ha1 were consumed
Water productivity
Energy productivity under conventional farming, i.e. 6% higher energy inputs were used on conventional farming than RB
Pakistan farming system. Average energy ratios of 6.3 and 4.6 were achieved under the RB and conventional
farming systems, respectively.
The main conclusion of the study is that in RB farming system, water, seed and fertilizer energies
applied were properly utilized but in the conventional (basin) system some parts of the applied energies
vanished due to many reasons.
ß 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction 62% by 2020, globally, and 87% to 73% in developing countries (Khan
et al., 2006). In agrarian country like Pakistan, agriculture without
It is a well-known fact that nothing is more important to human water or acute shortage of water will have detrimental effects on
beings than sustainable and reliable food production. In this economy, as the agriculture sector directly contributes almost one-
respect availability of water and energy is and will continue to be fourth of its GDP and engages more than 40% of the total employed
an important foundation in agriculture that can assure sustainable labour force of the country (Economic Survey of Pakistan, 2008-09).
and reliable food production. However, the conservation and Traditionally crops, especially wheat, in Pakistan are sown on
management of water and energy are the two key issues for flat basins which are flooded for irrigation. Conveyance and deep
researchers who need proper consideration to reduce the cost of percolation losses causing water shortage to crops associated with
these two commodities in such a way that the reduction in price overexploitation of groundwater has prompted a search for
should not result the decrease in agricultural productivity. alternative methods of water application to the crops, like raised
Pakistan has experienced a golden era of water resources bed (RB) technology, to meet agricultural water demand.
development during eighties with well-developed canal irrigation It is believed that RB technology was first adopted for the wheat
system. However, time to time droughts lower down the outcome crop to save water in Mexico (Sayre and Hobbs, 2004). In Yaqui Valley
which could have been achieved in the presence of this marvellous of Mexico almost all farmers adopted furrow-irrigated bed planting
system; the country hardly could come out from eye opening shock systems for more or less all crops in the last more than 30 years.
of drought, which remained almost 3 years (1999–2002). The In around 1998 the technique of planting various crops,
drought caused the over use of ground water, which required energy including wheat, on raised bed with irrigation water confined to
(the country is deficient in this commodity) (Economic Survey of furrows between the beds was imported to Pakistan from Australia
Pakistan, 2008-09). Moreover, it has been noted that water under Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research
availability to agriculture is expected to fall from 72% in 1995 to (ACIAR) program. With this program studies were conducted
under a national project to simulate the adaptation of raised bed in
wheat, maize and cotton crops in the country.
* Corresponding author. Tel.: +92 966 750057. Besides water saving for the crops, this water application
E-mail address: azam369@yahoo.com.au (M.A. Khan). method was also considered as one of the causes of reduced water

0167-1987/$ – see front matter ß 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.still.2010.04.007
62 Z. Hussain et al. / Soil & Tillage Research 109 (2010) 61–67

