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Water resources engineering

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Jaber Almedeij Ismail I. Esen


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Water Resources
Engineering

Jaber Almedeij
Associate Professor of Civil Engineering
College of Engineering and Petroleum
Kuwait University

Ismail Esen
Professor of Civil Engineering
College of Engineering and Petroleum
Kuwait University

2011
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All Rights Reserved to


Authorship, Translation & Publication Committee, Kuwait University
P.O. BOX: 28301 Safat , Code No. 13144, State of Kuwait
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The Publication of the Academic Publication Council

Journal of the Social Sciences 1973. Annals of the Arts and Social Sciences 1980.

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Journal of Law 1977. Arab Journal of Administrative Sciences 1991.


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TAPLE OF CONTENTS

Pages

Preface

Contents
Part I: Theoretical Considerations
1 Open Channel Flow
List of Symbols……………………………………………………………… 3
1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………….............. 5
1.2 Basic Principles………………………………………………………… 6
Classification of Flows………....………………………………… 6
State of Flows……………………………………………………… 7
Channel Geometry…………………………….......………………… 10
Energy Concepts……………………………………..........………… 12
1.3 Uniform Flow………………………………………………..........……… 20
Most Efficient Section……………………………………………… 25
1.4 Rapidly Varied Flow…………………………………………....……… 27
Hydraulic Jump………………………………………....………........... 27
1.5 Gradually Varied Flow……………………………………….....……… 31
Control Section………………………………………………….......... 34
Direct Step Method………………………………………………… 35
Problems…………………………………….................…………………........ 38
2 Surface Water Hydrology
List of Symbols……………………………………………………………… 46
2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………… 47
2.2 Precipitation……………………………………………………………… 49
2.3 Abstractions……………………………………………………………… 54

iii
Evapotranspiration…………………………………………………… 55
Infiltration …………………………………………………………… 56
2.4 Hydrograph Analysis…………………………………………………… 61
Time Base of Hydrograph…………………………………………… 65
Unit Hydrograph……………………………………………………… 65
Unit Hydrographs of Different Duration………………………… 71
Rational Method……………………………………………………… 74
2.5 Flood Routing…………………………………………………………… 80
Reservoir Routing…………………………………………………… 81
Channel Routing……………………………………………………… 86
Problems …………………………………………………………… 89
3 Groundwater Hydrology
List of Symbols…………………………………………………………… 96
3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………… 98
3.2 Occurrence of Groundwater…………………………………………… 100
3.3 Basic Equation of Groundwater Flow……………………………… 105
3.4 Unidirectional Flow…………………………………………………… 108
3.5 Hydraulics of Wells……………………………………………………… 112
Steady Flow to a Well……………………………………………… 114
Unsteady Flow to a Well…………………………………………… 118
Pumping Tests……………………………………………………… 122
P r o b l e m s …………………………………………………………… 124

Part II: Experimental Considerations


4 Laboratory Experiments on Hydraulics
List of Symbols……………………………………………………………… 131
4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………… 133

iv
4.2 Writing Laboratory Report……………………………………………… 134
4.3 Components of Hydraulics Laboratory……………………………… 135
Hydraulic Bench……………………………………………………… 135
Tilting Flume………………………………………………………… 137
4.4 Experiments…………………………………………………………… 138
Experiment No. 1: Flow through a Sharp Edged Orifice……… 140
Experiment No. 2: Flow through a Venturi Meter……………… 147
Experiment No. 3: Flow over a Weir…………………………… 153
Experiment No. 4: Frictional Head Loss along a Pipe………… 159
Experiment No. 5: Uniform Flow in Open Channels………… 166
Experiment No. 6: Energy Considerations in Open Channel
Flow: Specific Energy-Depth Relation…………………………… 171
Experiment No. 7: Energy Considerations in Open Channel
Flow: Depth-Discharge Relation………………………………… 177
Experiment No. 8: Hydraulic Jump………………………………… 182
Appendix
Water Density and Viscosity……………………………………………… 187
SI Units………………………………………………………………… 187
English Units………………………………………………………… 188
Units and Conversions……………………………………………………… 189
SI Prefixes…………………………………………………………………… 190
Bibliography……………………………………………………………… 191
Abstract in English…………………………………………………………… 195
Abstract in Arabic…………………………………………………………… 197

v
iO�«
This book is intended to be used for an undergraduate
course in water resources engineering at the Civil

Preface
Engineering Department of Kuwait University, and for
students who have already had basic knowledge in fluid
mechanics. Despite the many books available in water
resources engineering, they are written to provide a wide
and diverse range of subjects that may not be suitable in
a unified framework for an introductory course designed
with specific regional applications similar to those for
Kuwait with desert environment. The main objective here
thus is to provide our students with relevant background
information in water resources that can be useful for our
engineering applications. Practicing engineers in our
governmental and private agencies will also find this
book useful.
The material in the book is prepared in sufficient
detail so that the readers can follow the developments
from basic principles. The book is divided into two parts.
Part I consists of three chapters discussing the theoretical
considerations. Chapter 1 is for open channel flow,
chapter 2 for surface water hydrology, and chapter 3 for
groundwater hydrology. Part II provides experimental
considerations and consists of chapter 4 for laboratory

vi
experiments on hydraulics. The experiments presented in this
chapter are based on the apparatus available in the Hydraulic
Laboratory of Kuwait University. This chapter is prepared in
a manner that students can use the same book to tabulate their
laboratory observations and perform the necessary calculations.
The principle contributors to part II for the experimental
considerations are listed as follows: Reem Aljeraiwi, Research
Assistant, Kuwait University; and Sadequr Rahman Consulting
Engineer, Kuwait University. The authors also thank Professor
Nabil Zaghloul and Eng. Lulwa Almansour who reviewed this
part and provided us with many useful suggestions. We would
like also to acknowledge the encouragement and support of our
colleagues in the water, environmental and coastal engineering
group at the Civil Engineering Department of Kuwait University.
Without their patient support this work would not have been
completed.
Jaber Almedeij
Ismail Esen

vii
Part I:
Theoretical Considerations

1
iO�«

2
2�

Chapter 1
Chapter 1
Open Channel Flow
Open Channel Flow
List of Symbols
� � area, L2
� � acceleration, L/T2
� � channel top width, L
� � channel bottom width, L
� � Chezy coefficient, L1/2/T
� � hydraulic depth, L
� � pipe diameter, L
� � specific energy, L
� � force, F
�� � boundary friction force, F
�� � Froude number, dimensionless
� � friction factor, dimensionless
� � gravity acceleration, L/T2
�� � head loss, L
� � roughness element of channel, L
� � channel length, L
� � characteristic length, L
� � mass, M
� � ratio of horizontal to vertical change of channel wall side,
dimensionless
� � Manning coefficient, dimensionless
� � wetted perimeter, L
3
3�

� � pressure, F/L2
� � discharge, L3/T
� � discharge per unit width of channel, L2/T�
� � hydraulic radius, L
�� � Reynolds number, dimensionless
� � slope, dimensionless
�� � energy slope, dimensionless
�� � channel bed slope, dimensionless
�� � water surface slope, dimensionless
��� � average energy slope between two sections, dimensionless
� � velocity, L/T
�� � critical velocity, L/T
� � weight of water, F
� � water depth, L
�� � critical water depth, L
�� � uniform water depth, L
� � elevation from an arbitrary datum, L
� � specific weight, F/L3
� � slope angle
� � viscosity, FT/L2
� � kinematic viscosity, L2/T
� � density, M/L3

4
4�

1.1 Introduction
Two types of conduits are used to transport water; namely, open channels
and the closed conduits. The main difference between these channel types
is the free surface, which is an interface between the air and water layer.
An open channel has a free surface unlike a closed conduit where the
water must flow full. At the free surface, the pressure is constant, and for
many situations it is atmospheric. Accordingly, in open channels the
gravity constitutes the main force that causes the flow, and hence, a
channel bed slope must be maintained downstream. Thus, an open channel
flow is often referred to as a gravity flow. In closed conduits, the flow
results from an external pressure force that may cause the water to flow
against the direction of the bed slope, and is often referred to as a
pressurized flow1.
The accurate solution of an open channel flow is more difficult and
empirical compared to that of a closed conduit flow. One factor that
complicates the solution in open channels is the variation of the location of
the free surface with respect to time and space. Another factor is that the
depth of flow is highly interrelated with factors such as discharge,
boundary roughness, slope and the channel cross section2. One additional
factor is that the boundary roughness, slope and channel cross section can
also be variable along the reach, such as for the case of natural rivers and
streams.

������������������������������������������������������������
1
Storm and sanitary sewers are typically designed as gravity pipe flow, while water supply
pipes are designed as pressurized flow.
2
The channel cross section considered here is taken normal to the direction of the flow.

5
5�

Open channels can be classified as being natural or artificial,
covered or open at the top, prismatic or nonprismatic, and regular or
irregular. Natural channels include rivers, streams and estuaries, while
artificial channels include storm and sanitary sewers, culverts and canals.
All natural, and most artificial, channels are open at the top, but some of
the artificial channels are covered for security or for some other reasons.
An example of a closed open channel is the pipe storm or sanitary sewer.
Examples to those that are open at the top are the natural rivers and the
artificial canals for drainage and irrigation. Channels are also classified as
prismatic or nonprismatic. A prismatic channel has a constant bed slope
and a cross sectional shape that do not vary along the reach. Otherwise, the
channel is nonprismatic. Based on shape, artificial channels are usually
built with regular geometric cross sections such as rectangular, trapezoidal,
triangular or circular shapes. Natural channel sections have, in general,
irregular shapes.

1.2 Basic Principles

Classification of Flows
Flow in open channel can be classified based on time � and space �. For
time criterion, the flow may be steady or unsteady. Steady flow has a
water depth constant with time at a particular point on the channel, while
the depth in unsteady flow changes with time at a particular point on the
channel. For space criterion, the flow may be either uniform or
nonuniform. Uniform flow has a constant water depth along the reach of
the channel, but the depth of water in nonuniform flow changes along the
reach of the channel. Nonuniform flows, also termed varied flow, can

6
6�

further be classified as rapidly varied and gradually varied flows. For
rapidly varied flow, the water depth changes significantly over a relatively
short distance such as the case for a hydraulic jump or a hydraulic drop.
For gradually varied flow, the depth changes rather slowly over a
relatively long distance such as the case of a reservoir upstream of a dam.
According to this classification, four combinations of flows can be
considered. Steady uniform flow has a constant water depth that does not
change with time and space, and is found practically only in lab flume
experiments. Although this case is rarely found in nature, it is widely used
for the design of open channels due to its simplicity. Unsteady uniform
flow has a depth function of time ����, which requires the water surface
fluctuating with time while remaining parallel to the channel bottom.
Obviously, this case is very rare and cannot be found in nature. Therefore,
the term uniform flow is used hereafter to refer only to steady uniform
flow. Steady nonuniform flow has a depth function of space ����, such as
a reservoir behind a dam. Unsteady nonuniform flow has a depth function
of both space and time ���� �� and is very common in nature, such as
waves and hydraulic bores1.

State of Flows
The state or behavior of an open channel flow is governed by the effects of
gravity and viscosity forces relative to the inertial force
������������ � ����� � �

������������������������������������������������������������
1
�Hydraulic�bore�is�a�standing�wave�in�an�open�channel�that�moves�upstream�as�a�result�of�
high�tides�in�certain�estuaries,�a�result�of�a�cloudburst,�or�a�sudden�release�of�a�large�volume�
of�water�from�a�reservoir.�The�hydraulic�bore�is�also�very�common�in�ephemeral�streams�
characteristic�of�desert�environments.��

7
7�

�� �
������������ � � ��� � � � ���
�� �
� � �
������������� � ����� � � �� �
� � � �� � � �
�� �
where � � mass; � � gravity acceleration; � � density; � � characteristic
length; � � viscosity; � � area; � � velocity; and � � acceleration.
Dimensionless parameters measuring the ratios of these forces can be used
as a basis for considering whether or not the variables have a significant
influence on the flow.
Two dimensionless parameters are considered, the Reynolds number
and the Froude number. Reynolds number shows the effect of the inertia
relative to viscosity forces as
������������ �� � � � �� ��
�� � � � � ������������������������
������������ ��� ����� �
where � � kinematic viscosity of fluid. An open channel flow is laminar if
Reynolds number is small (�� � ���) and turbulent if it is large (�� �
����), while in between the flow is transition or intermittent (��� �
�� � ����) 1 . In laminar flow, the water particles have no significant
mixing with each other, flowing in laminas or layers. In turbulent flow, the
movement of water varies irregularly. In transition, the flow is unstable
and difficult to control, and would be either laminar or turbulent.
High values of Reynolds number in turbulent flows indicate small
viscous forces relative to inertial forces and, therefore, the viscosity could
possibly be neglected as a variable. Since the viscosity of water is very

������������������������������������������������������������
1
The length�in the Reynolds number expression is represented by the hydraulic radius �.
Since for full flow pipe � � ���, the flow in pipe is considered laminar when �� � ����,
turbulent �� � ����, and transition ���� � �� � ����.

8
8�

low1, it is difficult to have laminar flows in open channels. Usually the
flow in open channel is turbulent with high Reynolds numbers. Thus, the
viscous forces would not be needed for the dynamic similarity of open
channel flows. However, when a high viscosity liquid flows in an open
channel or when water flows with relatively low Reynolds numbers, the
effect of viscosity should be taken into consideration.
Both gravity and inertial forces emphasize the dynamic similarity in
open channel flow. The effect of gravity as the driving force in open
channel flow is present due to the existence of the free surface. The ratio
of inertial to gravity forces is used to develop the Froude number as

������������ �� � � � �� �
�� � � �� � �� � �������������������
������������ �� � �� ���

The square root is taken in this expression because it is desirable to have �


in the first power as in the Reynolds number. For �� � �, the flow has
relatively high � and shallow �, which is referred to as supercritical flow.
If �� � � , the flow has relatively low � and deep � , referred to as
subcritical flow. For �� � �, the flow is critical with critical � and �.
Another reason to take the square root in the above expression is to
develop ���, which is equal in open channel to the celerity � of a gravity
wave 2 . This provides an indication about the wave propagation. When
�� � �, � � ��� , implying a stationary wave (� � �). However if �� �
�, a wave can move upstream (� � �). Flow with �� � � is characterized
by a wave moving downstream (� � �).

������������������������������������������������������������
1
The kinematic viscosity for water at 20oC is � � ����� � ���� �� ��.
2
�Wave�velocity�traveling�along�the�reach�of�the�channel.�

9
9�

Channel Geometry
To perform the hydraulic analysis for an open channel with a specific
geometry, the following elements are most commonly used: � is the flow
depth from the free surface to the bottom of the channel; � is the width of
the channel bottom; � is the cross sectional area normal to the flow
direction; � is the wetted perimeter measured as the length of the line of
contact with the water and the channel; and � is the top width at the free
surface. Other geometrical elements used to designate the geometry of the
channel cross section are the hydraulic radius� and the hydraulic depth�,
defined as

�� �������������������������������������������������������������


� � �������������������������������������������������������������

The hydraulic radius is a measure of the efficiency at which the channel
can flow. For a given channel geometry and slope, the greatest hydraulic
radius provides the largest flow. The hydraulic depth constitutes a mean
depth of flow, which becomes equal to the actual depth for the case of a
rectangular cross section, where � � �.
Table (1.1) shows the geometric elements for regular channel cross
sections. The simplest channel shape is the rectangular section. Many
theoretical developments focus on rectangular section to simplify the
mathematics associated with open channel flow. The circular section is
another important one to consider, since it is used widely for drainage and
sewer systems. A composite cross section is one made up of several
subsections.

10
10�

Table (1.1). Channel geometry for regular channel cross sections


Area Wetted perimeter Top width
Cross section
� A P B

� �� � �
Circular �� � ��� �� � � ���
� � �

Rectangular �� � � �� �

��
� Trapezoidal �� � ��� � �� � � � � ��� � ��� � �� � ��� � � � ���� � �� �

� ��
Triangular ��� � �� � � ��� � ��� � �� � ��� � ���� � �� �


B
B

d y y
��

b
Circular Rectangular

1 y 1
m1 m2 1 1 y
m1 m2
b

Trapezoidal Triangular

11
11�

Energy Concepts
The energy equation between two sections in an open channel is shown in
Figure (1.1) and can be expressed based on the principle of conservation of
energy as
�� ��� �� ���
� � �� � � � �� � �� ����������������������������������
� �� � ��
Where � � pressure; � � specific weight of fluid; ��� � pressure head;
� � ��� � velocity head; � � potential head; and �� � head loss. The head
terms in the equation represent different types of energy per unit weight of
water contained in the channel, referred to as head since they have the
dimensions of length. The loss in energy between the two sections
designated as �� usually reflects the major loss due to boundary friction. If
other losses are present, e.g. due to effects of turbulence, they can be
added on the right side of the equation. If pressure distribution is assumed
to be hydrostatic, i.e.� � ��, then the energy equation can be written as
��� ���
�� � � �� � �� � � �� � �� ���������������������������������
�� ��
A useful term defined as the energy head referred to the channel bed
as datum (i.e., � � �) is the specific energy�, given as
��
� ��� �������������������������������������������������������������
��

12
12�

��� ��
�� ��

�� ���
��
� �� ��

Flow
��
� ��

��
�� �
��

Datum

Figure (1.1). Distribution of energy heads in open channel flow between two sections.

This term provides a means to analyze complex flow situations. From the
continuity equation with flow discharge expressed as � � ��, the specific
energy can be rewritten as
��
� ��� �������������������������������������������������������
����
For a given �, if � � ���� then � � ����. This expression can be used to
plot the relation between � and � as shown in Figure (1.2). It is seen that
as � becomes very large, � approaches � so that the straight line � � � is
an asymptote of the upper limit. When y approaches zero, � becomes very
large approaching infinity so that the � axis is an asymptote of the lower
limit. It is also seen that for each value of � there are two positive flow
depths;�� and �� , named the alternate depths1. The fact that there can be
more than one possible depth for a given specific energy leads to the

������������������������������������������������������������
1
Solving the specific energy equation can also produce negative values of which are not
considered, as they have no physical meaning in open channel flow.

13
13�

question of which depth will occur in the flow. This can be evaluated by
calculating the Froude number ��. The smaller water depth �� corresponds
to the supercritical flow (�� � �), and the larger depth �� to the subcritical
flow (�� � �). It is worth noting that for a given �, there is only one
minimum possible value of specific energy, called the critical energy �� ,
producing a single critical depth�� . This statement can be proved true
mathematically by showing that if the specific energy is minimized, i.e.
when ����� � �, then the flow condition will be critical �� � �.

