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EE 3CL4, §1

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Tim Davidson

Why are you


here?

What is
control
engineering
EE3CL4:
Examples Introduction to Linear Control Systems
What tools will
we use? Section 1: Introduction
Administrative
details

Learning Tim Davidson

McMaster University

Winter 2018
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson Outline
Why are you
here?

What is
control
1 Why are you here?
engineering

Examples
2 What is control engineering
What tools will
we use?

Administrative
details 3 Examples
Learning

4 What tools will we use?

5 Administrative details

6 Learning
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson Why are you here?
Why are you You might be interested in:
here?

What is • Athletic ability of drones


control
engineering https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w2itwFJCgFQ
Examples
• Parkour-ing robots
What tools will
we use? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fRj34o4hN4I
Administrative
details • Autonomous driving
Learning https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cdgQpa1pUUE

• (Semi-)autonomous medicine
• surgical robots
• automated insulin pumps
• industrial scale production of personalized medicines

• Integration of renewable energy sources into the grid

• Regulation of financial markets


EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson What is control engineering
Why are you
here?

What is
control
engineering
• First we have to understand the behaviour of the
Examples
process/plant/system that we want to control
What tools will
we use?

Administrative
details

Learning

• Often, that involves constructing a math. model;


• this quantifies insight;
• may actually yield insight, too
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson What is control engineering II
Why are you
here?

What is
control
engineering
• Then we use that understanding to design a secondary
Examples
system that controls the behaviour of the first
What tools will
we use?

Administrative • Typically, this takes the form of closed-loop (feedback)


details

Learning
control
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson What is control engineering III
Why are you
here?

What is
control
engineering

Examples

What tools will • Secondary system: sensors, actuators, electrical controller


we use?
(or digital algorithm)
Administrative
details • Sensors: (noisy) conversion of physical conditions to electrical
Learning signals (or samples)
• Actuators: (imperfect) conversion of electrical signals (or digital
commands) to physical actions
• Control: processes measured signals according to what is known
about the process; generates signals to drive actuators in order for
the system to approximate some desired behaviour

• Sensor and actuator selection are important; they change how the
controller perceives and can influence the process,
• However, in this course we will focus on development of techniques
that enable (analogue) controller design
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson Mathematical models
Why are you
here?

What is
control • In a wide range of applications, mathematical models
engineering
enable the process of control system design
Examples

What tools will


we use?
• Must balance accuracy against insight generated
Administrative
details • Similarly, controller design must balance performance
Learning against implementation complexity

• This course: process models and controllers will be


linear

• Hence, tools available for insight: superposition,


transfer function, Laplace
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson Single variable control
Why are you
here?

What is
control
engineering

Examples We will focus on systems in which a single output is to be


What tools will controlled using a single command and measurements of
we use?

Administrative
that output:
details

Learning
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson Multivariable control
Why are you
here?

What is
control
engineering

Examples

What tools will


we use?

Administrative
details

Learning

Something for fourth year!


EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson You driving a car
Why are you
here?

What is
control
engineering

Examples

What tools will


we use?

Administrative
details

Learning
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson Doritos
Why are you
here?

What is
control
engineering

Examples

What tools will


we use?

Administrative • John MacGregor (Chem Eng):


details
• Visual feedback control of flavours
Learning
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson What tools will we use?
Why are you
here?

What is
• Newtonian mechanics, linear and rotational
control
engineering
(Phys 1D03)
Examples • Basic electromagnetism (Phys 1E03, EE 2CJ4)
What tools will
we use? • Electric circuit analysis (EE 2CI5, EE 2CJ4, EE 2EI5)
Administrative • Step response of first and second order systems
details

Learning
(Math 2P04/2Z03, EE 2CI5, EE 2CJ4)
• Laplace transforms
(Math 2P04/2Z03, EE 2CJ4, EE 3TP3)
• Transfer functions (EE 2CJ4, EE 3TP3)
• Bode diagrams (EE 2CJ4)
• Structured problem solving methods
(EE 2CI5, EE 2CJ4, EE 3TP3, . . . )
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson Contact details
Why are you
here?

What is
control
engineering • Tim Davidson
Examples ITB–A111A
What tools will Ext. 27352
we use?