logging and improved seed rate of crops (Hobbs et al., 2000; basin, in the two districts (Sawabi and Mardan) of the North West
OFWM, 2002; Talukder et al., 2002; Sayre and Hobbs, 2004). Frontier Province (NWFP) with different soil textures. Each farm pair
Therefore, it is popular in many developed countries including shared almost a similar biophysical and socioeconomic environment
Australia (Fischer et al., 2005). RB faming system was also due to their proximity. Since there were fewer raised bed farms than
considered as energy saving technology, due to improved methods conventional farms in the area, raised bed farms were identified first,
of mechanical weeding and fertilizer application (as water along followed by selecting comparable nearby conventional counter-
with fertilizer is delivered more efficiently to the root zone of parts. The conventional farms were selected primarily according to
plants in RB system than many other forms of irrigation system). closeness to their respective raised bed counterparts.
RB technology also reduced lodging and consequently facilitated Pre-testing of the questionnaire forms prepared was done in
harvesting. Singh et al. (2009) understand that the additional some local areas. Therefore, the application of the survey forms
benefit of the technology includes zero or reduced tillage and facilitated providing sufficient information for the aims of the
consequently reduction in diesel, labour and machinery cost, with study. Data were collected for the crop period of 2008–2009 via
improved soil structure in wheat–rice crops production system. repeated semi-structured interviews with producers and corrobo-
However, almost all the authors confined their studies to see the rated with farm visits.
water saving in RB system of irrigation; whereas, energy is equally Overall climate of the project locations is arid to semi-arid
an important aspect for study in the system while comparing it subtropical continental with mean seasonal rainfall of 200–250 mm
with tradition basin method. Moreover, these authors and many in summer (May–September) and almost 300 mm during winter
other restricted their studies to see the merit of RB. There is no (October–April). The soil texture class and other physical and
doubt that RB system has been proved better system than basin in chemical characteristics of soils of the two sites are given in Table 1.
many studies but what the demerits of basin are and what the
benefit we can take with those demerits, is a big question mark. 2.1. Energy analysis
A study was conducted with the aim to evaluate the
performance of water and energy parameters of raised bed Generally, 50 HP tractors were used for tillage and other
irrigation system for the production of wheat grown on two sites cultural practices on both production systems. Soil cultivation
(Mardan and Swabi) of the NWFP, Pakistan having some what activities were performed mainly between November and May. On
different soil conditions. The specific objective of the study was to the farms of Mardan, irrigation source was canal water while on
examine and compare water and energy consumption in crop the farms of Sawabi, the irrigation was done with tube-wells. The
production operations, in raised bed irrigation system and basin farmers have installed centrifugal pumps for irrigation. The
irrigation system, and in result of production process, out put of the farmers in these areas usually own electric motors (mostly
crop (grain and biological yields), and water and energy use 7.46 kW) to power irrigation pumps. In some part close to banks
efficiencies for the above-mentioned irrigation methods. The of the nearby canal, farmers have diesel engine to power
economic budget provided information in terms of monitory centrifugal pumps usually from November to May. The water
inputs and outputs on farmer side. table in this area ranged from 3 m to 10 m.
For the calculation of energy inputs from human labour, the
2. Materials and methods product of man hours and the estimated rated power was used.
Human labour was rated at 0.075 kW (Panesar and Bhatnagar,
The study was conducted on farmer’s fields pairs, each of which 1994). To calculate energy inputs from electric motor, the product
consists of one raised bed and one conventional irrigation system, i.e. of number of motor hours, power rating of a motor and load factor

Table 1
Some physical and chemical properties of soil layers at the two experimental sites.

Location Mardan

Depth (cm) Texture EC (mS/cm) Soil pH

Mean Standard deviation Mean Standard deviation

0–10 Clay loam 0.45 0.026 7.40 0.000


11–20 Clay loam 0.40 0.020 7.35 0.058
21–30 Loam 0.38 0.025 7.35 0.058

Depth (cm) Texture Organic matter (%) Available phosphorus (ppm) Available potassium (ppm)

Mean Standard deviation Mean Standard deviation Mean Standard deviation

0–10 Clay loam 0.96 0.087 6.27 3.555 268 12.583


11–20 Clay loam 0.83 0.086 5.81 3.490 253 9.574
21–30 Loam 0.71 0.066 5.40 3.315 240 18.257

Location Sawabi

Depth (cm) Texture EC (mS/cm) Soil pH

Mean Standard deviation Mean Standard deviation

0–10 Loam 0.39 0.003 7.60 0.028


11–20 Loam 0.32 0.015 7.70 0.038
21–30 Loam 0.18 0.028 7.70 0.038

Depth (cm) Texture Organic matter (%) Available phosphorus (ppm) Available potassium (ppm)