� � � ��
��

�� �

�� � � ��Constant�

�� �

�� � ��


Figure (1.2). Specific energy diagram.

14
14�

Example 1.1 Show that when the specific energy is minimized, then
the flow condition will be critical �� � �.

Solution
Differentiating the specific energy given by Equation (1.8) with
respect to depth of flow �
�� �� ����� � �� �� �� ��
��� ��� ������ � ��� �
�� �� �� �� �� �� ��
Given that � � ��
�� � � ��
���
�� �� ��
As seen in the figure, when the depth of flow increases by ��, the
incremental change in area is
�� � ��� ��
��
which can be written as
��
��
��
��
Substituting this value into the above equation
�� ��
��� �
�� ��
Remembering that the hydraulic depth is defined by � � ���
�� ��
���
�� ��
When the specific energy is minimum, then ����� � � resulting
with
��
����
��
or

15
15�

��
� � � �� � �
��

Example 1.2 Show that for rectangular channels, the minimum


specific energy and critical depth become respectively

� � ��
�� � �� ������������ � �
� �

where � � discharge per unit width of channel, defined as � � ���.

Solution
For rectangular channels, hydraulic depth � equals the depth of flow
�. At critical flow
��
�� � ��
����
where �� � critical velocity. This can be written as
��� ��

�� �
Using this expression together with Equation (1.7), the minimum
specific energy for rectangular channels becomes
��� �� �
�� � �� � � �� � � ��
�� � �
To express the critical depth in terms of discharge per unit width of
channel,
� �� �� �
�� �
� �
or

�� �
��

16
16�

Therefore,
��� ����� �� ��
� �
�� �� �
Solving

� ��
�� � �

Example 1.3 Determine the critical depth of flow in a rectangular


channel 4 � wide when the flow rate is 15 �� ��.

Solution
For critical flow in rectangular channel,
�� ������ � ������� �
�� � � � ��
���� ���� �������
Solving the above equation gives �� � ������� . Note that, the
solution can also be determined by using the equation developed in
the previous example, i.e.

� � � � ������ � �������
�� � � �� �� � �������
� � ����

17
17�

Example 1.4 Water flows in a triangular channel with a discharge
of � � ���� �� . Determine the specific energy, hydraulic depth,
Froude number, and the alternate depth.


� � ��� �

Solution
For the channel cross section,
� � ��� � �� � ��� � � � ���

�� � �� � � � � � ���� � �������

The required information can be determined as
�� ��
� ��� � ��� � � ������
���� � � ���� � �����
� ����
�� � � ������
� �
� ��� ������
�� � � � � �����
��� ��� ����� � ����
To determine the alternate depth, it should be noted that the specific
energy remains the same, i.e.
��
� ��� � ������
� � ���� � �� � ��
This equation has two positive roots, one of them is the original
depth of � � �����. The other is the alternate depth and is found as
� � ������.

18
18�

Example 1.5 Open channel flow takes place in a horizontal channel
transition. The channel sections are rectangular, and the flow rate is
� � ���� ��. At the entrance section, depth of flow is 1.5 �, and
width of channel is 2 � . At the exit section, a critical depth is
encountered. What should be the downstream width �? Ignore head
losses at the transition.

�� � � Top�view�

��� �
�� Profile�view�

Solution
For horizontal channels, when head losses are neglected, Equation
(1.6) can be written as
��� ���
�� � � �� �
�� ��
or
�� � ��
For the entrance section
��� ����� �� ����� �� ��
�� � �� � � �� � � �� �
�� �� ��
����� � ������
� ��� � � �������
� � ����
For the exit with the rectangular cross section, since we would like
to have critical flow conditions

19
19�

��� �
�� � �� � � � � �������
�� � �
which can be solved for �� � ������� . To determine the
downstream width of the channel with the critical flow conditions,
����� ���� � ������
�� � � ��
���� ����� � �����
resulting with
� � �������

1.3 Uniform Flow


Uniform flow is considered to be steady only, because unsteady uniform
flow is practically nonexistent. In open channels, uniform flow occurs
when all the forces exerted on the water body are in balance and there is
no acceleration of flow. Under uniform flow, the gravity force is balanced
with the resistance force. The pressure distribution of water becomes in
this case hydrostatic with � � ��. This flow can be assumed to occur in
prismatic open channels with constant cross section and bed slope. The
main properties of uniform flow are the constant water depth and velocity,
and the parallel slopes of channel bed �� , water surface �� and energy
grade line�� (Figure 1.1). It can be shown that for uniform flow �� and ��
are equivalent, as �� � ����� � ���� and �� � ��� � ����� � ���� ,
but �� is not, defined as �� � �� �� � ����. However, if the longitudinal
slope angle � is small enough (� � ��� ), then �� , �� and �� will be the
same and can be considered equal to a common slope �.
The Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to derive the velocity of
flow in an open channel

20
20�

� ��
�� � � �������������������������������������������������
�� ��
Assuming a small longitudinal slope angle � and substituting by � � �� �
�,

� � �������������������������������������������������������
where

��
��� ������������������������������������������������������

which is termed the Chezy equation and � is called the Chezy coefficient.
The friction factor� is a function of channel roughness, hydraulic radius
and Reynolds number. However, for completely turbulent flows 1 , the
Reynolds number can be eliminated from the analysis of open channel
flow, and thus the friction factor can be determined explicitly from the
Colebrook equation as
� �
� ������� ����������������������������������������
�� �����

where � � roughness element of the channel. The practical application of


this equation is limited, because more investigation is required for the
determination of the proper value of �.�

Another expression for the uniform flow is suggested by Manning


by proposing that

������������������������������������������������������������
1
Completely turbulent flow becomes independent of Reynolds number by which the water
viscosity will have no significant effect on flow friction and energy head loss.

21
21�

� ���
� ���������������������������������������������������������
� � ��
���� ���
� ���������������������������������������������

to obtain
� ��� ���
�� � � ������������������������������������������

���� ��� ���
�� � � ����������������������������������

where � � roughness or Manning coefficient of the channel. The Manning
equation is widely adopted for the estimation of water velocity in open
channels. It should be noted that� has units of ��� and ������ for SI and
English units, respectively, and � has units of� and �� for SI and English
units, respectively. Same values for �are used for both systems of units.
Several tables are available in the literature for the selection of the � value
for a particular open channel. In general, the selection of the � value is
based on best engineering judgment. Representative values for various
surfaces are given in Table (1.2).
An examination of the Manning equation reveals that it can be
solved explicitly for �, � or �, while a trial and error solution is necessary
when it is required to find the flow depth or any of the remaining
parameters. The depth associated with uniform flow is designated �� and it
is called uniform or normal depth.

22
22�

Table (1.2). Typical values of Manning coefficient �

Lined canals �

Cement plaster 0.011


Untreated gunite 0.016
Wood, planed 0.012
Wood, unplaned 0.013
Concrete, troweled 0.012
Concrete, wood forms, unfinished 0.015
Rubble in cement 0.020
Asphalt, smooth 0.013
Asphalt, rough 0.016

Natural channels

Gravel beds, straight 0.025


Gravel beds plus large boulders 0.040
Earth, straight, with some grass 0.026
Earth, winding, no vegetation 0.030
Earth, winding 0.050

Example 1.6 Estimate the uniform depth of flow �� for a rectangular


open channel given �� � ���� �� , � � ����� , � � ������ and
� � ���.

Solution
� � ��� � ���
� � � � ��� � � � ���
� ���
�� �
� � � ���
Using

23
23�

� ��� ���
�� �� �

� ��� ���
�� �� � � �����������
����� � � � ���
the flow depth is determined as
�� � �����

Example 1.7 Uniform flow occurs in a trapezoidal channel. Given


� � ������ � ����, �� � ����, �� � �� � �, � � ����� and
� � �����, determine the bottom width �.

Solution
��� ��
� � �� � ��� � �� � � � � � � �� � �� � � � � � �
� �

� � � � �� ��� � ��� � �� � ��� �

� � � � ��� � �� � �� � �� � � � � ���
� �����
�� �
� � � ���
Using
���� ��� ���
�� �� �

���� � � � � � ���
��� � �� � � � �� � � ����������
����� � � ���
The channel bottom width is determined as
� � �����

24
24�

Most Efficient Section
A common concept used for the design of uniform open channels is the
most efficient section. This design concept is typically valid for
nonerodible open channels 1 and is employed to determine the channel
cross section with the greatest water discharge capacity for a given area,
slope and roughness coefficient.
From the Manning equation it is seen that for a given �, �� and �,
the water discharge � is maximized when the wetted perimeter � is
minimized. From a hydraulic point of view, the increased water discharge
resulting from minimum � is due to the reduction in the contact area by
which the head loss due to friction is reduced. There is another advantage
of determining minimum�� for a channel in that the construction cost of
the lining material is also reduced.
The solution to obtain � minimum requires
�� ���
� ������������������ � � ������������������������������������
�� ��
To demonstrate the process of determining the most efficient section,
consider a rectangular cross section with

�� � �� � �������������������������������������������������

Here, the solution of the above derivatives results with � � �� � . Using
� � �� yields � � ��. Thus, if the width of a rectangular channel is twice
the depth of water, the channel will flow most efficiently. Table (1.3)
presents the geometric elements for most efficient sections for different
channel geometries.
������������������������������������������������������������
1
�For�erodible�open�channels,�the�principle�of�maximum�permissible�velocity�that�will�not�
cause�erosion�of�the�channel�boundary�is�used�to�determine�the�efficient�section.���

25
25�

One comment merits mentioning. Although the cross sections
presented in Table (1.3) are most efficient, the practical aspect of
constructing a channel accordingly may not be always straightforward.
Difficulties can be found in the excavation of soil and in the use of
material for channel lining that would make investigating other design

Table (1.3). Most efficient cross sections

Area Wetted perimeter Top width


Cross section
A P B


Trapezoid, half of a hexagon ��� � ���� ���

Rectangle, half of a square �� � �� ��

Triangle, half of a square �� ���� ��

� �
Semicircle � �� ��

alternatives a possible option. In general, an open channel should be


designed for the most efficient section but should be modified for
practicability.
Example 1.8A rectangular channel is to be constructed with
� � ������� to handle a design flow rate of � � ������ ��. The
lining of the channel is to be unfinished concrete with � � �����.
Using the most efficient cross section method, determine the depth
and width of the channel to be excavated.

Solution
For the most efficient rectangular section,
� � �� �

26
26�

� � ��
� �� � �
�� � �
� �� �
Therefore,
� ��� ��� � � ���
�� �� � � ��� � � � � � ���
� � �

� � �
��� � ��� � � � � ������������
����� �
yields
� � �������
The width of the channel can be obtained from
� � �� � �������

1.4 Rapidly Varied Flow


Rapidly varied flow is a nonuniform flow with the water depth changing
significantly over a relatively short distance. Accordingly, the loss in
energy due to the boundary friction is generally small and can be
neglected. Rather, most of the head loss within the flow is caused by the
high turbulence. For this case, the pressure distribution within the flow
cannot be assumed hydrostatic as the streamlines are highly curved. An
example of a rapidly varied flow is the hydraulic jump.

Hydraulic Jump
A hydraulic jump occurs in the transition from supercritical to subcritical
flow (Figure 1.3). The depths of flow upstream and downstream of the
jump are called conjugate depths. The transition between supercritical and
subcritical flow results with an effective energy loss that cannot be
neglected. Owing to the complex internal flow pattern with energy losses

27
27�

that initially are unknown, the momentum equation is employed for the
formulation and analysis of the hydraulic jump problem.

��

��� ���
�� ��

Subcritical
�� Flow
Supercritical
��
Flow


Figure (1.3). Hydraulic jump.

For a system of one input and one output as in Figure (1.4), the
momentum equation can be written as

� �� � ����� � �� �

Here, the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to conditions before and after the jump,
respectively. Considering the forces
�� � �� � �� � � ��� � � ����� � �� �
where �� and �� � hydrostatic forces at two sections; �� � boundary
friction force; and � � weight of water. Since �� and � ��� � can be
neglected for a short distance and for a small �, respectively, then
�� � �� � ����� � �� �
For a rectangular cross section of width��
� � � � �
��� � � ���� � � �� � � �
� � �� � �� �

28
28�

� (2)�

(1)

Flow� � ��� ��

�� �
�� �� �
�� �




Figure (1.4). A system of one input and one output in nonuniform open channel flow.

This equation can be simplified to obtain


��
�� � ��� � �� � ����� ������������������������������������

��
�� � ��� � �� � ����� �������������������������������������

where ��� � �� ����� and ��� � �� ����� .
The head loss�� through the hydraulic jump can be computed as
�� ��
�� � �� � �� � ��� � � � ��� � �
����� �� ����� ��
yielding
��� � �� ��
�� � ����������������������������������������������
��� ��
It should be emphasized again that Equations (1.17) and (1.18) are valid
only for rectangular open channels.

29
29�

The length of the jump � can be estimated from Figure (1.5). The
location of the hydraulic jump is usually determined from water surface
profile computations both upstream and downstream of the jump.


Figure (1.5). Length of hydraulic jump for a rectangular open channel (source: Chow 1959, Open-
Channel Hydraulics).

The hydraulic jump has many implications in open channel and


drainage systems. The most common application is to provide energy
dissipation in hydraulic structures such as dams and weirs in order to
prevent scouring downstream of the structures. The hydraulic jump can
also be used to maintain high water levels in channels for irrigation or
other water distribution purposes. Knowledge of the surface profile of a
hydraulic jump is desirable in this case for designing the freeboard for the
channel. The hydraulic jump is also important in the design and analysis of
storm sewer systems as the increase in downstream water depth may result
in surcharged pipe flow conditions.

30
30�

Example 1.9 A hydraulic jump occurs in a ��� wide rectangular


channel. The discharge in the channel is � � ������ �� and the depth
upstream of the jump is �� � ����� . Determine the downstream
depth �� , the energy loss ��, and the length of the jump �.

Solution
Given that,
�� ���� ������ � ����
��� � � � � ���
���� ���� ����� � ���
then
�� ���
�� � ��� � �� � ����� � � ��� � �� � ������� �
� �
� �����
The energy loss is determined from,
��� � �� �� ���� � �����
�� � � � ������
��� �� � � ��� � ���
� is determined from Figure (1.5) with ��� � ��� to have ���� �
����, and hence
� � ������ � ���� � ��� � ��������

1.5 Gradually Varied Flow


Gradually varied flow is a nonuniform flow with a water depth changing
slowly over a relatively long distance so that the water surface can be
assumed continuous. Unlike uniform flow, the three slopes of channel
bottom �� , water surface �� and energy grade line�� are no longer parallel.
Owing to the reason that the energy losses in this case are due to the
boundary friction along the channel length, the water surface profile for

31
31�

gradually varied flow can be determined from the energy equation. Given
�� � �� �� , small � to have �� � �� �� , and hydrostatic pressure
distribution � � ��,�the energy equation can be written as

��� ���
� �� � �� �� � � �� � �� ��
�� ��
which is rearranged
��� ���
��� � � � ��� � �
�� ��
� �� � ��
��
This equation can be written in the limit as
� �� �� �� ��
�� � � � � � �� � ��
�� �� �� �� ��
It can also be shown that ����� � � � �� � , and thus
�� �� � ��
� ���������������������������������������������������
�� � � �� �
which is the differential equation for gradually varied flow, valid for any
channel shape.
As can be noticed, ����� represents the slope of the water surface
with respect to the bottom of the channel. For ����� � �, the water depth
� is constant, which is the case for uniform flow. For ����� � � , �
increases with �, suggesting a backwater curve with a flow depth that
increases with the distance. For ����� � �, � is inversely proportional to
�, which is a drawdown curve with a water depth that decreases with the
distance.
The differential equation for gradually varied flow emphasizes three
special cases. If ����� � �, the water surface profile will be tangent at ��
, which is the case for uniform flow. If ����� � � , singularity or
undefined point at �� � � exists, which is a critical flow with water depth

32
32�

�� . The third case is ����� � ���, implying both water surface being
tangent to the uniform depth of flow, and singularity at critical flow
conditions. Cases 1 and 2 tell that so long as it is gradually varied flow, the
water depth will never become �� and �� . Case 3 is seldom encountered,
because uniform flow at critical conditions is unstable.
Accordingly, the water surface profile for gradually varied flow can
be classified as shown in Table (1.4). The actual flow depth �, the normal
depth�� , and the critical depth�� divide the flow in the channel into three
zones: zone 1 with � greater than both �� and �� ; zone 2 with � between
�� and �� ; and zone 3 with � less than both �� and �� . Then the slope can
be designated as mild “M”, steep “S”, or critical “C”, depending on
whether �� is greater than, less than, or equal to �� , respectively. A
horizontal slope “H” and an adverse slope “A” occur1 when �� � � and
�� � � , respectively. As seen in this table, there will be 12 possible
profiles, each classified by both the type of slope and the zone number. For
example, an M1 profile indicates a mild slope (�� � �� ) and the actual
depth of water is in zone 1 (� � �� � �� ).
It is also worth noting the water surface profile for special flow
conditions. As the flow condition tends to critical, the water surface
approaches an infinite slope����� � � under which a hydraulic drop or a
hydraulic jump may occur similar to that found between M3 to M2. The
flow condition for this case is no more gradually but rapidly varied flow.
In addition, as the flow tends to be uniform, the water profile approaches
�� asymptotically similar to curves M1, M2, S2 and S3. Furthermore, as

������������������������������������������������������������
1
�These�types�of�flows�exist�only�for�a�short�section�in�a�more�complex�channel�reach,�since�
flow�cannot�continue�on�a�horizontal�bed�or�against�gravity�for�a�long�section.��

33
33�

�becomes larger, the velocity tends to be smaller, until �� and �� approach


zero and ����� � �� . Here, the water surface profile approaches a
horizontal asymptote similar to curves M1, S1 and C1.

Table (1.4). Classification of water surface profiles for gradually varied flow in open channels

Channel
Profile Type Depth Range
Conditions
� � �� � ��
M1

Mild
M2 �� � � � ��
�� � ��

M3 �� � �� � �

S1 � � �� � ��

Steep
S2 �� � � � ��
�� � ��

S3 �� � �� � �

C1 � � �� �� ��
Critical
�� � ��
C2 �� �� �� � �

H2 � � ��
Horizontal
�� � �
H3 �� � �

A2 � � ��
Adverse
�� � �
A3 �� � �

Control Sections
A section at which there is a known relation between the flow rate�and
the depth of flow�is called a control section. Some examples to control
sections are the followings: broad crested weir (critical depth occurs in the
vicinity of the crest of the weir); free overfall (the flow is critical at a

34
34�

distance ��� of to ��� from the brink); change of slope from mild to steep
(critical depth occurs at the point where the slope changes); and flow under
a sluice gate (critical depth occurs a short distance downstream from the
sluice gate). These all produce critical flow somewhere by which they
control the depth for some distance upstream or downstream. By
measuring the critical depth at a control section, the flow rate can
accurately be computed by setting Froude number (Equation 1.2) to be
equal to one.

