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Ice Cream: Uses and Method of Manufacture

SS Deosarkar and CD Khedkar, College of Dairy Technology, Pusad, India

SD Kalyankar, Government College of Dairy Technology, Udgir, India
AR Sarode, College of Dairy Technology, Pusad, India
ã 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Introduction convection freezers, such as air blast tunnels or rooms, or plate-

type conduction freezers are used for the second freezing step.
Ice cream is a frozen dairy product made by freezing the ice A wide variety of ingredients are used to produce ice creams.
cream mix with agitation. It is composed of a mixture of food Even any one kind of ice cream can be made by combining the
ingredients like milk products, sweetening materials, stabi- ingredients in any of several different combinations of ingre-
lizers, colors, flavors, and egg products. Ice cream had its dients. Ice cream mix is the unfrozen mixture of the ingredi-
origins in Europe and was introduced later to the United States ents, consisting of all the components of ice cream with the
where it developed into an industry. It is widely believed that exception of air and flavoring materials. The composition of ice
ice cream evolved from iced beverages and water ices. Ice cream cream is usually expressed as a percentage of its constituents,
probably came to the United States with the early English for example, percentage of milk fat, milk solids-not-fat, sugar,
settlers. In 1851, the first wholesale ice cream industry in the egg solids, stabilizers, and the total solids.
United States was established in Baltimore, Maryland. Ice
cream plants were then established in New York, St. Louis,
Chicago, Washington, and Cincinnati. The development of
condensed and dried milks and the introduction of the pas- Ice Cream Mix
teurizer and homogenizer, improved freezers, and other pre-
serving equipments accompanied the growth of this industry Ice cream mix comprises milk fat, milk solids-not-fat (MSNF),
after 1900. The ice cream soda was introduced in 1879, and ice sweeteners, stabilizers, colors, emulsifiers, and water. Dairy and
cream cone and Eskimo Pie were introduced in 1904 and 1921, other ingredients used to supply these components are chosen
respectively. on the basis of their cost, availability, and quality of the finished
Global per capita consumption of ice cream and related product. An account of composition of various frozen dairy
products is presented in Table 1. The US ice cream market in desserts is presented in Table 3. The source of fat that is derived
2007 was $23 billion. The global value of the ice cream industry from milk ingredients (e.g., cream and butter) is common in
is US$59 billion, growing on an average by 4% per annum with North America and many other parts of the world, while fat
a growth rate of 7–9%. More than 90% of American households derived from nondairy sources (e.g., coconut oil and palm kernel
purchase ice cream. Global market share, according to point of oil) is more common in parts of Europe and Asia. The triglycer-
manufacture/consumption, take-home, impulse, or artisanal ides in milk fat have a wide melting range of 40 to 40  C.
products, is shown in Table 2. The take-home category is Consequently, at refrigeration temperatures, there is always a
defined as grocery store purchases and home consumption, combination of liquid and crystalline fat within the globules.
the impulse category is categorized by hand-held, single-serving The resulting solid–liquid ratio at freezer barrel temperatures is
eat-on-the-spot products (sometimes referred to as novelty important for formation of ice cream structure, as crystalline fat is
products), and the artisanal category is defined as being manu- required for partial coalescence. Nondairy fat sources must also
factured at the site of purchase and consumption or sold directly be chosen to provide a suitable solid fat content.
by the manufacturer to the consumer (e.g., ice cream parlors and
street vendors). There are very large differences globally,
impacted in large part by the presence of home freezers.
Ice creams are unique frozen food because they are consumed The Milk Solids-Not-Fat
in the frozen state, usually as a scooped product or as a single-
serving item, sometimes on a stick and often with other confec- It comprises lactose, casein, whey proteins, minerals, vitamins,
tionery items. These products rely on a concomitant freezing and and other minor components of the milk or milk products from
whipping process to establish the desired structure and texture. which they were derived (e.g., skim milk powder, condensed
The manufacturing process for most of these products is similar. milk, and whey protein concentrate ingredients). Proteins con-
It involves the preparation of a liquid mix, which is prepared by tribute much to the development of the structure of ice cream,
blending the desired ingredients, followed by pasteurization, including emulsification, whipping, and water-holding capacity.
homogenization, and aging. It is followed by whipping and Whipping of proteins in ice cream contributes to the formation
freezing this mix dynamically under high shear to soft, semi- of the initial air bubbles in the mix. Emulsification of proteins in
frozen slurry. The flavoring ingredients are then incorporated in the mix arises from their adsorption to fat globules due to
this partially frozen mix. It is then placed in molds for desired homogenization. Viscosity of mix is enhanced due to water-
shaping and packaging the product. It is further subject to freez- holding capacity of proteins, which imparts a desired body to
ing (hardening) under static, quiescent conditions. Swept-surface the ice cream, increases the meltdown time of ice cream, and
freezers are used for the first freezing step, while forced contributes to reduced iciness.