Mean Standard deviation Mean Standard deviation Mean Standard deviation

0–10 Loam 0.67 0.007 4.88 0.023 90 1.708


11–20 Loam 0.52 0.003 4.20 0.638 70 12.247
21–30 Loam 0.78 0.041 4.15 1.737 50 4.500
Z. Hussain et al. / Soil & Tillage Research 109 (2010) 61–67 63

were used (Khan and Singh, 1997). The load factor was equal to economic efficiency of wheat production. The net economic
actual electricity consumed (read from energy meter) during returns of the crop were calculated as gross returns minus the
operation over electricity consumed at rated power. cost of all variable inputs, which included the cost of labour hour,
machinery used, irrigation, seed, fertilizer, and chemical; whereas,
Ec ¼ F c  T c  Load factor (1)
energy and water profitability were calculated by dividing the
where Ec is the energy output of the electric motor (kWh); Fc the amount of the specific commodity over gross return.
energy consumption of the motor on energy meter (kWh h1); Tc is
the time consumed in operation (h). 2.3.1. Price estimates
Prices highly influence investment calculation. In the analysis,
Actual electricity consumed all stochastic variables such as yield, price, etc. were used by their
Load factor ¼ (2)
Electricity consumed at rated power actual values as told by the farmers. The price estimates for various
The output of tractor and diesel engine (for water pumping) was input and output are as follows.
calculated by the product of fuel consumed by tractor, machines or Regarding charges of human labour, the prevailing market rate
diesel engine, time consumed in operation, calorific value of the of 8 h work was Pakistani Rupee (Pak Rs.) 250–300 (1US$ = 0.012
fuel and load factor (Khan and Singh, 1997). The load factor was Pak Rs.). The hourly rates for the use of electric motor or diesel
equal to actual fuel consumption over fuel consumed at rated engines to power irrigation pumps depend upon the electricity or
power. fuel (diesel, oil, etc.) consumed. The charges (including taxes) for
the use of electricity to run electric motors to power irrigation
Ec ¼ F c  T c  C v  Load factor (3) pumps were almost Pak Rs. 10.00 per kWh and the rate of diesel
where Ec is the energy output of the machine (kWh); Fc the fuel and oil was also round about Pak Rs. 63.00 per litre. Canal irrigation
consumption of the machine (l h1); Tc the time consumed in charges in the country are based on the crop of a particular plot.
operation (h); Cv is the caloric value of the fuel (kWh l1). The charges are fixed and there is no bar on the number of times of
irrigation. The charge for wheat was almost Rs.100.00 per hectare.
Actual fuel consumed Cost of tractor operation includes labour cost for the operator,
Load factor ¼ (4)
Fuel consumed at rated power which was calculated separately. Operating cost includes fuel,
lubrication, and repairs for power units and implements; and
The materials like seed, fertilizer and agro-chemicals used in
overhead costs, which include depreciation, interest on investment
crop production were transformed to energy equivalent by
in machinery, property taxes, insurance and housing.
multiplying the quantity of the material used in the plots with
A common seed rate of wheat varied from 110 to 140 kg ha1 in
the energy value of each material available in the literature
the area. On an average the price of seed was Pak Rs. 40–45 in
(Panesar and Bhatnagar, 1994; Khan and Singh, 1996, 1997;
Sawabi district and Pak Rs. 45–50 per kg in Mardan District.
Demircan et al., 2006). Water was applied either by pumping
Five types of fertilizers and chemicals were applied by the
ground water or by canal and its energy equivalents were applied
farmers; cost of particular fertilizer and chemical varied depending
according to the systems of water application.
on the type of fertilizer and chemical used, in the area.
Gross value of output was computed using an average market
2.2. Energy efficiency, energy and water productivity
price (farm gate price) that was almost Pak Rs. 22,000–24,000 per
ton of wheat.
In this study, energy efficiency, specific energy, energy
Certain operations were performed on contractual basis. For
productivity, water productivity and combined water and energy
these types of operation, the farmers did not apply the energy by
productivity for wheat production were calculated using the
themselves, however, paid for the energy applied by the
following equations as suggested in literature (Canakci et al., 2005;
contractor, therefore, for these operations energy consumption
Mandal et al., 2002; Khan et al., 2004).
was calculated based on data of other farmers of the area and the
Total energy output ðkWhÞ charges were counted according to the amount the particular
Energy efficiency ¼ (5)
Total energy input ðkWhÞ farmer paid for that particular operation to the contractor. It was
observed that in some operations the farmers paid more than three
times of the amount for that operation than if they would have
Amount of energy applied ðkWhÞ
Specific energy ¼ (6) done themselves.
Grain yield ðkgÞ

3. Results and discussion


Grain yield ðkgÞ
Energy productivity ¼ (7)
Total energy input ðkWhÞ The research results cover two main components; namely the
energy and water requirements on basin and RB farms for wheat
Grain yield ðkgÞ production along with the energy and water input–output
Water productivity ¼ (8)
Amount of water applied ðm3 Þ relationships and economic results of the production activity.