Direct Step Method


The water surface profile can be computed numerically using the
differential equation of gradually varied flow. Equation (1.19) can be
written in the form
��
�� � �������������������������������������������������������
�� � ���
where
��� � ���
��� � �����������������������������������������������������

where ��� � average slope of the energy grade line between sections 1 and
2. The energy grade line changes in gradually varied flow due to the
variation in velocity along the channel reach. The computation of water
surface profile is based on calculating �� for as small changes in �by
assuming the flow between sections 1 and 2 to be uniform. Accordingly,
�� is approximated by the Manning equation. The computation of a water
surface profile begins at section 1 where the depth of flow is known 1 .

������������������������������������������������������������
1
�This�section�is�called�the�control�section,�which�defines�the�boundary�condition�for�the�
problem�and�exists�when�a�depth�discharge�relation�can�be�established.�

35
35�

Given the flow discharge for sections 1 and 2, the water velocity � ,
specific energy�, and energy grade line�� are estimated. The objective is
to find the distance between these two sections, ��. The computations then
proceed to find the distance to another section with specified flow
conditions using the previously determined conditions until the overall
distance is estimated for the water profile. The process of computing �� is
step by step in the upstream direction (negative ��) or in the downstream
direction (positive �� ). The accuracy of the procedure increases by
considering an increasing number of sections.

Example 1.10A rectangular channel with � � ���, � � ����� ��,


� � ����� and �� � ������ has a gradually varied flow profile as
shown in the figure. Calculate the total distance between A and B
using 0.1 m depth increments.
yo�
y�=�1.4�m�
M2�Profile�
Flow� y�=�1�m�
yc�

A� B�

Solution
The calculations in the table are obtained from the equations below,
resulting with � � ��������
� � ��������������������������
� ��
�� � �����������������������
� � � ��

36
36�


��

��
� ���
��
�� �
�� � � ��� � ��������������������������������
��
�� � ���� � ��
��� ���� � ��� ��
��� �

��
�� �
�� � ���

y A R V E Sf �E� Sf �X�

(m) (m2) (m) (m/s) (m) (m) (m)


1.4 11.2 1.04 1.79 1.56 6.84� ����
1.3 10.4 0.98 1.92 1.49 8.54� ���� -0.07 7.69� ���� 414.2
1.2 9.6 0.92 2.08 1.42 1.09� ���� -0.07 9.70� ���� 189.19
1.1 8.8 0.86 2.27 1.36 1.42� ���� -0.06 1.25� ���� 92.31
1 8 0.80 2.50 1.32 1.89� ���� -0.04 1.65� ���� 38.1
Total = 733.79

37
37�

Problems
1. Determine the uniform flow depth y, area A, and wetted perimeter P for
the following conditions: a) trapezoidal channel, �� � ���, �� � ���,
� � ��� m, � � �� m3/s, � � �����, � � �������; b) circular channel,
� � ��� m, � � ���� m3/s, � � �����, � � �����; and c) rectangular
channel, � � �� ft, � � ���� ft3/sec, � � ����, S � 0.0004 . [Answers:
a) � � �� �� m, � � ��� �� m2, � � ��� �� m; b) � � �� ��� m,
� � �� �� m2, � � �� �� m; c) � � ��� � ft, � � ��� ft2, � � ��� �
ft]

2. Uniform flow occurs in a trapezoidal channel with � = 0.863 m,


�� � �� � ����, � � ��� m/s, � � �����, and � � �����. Find the
bottom width �. [Answer: 1.8 m]

3. A concrete lined trapezoidal channel of base width 3 m and side slopes


3H : 1V is to carry 10 m3/s at an average velocity of 0.8 m/s. What
slope should it have at uniform flow conditions? [Answer: �� =
0.00012]

4. What are the best dimensions for a trapezoidal channel having �� �


������ and Manning � � ���� is to carry 40 m3/s at uniform flow
conditions? Sketch the cross section indicating base width, depth of
flow, and side slopes. [Answers: � = 1.95 m; �� = 1.69 m]

5. Uniform flow takes place in a wide open channel. If the flow rate is
doubled, by what percentage the depth of flow increases? [Answer:
51.6%]

38
38�

6. Uniform flow takes place in the two channels shown. Case 1 represents
a rectangular open channel, and Case 2 shows the same channel with
the addition of a thin center board. By what percent is the flow rate
reduced because of the addition of the board? All surfaces are of the
same material. [Answer: 23.7%]

1�m 1�m�

2�m� 1�m 1�m�

7. Uniform flow takes place at critical flow conditions in the channel


whose cross section is as shown. If the flow rate is � � ��m3/s and
Manning � � �����, what is the depth of flow? What is the slope of the
channel? [Answers: 2.98 m; 0.0036]

4�m

2�m� 1
1

8. A triangular channel is to be constructed with a slope of 0.032% to


handle a design flow rate of 4.4 m3/s. The lining of the channel is to be
smooth asphalt. Based on the criterion of most efficient section,
determine the dimensions of the channel to be excavated. [Answers:
� � � m, � � � m]

39
39�

9. Show that for circular pipes of diameter �, the hydraulic radius� is
related to the pipe diameter by ��� � ��.

� ��
10. Use Darcy equation �� � � and Manning equation � �
� ��

���� � ��� to prove that � � � � ��� ���� �����.

11. A flow of 28 m3/s occurs in a trapezoidal canal having a base width


of 3 m and side slopes of 2H : 1V. Calculate the critical depth.
[Answer: 1.50 m]

12. Water flows in a triangular channel with side slopes 1:1. The
discharge is � � ��m3/s. a) Plot the specific energy� for values of
depth ��between 1 m and 4 m at 0.2 m intervals. b) Using the above
plot, determine the critical depth of flow. Check your answer by
computations from the condition that �� � �. c) Using the above plot,
determine the alternate depth�� for �� � � m. d) Compute the Froude
numbers for the two depths mentioned in part c) above.

13. Calculate the critical depth and critical energy for a discharge of
10 m 3 /s in the following channels: a) rectangular channel, � � � m; b)
triangular channel, �� � �� � � ; c) trapezoidal channel, � � � m,
�� � �� � � ; and d) circular channel � � � m. [Answers: a)
�� � �� ��� m, �� � �� ��� m; b) �� � �� ��� m, �� � �� ��� m;
�� � �� �� m, �� � �� �� m; �� � �� ���� m, �� � �� ��� m]

40
40�

14. Water is flowing in a rectangular channel at a discharge of 100
3
ft /sec. If the channel has a roughness coefficient � � �����, width
� � �� ft, and bottom slope � � ������, determine whether the flow is
subcritical or supercritical, compute the alternate depth, and plot the E-
Curve. Assume uniform flow. [Answers: subcritical, � � �� ��� ft]

15. A trapezoidal channel with a bottom width of 6 m and �� � �� � �


carries a flow of 19 m3/s at a depth of 2.5 m. The flow enters a
transition region in which the bottom elevation is lowered by �� � ���
m. Calculate the flow depth and velocity in the transition, and plot the
E-Curve. [Answers: � � � m, � � �� ��� m/s]

16. Using Microsoft Excel, plot and tabulate the specific energy� as a
function of flow depth � for a rectangular channel having � � �� m3/s
and � � �� m.

17. Open channel flow takes place in a trapezoidal channel with bottom
width 1.5 m, and side slopes 2H : 1V. For a certain flow situation, the
alternate depths are �� � �m and �� � ��m. a) What is the flow rate? b)
What is the critical depth of flow? [Answers: 72 m3/s; 2.8 m]

18. A smooth, sloping transition structure connects a triangular section


with side slopes 2H : 1V to a rectangular section. In order to have
critical flow at the rectangular exit section, what should be the width �
of the section? The flow rate is � � ��m3/s. Ignore losses. [Answer:
1.94 m]

41
41�

1��
1�� 2�m�

1�m� �� �

��

19. The situation shown is observed in the field in a rectangular channel


2.5 m wide. From the depth measurements shown, estimate the flow
rate in the channel. [Answer: 8.56 m3/s]

Hydraulic jump

�� �� � ��m�
�� � � m
��

20. A hydraulic jump occurs in a horizontal storm sewer. The sewer is


circular with diameter 1.2 m. Before the jump, the water depth is 0.6 m,
and just after the jump the sewer is full with a gage pressure of 7 kPa at
the top. Estimate the flow rate.[Answer: 3.86 m3/s]

21. Water is flowing under a sluice gate in a horizontal rectangular


channel that is 5 m wide. The depths �� and �� are 2.5 m and 10 cm,
respectively. The horizontal distances between locations 1, 2, and 3 are
sufficiently short that rapidly varied flow conditions can be assumed to
occur. If head loss is neglected through the sluice gate, determine a)
discharge �; b) depth downstream of the jump �� ; c) head loss through
the jump ��; and d) length of the jump �. [Answers: a) 3.433 m3/s; b)
0.93 m; c) 1.537 m; d) 5.7 m]

42
42�

Sluice gate

Q�

1� 2 3

22. A hydraulic jump takes place in a triangular channel with side slopes
1H :1V. Depth of flow before the jump is 1 m, and it is 2 m after the
jump. Determine the power loss through the jump. [Answer: 24.7 kW]

23. The head loss�� across a hydraulic jump is described by the equation
��� ���
�� � � �� � � ��
�� ��
where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the upstream and downstream
locations, respectively. Show that the dimensionless head loss�� ��� is
given by
�� �� ���� �� �
��� � �� � � � �
�� �� � ��
24. Gradually varied flow takes place in a rectangular open channel 4 m
wide having a bottom slope of 0.0025. If the depths of flow at two
sections 65 m apart are �� � ��� m and �� � ��� m, estimate the
Manning roughness coefficient � using only one step of calculations.
With this value of �, determine the normal depth of flow and classify
the water surface profile. Assume the flow rate is � � �� m3/s.
[Answers: 0.016; 2 m; M1 profile]

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43�

25. Water flows at � � �� m3/s in a rectangular channel with � � � m,
� � �����, and �� � ������. If the flow depth at a gaging station is
measured as m, classify the gradually varied water surface profile,
and use the differential equation of gradually varied flow to state
whether the depth increases or decreases in the downstream direction.
Assume the energy slope �� � ������ . [Answer: M2 profile, ���
�� � ��� ���� decreases]

26. Water flows in a triangular channel with side slopes 2H : 1V. The
flow rate is 20 m3/s, and the Manning roughness is � � �����. At a
certain point in the channel, slope of the channel bed changes from
�� � �����to 0.008. a) Determine the critical depth and the normal
depth for the two channel reaches. b) Draw the qualitative water surface
profile and classify the profiles. c) Calculate the depths of flow in the
two channel reaches and draw the water surface profile. Carry out
computations until the depth differs from the normal depth of flow by
about ±5%. Use a total of about 15 sections for both channel reaches.

�� � �����

�� � �����

27. Water flows at � � �� m3/s in a rectangular channel with � � � m,


� � �����, and �� � ������. If the flow depth at a gaging station is
measured as 1 m, use the direct step method to estimate the location
where the flow depth is 1.1 m. [Answer: 5.7 m]

44
44�

28. A trapezoidal channel with � � �� ft, �� � �� � ���, � � �����,
and �� � ������. The channel is carrying a discharge � � ��� ft3/sec.
At a certain section a low dam was constructed to produce a depth of 8
ft in the channel. Using Microsoft Excel, tabulate and plot the resulting
water surface profile and find its total length from the dam site to an
upstream section where the flow is 1% greater than the normal depth.

45
45�

Chapter 2
Chapter 2
Surface Water Hydrology
Surface Water Hydrology
List of Symbols
� � area, L2
� � runoff coefficient, dimensionless
�� � runoff coefficient of �� , dimensionless
�� � composite runoff coefficient, dimensionless
� � cumulative infiltration, L
� � infiltration rate, L/T
�� � final infiltration rate, L/T
�� � initial infiltration rate, L/T
� � inflow at upstream location, L3/T
� � precipitation intensity , L/T
� � storage constant, T
� � decay constant, T-1
� � precipitation depth, L
���� � average precipitation depth, L
� � outflow at downstream location, L3/T
�� � peak runoff rate, L3/T
� � storage volume, L3
� � time, T
� � weighting constant, dimensionless
� � precipitation intensity index, L/T

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2.1� Introduction
Hydrology is the science dealing with the properties, occurrence,
distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth surface and in
the atmosphere. Although water covers about 75% of the earth surface, a
small percentage is used directly for water supply. This is because about
96.5% of the earth water is found in the oceans as saltwater. If the earth
were a uniform sphere, the oceans would be sufficient to cover it totally to
a depth of about 2.6 km. Of the earth freshwater, about two thirds is polar
ice1 and most of the remainder is groundwater going down to a depth of
200 to 600 m. Below this depth, most groundwater is saline. Only 0.006%
of freshwater is accessibly contained in rivers. Despite the quite small
percentage of freshwater relative to the large volumes of saltwater in
oceans, this source is renewed continuously by the hydrologic cycle. The
hydrologic cycle is a process that begins by the evaporation of water in the
oceans and other water bodies. Evaporation is caused by the radiant energy
received from the sun. The water vapor then forms the clouds, which falls
back to the land as precipitation. The water that falls on land may directly
reach rivers, lakes, or oceans as surface runoff; or it may infiltrate through
the soil to form groundwater; or it may be intercepted by vegetation from
which it is transpired back into the atmosphere. Some snow and ice can be
stored in the earth polar regions and in high mountain areas. The processes
of the hydrologic cycle are described graphically in Figure (2.1). A
������������������������������������������������������������
1
The large amount of freshwater in Polar ice comes from the salty ocean. The salt molecules
are rejected back into the liquid as ice forms. However, as global warming continues, the
supply of this freshwater source may actually decrease as the melting polar ice cap will mix
back with the salty ocean. The increased volume of ocean water will also cause sea levels to
increase, thus contaminating freshwater sources along coastal regions.

47
47�

common practice is that hydrologists assess these processes quantitatively
by empirical or rational equations, because the path that a drop of water
will follow is apparently difficult to describe analytically.

Figure (2.1). The hydrologic cycle.

Water surface runoff is typically discharged through the lowest point


at the outlet of a specific area called drainage basin, watershed, or
catchment (Figure 2.2). The basin constitutes a unit of hydrologic system
where all the input precipitation is discharged through the outlet as
streamflow unless it is lost by abstraction processes such as infiltration.
Thus the basin may be used as a reference area for calculating the
availability of water for a specific purpose. The boundary of a basin is
separated topographically by local geographical divides such as a ridge,
hill, or mountain that can be traced on a map. No specific limits have been
established for the size of a drainage basin as the area can be very small or

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48�

Figure (2.2). Tyypical watershed area.

1
large . A large basin can be divided into smaller subbasins or
subwatersheds when it is necessary to improve calculations.

2.2 Precipitation
Water that falls from the atmosphere to the earth surface is called
precipitation, which includes rainfall, snow, sleet, hail, fog, and dew. Most
of the precipitation is generally in the form of rainfall; therefore, the terms
precipitation and rainfall are considered synonymous. Amount of rainfall
is typically measured by a rain gage (Figure 2.3). The depth of water
collected in the cylinder during a storm indicates the amount of rainfall in
������������������������������������������������������������
1
For example,
a the largest river basin in the United States is the Mississippi river basin
draining 40% of that country with the main stem of the river being about 3900 km long.

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inches or millimeters. Rainfall intensity is a common parameter to describe
the variation of rainfall depth with respect to storm duration

�� ���������������������������������������������������������������

where � � precipitation intensity; � � precipitation depth; and � � time
duration of rainfall. A plot of rainfall intensity over time is called
hyetograph. Instead of rain gages, radar can be used. The most important
advantage of using radar for rainfall measurement is the large area
coverage with high spatial and temporal resolution. Satellite became also a
possible method for rainfall measurements. Satellite provides the only
systematic means of measuring rainfall over three quarters of the earth
and, thus, is widely associated with global climate change studies.
Rainfall measurements collected over a large area usually show
considerable variations. For different gage stations1, the average rainfall
over an area can usually be estimated by three methods.

Arithmetic Mean Method


The arithmetic mean is the simplest method for determining average
precipitation over an area and is calculated from the relation


���� � � �� �������������������������������������������������������

���

������������������������������������������������������������
1
Station is a permanent or temporary location where observations or measurements are made.
Many types of stations are available such as rainfall stations, weather stations, depth-
discharge stations, and ocean stations.

50
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Standard rain gage

Electronic rain gage

Wireless electronic rain gage




Figure (2.3). Rain gages.

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51�

where ���� � average precipitation; �� � precipitation at gage �; and � �


number of gages. This method is satisfactory if the gages are uniformly
distributed over the area.

Thiessen Polygon Method


If some gages are considered more representative of the area than others,
then relative weights may be assigned in calculating average precipitation
using the thiessen polygon method. This method divides the watershed
into polygons, and the point precipitation�� located at the centroid of the
polygon is considered to estimate ���� as follows. Adjacent gages are
connected by straight lines on a map. Perpendicular bisectors of these lines
are drawn. The area �� enclosed by the perpendicular bisectors is
determined, and the gage near the centroid of each area is considered to
best represent the precipitation in that area. Figure (2.4) shows the thiessen
polygons for a small watershed. The average precipitation for the whole

P3

P2

P4

P1 A1


Figure (2.4). Example of thiessen polygons for a small watershed. Solid circles represent gage points.

52
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area is then calculated by
��
��� �� ��
���� � ����������������������������������������������������
��
��� ��

The above equation is generally more accurate than the arithmetic


mean method, although the procedure here is inflexible as a new thiessen
network must be constructed each time there is a change in the position of
gages in the network. This method also assumes that the rainfall is
uniformly distributed over a relevant polygon, which is not always the
case.

Isohyetal Method
This method overcomes the difficulties found in the previously mentioned
arithmetic mean and thiessen polygon methods. Precipitation values
measured at all gages are indicated on a map. Lines of equal precipitation
referred as isohyets are then drawn. It may be noted that the isohyets
follow closely contours of elevation (Figure 2.5). The average
precipitation is then calculated from
�� �����
��
��� � � ��

���� � ������������������������������������
��
��� ��

As this method requires a fairly dense gage network to correctly construct


the isohyets, the computations can be conveniently automated by using
contouring computer programs.