Encyclopedia of Food and Health http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-384947-2.00384-6 391

392 Ice Cream: Uses and Method of Manufacture

Table 1 Per capita consumption of ice cream and related products in Sweeteners
selected countries (2002, unless otherwise noted)
Sweeteners improve the texture and palatability of the ice
Country Consumption
cream, impart sweet taste, and enhance flavors. They also
New Zealand 22–23 (2006) lower the freezing point of the mixture, which imparts a mea-
The United States 18.3 (2007) sure of control over the temperature–hardness relationship. In
Australia 18 (2006) determining the proper blend of sweeteners for an ice cream
Finland 14 (2006) mix, the total solids required from the sweeteners, the sweet-
Sweden 12 ness factor of each sugar, and the combined freezing point
Italy 9.2 depression of all sugars in solution (including lactose from
Ireland 9.0
the dairy ingredients) must be calculated to achieve the proper
Denmark 8.7
solids content, the appropriate sweetness level, and a satisfac-
Canada 8.7 (2007)
The United Kingdom 6 (2007) tory degree of hardness. The most common sweetening agent
Chile 5.6 used is sucrose. It provides sweetness, depresses freezing point,
Malaysia 2.0 affects freezing performance, affects body and texture,
China 1.9 (2006) enhances flavor, and contributes bulk or total solids and
impacts on economics. Generally, the equivalent of 15%
Source: Goff, H. D. (2011). Ice cream and frozen desserts: product types. In: sucrose is considered optimal sweetness in ice cream. Substi-
Encyclopedia of dairy science, 2nd ed., pp. 893–898. London: Elsevier. tute sweeteners derived from starch hydrolysate syrup (glucose
syrup) for all or a portion of the sucrose can also be used as it is
relatively cheaper. Glucose syrups impart greater smoothness
by contributing to a firmer and chewy body, provide better
meltdown characteristics, bring out enhanced fruit flavors, and
reduce heat shock potential that improves the shelf life of the
Table 2 Global market share characterized by point of finished product. Nonnutritive sweeteners, which do not
manufacture/consumption (2006) provide any significant calories can also be used for diabetics.
They include sucralose, aspartame, saccharin, cyclamates,
Take-home Impulse Artisanal acesulfame-K, and many others. As little as 0.07% aspartame
Global, by volume 41 50 8 can provide the sweetness equivalent to 15% sucrose.
Global, by monetary value 26 52 21
Regional, by monetary value
North America 43 34 21
Western Europe 21 45 34
Australasia 39 49 19
Asia Pacific 10 86 4 Apart from sweeteners, stabilizers are also important nondairy
Eastern Europe 28 67 5 ingredients. The term stabilizer is used for a group of sub-
Latin America 24 63 13 stances that help stabilize the structure of ice cream. The com-
monly used stabilizers in ice cream mix are a group of
Source: Goff, H. D. (2011). Ice cream and frozen desserts: product types. In: ingredients (polysaccharides) such as guar, locust bean gum,
Encyclopedia of dairy science, 2nd ed., pp. 893–898. London: Elsevier. carboxymethylcellulose, and xanthan. Stabilizers increase the