3.1. Energy and water requirement and input–output relationship of


Combined water  energy productivity
wheat production
Grain yield ðkgÞ
¼ (9)
Amount of water ðm3 Þ and energy ðkWhÞ applied In wheat production system, fertilizers have the biggest
proportional share (53%) of the total energy used on wheat
production in Sawabi, followed by machinery (22% on basin and
2.3. Crop profitability 24% on RB) and seed (14% on basin and 12% of the total energy on
RB). On Mardan farms the share of fertilizer energy was 63% on
Gross return, net return to farmer, energy profitability and Basin and 67% on RB farming system (Tables 2–5).
water profitability were calculated to envisage the better option of Overall share of human energy remained only 0.15% of the total
farmers. Net economic return was calculated to estimate the energy in both types of irrigation systems in Sawabi, whereas in
64 Z. Hussain et al. / Soil & Tillage Research 109 (2010) 61–67

Table 2
Per hectare energy inputs for various operations for the production of wheat on Basin Irrigation System in Sawabi.

Operation Labour (kWh) Machinery (kWh) Pump (kWh) Seed (kWh) Fertilizer (kWh) Chemicals (kWh) Total (kWh)

Seedbed preparation 1.39 407 0 0 0 0 408


Bed formation 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sowing 0.19 0 0 554 0 0 554
Irrigation 1.30 0 456 0 0 0 457
Fertilizer 0.08 0 0 0 2053 0 2053
Chemical 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
Harvesting 1.48 0 0 0 0 0 1
Threshing 1.48 434 0 0 0 0 436

Total 5.91 841 456 554 2053 0 3910

Table 3
Per hectare energy inputs for various operations for the production of wheat on Raised Bed Irrigation System in Sawabi.

Operation Labour (kWh) Machinery (kWh) Pump (kWh) Seed (kWh) Fertilizer (kWh) Chemicals (kWh) Total (kWh)

Seedbed preparation 1.12 358 0 0 0 0 359


Bed formation 0.28 93 0 0 0 0 94
Sowing 0.09 0 0 455 0 0 455
Irrigation 0.74 0 262 0 0 0 262
Fertilizer 0.09 0 0 0 1919 0 1920
Chemical 0.19 0 0 0 0 124 124
Harvesting 1.49 0 0 0 0 0 1
Threshing 1.49 436 0 0 0 0 437

Total 5.49 887 262 455 1919 124 3653

Mardan it was 0.14% on basin and 0.12% on RB. The energy use of performed with tractor driven drill only on RB farming at Mardan.
human labour for land preparation, fertilizer application, harvest- On the other sites, wheat was sown by broadcast method.
ing and threshing was significantly higher than that of conven- Significant difference in energy consumption was observed in
tional basin production system. Similarly, significant difference pumping irrigation water on Sawabi farms and application of canal
between the two systems was observed in water application water energy on Mardan farms. On Sawabi farms, irrigation energy
operation on both sites. on basin farms was 174% higher than RB farms; whereas, on
Amount of machinery (tractor) energy per hectare needed to Mardan farms, quantity of canal water was 60% higher on basin
produce wheat on RB farms was significantly higher than the basin irrigation system. In basin system, conveyance losses and deep
farms. Use of machinery energy was higher in RB system due to bed percolation from the start of basin to end of the basin increased the
formation and threshing operation. Sowing operation was required amount of water. In RB system, deep percolation and

Table 4
Per hectare energy inputs for various operations for the production of wheat on Basin Irrigation System in Mardan.