53
53�

P1

P2

P3

P4

A1



Figure (2.5). Example of isohyets for a small watershed.

2.3 Abstractions
Water surface runoff at the outlet of a basin is estimated by subtracting the
water losses including interception, depression storage, and infiltration that
are commonly referred to as abstractions from the rainfall input.
Interception is the process by which rainfall is abstracted before reaching
the ground. Dense vegetation such as wooded areas1 and roofs of buildings
that are not hydraulically connected by pipes to the ground surface are the
primary forms of interception. This water is transferred to the atmosphere
by evaporation. Depression storage is water accumulating in ground

������������������������������������������������������������
1
In projects involving clearing of wooded areas, increased surface runoff will be encountered
in storms because of reduced interception.

54
54�

depressions during a storm event that does not contribute to surface runoff.
This water is infiltrated into the ground and the remainder is transferred to
the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration processes. Infiltration is
the dominant abstraction process by which water seeps into the ground
through the soil surface.

Evapotranspiration�
Knowledge of water losses due to evaporation and transpiration is
important to account for abstraction processes such as interception and
depression storage. Evaporation is the transfer of water from liquid to
vapor, while transpiration is the process by which plants remove moisture
from the soil and release it to the air as vapor. Evaporation and
transpiration processes can be considered together as evapotranspiration.
The rate of evapotranspiration is difficult to quantify, since it can vary
considerably from one area to another. An approach to estimate the
evapotranspiration over an area is attained by using an
evapotranspirometer, which is a container of soil and vegetation from
which the water loss is measured by weighting all water inflow from the
surface and outflow from the bottom of the container. However, as it is
also more convenient for desert regions, the estimation is simplified
sometimes by considering losses due to evaporation only. A typical
measuring instrument of evaporimeter is shown in Figure (2.6), which is
based on filling a circular pan with water and determining the decrease in
water levels after a specific period of time.

55
55�



Figure (2.6). Pan evaporimeter.

Infiltration
Infiltration is the process by which water seeps into the ground through the
earth surface. The spatial variation of infiltration rate over an area is
influenced by many factors including the properties of soil and vegetation
cover. Water surface runoff occurs only if the rainfall rate for a given time
is higher than the infiltration rate. The infiltration rate for a specific
location can be measured by a double ring infiltrometer (Figure 2.7). This
instrument consists of two rings driven partly into the ground and filled
with water. The double ring design helps preventing divergent flow in
layered soils. The outer ring acts as a barrier to encourage only vertical
flow from the inner ring. The water level in the inner and outer rings
should always be maintained at a constant level. The variation of water
level in the inner ring, i.e. amount of water added to keep the water level

56
56�



Figure (2.7). Double ring infiltrometer.

constant in the inner ring is recorded with respect to time. This can be used
to determine the volume of water infiltrated per unit area for a given time
and produce the infiltration chart for this location.
To analyze the infiltration process, the unsteady water flow through
the earth may be correlated with the condition of wetting front, which is
the interface under the ground between the wet and dry soil. Several
empirical models describing the infiltration rate of water through soil are
available, each with underlying assumptions and limitations. One of the
earliest infiltration models is the Horton equation (Chow et al., 1988).
Horton observed that infiltration � began at some initial rate �� and
exponentially decreased until it reached a constant rate �� caused by filling

57
57�

of soil pores by water (Figure 2.8). Horton model can be expressed
mathematically as
� � �� � ��� � �� �� ��� ������������������������������������������
where � � infiltration rate at any time �; �� � initial infiltration rate; �� �
final infiltration rate; and � � a decay constant. The total volume of water
per unit area that has infiltrated until a specific time is called the

Infiltration, f

fo

fc

Time, t


Figure (2.8). Horton’s exponential assumption for infiltration process.

cumulative infiltration and can be determined by integrating the above


equation
�� � ��
� � �� � � �� � � ��� ��������������������������������������

where � � cumulative infiltration. Table (2.1) provides examples for the
typical infiltration parameters of �� , �� , and � estimated for gatch and
sandy materials.

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Table�(2.1).�Typical�infiltration�parameters�estimated�for�specific�soils�in�Kuwait.�

Soil�Type fo fc k
(mm/h) (mm/h) (h�1)
*Gatch 175 14 14
Sand 618 42 4

*Gatch�is�a�soil�type�with�more�clay.�

Another simpler infiltration method to estimate the average losses


resulting not only from infiltration but also from other processes such as
evapotranspiration is the � � index. This method assumes a constant
average loss rate of magnitude � throughout the entire basin. Rainfall
above � is called excess rainfall1, and below � are the losses. Figure (2.9)
shows a description of the � �index.

Rainfall intensity, i

Excess rainfall

Losses

Time, t


Figure (2.9). Description of the � �index.
������������������������������������������������������������ �
1
Excess rainfall is the rainfall amounts that will runoff over the basin after subtracting losses
from evaporation, transpiration, infiltration, etc.

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Example 2.1 The initial infiltration capacity of a watershed is


estimated as �� � 88 mm/h the time constant � � 1.2 h-1 and the
equilibrium capacity �� � 7mm/h.� Use the Horton equation to find
the values of � at � �10 ���, 30 ���, 1 h, 2 h and 6 h, and the
cumulative infiltration capacity � over the 6 h period.�

Solution
Horton equation is
� � �� � ��� � �� �� ���
Substituting the values for �� , �� , and �
� � � � ��� � ��� �����
the following table can be obtained by solving for each �

t f
(mm/h)
10 min = 1/6 h 73.3
30 min = 1/2 h 51.4
1h 31.4
2h 14.3
6h 7.1

To estimate the cumulative infiltration,


�� � ��
� � �� � � �� � � ��� �

�� � �
� � ���� � �� � � ������� � � ��������
���

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2.4 Hydrograph Analysis
Hydrograph, which is a graph showing changes in water discharge over a
period of time for a given point on a channel or conduit, is commonly used
in many engineering applications. For example, hydrologists depend on
hydrographs to provide peak flow rates so that hydraulic structures can be
designed to accommodate the flow safely. Also, the area under the curve
of a hydrograph can provide the volume of water, which allows analysis of
reservoir sizes, storage tanks, detention ponds, and other facilities that deal
with volumes of runoff passing the point of interest during a time period.
The shape of the hydrograph changes according to the properties of
the basin and meteorological conditions such as rainfall pattern,
hydrologic losses, groundwater flow, and surface characteristics including
size, roughness, shape, slope and imperviousness. A specific hydrograph
can be estimated by following two main steps. Initially, continuous records
of water flow versus depth are taken at the channel location. In small
channels, these records are estimated by using a device such as a weir. In
large channels, placing a flow measuring device in the channel becomes
practically difficult, and instead flow rates are measured by using a current
meter. Then, a rating curve is plotted, which is a relation between flow rate
and stage 1.Indirect methods to estimate the water discharge for a given
depth is accomplished by employing open channel flow equations such as
that of Manning or Chezy. Next, the relation between flow rate and depth
is used to transform continuous records of stage versus time into a
hydrograph.

������������������������������������������������������������
1
Stage refers to the elevation of water surface above some datum and it is recorded using a
gaging measuring station.

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Hydrographs can be classified into annual and storm hydrographs.
Annual hydrograph
shows the long term water balance in a watershed with a relation between
discharge and time over the year, while a storm hydrograph shows the
effects of a particular rainfall event on the discharge of a channel. The
total volume of flow under the annual hydrograph is the basin yield.
Annual hydrographs may be perennial, ephemeral, or snow-fed (Figure
2.10). Perennials have continuous flow over the year which is typical of a
humid climate, and most of the basin yield comes from the subsurface
flow indicating that a large proportion of rainfall is infiltrated into the
basin and reaches the channel as groundwater. Ephemerals are typically
found in arid climates with long periods when the channel is dry indicating
that the groundwater table is considerably below the channel bed. Basin
yield from this watershed is the result of runoff from large storms. Snow-
fed annual hydrograph has a basin yield occurring mainly in spring and
early summer from snowmelt. The large volume of water stored as snow
and its steady release develop smoother flow variations over the year than
for the perennial or ephemeral.

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62�

Perennial

Ephemeral

Snow-fed


Figure (2.10). Annual hydrographs (source: Chow et al. 1988, Applied Hydrology).

63
63�

A typical storm hydrograph is shown in Figure (2.11) with the
following various parts

ABXCYDE: total hydrograph


AB: baseflow before the storm (groundwater)
BXCYD: storm hydrograph (or direct runoff hydrograph)
BXC: rising limb (concentration curve)
CYD: falling limb (recession curve)
XCY: peak segment
DE: baseflow after the storm (groundwater)
C: peak discharge

X
A
Y
B
D
E

t

Figure (2.11). Storm hydrograph.


A common practice is to consider the hydrograph divided into two parts of


baseflow and direct surface runoff hydrograph. Baseflow indicates the
groundwater contribution, and direct runoff indicates the runoff caused by
excess rainfall. The simplest method for the separation of baseflow and
direct runoff is by drawing a straight line from B to D. The portion of the

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hydrograph below BD is considered to be baseflow, and that above BD is
the direct runoff.

Time Base of Hydrograph


Time base of the hydrograph is defined as the time duration within which
the storm hydrograph occurs. Time base can be taken as equal to the sum
of the time duration of rainfall event producing the storm hydrograph and
the time of concentration for the drainage area. The time of concentration
is defined here as the flow time from the most remote point in the drainage
area to the outlet.

Unit Hydrograph
A unit hydrograph is the hydrograph of direct water surface runoff that
results from a total depth of one unit of excess rainfall (e.g., 1 in, 1 mm,
etc.) uniformly distributed over the basin and occurring within a specified
duration of time. Unit hydrograph method is useful in representing the
effects of variable rainfall patterns on a particular basin, since the
procedure developed can make use of the linear theory practiced in various
branches of engineering. Two characteristics of linear systems are that
they are linearly scalable (proportionality) and can be added together
(superposition). Scaling the unit hydrograph by the amount of excess
rainfall illustrates the concept of proportionality, while adding multiple
direct runoff hydrographs illustrates the concept of superposition.
The unit hydrograph theory is based on several assumptions. The
storm used in deriving the unit hydrograph should be restricted to constant
rainfall intensity within the time duration, implying a short duration storm
event. The time of concentration for the basin is considered to remain
constant for any rainfall intensity and duration. The rainfall intensity

65
65�

should also have uniform spatial distribution over the watershed area,
implying that the watershed is not too large. If the watershed area is too
large, then it can be divided into subareas of which each has to be analyzed
separately. The unit hydrograph reflects the unchanging characteristics of
the watershed when channel conditions remain unchanged and the
catchment does not have appreciable storage. An example for a violated
condition is when the watershed contains many reservoirs or when the
water flood overflows into the floodplain producing considerable storage.
The total duration of a unit hydrograph, referred as the base time, depends
only on rainfall duration, not the excess rainfall intensity. Here, the unit
hydrograph notation to be used is UHd, where “d” denotes the rainfall
duration.

Example 2.2 The rainfall hyetograph and the storm hydrograph for a
495 ��� basin are given. Assuming that the baseflow is constant at
100 �� ��, determine the � �index for the basin and ordinates of the
unit hydrograph.

Solution
The actual data given for the problem are listed in the Columns from
(1) to (3). Since the baseflow is assumed to be constant and equal to
100 �� ��, direct runoff hydrograph ordinates can be calculated in
Column (4) as the storm hydrograph values given in Column (3)
minus 100 �� ��. The area under the direct runoff hydrograph is the
total volume of excess rainfall. This volume should be equal to the
whole drainage basin filled with water to a depth

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�� � �����
���� � � ������� � ����
��� � ���

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)


t Rainfall Storm DRH t from UH2
Intensity Hydrograph Beginning
(h) (mm/h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (h) (m3/s)
14:00 10 100 0
15:00 20 100 0 0 0
16:00 20 200 100 1 12.5
17:00 500 400 2 50
18:00 400 300 3 37.5
19:00 300 200 4 25
20:00 200 100 5 12.5
21:00 100 0 6 0
Total = 1100

Thus, the total effective rainfall for this storm is 8 ��. Referring to
the rainfall hyetograph below, the � � index can be obtained as
follows:
Assuming that � � �������, then the minimum possible value is
� � ������� resulting with
��� � �� � � � ��� � �� � � � ����� � ����
Therefore, our assumption that � is more than ������� is correct.
Then,� can be obtained by solving the relation
��� � �� � � � ��� � �� � � � ����
giving
� � ������

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Intensity
(mm/h)

20

10

14:00 15:00 16:00 17:00 t (h)

This shows that the duration of the runoff producing rainfall starts at
15:00 hours and its intensity is constant at �� � �� � ������ .
Since the duration of the effective rain is 2 , the net rainfall is
� � � � ����, which of course equals the rainfall depth determined
previously. This particular unit hydrograph for the basin will be for a
2-hour duration and will be denoted by UH2. The ordinates of the 2-
hour unit hydrograph are obtained by dividing the direct runoff
values given in Column (4) by 8. Column (5) shows the time from
the beginning of the storm, and Column (6) gives the ordinates of
UH2.

Example 2.3 Use the given total hydrograph ordinates to find the
unit hydrograph UH1/2 resulting from a unit depth of ���� . The
storm has excess rainfall rate of 2.8 ���� and occurs within ½ hour
time duration.

Solution
The actual data given for the problem are listed in Columns (1), (2),
and (3). The direct runoff hydrograph (DRH) in Column (4) is

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calculated as the storm hydrograph values given in Column (2)
minus baseflow in Column (3). Since the excess rainfall occurs
within ½ h, its depth is calculated as ��� � ��� � ������. The unit
hydrograph in Column (5) is obtained by dividing the direct runoff

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5)


t Total Q Baseflow DRH UH1/2
(h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s)
1 3.3 3.3 0 0
2 3.5 3.5 0 0
3 7 3.5 3.5 2.5
4 16 3.6 12.4 8.9
5 13 3.5 9.5 6.8
6 9 3.4 5.6 4
7 6 3.4 2.6 1.8
8 3.3 3 0.3 0.2
9 2.7 2.7 0 0
10 2.4 2.4 0 0

values given in Column (4) by 1.4. Notice that although the


ordinates of Column (4) with a unit of m3/s are divided by the excess
rainfall depth with unit of �� to obtain Column (5), the ordinates of
the latter have unit of �� �� rather than �� ���� �. This is due to the
concept of proportionality of which the unit hydrograph is based on

Example 2.4 Find the direct runoff hydrograph for a ���� excess
rainfall depth using the given unit hydrograph UH1 ordinates
resulting from a unit depth of ����.

Solution
The actual data given for the problem are listed in Columns (1) and
(2). The direct runoff hydrograph (DRH) in Column (3) is calculated

69
69�

as the unit hydrograph values given in Column (2) multiplied by
����.

(1) (2) (3)


t UH1 DRH
(h) (m3/s) (m3/s)
0 0 0
0.5 20 40
1 40 80
1.5 30 60
2 20 40
2.5 10 20
3 0 0

Example 2.5 Given the unit hydrograph of the previous example,


obtain the composite direct runoff hydrograph for the given rainfall
pattern.
� Excess rainfall depth
(mm)
5�

2.5�

1.25�

��0����� 1 ���� 2 ��� �3 ����4 ����������� ���� �������� (hr)


t (h)

Solution
The given rainfall pattern consists of four segments of duration 1 h
each and excess rainfall depths of 1.25, 1.25, 5, and 2.5���. The
hydrographs corresponding to the different segments of excess
rainfall depths are calculated in Columns (2) to (5). The composite

70
70�

direct runoff hydrograph ordinates in Column (6) are the sum of the
corresponding ordinates in Columns (2) to (5).

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)


t 1.25UH1 1.25UH1 5UH1 2.5UH1 DRH
(h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s)
0 0 0
0.5 25 25
1 50 0 50
1.5 37.5 25 62.5
2 25 50 0 75
2.5 12.5 37.5 100 150
3 0 25 200 0 225
3.5 12.5 150 50 212.5
4 12.5 100 100 200
4.5 0 50 75 125
5 0 50 50
5.5 25 25
6 0 0

In many occasions, the rainfall pattern is not simple by which it


produces a composite storm hydrograph. In these cases, the unit
hydrograph can be obtained indirectly by following the reverse procedure
to the one shown in the previous example.

Unit Hydrographs of Different Duration


For a given unit hydrograph of a specific duration, another one with
different duration can be derived for the same watershed by two methods.

Lagging Method
Using a unit hydrograph of duration a hours, another one with duration b
hours can be obtained by laggingUHa by a hours as many as b/a times and
superposing all these hydrographs together. The sum of these hydrographs

71
71�

must be divided by b/a to obtain UHb. This method requires b/a to be
integer; therefore, this method is also called “Integral Multiples Method”.

Example 2.6 For the given 1 h unit hydrograph resulting from a unit
depth of 1 ��, obtain the 3 h unit hydrograph ordinates using the

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)


Time UH1 1-h 2-h � UH3 = �/3
lagged UH1 lagged UH1
(h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s)
0 0 0 0
1 20 0 20 6.67
2 40 20 0 60 20
3 30 40 20 90 30
4 20 30 40 90 30
5 10 20 30 60 20
6 0 10 20 30 10
7 0 10 10 3.33
8 0 0 0

lagging method.

Solution
The actual data given for the problem are listed in Columns (1) and
(2). Since the duration of the rainfall is 1 h, and the total rainfall is 1
mm, the intensity of the rainfall becomes 1 mm/h. By lagging UH1
first by 1 hour, and then by 2 hours, and adding the ordinates, we
obtain a hydrograph of duration 3 hours and intensity 1 mm/h. Thus,
the total rainfall would be 3 ��. Ordinates of the corresponding
hydrograph are shown in Column (5), which is simply the sum of
Columns (2), (3), and (4). To obtain UH3, which requires a total
excess rainfall depth of 1 ��, the ordinates of Column (5) must be
divided by 3. The final UH3 ordinates are listed in Column (6).

72
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S-hydrograph Method
For a storm with excess rainfall duration not being an integral multiple of
the unit hydrograph, the S-hydrograph method can be used. S-hydrograph
is a direct runoff hydrograph for a continuous rainfall duration and
constant intensity. As shown in Figure (2.12), the S-hydrograph Sa can be
obtained by lagging and superposing infinitely many unit hydrographs
UHa with duration a and excess rainfall intensity1/a. If Sa is lagged for b
hours (denoted by Sb) and subtracted as Sa – Sb, then a hydrograph is
obtained of a rainfall duration b and intensity1/a, i.e. with total rainfall
depth b/a. Accordingly, a unit hydrograph of duration b can be determined
as
�� ���
��� � �����
�������������������������������������������������

a a a a a a

1/a� … Hyetograph�

Sa�

… UHa�

Time,�t

Figure (2.12). The S-Hydrograph.