Table 3 Approximate composition (%) of commercial frozen desserts by formulation category

Group Milk fat Milk solids-notfat Sweetenersa Stabilizersb Total solids

Nonfat ice cream <0.5 12–14 18–22 1.0 28–32

Low-fat ice cream 2–5 12–14 18–21 0.8 28–32
Light ice cream 5–7 11–12 18–20 0.5 30–35
Reduced-fat ice cream 7–9 10–12 18–19 0.4 32–36
Economy ice cream 10 10–11 15–17 0.4 35–36
Standard ice cream 10–12 9–10 14–17 0.2–0.4 36–38
Premium ice cream 12–14 8–10 13–16 0.2–0.4 38–40
Super premium ice cream 14–18 5–8 14–17 0–0.2 40–42
Frozen yogurt: regular 3–6 9–13 15–17 0.5 30–36
Frozen yogurt: nonfat <0.5 9–14 15–17 0.6 28–32
Sherbet 1.2 1–3 22–28 0.4–0.5 28–34
Includes sucrose, glucose, corn syrup solids, maltodextrins, polydextrose, and other bulking agents, some of which contribute little sweetness.
Includes ingredients such as locust bean gum, guar gum, carrageenan, cellulose gum, and cellulose gel, as stabilizers, and also mono- and diglycerides and polysorbate 80, as
Source: Goff, H. D. (2011). Ice cream and frozen desserts: product types. In: Encyclopedia of dairy science, 2nd ed., pp. 893–898. London: Elsevier.
Ice Cream: Uses and Method of Manufacture 393