Operation Labour (kWh) Machinery (kWh) Canal water (kWh) Seed (kWh) Fertilizer (kWh) Chemicals (kWh) Total (kWh)

Seedbed preparation 0.56 178 0 0 0 0 179


Bed formation 0.00 0 0 0 0 0 0
Sowing 0.19 0 0 605 0 0 605
Irrigation 1.39 0 537 0 0 0 538.30
Fertilizer 0.74 0 0 0 2990 0 2991
Chemical 0.74 0 0 0 0 1.07 1.81
Harvesting 1.48 0 0 0 0 0 1.48
Threshing 1.48 434 0 0 0 0 436

Total 6.58 613 537 605 2990 1.07 4752

Table 5
Per hectare energy inputs for various operations for the production of wheat on Raised Bed Irrigation System in Mardan.

Operation Labour (kWh) Machinery (kWh) Canal water (kWh) Seed (kWh) Fertilizer (kWh) Chemicals (kWh) Total (kWh)

Seedbed preparation 0.56 186 0 0 0 0 187


Bed formation 0.19 62 0 0 0 0 62
Sowing 0.14 47 0 454 0 0 500
Irrigation 0.56 0 215 0 0 0 215.32
Fertilizer 0.76 0 0 0 2989 0 2989
Chemical 0.37 0 0 0 0 1.07 1.44
Harvesting 1.48 0 0 0 0 0 1.48
Threshing 1.48 496 0 0 0 0 498

Total 5.54 791 215 454 2989 1.07 4455


Z. Hussain et al. / Soil & Tillage Research 109 (2010) 61–67 65

Table 6
Analysis of energy inputs and outputs, energy and water use efficiencies on Basin and PRB for the wheat crop production in Mardan and Sawabi.

Variables Units Mardan Sawabi

Basin RB Basin RB

Labour kWh 6.58a* 5.54b 5.91c 5.49d


Machinery kWh 613a 791b 841c 887d
Water kWh 537a 215b 456c 262d
Seed kWh 605a 454b 554c 455b
Fertilizer kWh 2990a 2989b 2053c 1919d
Chemical kWh 1.07 1.07 0 124
Total energy inputs kWh 4752a 4455b 3910c 3653d
Water used (canal/pumping) m3 2983a 1193b 599c 518d
Yield (grain) kg 2965a 4448b 2716c 3099d
Straw kg 1186 1779 3395 3874
Total energy outputs kWh 16,213a 24,320b 22,862c 26,087d
Energy efficiency kWh kWh1 3.41 5.46 5.85 7.14
Specific energy kWh kg1 1.60 1.00 1.44 1.18
Energy productivity kg kWh1 0.62 1.00 0.69 0.85
Water productivity with irrigation water kg m3 0.99 3.73 4.53 5.99
Energy-water productivity kg m3 kWh1 0.08 0.33 1.45 2.05
Cost of production Pak Rs. 32,364 31,561 42,721 36,700
Gross return Pak Rs. 85,219 12,0415 79,294 69,576
Net return Pak Rs. 52,855 88,855 36,573 32,877
Water profitability Pak Rs. m3 17.65 7.79 132 134
Energy profitability Pak Rs. kWh1 11.08 2.09 20.28 19.05
Benefit–cost ratio 2.63 3.82 1.86 1.90
*
Means followed by the same letters in a row are not significantly different from each other at 5% level of significance.