Example 2.7 Given the UH1 of Example 2.6, obtain UH3 by using
the S-hydrograph method.

73
73�

Solution
The actual data given for the problem are listed in Columns (1) and

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)
Time UH1 1-h 2-h 3-h 4-h 5-h S1 S3 S1–S3 UH3
lagged lagged lagged lagged lagged
UH1 UH1 UH1 UH1 UH1
(h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s)
0 0 0 0 0
0.5 20 0 20 20 6.67
1 40 20 0 60 60 20
1.5 30 40 20 0 90 90 30
2 20 30 40 20 0 110 110 36.67
2.5 10 20 30 40 20 0 120 120 40
3 0 10 20 30 40 20 120 0 120 40
3.5 0 10 20 30 40 120 20 100 33.33
4 0 10 20 30 120 60 60 20
4.5 0 10 20 120 90 30 10
5 0 10 120 110 10 3.33
5.5 10 120 120 0 0

(2). The ordinates of UH1 in Column (2) are lagged at least five
times until the limiting maximum value of 120 m3/s shown in
Column (8) is obtained. In this particular case, lagging UH1 only five
times would have been sufficient, because the maximum ordinate
120 has been reached and confirmed. After S1 is obtained, it is
lagged by 3 hours to determine S3 ordinates in Column (9). Column
(10) presents S1 – S3 which is a direct runoff hydrograph of duration
3 hours and a total rainfall depth of 3 mm. To obtain the ordinates of
the unit hydrograph of duration 3 hours, Column (10) must be
divided by 3/1 = 3. The UH3 values are listed in Column (11).

Rational Method
Rational method proposes a simple rainfall-runoff model to estimate the
peak discharge for a drainage basin, not the entire direct runoff

74
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hydrograph. The method assumes that when a steady rainfall rate occurs,
then runoff rate increases until the entire watershed is contributing to the
outlet. The peak discharge at the outlet is approached when the rainfall
duration starts exceeding the time of concentration, which is the time for
the most remote point to the outlet for the total drainage system. The
rational model is then expressed by
�� � �����������������������������������������������������������
where �� � peak runoff rate; � � runoff coefficient, dimensionless; � �
intensity of rainfall; and � � area of the watershed. All watershed losses
are incorporated into the runoff coefficient� (� � � � �); therefore � in
the rational equation is not excess rainfall. Recommended values of � for
other surfaces are given in Table (2.2). For composite areas
� �� ��
�� � ���������������������������������������������������������
� ��
where �� � average (or composite) runoff coefficient; and �� � runoff
coefficient of �� . The intensity of rainfall � is obtained from intensity-
duration-frequency (IDF) curves (Figure 2.13), where rainfall is assumed
to be uniformly distributed over the catchment area1.
In the IDF curves, the return period is the time interval for which an
event will occur once on average. A storm sewer is generally designed for
a return period of 5, 10, or 25 years. Because a drainage basin can
frequently receive storm events higher than that, streets and other open
channel systems must be designed to carry flood flow that is in excess of
the storm sewer capacity.
������������������������������������������������������������
1
�The� assumptions�of� steady�rainfall�intensity�and�equilibrium�between�inflow�and�outflow�
are� reasonably� valid� for� small� watersheds� with� a� short� time� of� concentration.� Thus,� the�
rational�method�can�usually�be�used�for�small�watersheds�not�larger�than�80�hectares.�

75
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Intensity Duration Frequency (IDF) Curves

160

140

Return Period
120

100
Intensity,�(mm/h)�

r) 100
/h
m 50
m
(i
, 80
itys
25
n
e
t 10
n
I 60

5
40

2
20

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180
Duration, t (min)

Figure (2.13). Intensity duration frequency curves for Kuwait. The values are the standards used by the
Ministry of Public Works in Kuwait (source: plotted from numerical data provided by MPW).

76
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Table (2.2). Values of runoff coefficient C for various land surfaces. Source: Ministry of Public
Works in Kuwait.

Type of Area or Development C Value


Commercial Areas
Town Area 0.7-0.9
Neighborhood Areas 0.5-0.7
Residential Areas
Single Family Houses 0.4-0.6
Apartment Complex 0.5-0.7
Lawns, Parks, Green Areas 0.1-0.2
Industrial Areas 0.5-0.8
Desert Areas (ha)
27-80 0.15
80-220 0.1
220-1200 0.05
Over 1200 0.025
Roofs
Slopes � 1% 0.9
1% � Slopes � 5% 0.9
Slopes > 5% 0.9
Asphalted Paved Areas
Slopes � 1% 0.7
1% � Slopes � 5% 0.8
Slopes > 5% 0.9
Sidewalks
Slopes � 1% 0.5
1% � Slopes � 5% 0.6
Slopes > 5% 0.7
Unpaved Roads
Slopes � 1% 0.2
1% � Slopes � 5% 0.25
Slopes > 5% 0.3
Playgrounds, Cemeteries, Orchards
Slopes � 1% 0.1
1% � Slopes � 5% 0.15
Slopes > 5% 0.2
Green Belts, Gardens, Farms
Slopes � 1% 0.05
1% � Slopes � 5% 0.1
Slopes > 5% 0.15

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Example 2.8 Use the rational method to find the 10-year design
flow at the outlet of the basin shown in the figure with the given
information. Time of flow in pipe from inlet “a” to “b” is 2 minutes.
Use the IDF curves given in Figure (2.13).

Underground�pipe
� (1) (2)
��� � �������� �
����� ���� Outlet�
�� � �������
��� � �������� � Surface�
��� � ���� runoff� Inlet�“a” Inlet�“b”
�� ��� �������

Solution
When the watershed is composed of distinctly different areas, the
runoff coefficient for the whole area is determined as the weighted
average of the C values in each area. Thus, the composite runoff
coefficient becomes
���������� � ����������
�� � � ����
����� � �����
The time of concentration is determined as the most remote point to
the outlet for the total drainage system 30 + 2 = 32 min. Thus, at
time t = 32 min, the whole basin will contribute to runoff, and the
rainfall duration will be taken as 32 min for the determination of the
peak flow. With this rainfall duration and for a storm which is
expected to occur once every 10 years, Figure (2.13) gives the
intensity of rainfall as
� � � ������� � �����������
The total watershed area is

78
78�

� � ����� � �����
�� ��������
The peak runoff rate can now be calculated as
�� � ��� � ���� � ������� � �����
���� �������� ��

Example 2.9 Use the rational method to find the 5-year design flow
at the outlet of the basin shown in the figure with the given tabulated
information. Time of flow in pipe “ab” is 1.76 min and in pipe “cb”
is 1.75 min. Use the IDF curves in Figure (2.13).

(1) (2)�
Watershed�information

No.� t� A� C�
� (min)� (ha)� a
1� 5� 2� 0.7 (3) (4) (5)�
2� 7� 3� 0.7
3� 10� 4� 0.6
4� 10� 4� 0.5
5� 15� 5� 0.5 b
� c
Outlet�

Solution
The composite runoff coefficient is estimated as
������ � ������ � ������ � ������ � ������
�� � � ����
���������
The time of concentration is determined as the most remote point to
the outlet for the total drainage system, which is here contributed by
watershed number 5 with t = 15 min. Note that the times of water
travel into the pipes will have no effect in the solution as they
produce with their relevant watersheds a total time less than that

79
79�

determined for watershed number 5. With this value of rainfall
duration and for a return period of 5 years, Figure (2.13) gives the
intensity of rainfall as
� � � ������� � �������������
The total watershed area is
� � � � � � � � � � � � ����� � �������� �
The peak runoff rate can now be calculated as
�� � ��� � ���� � ��������� � ������
���� �������� ��

2.5 Flood Routing


In a large watershed, the shape of a storm hydrograph will change as the
flow moves from upstream to downstream locations. The reason is related
to the different storage characteristics and time of water travel between the
two locations. Routing is the derivation of outflow hydrograph from
inflow hydrograph by considering water storage variation in between. The
following unsteady continuity equation is used in hydrologic routing
��
� ���� � �����������������������������������������������
��
where � � storage volume between upstream and downstream locations;
� � inflow at the upstream location; and � � outflow at the downstream
location. Two problems of flood routing are commonly analyzed: reservoir
routing, and channel routing. In reservoir routing the storage is considered
a nonlinear function, i.e. � � ���� and � � ���� ; while in channel
routing the storage is linearly related to ���� and ���� (see Figure 2.14).

80
80�

Reservoir Routing

Weir

Storage �
H Dam
Orifice
� � ���� �

Channel Routing


� � ���� ��

Figure (2.14). Difference between reservoir routing and channel routing.

Reservoir Routing
For computational purposes, Equation (2.10) can be written in a
mathematical finite difference form as
���� � �� �� � ���� �� � ����
�� ��� �����������������������
�� � �
The indices � and � � � refer to the values at the beginning and the end of
time interval���, respectively. This equation can be conveniently rewritten
as
��� �����
��� � ���� � � � � �� � � � � ���� ��������������������
�� ��

81
81�

Typically, � is known for all � values, and � and � are known for the
initial time condition � � � . Consequently, the right side of Equation
(2.12) can be determined. The storage indication curve is a plot of
����� � � against � . Thus, once the right side of Equation (2.12) is
determined, the values of � can be read directly from the storage
indication curve. Values for ����� � � for the left side are calculated by
subtracting �� from ����� � �. The computations are repeated until the
entire outflow hydrograph is obtained. It should be noted that the storage
indication curve must be prepared for a fixed �� value same as that used in
the routing procedure.

Example 2.10 Given the inflow hydrograph for a reservoir,


elevation versus storage, and elevation versus outflow, determine the
outflow hydrograph. The water is discharged from the reservoir by a
spillway having a crest elevation of 113 m. In the beginning of the
storm, the reservoir is completely full with a water surface elevation
� � ����� and outflow discharge �� � �. Choose time increment
of �� � �h (= 7200 s) and perform the routing calculations up to
� � ��h.

Solution
The actual data given for the problem are listed in Columns from (1)
to (3). First, the ����� � � values in Column (4) are calculated and
plotted against � values in Column (2).

82
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(1) (2) (3) (4)


Elevation, H Outflow, Q Storage, S 2S/�t + Q
(m) (m3/s) (106 m3) (m3/s)
113.000 0 15.00 4166.67
113.200 10 16.53 4601.67
113.400 28 18.12 5061.33
113.600 51 19.77 5542.67
113.800 79 21.48 6045.67
114.000 110 23.25 6568.33
114.200 144 25.08 7110.67
114.400 182 26.97 7673.67
114.600 223 28.92 8256.33
114.800 265 30.93 8856.67
115.000 312 33.00 9478.67

10000

8000
2S/�t�+�Q��(m3/s)

6000

4000

2000

0
0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350
Q��(m3/s)

83
83�

The routing calculations are tabulated in the next table, where the actual
given data are the time and inflow values listed in Columns (1) and (2).
The value of � � � at � � � is also given. The routing procedure can be
summarized by considering the first three rows.

Row 1
Column (3): �� � �� � � � �� � ����� ��
Column (6): �� � � initial condition
Column (4): ��� ���� �� � ���� � ��� ������ � � � ���������� �

Row 2
Column (3): �� � �� � �� � ��� � ������ ��
Column (5): from Equation (2.12) as ���� ��� � �� � � ��� � �� � �
���� ��� � �� � � �� � ������� � ���������� ��
Column (6): �� � ���� �� read from the figure using ������ �
�� � ���������� ��
Column (4): ��� ��� � �� � ���� ��� � �� � � ��� � ������� �
� � � � ��������� ��

Row 3
Column (3): �� � �� � ��� � ��� � ������ ��
Column (5): from Equation (2.12) as ���� ��� � �� � � ��� �
������� � ��������� ��

84
84�

Column (6): �� � ���� �� read from the figure using ������ �


�� � ���������� ��
Column (4): ��� ��� � �� � ���� ��� � �� � � ��� � ������� �
� � � � ��������� ��

It is interesting to note that although the peak inflow is ����� � ��,


the peak outflow is computed as ������ �� . Thus, almost 50%
reduction in the peak flow rate has been achieved, and the reservoir
has been effective in the control of flood. Also, the peak outflow has
occurred 12 hours after the time of the peak inflow, giving time to
take the necessary precautions.

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)


Time In In + In+1 2Sn/�t �Qn 2Sn+1/�t + Qn+1 Qn
(h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s)
0 0 60 4166.67 0
2 60 180 4224.67 4226.67 1
4 120 300 4394.67 4404.67 5
6 180 420 4666.67 4694.67 14
8 240 540 5028.67 5086.67 29
10 300 660 5464.67 5568.67 52
12 360 690 5958.67 6124.67 83
14 330 630 6418.67 6648.67 115
16 300 570 6766.67 7048.67 141
18 270 510 7018.67 7336.67 159
20 240 450 7184.67 7528.67 172
22 210 390 7276.67 7634.67 179
24 180 330 7302.67 7666.67 182
26 150 270 7274.67 7632.67 179
28 120 210 7198.67 7544.67 173
30 90 150 7080.67 7408.67 164
32 60 90 6926.67 7230.67 152
34 30 30 6738.67 7016.67 139
36 0 0 6522.67 6768.67 123
38 0 0 6308.67 6522.67 107
40 0 6308.67 95

85
85�

Channel Routing�
Many methods are available to solve Equation (2.10) for channel routing
and the most widely used is the Muskingum method. This method assumes
that the storage is a linear function of weighted inflow and outflow as
given by
� � ���� � ��� ��������������������������������������������
where � � storage constant with the dimension of time that approximates
the travel time of water through the channel; and � � dimensionless
weighting constant, � � � � ��� . Substituting Equation (2.13) into
Equation (2.12) yields
���� � �� ���� � ��� �� � ��� ��� �������������������������������
where
���� � ��
�� � ��������������������������������������
��� � �� � ����
���� � ��
�� � ���������������������������������������
��� � �� � ����
��� � �� � ����
�� � ���������������������������������������
��� � �� � ����
It should be noted that �� � ��� � �� � � . The significance of this
expression may be seen for steady flow condition, i.e. �� � ���� � �� �
���� , as Equation (2.14) becomes correct only when the sum of the
constants is unity
The parameters � and � may be estimated for a channel from given
inflow and outflow hydrographs for a particular storm. The estimation can
be achieved with reference to Equation (2.13) by plotting the storage �
against weighted discharge �� � ��� ��� for several selected values of �.
The Muskingum method assumes that this curve is a straight line. As seen

86
86�

in Figure (2.15), the selected values of � will result in loops. The value of
� that gives the narrowest loop will be chosen as the � value to be used in
future routing procedures. The inverse slope of the line of best fit for the
narrowest loop will give the value of �.

��������������������� ��� � � ��� � � ���


XI + (1-X) Q


��
�� � ��� ���


.
Figure (2.15). Estimation of the Muskingum and values.

Example 2.11 Route the inflow hydrograph given in Columns (1)


and (2) through the channel where the Muskingum parameters are
� � ��� and � � �h. The outflow in the beginning of the storm is
equal to 20 m3/s. Perform the channel routing until � � ��h using
�� � �h.

Solution
The three Muskingum coefficients are calculated from Equations
(2.15) as
��� � ������
�� � � �����
��� � ���� � ���

87
87�

��� � ������
�� � � ������
��� � ���� � ���
��� � ���� � ���
�� � � �����
��� � ���� � ���

The routing procedure can be summarized by considering the second


and third rows.

Row 2
Column (3): C0In+1 = 0.149 (34) = 5.1 m3/s
Column (4): C1In = 0.489 (20) = 9.8 m3/s
Column (5): C2Qn = 0.362 (20) = 7.2 m3/s
Column (6): Qn+1 = 5.1 + 9.8 + 7.2 = 22.1 m3/s
Row 3
Column (3): C0In+1 = 0.149 (103) = 15.3 m3/s
Column (4): C1In = 0.489 (34) = 16.6 m3/s
Column (5): C2Qn = 0.362 (22.1) = 8.0 m3/s
Column (6): Qn+1 = 15.3 + 16.6 + 8.0 m3/s = 39.9 m3/s

� (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
Time Inflow C0In+1 C1In C2Qn Qn+1

(h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s)
� 0 20 20
6 34 5.1 9.8 7.2 22.1
12 103 15.3 16.6 8.0 39.9
18 179 26.7 50.4 14.4 91.5
24 202 30.1 87.5 33.1 150.7
30 184 27.4 98.8 54.6 180.8
36 143 21.3 90.0 65.4 176.7

88
88�

Problems�
1. Rainfall measurements in millimeters at nine gage stations are
shown on the map below. Determine the average rainfall by a)
arithmetic mean method; and b) thiessen polygon method.

2. An urban watershed has four rainfall gages. The total rainfall


recorded at each gage during a storm event is listed. With the 1km x
1km grid, determine the average rainfall for this storm by a)
arithmetic mean method; and b) thiessen polygon method.
[Answers: a) 3.06 cm; b) 3.062 cm]

Gage� Rainfall
� (cm)�
A� 3.26�
B� 2.92�
C� 3.01�
D� 3.05�


89
89�

3. The initial infiltration rate on a small area was observed to be 115
mm/h, and it decreased exponentially to a final infiltration capacity
15 mm/h. A total of 375 mm of water infiltrated fora storm duration
10-h interval. a) Determine the time constant � in Horton equation;
and b) estimate the �-index for the basin for this storm.

4. Precipitation falls according to the following table:

t (min) 0-30 30-60 60-90 90-120


i (mm/h) 100 50 150 125

Determine a) the total storm rainfall in millimeters; and b) the value


of -index for the basin if the total excess rainfall is 80 mm.