viscosity of the mix; produce smoothness in body and texture; composition is not altered. In some instances, changing regu-
retard or reduce ice and lactose crystal growth during storage, latory definitions and health claims may necessitate manufac-
especially during periods of temperature fluctuation, known as ture of products to carefully defined specifications.
heat shock; and hold flavorings in uniform suspension. The Mix calculations are important in standardizing mixes prior
mechanism of action of stabilizers in enhancing frozen stabil- to freezing. Ice cream plants now use computer software pro-
ity is related primarily to its effect on the ice and unfrozen grams to calculate the amounts of various ingredients to con-
serum phases. Stabilized ice cream has smaller ice crystals than form to required specifications of composition of ice cream
unstabilized ice cream after storage at fluctuating temperatures. mix. However, for basic understanding, the fundamentals of
Usually, stabilizers are used at 0.1–0.5% levels in the mix, but the mix calculations are discussed here. Mix calculations can be
the actual amount depends on the type and strength of the performed by Pearson’s square, algebraic methods, and arith-
stabilizer, total solids and fat level of the mix, duration and metic methods. Pearson’s square is of limited utility; algebraic
temperature of storage of ice cream, and the method of pas- methods are complicated and involve the use of simultaneous
teurization. High-fat and high-total solid mixes require lower equations and matrices. Arithmetic calculations are simpler
levels of stabilizers. More stabilizer is needed for ice cream that and require fewer computations than algebraic methods.
is stored for a long period of time or if the temperature fluctu- Figuring the mix consists of the following unit operations:
ation during storage is frequent. combination and blending of ingredients, batch or continuous
pasteurization, homogenization, and mix aging. Ingredients
are usually preblended prior to pasteurization, regardless of
Emulsifiers the type of pasteurization system used. Blending of ingredients
is relatively simple if all ingredients are in the liquid form, as
Emulsifiers are sometimes integrated with the stabilizers in automated metering pumps or tanks on load cells can be used.
proprietary blends, but their function and action are very dif- When dry ingredients are used, powders are added either
ferent from the stabilizers. They exert their action on the fat through a pumping system under high velocity or through a
phase of ice cream. These are surface-active agents. Emulsifiers liquefier that chops all ingredients as they are mixed with the
facilitate the mixing of fat and water because these molecules liquid.
have two domains, one that likes water (hydrophilic) and
another that likes fat (hydrophobic). When the hydrophobic
part of a surfactant interacts with the fat, the water-loving part Pasteurization
of the molecule can interact with water, thus facilitating the
suspension of fat in water. Generally, mono- and diglycerides It is designed to destruct pathogenic bacteria, if any are present.
and ethoxylated esters of sorbitol (polysorbates) are the com- In addition, it serves a useful role in reducing the total bacterial
monly used emulsifiers. Mono- and diglycerides are derived load and in solubilizing some of the components (proteins
from fatty acids and glycerol. Therefore, emulsifiers are fatty and stabilizers). Both batch and continuous (high-temperature
substances. They also show fatlike properties such as melting short-time (HTST)) systems are in common use. In a batch
point and crystallinity, and they can be composed of saturated pasteurization system, blending of the ingredients is done in
or unsaturated fatty acids. The presence of emulsifiers in ice large jacketed vats equipped with some means of heating,
cream leads to smoother texture and better shape retention usually saturated steam or hot water. The product is then
while improving the ability of the mix to incorporate air. The heated in the vat to at least 69  C and held for 30 min to satisfy
mode of action of emulsifiers is related to their activity at the legal requirements for pasteurization. This is necessary for the
air–serum and fat–serum interfaces. At the fat–serum interface, destruction of pathogenic bacteria. Various time–
they displace proteins from the surface of the fat globules, temperature combinations can be used, depending on the
rendering the fat globules more susceptible to partial coales- legal jurisdiction. Continuous pasteurization is usually per-
cence and structure formation during the freezing and whip- formed in an HTST heat exchanger following the blending
ping process. of ingredients in a large, insulated feed tank. Regulations con-
cerning time–temperature combinations for continuous pas-
teurization usually specify a minimum temperature of 80  C
Figuring the Mix for at least 25 s.

Ice cream processing operations can be divided into two dis-

tinct stages: figuring the mix and freezing operations. Once a Homogenization
formula has been finalized, a recipe has to be created. Formulas
specify composition of the desired mix in terms of percentages Following pasteurization, the mix is homogenized using high
of fat, MSNF, sweeteners, stabilizers, and emulsifiers. A recipe pressures. It is responsible for the formation of the fat emulsion
calculates the weight and/or volumes of ingredients needed to by forcing the hot mix through a small orifice under pressures
meet the formula requirements. These calculations are called of 15.5–18.9 MPa, depending on the mix composition. The
mix calculations. Mix calculations are essential for manufactur- resulting eight- to tenfold increase in the surface area of the fat
ing consistent quality finished products. When composition of globules is responsible in part for the formation of the fat glob-
raw materials varies or the economics of ingredients changes, ule membrane, composed of adsorbing materials attempting
the recipe for making an ice cream mix has to change. Further, to lower the interfacial free energy of the fat globules. With
this change has to occur in a manner that the finished product single-stage homogenizers, fat globules tend to cluster as bare
394 Ice Cream: Uses and Method of Manufacture