consequently conveyance losses reduced due to soil compaction and 3099 kg ha1, on Sawabi farms on basin and RB system
caused by the movement of tractor wheel in the rows that worked respectively. It is generally considered that higher quantity of
as water channels. It is evident from many studies that the soil fertilizer can boost the yield (Stout, 1990). However, in this
compaction reduced the water movement (Ahuja et al., 1998; study besides applying higher quantity of seed and compara-
Martı́nez et al., 2008; Latif et al., 2008). Quoting the farmers’ tively higher quantity of fertilizer, the yield remained lower on
experience of Yaqui Valley, Mexico, Sayre et al. (2005) stated that basin than RB.
reduced amount of irrigation water was applied for all crops (up to In another study performed in the context of soil compaction, it
25% savings as compared to basin/flood irrigation). On the basis of was observed that the rows of crop which comes under tractor tire
research in North India, Ram et al. (2005) also observed significant give poor yield than the rows which remain in between the two
reduction in irrigation water requirements for crops on beds, tires (Khan, 1986). Khan et al. (1992) observed significant
consequently saving costs and energy. Hassan et al. (2005) reduction in fate of wheat with increase of soil bulk density from
compared the raised bed technology and basin for four wheat 1.25 g cm3 and 1.35 to 1.45 g cm3.
crop seasons in Mardan, Pakistan. They observed that in all four Therefore, not only water played a significant role in RB system
seasons, raised beds used lesser amount of irrigation water (16– but the soil compaction also depressed the yield of the rows which
50%) as compared to basins. They opined that less applied water in were under tractor tires in basin; whereas, in case of RB none of the
raised bed system was due to reduced evaporation, less wetted sowed line of crop was under tractor tire. It seems a myth that in RB
area and soil formation in the raised beds, and over-irrigation in system the gap between the beds seems wastage of resources due
the basins. They found that the average amounts of water per to the unplanted space Fischer et al. (2005). The said authors
irrigation for wheat crop were 46 mm for raised beds and 78 mm opined that depending on tractor wheel widths and bed planter
for basins. configurations, the unplanted gap can be between 40 and 60 cm
The two systems used different quantities of fertilizer and wide which, cumulatively can appear to occupy half of the land
chemical energy. Seed energy was significantly higher on basin area. Actually in basin also some area remains low productive but
than RB system on both sites. However, no significant difference in cannot be seen, that area receives seed and fertilizer but do not give
seed energy was observed between the two raised bed farming proper yield. Therefore, the overall yield remains low in basin than
systems. Higher quantity of seed on basin than RB system was also RB.
observed in North India (Ram et al., 2005). The total energy output per hectare on Mardan site were 16,213
Total energy inputs, water used in crop production process, and 24,320 kWh ha1, whereas it was calculated as 22,862 and
output of the crop, energy efficiency, specific energy, energy and 26,087 kWh per hectare for basin and RB production systems on
water productivity on basin and RB farming systems of the two Sawabi farms. Significantly higher yields were observed on RB
sites are illustrated in Table 6. The total energy inputs were 7% farming system; consequently the energy ratios, energy produc-
higher on basin irrigation system than RB system on the two tivity and water productivities were higher on RB farming system.
experimental sites. However, significant difference was observed The input–output and other relationships of both the production
in the consumption of water used either by canal water on Mardan systems are presented in Table 6.
site or by pumped water on Sawabi site. Difference is much clear on Lower values of specific energy indicate that consumption of
Mardan sites. The RB farms were comparatively old therefore energy on per kg product was less on RB system.
chances of infiltration were comparatively less on theses farms As far as the two sites are concerned, the difference in energy
than basin farms. ratios was also quite significant between Mardan and Sawabi site.
In the researched area, the mean yields of wheat grain were The reason behind that may be longer time duration on RB of
calculated as 2965 and 4448 kg ha1 on Mardan farms and 2716 Mardan site, this site of Mardan is under permanent raised bed
66 Z. Hussain et al. / Soil & Tillage Research 109 (2010) 61–67

farming system for more than 5 years. Therefore the water Appendix A (Continued )
channels or in other words, means of access of tractor created more Energy sources Units Energy equivalent
soil compaction than Sawabi farms, which was relatively new in Herbicide kg 238.00 MJ 66.11 kWh
raised bed technology. Another difference may be soil texture. The Insecticide kg 199.00 MJ 55.28 kWh
soil texture of Mardan site is clay loam while the soil texture of the Fungicides kg 92.00 MJ 25.56 kWh
Sawabi site is loam. This indicates that the presence of clay creates Electricity kWh 3.60 MJ 1.00 kWh
Irrigation water (m3) kWh 0.63 MJ 0.18 kWh
the difference.
Seed (wheat) kg 14.70 MJ 4.08 kWh
Output (wheat grain) kg 14.70 MJ 4.08 kWh
3.2. Net income and benefit/cost ratio of wheat production systems By-product kg 12.50 MJ 3.47 kWh

The production cost and gross product values of both


production systems are given in Table 6. According to the research Source: Canakci et al. (2005); Panesar and Bhatnagar (1987);
results, the production costs per hectare are nearly the same on Demircan et al. (2006).
both production systems. However, the mean net return is
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