5. The incremental rainfall intensity data in the table were recorded at a


gage located on a small urban watershed. Using a 0.5-h time step a)
plot the rainfall hyetograph; b) determine the total rainfall depth
during the storm event; and c) if the runoff depth was 4.65 mm, find
the � -index (mm/h). [Answers: b) 11.75 mm; c) 2.3 mm/h]

t�(hr)� 0.0�0.5� 0.5�1.0� 1.0�1.5 1.5�2.0 2.0�2.5 2.5�3.0 3.0�3.5 3.5�4.0� 4.0�4.5� 4.5�5.0
i�(mm/h)� 0� 2� 2.5� 5� 6� 5� 1.5� 1� 0.5� 0�

6. A 5-h storm produces a total of 3 mm rainfall as follows: 0.4 mm/h


for the first hour, 1.2 mm/h for the second hour, 0.6 mm/h for the
third hour, and 0.4 mm/h for the last two hours. Using the Horton
equation with � � ��� h-1, �� � ��� mm/h, and �� � ��� mm/h, a)
find the infiltration rate at � � 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h; b) estimate the
cumulative infiltration capacity over the 5-h storm period; c) plot

90
90�

(using Microsoft Excel) in one figure both the given rainfall
hyetograph and the infiltration curve, and tabulate your calculations;
and d) estimate the time when ponding begins. [Answers: a) 0.9,
0.433, 0.2776, 0.2258, 0.2086, and 0.203 mm/h; b) 1.634 mm; d) 1
h]

7. The storm hydrograph for a 17 km2 basin is shown below. For this
storm, the actual rainfall intensity was 5 mm/h occurring within a
duration of 5 h. Determine a) the time of concentration for the basin;
b) the -index for the basin; c) the ordinates of UH5; d) the direct
surface runoff rate at 7 p.m. on a day when actual rain fell at an
intensity of 8 mm/h from 1 p.m. to 11 p.m.

25

23
23 23
20
19

)s 15�
15
Q�(m3/s)�

3
/
m
�(

Q 10 11
10�

6 6
5

0 0 0
0 2 4 6 8 10
t�(hr)
t�(h)� �

8. The direct runoff hydrograph for the composite storm is shown


below:

91
91�
� 25
Rainfall�hyetograph�
) 20 20�
m �

Excess rainfall (mm)


(m �
ll�a15 15�
f �
in
ar �
�s 10
10�
se �
cx �
E 5�
5

0
0 1 2 3
t�(hr)
t�(h)� �
300

Composite�hydrograph�
250

240
200�
200

s)/ ��
Q�(m3/s)�

3
150 150
(m
150�
� � 150
Q �

100
100�

60
50

0 30
0
0
0 2 4 6 8
t�(hr) �
t�(h)�

Determine a) ordinates of the 1-h unit hydrograph; b) ordinates of


the 2-h unit hydrograph; and c) ordinates of the composite
hydrograph for the rainfall pattern given below:

25
Rainfall�hyetograph
) 20� 20
Excess�rainfall�(mm)�

m�
(m
l�l 15� �
15
fa �
n
ia �
�rs 10�
10
se �
� cx
E 5�5


0
0 1 2 3 4
t�(hr)
t�(h)

92
92�

9. Determine the composite direct runoff hydrograph resulting from the
given 1 h unit hydrograph and storm pattern. The abstractions have a
constant rate of � � ��� mm/h.

t�(h)� 0�1 1�2 2�3 3�4


Rainfall rate�(mm/h) 0.5 1.0 1.5 0.5


t�(h)� 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
1�h�UH�(m3/s)� 0 10 100 200 150 100 50 0

10. Using the given 2-h unit hydrograph (resulting from a unit
depth of 1 mm), construct a 4 h unit hydrograph using a) the Integral
multiples method; and b) the S-hydrograph method (use Microsoft
Excel).

t�(h)� 0� 2� 4� 6� 8� 10� 12� 14� 16� 18� 20� 22� 24�


2�h�UH�(m3/s)� 0� 69� 143� 328� 389� 352� 266� 192� 123� 84� 49� 20� 0�

11. The S-hydrograph for a continuous excess rainfall of intensity


5 mm/h is given below. Determine the 3-h unit hydrograph for this
basin.
1000

800

600
600�
s)/ �
Q�(m3/s)�

3
m �
� �(
Q 400�
400

200

0
0 2 4 6 8
t�(hr)
t�(h)� �

93
93�

12. The elevation vs. storage and outflow data for an uncontrolled
reservoir, and the ordinates of a storm hydrograph (inflow) are given
below. The elevation of the crest of the spillway is at 607 m, and the
elevation of the water surface in the reservoir at 12:00 hours
noontime on 20 November 2006 is 605 m. Determine the ordinates
of the outflow hydrograph for the next 48 h at 6 h intervals.

t i Elevation Storage Q
(h) (m3/s) (m) (m3/s) (m3/s)
0 0 604 0 0
6 50 605 250 000 0
12 120 606 930 000 0
18 150 607 2 020 000 0
24 140 608 3 480 000 25
30 130 609 5 320 000 71
36 110 610 7 520 000 130
42 90 611 10 080 000 200
48 70 �
54 30

13. A cylindrical water storage tank of inside diameter 8 m and


height 20 m is initially filled with water to a depth of 10 m. The tank
is then filled with water at a constant rate of 0.6 m3/s and at the same
time a bottom orifice is opened to discharge water at a rate of
� � ��������� m3/s, where is the depth of water in the tank.
Knowing that at t = 0, � � �� m, determine the outflow at t = 0, 10,
20, and 30 minutes. What will be the maximum depth of water in the
tank?

14. Given the inflow hydrograph for a river reach, obtain the
outflow hydrograph using the Muskingum method. For the river
reach under consideration, assume that � = 0.4 and � = 34 h. The

94
94�

outflow in the beginning of the storm (i.e., at � = 0 h) is given as 22
m3/s.

t (h) 0 12 24 36 48 60 72 84 96 108 120 132


i (m3/s) 22 35 103 109 86 59 39 28 22 20 19 18

15. The design intensity for a given location can be expressed as


� � ���� ����� ��� � ���,� where i is the intensity (mm/h), � is the
return period (year), and � is the time duration (min.). Using
Microsoft Excel, tabulate and plot on a logarithmic paper the IDF
curves for � = 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 for this location.

16. Use the rational method to find the 25-year design of �� at


locations B and D. The time of flow in pipe AB is 2 min, pipe CB is
3 min, and pipe BD is 1 min. Use the IDF curves of Problem (15).
[Answers: �� (at B) = 0.0428 m3/s and �� (at D) = 0.0714 m3/s]


No.� A� C tc (2) (1)�
A
� � (hectare) (min)
1� 2� 0.8 18
� (3)� (4)
2� 1.5� 0.7 15
3� 1� 0.6 15 � C B�
4� 0.3� 0.6 10 (5)�
5� 3� 0.8 19 � D




95
95�

Chapter 3
Chapter 3
Groundwater Hydrology
Groundwater Hydrology
List of Symbols
� � area, L2
� � thickness of confined aquifer, L
� � diameter of average soil particle, L
� � gravity acceleration, L/T2
� � piezometric head, L
�� � head loss, L
�� � original piezometric head, L
� � hydraulic conductivity or coefficient of permeability, L/T
�� � �at temperature To C, L/T
��� � � at temperature 20o C, L/T
� � length, L
� � pressure, F/L2
� � discharge, L3/T
� � discharge per unit length of trench, L2/L
�� � Reynolds number, dimensionless
� � distance to pumped well, L
� � storage coefficient or storativity, dimensionless
�� � specific retention, dimensionless
�� � specific yield, dimensionless
� � drawdown, L
� � transmissivity, L2/T
� � time, T

96
96�

� � velocity, L/T
�� � volume of water retained, L3
�� � total volume of earth material, L3
�� � volume of voids, L3
�� � volume of water drained, L3
� � well function, dimensionless
�= elevation from an arbitrary datum, L
� � specific weight, F/L3
� � � viscosity at temperature To C, FL/T2
��� � viscosity at temperature 20o C, FL/T2
� � density, M/L3
� � porosity, dimensionless

97
97�

3.1 Introduction
The vertical distribution of water under the ground surface varies in the
degree of saturation according to void spaces (Figure 3.1). A region where
the void spaces are completely filled with water is called zone of
saturation, and that where the void spaces are partly filled with water is the
zone of aeration. The former zone is basically the groundwater1, which

� Ground surface

Soil-water
zone
Zone of aeration
(Vadose)

Intermediate
zone

Capillary
zone
Water table
Zone of saturation
(Groundwater)

Impermeable formation

Figure (3.1) Vertical variation of subsurface water.

������������������������������������������������������������
1
The term groundwater is sometimes used to denote all the water under the ground surface.
However, hydrologists are primarily concerned with water in the saturated zone and, thus, use
the term groundwater to denote this zone.

98
98�

occurs due to infiltration of precipitation, streams, lakes, and artificial
recharge. Groundwater hydrology is a term referring to the science dealing
with groundwater occurrence, properties, and movement. When surface
water is not readily available, groundwater becomes a significant source of
supply for municipalities, agriculture, and industry.
The unsaturated zone of aeration, also called vadose1, can further be
classified into three zones: soil-water, intermediate, and capillary. The
soil-water zone, where water from precipitation and irrigation is held by
surface tension forces, has agricultural importance as it supplies moisture
to plant roots. The intermediate zone varies according to the depth of water
table starting from zero when water table approaches the ground surface.
The capillary zone extends from the water table up to the limit of which
water may rise by capillary effect. This zone may extend only a few
centimeters for coarse earth formation to several meters for fine silt.
It is not surprising that the zone of saturation has been extensively
studied in the literature, while the flow behavior in the unsaturated zone is
not fully investigated as this layer lacks water during normal rainfall
events and thus hydrologists are not interested in it. However, if the
unsaturated zone has a shallow depth, then the water level may rise during
extreme rainfall events and approach the ground surface. This may affect
the entire life at this location including agricultural, commercial and
residential activities, and the flooding may last for a long period of time
before the water drains. The main questions to answer are, how long the
flood will remain in this zone before it drains (days, weeks, months, etc)
and how will the water drain (leaking down or disperse). As a matter of

������������������������������������������������������������
1
Vadose is a derivation of the Latin word vadosus which means shallow.

99
99�

fact, modeling this zone has recently been regarded as an important issue
not to prevent flooding, but to provide more factual information to the
public through early warning systems and to the insurance companies to
become able to price the location of the structure based on how close it is
from the flooding area. That is, if the location of the structure is within the
flooding area, then the insurance coverage rate would be higher. The
material presented here though attempts to emphasize on the classical
concepts that govern the flow and storage of the saturated rather than the
unsaturated zone.

3.2�Occurrence�of�Groundwater�
Figure (3.2) shows the occurrence of groundwater in various forms. A
formation that is fully saturated and transmits sufficient amounts of
groundwater is called aquifer 1 , and a formation that does not transmit
significant amounts of water is an impermeable layer such as clay or rock2.
There are two types of aquifers: confined and unconfined. Confined
aquifer, which is also known as artesian or pressure aquifer, is found
between two impermeable layers by which its flow becomes pressurized.
For a well penetrating a confined aquifer, the water level rises to a height
coinciding with the piezometric surface, i.e. surface of hydrostatic
pressure. A flowing well occurs if the piezometric surface is above the
ground level. Changes in piezometric surface would result in water
variation in the well and only small changes in the aquifer storage. Owing
������������������������������������������������������������
1
Aquifer is a derivation of the Latin words aqua (water) and ferre (to bear).
2
Clay is an example of an impermeable layer that is saturated but does not transmit water to
wells, referred as aquiclude. Rock is an example of an impermeable layer neither containing
nor transmitting water, referred as aquifuge.

100
100�

to this reason, the confined aquifer serves primarily as a conduit to move
water from a recharge area to discharge location. It should be noted that
when the piezometric surface falls below the bottom of the upper
impermeable layer, the aquifer becomes unconfined. An unconfined
aquifer, known also as water table aquifer, is directly recharged from the
ground surface, except if an impermeable layer is located in between. In
this aquifer, the variation of water table is related to changes in water
storage.

Recharge
area

Piezometric surface

Flowing artesian
well Water table Artesian
well well

Unconfined aquifer

Impermeable Confined aquifer


formations

Figure (3.2) Occurrence of groundwater.

The hydraulic properties of an aquifer may vary spatially according


to geological conditions. For example, not all the water can be drained by
gravity or by a pumped well as part of it is held by surface tension, which
is a water property influenced by soil texture. Estimation of these
properties allows quantitative prediction of hydraulic response of aquifer

101
101�

to recharge and pumping processes. Therefore, it is important initially to
define parameters describing the hydraulic properties of the aquifer.
Storage Coefficient or Storativity (�) relates the change in water
volume within the storage of the aquifer per unit surface area of aquifer
per unit decline of hydraulic head (Figure 3.3). In unconfined aquifer,
water is stored in the void spaces and, thus, changes in storage are
followed by variations in the elevation of the water table. In confined
aquifer, water is stored with regard to earth material matrix (soil and
water) compressibility, and changes in storage are followed by variations
in piezometric surface. The storage coefficient is an indirect aquifer
property that cannot be measured directly, but it can be estimated from
pumping tests or from groundwater variation due to atmospheric pressure
or ocean tides. Specific Yield (�� ) is the ratio of the volume of water
drained under gravity to the total volume of earth material
��
�� � ����������������������������������������������������������
��
where �� � volume of water drained under gravity; and �� � total volume
of earth material. In unconfined aquifers, �� � �. Specific Retention (�� ) is
the ratio of the volume of water that stays in the pores of soil to the total
volume of earth material
��
�� � ����������������������������������������������������������
��
where �� � volume of water retained. Porosity (�) is a measure of the void
spaces in the earth material
��
�� � �� � �� ������������������������������������������������
��

102
102�

where �� � volume of voids. Hydraulic Conductivity or Coefficient of
Permeability (�) is a measure of how easily water can move through the
void spaces in the aquifer. � is a function of size and shape of voids
(Figure 3.4) and viscosity
���
�� � ��� ����������������������������������������������������
��
where �� � �at temperature To C; ��� � � at temperature 20o C; � � �
viscosity of water at temperature To C; and ��� � viscosity of water at
temperature 20o C. Typical values of porosity and hydraulic conductivity
are given in Table (3.1) for various natural materials

Table (3.1). Typical hydraulic properties of selected earth materials

Material � �� K
(%) (%) (m/day)
Clay 45 3 0.041
Sand 35 25 33
Gravel 25 22 205
Gravel and sand 20 16 82

Unit decline of Unit decline


piezometric of water
surface table

Confined Unconfined
aquifer aquifer

Impermeable Impermeable

Figure (3.3) Definition of storage coefficient in confined and unconfined aquifers.

103
103�

� Well�sorted� Poorly�sorted Well�sorted�


(coarse�material)� (coarse�fine�material)� (fine�material)�

� � �

Hydraulic�conductivity�
High� Low�

Figure (3.4) Relation between sorting of material and hydraulic conductivity.


Example 3.1 Estimate the average water level drop in an unconfined


aquifer if �� � ��� �� of water has been pumped by uniformly
distributed wells. The horizontal area of the aquifer is 150 ��� and
the specific yield is 0.25.

Solution
Given the following information,
�� � �� � ��� ��
�� � ����
the total volume of earth material from which the water was
extracted can be estimated from the Specific Yield equation,
��
�� �
��

104
104�

�� � ���
���� �
��
resulting with
�� � � � ��� ��
Thus, the average water level drop over the area is
�� � � ���
�� � � � ������
� ��� � ���

3.3 Basic Equation of Groundwater Flow


Consider a pipe filled with porous material as shown in Figure (3.5). Two
piezometers are placed on the pipe at points 1 and 2. A line joining the
water levels in the piezometers is called the hydraulic grade line. The
energy equation between points 1 and 2 along the centerline of the pipe
can be written as
��� �� ��� ��
� ��� � � � �� ���
�� � �� �
where � � flow velocity; � � pressure; � = elevation from an arbitrary
datum; � � specific weight of water; � � gravity acceleration; and �� �
head loss. Groundwater usually flows with very small velocity. Thus, the
velocity head terms � � ��� in the energy equation can be ignored. In this
case, the hydraulic grade line shown in the figure will be identical with the
energy grade line. Also, if the piezometric head is defined as the sum of
the potential head� and pressure head���

� � ��

then the energy equation reduces to

105
105�

� Hydraulic grade line
(Piezometric line)
(1)�
(2)

�� �
��

� ��

(1)

(2)

�� � �� �

Datum

Figure (3.5) Flow through a pipe filled with porous material.

�� � �� � ��
In laminar flow, head loss�� per unit length of conduit� is proportional to
the first power of the velocity � and hydraulic conductivity� as
��
���

Combining the above with the energy equation
�� � ��
� � �� �����������������������������������������������

or, in general
��
� � �� ����������������������������������������������������
��
This equation can also be written for the groundwater flow rate
��
� � ��� ��������������������������������������������������
��

106
106�

where � � flow rate; and � � cross sectional area of flow. This is the
Darcy’s law, which serves as the basis for the governing groundwater flow
equations. It can be noted that the ordinary derivative in Darcy’s law is
adopted by assuming one dimensional groundwater flow of horizontal
direction. Also, Darcy’s law is valid for small average velocity and
laminar flow regime. The validity here may be justified for a relatively
small Reynolds number��, defined for groundwater flow as
���
�� � ��������������������������������������������������

where � � diameter of average soil particle; and � � water density. As a
general rule, the Reynolds number should be smaller than about 1. In fact,
Reynolds number rarely exceeds 1 in actual groundwater cases by which
Darcy’s law becomes valid1.

Example 3.2 Calculate the time it takes for groundwater to travel 10


�� at �� � �. The average size of the soil particles is 0.4 �� and
the temperature is 20ºC.

Solution
Using the definition of the Reynolds number and noting that at
temperature 20ºC the density of water is 998.2 ����� and its
viscosity is ����� � ���� �� ���� (see Appendix),
���
�� �

������������������������������������������������������������
1
Deviation of Darcy’s law can occur near pumped wells as Reynolds number exceeds 10 and
as the average velocity becomes not one dimensional but has additional vertical component.
This is in agreement with field observations reporting drawdown outside the well being
always greater than that predicted with steady flow equations derived from Darcy’s law.

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����� � ���� ������


��
����� � ����
Then the flow velocity can be determined as
� � 0.00252 ���
The time it takes for water to travel 10 �� is
time = distance/velocity = �� � ��� �������� � ���� �
��� � � ������

3.4 Unidirectional Flow


Unidirectional flow considered here is steady, one dimensional and
horizontal between two water bodies. Although groundwater motion
occurs with very small velocities, the large cross sectional area through
which this motion takes place results in large quantities of water flow.
Three cases are examined here.

Flow through a Confined Aquifer


Consider flow through a confined aquifer as shown in Figure (3.6a). The
confined aquifer connects a natural water body such as a river or lake to a
trench through which water is pumped at a constant rate of �. The trench
has been excavated parallel to the water body.
After steady state conditions are reached, the flow in the confined
aquifer can be described by Equation (3.5). Here, �� and �� are the
piezometric heads in water body and trench, respectively, and � is the
distance between the water body and the trench. If the pumping rate per
unit length of trench is �, then this equation can be rewritten as
�� � ��
� � �� ��������������������������������������������������

where � � thickness of the confined aquifer.