Administrative
davidson@mcmaster.ca, “EE3CL4” in subject line
details

Learning • Course web site


http://www.ece.mcmaster.ca/~davidson/EE3CL4

• Avenue to Learn site: Will be used sparingly, mostly for


interim mark distribution
• A formal course outline appears on the web site.
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Tim Davidson Marking scheme
Why are you
here?
• Laboratory reports: 20%
What is
control
engineering
• Midterm test: 25% (no simplified MSAFs)
Examples • Final examination: 55%
What tools will
we use?

Administrative • Students must personally complete all laboratories and


details
all laboratory reports in order to be eligible for a final
Learning
grade
• Formally deferred tests & exams may be conducted
orally
• Remarking requests will require documentation

• On tests & exams, expect to see problems that you


have not seen before
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Tim Davidson The number one FAQ
Why are you
here? • How should I study for this course ?
What is
control • The advice I used to give:
engineering
• Be active in lectures
Examples
• Participate in tutorials
What tools will
we use? • Take advantage of the labs
Administrative • Prepare summaries of concepts in your own words
details • Do half of the assigned problems under examination
Learning conditions
• In exams, explain your methodology

• Arguably a better question:


How do I learn concepts that will enable me to
be creative enough that I can enrich the lives
of people in my community through control
system design?
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Tim Davidson How to learn
Why are you
here?

What is
control
engineering

Examples

What tools will • But what do I know about learning?


we use?

Administrative • Who should we ask?


details

Learning
• Perhaps some cognitive psychologists
• The work of Henry Roediger and Mark McDaniel strikes
a chord with me
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson Learning: common short-term
Why are you tactics
here?

What is
control
engineering • Re-reading notes and text, including highlighting
Examples
• Massed practice: single-minded repetition of a new skill
What tools will
we use? • Cramming
Administrative
details

Learning • Emphasis: stuffing information into long term memory


• Feels comfortable; especially familiarity with the text
• May provide the “illusion of mastery”
• May enable you to look at the solution of a problem and
think “yeah, I could do that if it comes up on the test”
• What if what comes up in your job (or on the test) is a
little bit different?
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Tim Davidson Learning: strategies for durable
Why are you learning
here?

What is
control
• Emphasis: retrieving information from long-term memory
engineering
• Encourages the brain to invest energy in changing the
Examples
structure of its network
What tools will
we use? • Facilitates generalization of knowledge;
Administrative i.e., application outside our previous experience
details

Learning • How can we encourage the brain to invest energy in durable


learning?

• Spaced and interleaved recall:


try to remember only once you have started to forget!
• Uncomfortable: really takes effort;
sometimes you won’t be able to remember!
• Experimental evidence suggests that for a large fraction of
students it is worth it in the long run
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Tim Davidson Learning: tactics for durable
Why are you learning
here?

What is
control
engineering • Retrieval practice:
Examples • short summaries (half-page) of a concept in own words;
What tools will try to teach someone else
we use?
• self-quizes: practice problems under exam conditions
Administrative
details

Learning • Space out retrieval practice. Try to remember material:


• at the end of that day
• after having a full night’s sleep
• a week later

• Interleave retrieval practice


• Perhaps do only an hour at a time on one course,
or an hour at a time on one topic within a course
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson Learning: more tactics for
Why are you durable learning
here?

What is
• Elaboration:
control • Explore connections between aspects of material
engineering
• Explain ideas in own words, visualization or metaphor
Examples

What tools will


• Association:
we use?
• Connect the new material to previously acquired
Administrative
details
knowledge
Learning • Generation:
• try to solve problems (just) before the material is
covered in class; helps build associations
• Reflection:
• Summarize each week in own words (∼ 1 page)
• Summarize larger components towards the end;
make these summaries cumulative
• Calibration:
• Test how you are going; yes, really test yourself out
• Evaluate the outcomes; address weaknesses
EE 3CL4, §1
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Tim Davidson My goals
Why are you
here?

What is
control
engineering

Examples
• I will be trying to introduce these tactics into the
What tools will
we use? classroom
Administrative
details • There will be interleaving of concepts
Learning

• May be a bit different from what you have experienced

• I hope that they will be effective in the long run