fat surfaces come together or adsorbed molecules are shared, Glass Transition Temperature
especially in ice cream mix. Therefore, a second homogenizing
Temperature stability of ice cream has focused on carbohydrate
valve is frequently placed immediately after the first with applied
glass formation as a function of temperature. A glass is charac-
back pressures of 3.4 MPa, allowing more time for surface
terized as a metastable solid with a high viscosity. At the glass
adsorption to occur. The net effects of homogenization are in
transition temperature, polymeric materials change from a
the production of smaller, more uniform fat droplet size, result-
viscoelastic liquid to an amorphous solid (glass) with an asso-
ing in a greater stability of fat droplets during aging, a better
ciated increase in viscosity. For ice creams, this temperature is
whipping ability, and a smoother, more uniform final product
defined as the glass transition temperature of a maximally
with a greater apparent richness.
freeze-concentrated solution. The interest in glassy state in ice
creams has increased steadily since the last 15 years. It is now
well established that the glassy-state temperature influences the
storage stability as above these temperatures, the solutions are
Aging of the Mix
unstable and reactive. Ice crystallization can also occur in this
phase. Below the glass transient temperature, the materials
The time of 4 h or greater at 2–4  C is recommended for aging
become glossy and no molecular motion or chemical reaction
following mix processing prior to freezing. Aging is performed
occurs. The ice crystallization is prevented and the shelf life of
in insulated or refrigerated storage tanks, silos, etc. or in single-
the product is prolonged. Glass transition temperature for ice
walled tanks in chilled rooms, where valves and pipeline can
cream is 32  C. Storage of ice cream at this low temperature
also be kept cold. Aging allows hydration of milk proteins and
to maintain the glassy state for enhanced stability is not
stabilizers (some viscosity increase occurs during the aging
period), crystallization of the fat globules, and a membrane
rearrangement to produce a smoother texture and better-
quality product. Nonaged mix exhibits a low viscosity, is very
wet at extrusion from the dynamic freezer, and exhibits vari- Freezing Process
able whipping abilities. The appropriate ratio of solid–liquid
fat must be attained at this stage, a function of temperature and The process of freezing of ice cream in simple words is the
the triglyceride composition of the fat used, as a partially creation of ice from water in the mix. Therefore, the only
crystalline emulsion is needed for partial coalescence in the constituent of the mix being frozen is water. During the
whipping and freezing step. Emulsifiers generally displace milk freezing process, the equilibrium between water and ice is
proteins from the fat surface during the aging period. The altered. Freezing is facilitated by the removal of heat from a
whipping qualities of the mix are usually improved with substance. In the old salt and ice machine, used prior to
aging. Mix temperatures should be maintained as low as pos- mechanical refrigeration, ice served as the refrigerant and
sible without freezing. addition of salt lowered the freezing point of water. The
brine extracts heat from the mix. The mix temperature is
lowered and the brine temperature increases. Brine is not a
good refrigerant. With the advent of mechanical refrigeration,
Flavorings the use of ice and salt for freezing ice cream was relegated to a
hobby status.
Flavor is an important attribute of a food. It is a sensory Modern ice cream freezing consists of two distinct stages:
response that has three components, olfactory (odor/smell), (1) passing the mix through a swept-surface heat exchanger
gustatory (taste), and tactual (mouthfeel). Ice cream is cold, under high-shear conditions to promote extensive ice crystal
creamy, refreshing, and sweet and releases aroma upon melting nucleation and air incorporation and (2) freezing the pack-
in the mouth. When the word ‘flavor’ is used in everyday aged ice cream under conditions that promote rapid freezing
parlance, we imply taste and olfaction. Taste compounds are and formation of small ice crystals. The freezing and whip-
sweet, salty, bitter, and sour. Generally, compounds imparting ping process is one of the most important unit operations for
these tastes can be detected at levels of 0.01–0.5. Olfactory the development of quality, palatability, and yield of finished
compounds (smelly stuff) are volatile and have thresholds in product. Due to the incorporation of air, foam is created. It
the parts per million to parts per trillion range. Threshold is leads to the formation of the ice phase and the partial desta-
defined as the minimum concentration that at least 50% of the bilization of the fat emulsion. The objective of ice cream
population can detect. Threshold of aroma compounds are manufacturers is to produce ice crystals that are below the
10–10 million times less than taste compounds. threshold of sensory detection at the time of consumption.
Perception of aroma is affected by the composition, physi- This threshold has been suggested to be between 40 and
cal structure, and temperature of the food. Undesirable flavors 50 mm. Therefore, the freezing steps of the manufacturing
are called off-flavors. Off-flavors affect the overall flavor qual- process and the temperature profile throughout the distribu-
ities of the food. Deteriorative reactions are time-dependent tion system are critical factors in meeting this objective. Fla-
and cumulative. Therefore, the length and conditions of storage voring and colorants are added as desired to the mix prior to
have a profound influence on the perception of overall flavor. passing through the barrel freezer, and particulate flavoring
These deteriorative reactions occur in ingredients used in ice ingredients, such as nuts, fruits, candy pieces, and ripple
cream manufacture. Therefore, careful attention should be paid sauces, can be added to the semifrozen product at the exit
to the quality of ingredients used in ice cream manufacture. from the barrel freezer prior to packaging and hardening.
Ice Cream: Uses and Method of Manufacture 395