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108�

Flow through a Partially Confined Aquifer
Consider a high pumping rate � so that the depth of water in the trench
falls below the upper impermeable layer as shown in Figure (3.6b). Here,
part of the aquifer is confined, and part of it becomes unconfined. Between
the water body and point � on the upper impermeable layer, the flow is
confined. As shown in this figure, point � is at a distance �� from the
water body. Similar to Equation (3.9), the flow rate per unit length of
trench � can be expressed as
�� � �
� � �� �����������������������������������������������
��
Between point � and the trench, the flow is unconfined. Here, �can be
expressed using Equation (3.7) as
��
� � ���
��
or

��� � � ��

By integrating both sides
�� ����

� ��� � � � ��
� � �
the flow rate per unit length becomes
�� � ���
��� ��������������������������������������������
��� � �� �
Equating Equations (3.10) and (3.11) yields
�� � � �� � ���
�� ��
�� ��� � �� �
This equation can be solved for �� as

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109�

��� � ��
�� � ���
����� � �� � ���� ��� �
When the above expression for �� is substituted into Equation (3.10), �for
the entire system becomes

�� ������ � �� � ��� � ��� �����������������������������
��


Natural
water body Trench
(a)� ��

��
�� �
�� Impermeable
�� formation

��

(b)�




�� �
�� � �� ��

�� �

(c)�

�� �
�� �

� �� �

��

��

Figure (3.6) Unidirectional flow: a) through a confined aquifer; b) through a partially


confined aquifer; c) seepage from a natural water body.

110
110�

Example 3.3 A trench 200 � long is excavated parallel to a river.
The distance between the river and the trench is 250 �. There is a
confined aquifer next to the river with its lower and upper
impermeable layers located 10 � and 4 � below the water surface
in the river, respectively. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is
3.6 �����. Estimate the depth of water in the trench if it is pumped
at a rate of 100 �� ����.

Solution
Assume the aquifer remains confined, then Equation (3.9) describes
the flow into the trench. From the information given, it is noted that
� � ������� � ������ ������
�� � ����
� � ��� � � ���
Substituting these values into Equation (3.9)
���� � ��
��� � ���������� � �
���
and solving for �� , then
�� � ������
Since the thickness of the aquifer is � � ��� , and �� � � , our
assumption is not valid. Therefore, the aquifer must remain partially
confined and Equation (3.12) must be used to determine the depth of
water in the trench.
�����
��� � �������������� � ���� � ����� � ��� ��
��������
Solution of the above equation gives
�� � ������

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Seepage from a Natural Water Body
Consider a natural water body as shown in Figure (3.6c). Again, using
Equation (3.7), � can be written as
��
� � ���
��
or
��� � �����
If the impermeable layer is located at a depth �� below the free surface of
the water body, and if �� is located at � from the water body, then the
above equation can be integrated as
� ��
� ��� � � �����
� ��

which gives
� �
�� �� � ��� �����������������������������������������������
�� �

3.5 Hydraulics of Wells


Flow to a well considered here is a radial flow of infinite areal extent that
will be discussed for both steady and unsteady cases. Water wells are
installed in an aquifer to provide water supply, recharge, or for
observation. Observation wells are used to collect water samples and to
monitor water levels. Some applications of well hydraulics are to avoid
overpumping by managing groundwater discharge or recharge1, to prevent
saltwater intrusion or pumping from other pollution source or storage, and

������������������������������������������������������������
1
If the average rate of annual pumping is greater than the annual groundwater recharge, then
water table or piezometric level may decline and water quality can possibly deteriorate.

112
112�

to estimate field parameters such as hydraulic conductivity from pumping
tests.
As shown in Figure (3.7), a water well consists of a casing and well
screen. Well casing serves as a lining to maintain an open hole to the
aquifer. The casing is usually grouted to prevent subsurface pollution
flowing into the aquifer and to protect the casing from corrosion. A
concrete slab is also placed around the casing to prevent surface pollution.
The screen provides a maximum amount of water supply with a minimum
hydraulic resistance. A gravel pack is placed around the screen to
minimize pumping sand and to maintain a high permeability zone.
This section provides the governing equations for radial groundwater
flow by assuming that the pumped well is fully penetrating the aquifer.
However, in some practical cases, it is not necessary to install wells with
full penetration especially where the aquifer is very deep and the water

� Concrete�slab�

Casing

Grout

Gravel
Impermeable�
formation�
Well�screen� Aquifer

Figure (3.7) Fully penetrating well.

113
113�

requirement is moderate. With partial penetration, actual flow velocities
will have components in the vertical direction. The assumption that flow
toward the well is horizontal may no longer be valid. Nevertheless, the
effect of partial penetration becomes negligible on the flow pattern beyond
a radial distance larger than about 1.5 times the aquifer thickness (Todd
and Mays, 2008). Under this consideration, the governing equations
provided for fully penetrating wells may be used without appreciable error.

Steady Flow to a Well


If a well is pumped continuously for a long period, a steady state is
reached implying that piezometric head changes in space but not with
time. In this case, the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer becomes an
important property for modeling the radial flow.

Unconfined Aquifer
Consider a pumped well fully penetrating an unconfined aquifer as shown
in Figure (3.8). If the water table is initially horizontal, then a circular
depression would develop since no flow can take place without a gradient
toward the well. This depression is called the cone of depression. Here, the
flow area at a distance � is cylindrical with circumference ���and height�.
Obviously, �in unconfined aquifers indicates a point on the water table
surface. The difference between the original water table �� and that after
pumping � is the drawdown �, i.e. � � �� � �. Using Equation (3.7) and
noting that ����� � ������,
��
� � �������
��

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114�

If two observation wells located at distances �� and�� from the pumped
well are used to measure the corresponding water tables �� and �� , then
the above equation can be integrated
�� ��

�� �� � ��� � ���
�� � ��

and simplified as

��� � ���
� � �� ��������������������������������������������
����� ��� �

� Observation wells
� Pumped well

Original water table

�� � ��
� �� �
��
��
�� �

���

Figure (3.8) Flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer.

Equation (3.14) provides the pumping rate in terms of water levels in two
observation wells. This equation can also be used to estimate the hydraulic
conductivity � for the aquifer through pumping tests. Pumping should
continue until reaching the steady state and hence the water levels in the
observation wells would be constant.

115
115�

Confined Aquifer
In this case, flow to the well takes place between two impermeable layers
as shown in Figure (3.9). The thickness of the aquifer is �, and the flow
area at a distance � from the well is cylindrical with circumference ���
and height �. Again, Equation (3.7) provides
��
� � �������
��
which can be integrated
�� ��

�� �� � ���� � ��
�� � ��

and simplified as
�� � ��
� � ���� ����������������������������������������
������ ��� �
Equation (3.15) is known as Thiem Equation. Similar to Equation (3.14),
�� and �� denote the piezometric heads in two observation wells located at
distances �� and �� from the pumped well, respectively. Since there is no
water table as in the unconfined aquifer, � indicates a point on the
piezometric surface. Noting that the original height of the piezometric
surface from the lower impermeable layer is �� , the drawdown can be
defined as the difference in the piezometric levels before and after
pumping � � �� � �. Equation (3.15) can also be used to estimate the
aquifertransmissivity� � ��, which is a measure of how easily water in a
confined aquifer can flow through the porous medium.

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116�

� Observation wells
� Pumped well

Original piezometric surface

�� � �� �� �� �
�� � �
�� � �

���

Figure (3.9) Flow to a well in a confined aquifer.

Example 3.4 A pumped well fully penetrates a confined aquifer of


thickness � � ���� thick. Two observation wells located �� �
����� and �� � ������ from the pumped well are known to have
drawdowns of �� � ��� and �� � ���, respectively. If the flow is
steady and � � ������ ���� , what would be the hydraulic
conductivity� and transmissivity �?

Solution
For confined aquifer,
�� � �� ���� � �� � � ��� � �� ��
� � ���� � ����
������ ��� � ������ ��� �
�� � ��
� ����
������ ��� �
Substituting the given values
���
��� � �������
�������������
which yields

117
117�

� � ���� � ���� �����


and
� � �� � ���� � ���� ���� � ���������� ����

Unsteady Flow to a Well


The steady state assumption of groundwater flow to a well is not exactly
realistic as long as there is no balance in the aquifer between the water
input and output. As long as pumping continues, the piezometric head
however slightly might decrease. A more realistic approach is to analyze
the problem as one of unsteady flow. To model the radial flow in this case,
not only the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer becomes important, but
also the storage coefficient and duration of pumping become significant.
For unsteady flow to a well fully penetrating a confined aquifer, the
drawdown � at a distance � from the pumped well in terms of storage
coefficient� and transmissivity � can be modeled by assuming that the
well is a mathematical sink of constant strength with the conditions � � ��
for � � � and � � �� as � � � for � � � as

� � �� ��
�� � �
��� � � �� �
�� �

Obviously, this equation cannot be integrated easily. For this reason, Theis
devised a method in which the equation could be solved by expanding the
exponential integral as a finite series ���� such that

�� �������������������������������������������������
���
�� �� ��
���� � ��������� � ����� � � � � � ���� �������
� � �� � � �� � � ��
� ��
� � � � �����������������������������������������������
�� �

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118�

where ���� is known as the well function (Todd and Mays, 2008).
Equations (3.16a, b, c) represent Theis method 1 . To facilitate the
computations, the well function is presented for different values of � in
Table (3.2). If the value of � is small (� � ����), the well function can
also be simplified since only the first two terms of the series become
significant, by which Equations (3.16) can be combined into a single form
� ������
�� �� � � ����������������������������������������
��� � ��

Table (3.2). Values of the well function, ���� (source: Todd and Mays, 2008)

u 1.0 2.0 3.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 7.0 8.0 9.0


�� � 0.219 0.049 0.013 0.0038 0.0011 0.00036 0.00012 0.000038 0.000012
� ���� 1.82 1.22 0.91 0.70 0.56 0.45 0.37 0.31 0.26
� ���� 4.04 3.35 2.96 2.68 2.47 2.30 2.15 2.03 1.92
� ���� 6.33 5.64 5.23 4.95 4.73 4.54 4.39 4.26 4.14
� ���� 8.63 7.94 7.53 7.25 7.02 6.84 6.69 6.55 6.44
� ���� 10.94 10.24 9.84 9.55 9.33 9.14 8.99 8.86 8.74
� ���� 13.24 12.55 12.14 11.85 11.63 11.45 11.29 11.16 11.04
� ���� 15.54 14.85 14.44 14.15 13.93 13.75 13.60 13.46 13.34
� ���� 17.84 17.15 16.74 16.46 16.23 16.05 15.90 15.76 15.65
� ���� 20.15 19.45 19.05 18.76 18.54 18.35 18.20 18.07 17.95
� ����� 22.45 21.76 21.35 21.06 20.84 20.66 20.50 20.37 20.25
� ����� 24.75 24.06 23.65 23.36 23.14 22.96 22.81 22.67 22.55
� ����� 27.05 26.36 25.96 25.67 25.44 25.26 25.11 24.97 24.86
� ����� 29.36 28.66 28.26 27.97 27.75 27.56 27.41 27.28 27.16
� ����� 31.66 30.97 30.56 30.27 30.05 29.87 29.71 29.58 29.46
� ����� 33.96 33.27 32.86 32.58 32.35 32.17 32.02 31.88 31.76

which is known as the Jacob equation.

������������������������������������������������������������
1
The assumptions of which Theis method is based on are often overlooked. The solution
assumes that aquifer material has hydraulic properties that are equal everywhere
(homogeneous) and in all directions (isotropic); aquifer extends to infinity (not bounded);
prior to pumping, the piezometric surface is horizontal; well is fully penetrating the aquifer
and pumped at a constant rate; flow is one dimensional, radial direction; and water pumped
from the aquifer responds directly with the declining head.

119
119�

This section considered the solution for unsteady flow in only
confined aquifer, because the case for unconfined aquifers becomes more
complicated. Nevertheless, a more general procedure to properly represent
the flow in any aquifer formation is achieved by considering computer
simulation modeling techniques based on numerical methods, which is
beyond the scope of this book.

Example 3.5 A confined aquifer of thickness 8 � , hydraulic


conductivity 0.025 ����� , and storage coefficient 0.00084 is
pumped at a rate of 0.03 �� �� . Determine the drawdown at a
distance of 500 � after one year of pumping. Use Theis method for
computations and check the result by Jacob equation.

Solution
The Transmissivity of the aquifer is
� � �� � ����� � �� � �� � � � ������ ����
The parameter � is calculated from Equation (3.16c) as
� � � ������� ������
��� � � � ������
�� � � � ��� � � ���
With this value of �, the well function is read from Table (3.2) as
���� � ����
The drawdown is computed from Equation (3.16a) as
���� � ���� � ��
�� ������ � ������
�� � ���
Since in this case the value of � is small (� � ����), Jacob equation
can also be used to determine the drawdown. Using Equation (3.17)

120
120�

���� � ���� � �� ���� � ��� � � � ���
�� �� � � � ������
�� � ��� ������ � �������

Example 3.6 For the aquifer whose properties are given in the
previous example, pumping is stopped after eight months. Determine
the drawdown at the end of one year (i.e., four months after pumping
is stopped).

Solution
Note that the equations are developed for continuous pumping
starting at � � �. This problem can be solved by superposing two
pumping actions: i) continuous pumping with �� starting at � � �
and determining the drawdown at � � �� months; and, ii)
continuous recharging with � � starting at � � � months and
determining the negative drawdown at � � �� months, i.e. 4 months
after recharging starts.
Since the value of � will be small as was demonstrated in the
previous example, the drawdown can be determined by Jacob
equation
� ������� � �������
�� �� �
� ��
��� � � ��� ���
in which �� � �� months, and �� � � months. Simplifying
� �� ���� � ���� � �� ��
�� �� � �� � � � ������
��� �� �� � ��� �

121
121�

Pumping Tests
The basic hydraulic parameters of the aquifer can be estimated in the field
from pumping tests for both steady and unsteady state conditions. For
steady conditions, Equations (3.14) and (3.15) are used to compute the
hydraulic conductivity � for unconfined and confined aquifers,
respectively. The procedure is similar to that performed in Example (3.4).
Whenever unsteady effects are important and the various drawdown
observations do not produce consistent values of �, a procedure developed
by Theis for unsteady conditions should be used. Here, storage
coefficient� and transmissivity � become of concern. In this procedure,
the water depths at different � may be measured in a single observation
well. Thus, although �is kept constant, there will be several values of the
parameters � � �� and � . For confined aquifers, inspection of Equation
(3.16a) shows that � is proportional to ����, and of Equation (3.16c)
indicates that � is proportional to � � ��. Accordingly, it is noted that graphs
of (����vs. �) and (� vs. � � ��)will have similar shapes. First, the graph
( ���� vs. � ) is plotted using the values given in Table (3.2) on a
transparent logarithmic paper with as many logarithmic cycles as
necessary. The resulting graph is called the Type Curve. Then the graph (�
vs. � � ��)is plotted on a logarithmic paper using the pumping data. The two
curves are superimposed and positioned until the curves closely coincide
as in Figure (3.10). For the common point matched in the figure
corresponding values are read for � , ���� , � , and � � �� . Now, both
Equations (3.16a) and (3.16c) can be solved simultaneously for � and �. If
the values of u are small such that the Jacob equation can be used, then a
semi logarithmic plot of � (arithmetic scale) vs. � � ��(logarithmic scale)

122
122�

would result in a straight line. Values of � and �can be determined from
the coordinates of two points on this straight line.

Chosen common point


�����

��

� � ��

Figure (3.10) Matching point technique to estimate hydraulic parameters from pumping tests under
unsteady state conditions.

123
123�

Problems
1. Water temperature in an aquifer is 35o C and the rate of water
movement is 80 m/day. The average particle diameter in the porous
medium is 0.2 mm. Find the Reynolds number and indicate whether
Darcy’s law is applicable.

2. A soil sample has a dry weight of 622.15 g and density 2.65 g/cm3.
After saturation with water, its weight became 705.83 g. Determine
the porosity of the soil sample. [Answer: 0.263]

3. Water flows down a vertical pipe of diameter 0.3 m filled with sandy
soil at a rate of 50 l/h. Given the piezometers readings shown,
determine the hydraulic conductivity � of the soil in m/day.
[Answer: 42.4 m/day]

� � ��� m

� ��� m

��� m

��m ��� m

4. An 80 m long trench has been excavated parallel to a channel and


water has been pumped at a constant rate from the trench. After
steady state conditions have been reached, a tracer was observed to

124
124�

travel from point A to point B in 3 hours 12 minutes. What was the
value of the hydraulic conductivity � in m/day? What was the
pumping rate � in m3/day? [Answer: 1080 m/day; 21600 m3/day]

��m� ��
A� ��m� � B � ��m�

�� m

5. A ditch is to be excavated parallel to a channel as shown. The


hydraulic conductivity of the soil is 0.002 m/s. If it is desired to
pump water from the ditch at a rate of 0.3 m3/s, what should be the
length of the ditch? [Answer: 187.5 m]

River

4�m Ditch

2�m

Impermeable formation

6. A 30 cm diameter well fully penetrates an unconfined aquifer of 50


m depth. After a long period of pumping at a rate of 3 m3/min, the
drawdowns in the wells at 20 and 40 m from the pumped well were
2 and 1 m, respectively. Determine the hydraulic conductivity of the
aquifer. What is the drawdown in the pumped well?

7. A well pumps at 0.4 m3/s from a confined aquifer whose thickness is


24 m. If the drawdown 50 m from the well is 1 m and the drawdown
100 m from the well is 0.5 m, then calculate the hydraulic

125
125�

conductivity and transmissivity of the aquifer. If the radius of the
pumped well is 0.5 m and the drawdown at the pumped well is
measured to be 4 m, then calculate the radial distance to where the
drawdown is equal to zero. Why is the steady state solution for the
drawdown equation not valid beyond this distance?

8. A well fully penetrates a confined aquifer of thickness 12 m and


hydraulic conductivity 0.00001 m/s. The well is pumped at a rate of
0.01 m3/s for many days until steady state conditions are reached.
How long does it take for a water particle to travel from point A
(which is 500 m from the well) to point B (which is 100 m from the
well)? Points A and B are on the same radial line. [Answer: 8675
days]

9. A well fully penetrates a confined aquifer of thickness 20 m. The


hydraulic conductivity is 0.0001 m/s and the storage coefficient is
0.001. Determine the time �at which the drawdown at a point 50 m
from the well becomes 10 m when the well is pumped at a rate of
0.03 m3/s a)by using Jacob simplified solution; and b)by using the
complete well function. [Answers: a) 27.9 days; b) 26.5 days]

10. A well of diameter 0.5 m fully penetrates a confined aquifer.


The well is pumped for a test at 50 m3/h and the values of the
drawdown at an observation well 20 m from the pumped well are
measured at different times. The results are tabulated below. a)
Determine the transmissivity and the storage coefficient of the

126
126�

aquifer using Theis method; and b) what will be the drawdown in the
pumped well at the end of six months?