Continuous Freezers Batch Freezers

Continuous freezers are commonly used in larger ice cream Batch freezers are commonly used by small ice cream units that
manufacturing plants where more than 500 gal (1875 l) of ice make ice cream on the premises. In batch freezers, a predeter-
cream per day may be manufactured. These freezers have larger mined amount of mix is charged into the freezing chamber;
capacities and can be operated continuously, ingredients can refrigeration is turned on as is the agitation. Generally, the mix
be added in-line, and packaging can be also automated. Also, will occupy half of the barrel. The mix is agitated and whipped
continuous freezers make it possible to produce ice cream of while being cooled. After some time, the mix begins to freeze,
different shapes through extrusion devices. Novelty extrusions, and when it achieves a certain consistency, it begins to incorpo-
such as sandwiches, prefilled cones and cups, and cakes, are rate air. Incorporation of air in conjunction with the freezing
possible through the use of continuous freezers. The ice cream stiffens the ice cream. At this point, the refrigeration should be
from a continuous freezer is smoother and creamier than a turned off and agitation continued for some additional period
product from a batch freezer. This is because the ice crystals of time. When the desired overrun is achieved, the ice cream is
formed in a continuous freezer are smaller and the air cells may discharged from the barrel with the agitator mechanism still on.
also be more uniform. The ice cream exiting a continuous Just prior to discharge of the ice cream, fruits and nuts can
freezer is also generally colder than that coming out of a be added to the barrel, but the preferred method of addition of
batch freezer. There are a number of different types of contin- particulate inclusions is to fold them into the ice cream as they
uous ice cream freezers; some are vertical freezers, especially for are being discharged from the barrel. Once this process is
smaller-scale operations; others are horizontal ice cream complete, the next batch of mix can be charged into the freezer
freezers. Regardless of whether the freezing cylinder is horizon- barrel and the process repeated.
tal or vertical, all continuous freezers have a set of blades for The batch freezer differs considerably from the continuous
scrapping the walls of the freezers. In a continuous freezer, a systems described in the preceding text. The barrel of a batch
mixture of air and the mix is introduced at one end and is swept-surface heat exchanger is jacketed with refrigerant and
progressively frozen until ice cream is discharged at the other contains a set of dashers and scraper blades inside the barrel. It
end. The conveyance of the mixture of air and the mix and the is filled to about one-half volume with the liquid mix. Barrel
discharge of the ice cream may be facilitated by coordinated volumes usually range from 2 to 12 l. The freezing unit and
pumps in some models. Also, the newer models of freezers are agitators are then activated, and the product remains in the
equipped with microprocessor controls that monitor and con- barrel for sufficient time to achieve the desired degree of over-
trol the discharge temperature of the ice cream, the viscosity of run and stiffness. Whipping increases with time and cannot
the ice cream, and the overrun of the ice cream. Further, these exceed the amount that will fill the barrel with the product
microprocessors can work in tandem with other downstream (i.e., 100% overrun when starting half full). Batch freezers are
equipment such as ingredient feeders and packaging lines. used in smaller operations where it is desirable to run individ-
These freezers dominate the commercial ice cream indus- ual flavored mixes on a small scale or to retain an element of
try. In this type of process, ice cream mix is drawn from the the ‘homemade’-style manufacturing process.
flavoring tank into a scraped-surface heat exchanger, which is The formation of the ice phase during the continuous freez-
jacketed with a liquid, boiling refrigerant (usually ammonia; ing stage is responsible in part for the structure and texture of
a chlorinated, fluorinated hydrocarbon (CFC) such as R-12, the final product. The crystallization of water to ice involves
R-22, or R-502; or one of the newly developed CFC two major steps: nucleation and crystal growth. Nucleation
substitutes). occurs at the wall of the heat exchanger during start-up. After
A continuous freezer is usually operated under pressure, to start-up, the continual scraping action of the blades acts as a
minimize the volume of air in the ice cream and thus maxi- seeding mechanism, by providing a source of tiny crystals into
mize heat transfer. Air bubbles expand rapidly when the ice the bulk where they grow.
cream is drawn through the outlet valve to atmospheric pres-
sure. The introduction of low-temperature extrusion equip-
ment has been a recent development in ice cream freezing Overrun in Ice Cream
technology. This is a continuous-flow heat exchanger in the
form of a screw extruder that reduces the temperature of ice Incorporation of air into ice cream, termed the overrun, occurs
cream from the draw temperature of the barrel freezer, at this stage. Some overrun is necessary to produce desirable
typically 5  C, to a range of 10 to 14  C. The ice cream body and texture. Two main types of air incorporation systems
passes at low shear through a twin-screw or single-screw are used in continuous freezers. In older systems, the pump
design with a residence time of 1–2 min. Ice cream that results configuration resulted in a vacuum either at the pump itself or
from such processing shows much smaller ice cream and air on the mix line entering the pump. Air was then incorporated
bubble sizes, and the fat is agglomerated into a structure that through a spring-loaded, controllable needle valve. Newer types
provides a creamy texture. of freezers use compressed air, which is injected into the mix.
When the product emerges from the low-temperature This type of air handling system allows for air filtration
extruder, it is still pliable, so some particulates can be added (0.65 mm micropore filter) prior to admission into the mix.
to it, and it can be cut and packaged, but it sets up very quickly Following aeration, the water in the mix is partially frozen
thereafter to a very firm consistency. Hence, the claim is made as the mix and air combination passes through the barrel of the
that low-temperature extrusion can replace the need for con- heat exchanger. Ice forms on the inside wall of the heat
ventional hardening of ice cream. exchanger from the water in the mix, resulting in a freeze
396 Ice Cream: Uses and Method of Manufacture

concentration of the dissolved solutes. Rotating knife blades which partially surrounds the air bubbles and gives rise to a
are responsible for continually scraping this frozen mix off the solid-like structure.
surface of the heat exchanger wall and mixing it into the bulk
flow of freeze-concentrated liquid mix, where these tiny ice
crystals grow. The dasher keeps the product agitated inside Packaging of Ice Cream
the barrel and provides a more homogeneous mixture of ice
and freeze-concentrated liquid. Residence time for mix A good package must contain the product, protect it, provide
through the annulus of the freezer varies from 0.4 to 2 min, convenience, and provide information on the product to the
although some products may remain for much longer times; consumer. Food packages provide protection against physical,
especially with open cage dashers, freezing rates can vary from chemical, and biological damages. It also provides information
5 to 27  C min 1, and a draw temperature of 6  C can easily useful to the consumer, for example, ingredient label, nutri-
be achieved. tional label, net contents, serving suggestion, and methods of
preparing the product. Besides these attributes, a good food
package keeps the food at nearly the same quality as when it
Hardening of Ice Cream
was manufactured. During distribution, packages are subjected
After freezing, the flavors, nuts, chocolates, etc. are added, and to physical abuses such as shocks, vibrations, compression,
the product is packed and immediately transferred to a hard- and, in the case of ice cream and frozen desserts, heat shock.
ening chamber ( 30  C or colder, either forced convection or For frozen dessert packaging, three main factors have to be
plate-type conduction freezers) where the majority of the considered. First, the package has to protect the product against
remaining water freezes. Rapid initial freezing is essential to temperature fluctuations, photooxidation, dehydration, and
set up as many crystal nuclei as possible so that during the odor transmittance. Second, it has to take into consideration
maturation or growth stage, their size stays small. In the same distribution-related factors such as package integrity, thermal
context, rapid hardening is also necessary to keep ice crystal shock, and cube efficiency. Third, municipal solid waste man-
sizes small. agement factors have also to be considered.
Further temperature reduction during hardening accounts
for continued growth of the preformed crystals. As water freezes
Storage and Distribution
out of solution in a relatively pure form, the formation of ice acts
to concentrate the dissolved sugars, lactose, milk proteins, salts, Frozen and hardened product is stored and often distributed
and hydrocolloids in an ever-decreasing amount of water. Water prior to the enjoyment by the end consumer. The intermediate
and its dissolved components are referred to as the serum or steps involved in storage vary depending upon the scale of
matrix of the mix. Because the freezing point of the serum is a manufacture, market share, point of sale, and consumer pref-
function of the concentration of dissolved solids, formation of erences. In the simplest case of a retail ice cream manufacturer,
more ice concentrates the serum and results in an ever- the product is made fresh in the store and sold very soon after
decreasing freezing temperature for the remaining serum. manufacture, and this requires relatively few controls. Ice
Therefore, at temperatures several degrees below the initial freez- cream is unique in that it is the only product that is consumed
ing temperature, there is always an unfrozen phase present. Ice in the frozen state. Therefore, once it is manufactured, it has to
cream hardness is a function of temperature due to its effect on be stored, transported, distributed, and sold in the frozen state.
this conversion from unfrozen water to ice and further concen- In the United States, frozen foods are distributed in a separate
tration of the serum phase surrounding the ice crystals, which chain than ice cream is because the cold chain for frozen foods
helps to give ice cream its ability to be scooped and chewed at is 18  C (0  F) and is inadequate for ice cream. Ice cream cold
freezer temperatures. chain maintains 23  C ( 10  F). The distribution chain is
called the cold chain and varies from manufacturer to manu-
facturer. Regardless of variations, the cold chain is imperfect.
Structure Formation During Manufacture This imperfection affects the quality of the product at the point
of purchase and impacts consumer satisfaction. Factors affect-
The texture of ice cream is perhaps one of its most important ing the shelf life of ice cream are manufacturing procedures,
quality attributes. It is the sensory manifestation of structure. warehouse equipment, warehouse handling practices, trans-
Hence, establishment of optimal ice cream structure is critical portation, storage at retail premises, retail display equipment,
to maximal textural quality. The structure of ice cream begins and retail handling practices.
with the mix as a simple emulsion, with a discrete phase of
partially crystalline fat globules surrounded by an interfacial
layer composed of proteins and surfactants. Ice cream is a Uses of Ice Cream
complex food colloid in that the mix emulsion is subsequently
foamed, creating a dispersed phase of air bubbles, and is fro- Ice cream is such a frozen dessert that is liked by all age groups.
zen, forming another dispersed phase of ice crystals. Air bub- It is an energy-rich product and may be a part of countless
bles and ice crystals are usually in the range of 20–50 mm. The recipes and gastronomic specialties. It can be used as a most
serum phase is freeze-concentrated. In addition, the partially promising carrier medium for probiotic organisms.
crystalline fat phase at refrigerated temperatures undergoes
partial coalescence during the concomitant whipping and
freezing process, resulting in a network of agglomerated fat, See also: Ice Cream: Composition and Health Effects.