Time, � (min) 2 5 10 20 40 60
Drawdown, � (m) 0.57 1.49 2.43 3.31 4.34 4.97

11. A well fully penetrates a confined aquifer and is pumped at a


rate of 200 m3/day. The values of the drawdown at an observation
well 100 m from the pumped well are measured at different times as
shown in the table below. Determine the transmissivity and the
storage coefficient of the aquifer using Jacob equation.

Time, � (day) 5 10 20 30 50 100


Drawdown, � (m) 0.75 0.86 0.97 1.04 1.12 1.23

12. Two pumps are used to discharge water from a well fully
penetrating a confined aquifer. The capacity of each pump is 0.1
m3/s. After pumping for 2 days, one of the pumps broke down. What
is the drawdown at a point 200 m from the well 5 days after the
pump has broken down? � = 0.002 m2/s, � = 0.001. Use Jacob
simplified equation. [Answer: 18.1 m]

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128
Part II:
Experimental Considerations

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Chapter 4
Chapter 4
Laboratory Experiments on Hydraulics
Laboratory Experiments on Hydraulics
List of Symbols
� � area, L2
� � area of orifice, L2
�� � area of contraction, L2
� � channel bottom width, L
� � coefficient of discharge, dimensionless
�� � coefficients of contraction, dimensionless
�� � coefficient of discharge, dimensionless
�� � coefficient of velocity, dimensionless
� � diameter of pipe, L
� � diameter of orifice, L
�� � diameter of vena contracta, L
� � specific energy, L
�� � critical specific energy, L
�� � Froude number, dimensionless
� � friction factor, dimensionless
� � gravity acceleration, L/T2
� � piezometric head, L
�� � head loss, L
� � roughness element of pipe, L
� � length, L
� � Manning coefficient, dimensionless
� � wetted perimeter, L

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� � pressure, F/L2
� � discharge, L3/T
�� � theoretical discharge, L3/T
� � discharge per unit width, L2/T
� � hydraulic radius, L
�� � Reynolds number, dimensionless
� � slope, dimensionless
�� � energy slope, dimensionless
�� � water surface slope, dimensionless
�� � channel bed slope, dimensionless
� � velocity, L/T
� � water depth, L
�� � critical water depth, L
� � elevation from arbitrary datum, L
� � specific weight, F/L3
�= Kinematic viscosity, L2/T

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4.1 Introduction
Laboratory experiments help understanding physical problems and
providing the opportunity of testing basic concepts of subjects learned in
textbooks. In case of hydraulic engineering, laboratory experiments assist
intuitive understanding of relative phenomena such as flow reduction due
to a channel constriction or installing a weir, relation between pressure in
pipes and frictional head loss, uniform flow and energy considerations,
and rapidly varied flows including hydraulic jump and transitions. Owing
to the reason that all experiments involve measurements of various
quantities such as pressure, velocity, discharge and depth that are highly
interrelated with different flow conditions and states, knowledge of the
underlying principles becomes essential to conduct a successful laboratory
work.
The aim of this chapter is to develop practical skills in measuring
techniques and analytical procedures. The experiments presented here are
based on the apparatus available in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Kuwait
University. Eight experiments are discussed dealing mainly with hydraulic
bench and tilting flume. Instructional description of each experiment
includes the object of the experiment, introduction and brief theoretical
background, description of apparatus, experimental procedure and results.
Data sheets are also provided to tabulate the measurements and
calculations of results. In general, the objective of an experiment is
important to state, because it is usually analyzed in the results to determine
whether or not the experiment has succeeded. The introduction and
theoretical background include concepts leading to the results. Describing
the experimental setup and the procedure is important for students to

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conduct the experiment. The core of a laboratory report is the presentation


of the results. A common requirement here is discussing the implications
and paying attention to the errors that may exist during the experiments,
which reflect the reliability of the interpretation of the results.

4.2 Writing Laboratory Report�


Laboratory report is written to archive the work and to communicate with
the lab supervisor. The report should be prepared using a computer-based
word processing software, which incorporates features including
formatting, graphing, drawing, tabulating, and spell-check. Equations
should be embedded in the text of the report and formatted using
“Equation Editor” tool on your word processor. It is important to define all
variables used, but only one time in the report. For graphical presentation
of results, the horizontal axis is usually used for a quantity that is being
controlled or adjusted, and the vertical axis is used for the observed
dependent quantity. Scale should be carefully chosen, and the units for the
quantity be mentioned on the axis. For tables, heading of each column
must include, where relevant, the units of quantity being entered. As you
edit your report, delete unnecessary words, rewrite unclear phrases, and
modify grammatical errors.
A full report would generally contain the following:
1. Title page
a) Student name and ID
b) Experiment number and title
c) Date
d) Group number
2. Body of the Report

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a) Objective
b) Theory
c) Description of experimental setup
d) Procedures
e) Data
f) Results and discussion
g) Conclusions

4.3 Components of Hydraulics Laboratory

Hydraulic Bench
Hydraulic bench is a self contained water circulating unit used to perform
experiments in Hydraulic laboratory. Various models describing principles
of fluid mechanics and hydraulics are available for operation with the
hydraulic bench. Among these are the models for orifice, Venturi meter,
weir, and pipe flows.
The hydraulic bench used in the hydraulics laboratory is developed
by Tequipment Ltd. The bench is composed of a single unit in which a
small centrifugal pump draws water from a sump resting below the bench
and delivers it to a bench supply valve. Below the bench top there is a
weighing tank into which the discharge from an apparatus being tested on
the bench may be directed through a short pipe terminating at flange just
above the bench level. The weighing tank is supported at one end of a
weigh beam, the other end of which carries a weight hanger sufficient to
balance the dry weight of the tank, plus a small amount of water. The
outlet valve in the base of the tank may be operated through a mechanism
by the Cam Lever.

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There is no permanent connection between the bench top and the


supporting framework, so that the top may be removed easily at any time
for inspection of the working parts below. Around the edge of the bench
there is a raised lip so that water leaking from apparatus does not spill over
the edge, but drains through a waste hole back to the sump. This is an
important feature of the equipment, as it is rarely possible to perform a
hydraulics experiment without some water splashing or leaking on to the
bench.
Apparatus under test is placed on the bench and connected by
flexible pipe to a bench supply valve, which normally serves to regulate
the rate of flow through the apparatus. Another flexible pipe is led from
the exit of the apparatus to the flange above weighing tank, so that the
discharge is returned through the open valve in the base of the weighing
tank to the sump.

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Tilting Flume
The tilting flume used in the Hydraulics Laboratory is developed by
Armfield. The flume is a self contained water circulating unit which draws
its water supply from a sump tank by a centrifugal pump. The flow rate is
controlled by a calibrated flow meter and gate valve positioned on the
centrifugal pump. Water enters the flume inlet through a smooth
contraction section. The level in the flume may be controlled by a weir
located at the exit of the working section. Water returns from the discharge
tank to the sump tank through a measuring channel fitted with plate and
notch weirs, into a volumetric measuring chamber. A hook and point
gauge enables the height of the fluid above the bed to be measured. The
jacking arrangement is used for slope adjustment and operated by a hand
wheel.

Discharge�Tank��

Smooth�
Sump�Tank� Contraction�
Section��

Hook�and� Jacking�
Point�Gauge� Arrangement��

Calibrated�Flow�meter�
Centrifugal�Pump�
Gate�Valve�

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4.4. Experiments
This part provides instructional description of experiments conducted in
the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Civil Engineering Department of Kuwait
University and develops skills in measuring techniques and analytical
procedures. The following experiments are considered: flow through a
sharp edged orifice, flow through a venturi meter, flow over weirs,
frictional head loss along a pipe, uniform flow in open channels, specific
energy and depth relations in open channels, depth and discharge relations
in open channels, and hydraulic jump. It should be noted that all the
experiments presented here are related to chapter “Open Channel Flow”,
while nothing is related to the two other chapters of “Surface Water
Hydrology” and “Groundwater Hydrology”. The reason is that, as it was
mentioned previously, the experiments are based on the apparatus
available in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Kuwait University. Providing
additional apparatus relevant to the two other chapters is subject to a
current space limitation in the hydraulic laboratory. This chapter, however,
can be improved further in a forthcoming edition once this limitation has
been resolved and more apparatus become available. It should also be
noted that the experiments on pipelines have been considered here in order
to establish essential concepts for the study of fluid flow in general. For
example, the experiment on frictional head losses along a pipe is not
directly related to the chapter on “Open Channel Flow” as the head losses
are measured through a pressurized pipe. This experiment is considered
here to establish the loss of energy due to friction. All experiments
demonstrate the highly interrelated hydraulic phenomena with fluid flow
regimes and provide more attention to the practical aspects while

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simplifying the details of the mathematical derivations to help facilitating


students understanding of the work.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 1

Flow through a Sharp Edged Orifice

OBJECTIVE
To determine the coefficients of contraction �� , velocity �� and discharge
�� for a sharp edged circular orifice.

INTRODUCTION
Orifice is a device used to measure the fluid flow in a pipe. When fluid
passes through a constriction such as an orifice, the discharge becomes
considerably less than that calculated theoretically on the assumption of
conserved energy with uniform and parallel flow through the constriction.
This reduction in flow is due to the fact that when fluid flows through the
orifice it contracts within a short distance downstream the opening
accompanied by certain head losses. The cross section of this contraction
is called Vena Contracta, where the streamlines are considered to become
parallel.

THEORY
Figure (4.1) shows a sharp edged orifice placed in a pipe. The cross
section area of the orifice is “a” and the cross section area of the flow at
the contracted section after the orifice is “ac”.

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Figure (4.1) Flow through an orifice.

Coefficient of Contraction (�� )


The coefficient of contraction is defined as
�� ������������������� ���� ��
�� � � �
� ��������������� �� � ��
�� �
�� � � � �������������������������������������������������������

where �� � diameter of vena contracta; and � � diameter of orifice.

Coefficient of Velocity (�� )


The coefficient of velocity is defined as
�������
�� �
������������
������������ can be calculated from Bernoulli equation by neglecting losses
along the streamline between sections “O” and “C” as

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������������ � �����
where �� � velocity head through the water jet measured by a pitot tube
as shown in Figure (4.2); and � � gravitational acceleration. ������� is
expressed by

������� � ������

where ��� � velocity head as measured by the pitot tube. Accordingly,


the coefficient of velocity becomes

�� � ���� ����������������������������������������������������

Coefficient of Discharge (�� )


The fluid discharge through the orifice can be expressed as
� � �� �������
� �� ��� �����
Let
�� � �� � �� ���������������������������������������������������(4.3)
then
� � �� ������ (4.4)

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Figure (4.2) Vertical flow through an orifice.

Figure (4.3) Apparatus used for the experiment: Includes cutaway section of hydraulic bench.

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APPARATUS
A schematic diagram of the apparatus is shown in Figure (4.3). The
apparatus is a complete recirculating system with no water added from
outside. The diffuser ensures a smooth inflow of water and must be kept
about 30 mm below the water surface of the tank. The weighing tank is
emptied by the lifting lever near the weights. The lever attached to the
weighing tank has a moment ratio of 1:3 so that an added weight of 5 kg
would mean an effective weight of 5 � 3 = 15 kg or a volume of 15 L of
water collected in the tank.

PROCEDURE
1. Connect a hose to the overflow pipe and push the other end of the
hose into the drain hole in the bench top.
2. Position the apparatus so that the orifice is directly above the pipe
leading to the bench weighing tank.
3. Switch on the bench pump and open the flow control valve to supply
water.
4. Set the traverse mechanism so that the sharp blade will pass through
the water jet emerging from the orifice. Traverse the blade to
intersect one edge and then the opposite edge of the jet. Record the
lead screw reading at each point (the lead screw has 1 thread per mm
and each division on the hand-nut represents 0.1 mm).
5. Measure the flow rate through the orifice by timing the collection
of water in the bench weighing tank.
6. Repeat for different sets of readings over a range of flow rates.

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RESULTS
1. Calculate the coefficients of contraction �� , velocity �� and discharge
�� from Equations (4.1), (4.2) and (4.3), respectively.
2. Calculate the discharge Q from Equation (4.4).
3. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have learned
from the experiment and compare the average values of �� , �� and ��
with the standard values �� = 0.62-0.66, �� = 0.996-0.998 and �� =
0.61-0.65. How accurate are your results? What are the reasons that
affect accuracy?

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DATA SHEET

� DATE:�………………..�

� Diameter�of�the�orifice,�d�=………………..�

Lead�Screw�Reading� dc� �H� �Hp� Cc� Cv� Cd� Qty� t� Measured�Q� Calculated�Q�
Run�
3
left�� Right� (mm)� � � � � � (kg)� (s)� (m /s)� (m3/s)�
No.�
side�of�jet� side�of�jet�

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � �� �

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � �� �

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� ��

146
�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � �� �

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � �� �

Cc�avg.�=�…………………����������������������������������������

Cv�avg.�=�…………………�

Cd�avg.�=�…………………
144�

EXPERIMENT NO. 2

Flow through a Venturi Meter

OBJECTIVE
To calibrate the Venturi meter and estimate the value of discharge
coefficient C.

INTRODUCTION
Venturi meter is a device used for measuring flow rate along a pipe. The
fluid flowing in the pipe is led through a contraction section to a throat,
which has a smaller cross sectional area than the pipe, so that the velocity
of the fluid through the throat is higher than that in the pipe. This increase
of velocity is accompanied by a fall in pressure, the magnitude of which
depends on the rate of flow, so that by measuring the pressure drop, the
discharge may be calculated. Beyond the throat, the fluid is decelerated in
a pipe of slowly diverging section, the pressure increasing as the velocity
falls.

THEORY
Figure (4.4) shows the flow through a Venturi meter. If the head loss
between sections 1 and 2 is ignored, then from Bernoulli and continuity
equations it can be shown that the relation between the theoretical flow
rate �� and the difference of pressure heads (�� � �� ) is given as

����� � �� �
�� � �� �
� � ��� ��� ��

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in which �� �area of cross section 1; �� � area of cross section 2 (throat);
and �� and �� �piezometric heights at sections 1 and 2, respectively. In
actual flows, frictional shear and turbulence cause head loss and reduction
in theoretical flow rate. An experimentally measured coefficient � is used
to relate the actual flow � to the theoretical flow �� such that

��
��
and therefore,

����� � �� �
� � ��� �
� � ��� ��� ��

Figure (4.4) Flow through a Venturi meter.

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where � is called the coefficient of discharge. Typically, the coefficient �


has a range of ���� � � � ���� and depends on Reynolds number�� �
�� �� �� and �� ��� ; where � � kinematic viscosity of fluid; and�� and
�� � pipe diameters at sections 1 and 2, respectively.

APPARATUS
Figure (4.5) shows the arrangement of the Venturi meter, which is
manufactured in clear plastic material. Water is admitted from the bench
supply valve and passes through a flexible hose into the meter. Beyond the
control valve, which is just downstream of the meter, a further flexible
hose leads to the measuring tank. At a number of points along the length of
the convergent-divergent passage of the Venturi, piezometric tubes are
drilled into the wall and connections are made from each of these to
vertical manometer tubes which are mounted in front of a scale marked in
millimeters. The manometer tubes are connected at their top ends to a
common manifold in which the amount of air may be controlled by a small
air valve at one end. The whole assembly of Venturi meter, manometer
tubes, scale and manifold is supported on a base mounted on screwed feet
which may be adjusted to level the equipment.

PROCEDURE
1. Connect the bench supply hose to the inlet pipe and secure it with a
hose clip. Connect a hose to the outlet pipe and put the other end of
the hose into the hole leading to the bench weighing tank (see Figure
4.5).

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2. Open the outlet valve, then switch on the bench pump and open the
bench supply valve to admit water to the apparatus.
3. Partly close the outlet valve so that water is driven into the
manometer tubes. Then carefully close both valves so that you stop
the flow while keeping the levels of water in the manometers
somewhere within the range on the manometer scale.
4. Level the apparatus by adjusting the leveling screws until all the
manometers read the same value.
5. Open both valves and record the readings h1 and h2 of the inlet and
throat manometers. The water levels should be as shown in Figure
(4.6). Measure the flow rate by timing the collection of water in the
bench weighing tank.
6. Repeat (5) until you have different sets of readings over a range of
flow rates.

RESULTS
1. Calculate values of C for each flow rate.
2. Plot a graph of � against �.
3. Plot a graph of � against �� � �� �� �� using a semi-logarithmic
paper.
4. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have learned
from the experiment and check to what accuracy you have
determined the value of �.

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Figure (4.5) Arrangement of Venturi meter apparatus.


Figure (4.6) Variation of Piezometric Heights along the Venturi

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DATA SHEET

DATE:�………………..�

d1�=……….� � � � � a1�=……….�

d2�=……….� � � � � a2�=……….�

The�ratio�d2/d1�=……….� � � Temperature�of�water�=……….��� �

Kinematic�viscosity�of�water���=……….��

Qty� t� Q� h1� h2� u2�


Run�No.� C� Re�
(kg)� (s)� (m3/s)� (mm)� (mm)� (m/s)�

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EXPERIMENT NO. 3

Flow over Weirs

OBJECTIVE
To determine the coefficient of discharge C for Rectangular and
Triangular weirs.

INTRODUCTION
Weir is a device used for measuring discharge in free surface flows such as
rivers and open channels. A weir can be of different shapes –Rectangular,
Triangular, Trapezoidal, etc. Figure (4.7) shows two different shapes,
Rectangular and Triangular (or V-shaped) weirs. Triangular weir is
practically suited for the measurement of small discharges.

Figure (4.7) Two different shapes of weir.

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THEORY
Consider flow over the weir shown in Figure (4.7). The flow rate over the
weir depends mainly on the head � relative to the crest of the weir
measured upstream at distance about 3 to 4 times � from the crest. The
flow rate equations for both Rectangular and Triangular weirs are

������������������������ � � �������� �����������������������������������������

� �
������������������������� � � ������� ���� ��������������������������������
��
where � � discharge; � � coefficient of discharge; � � head above the
crest of the weir; � � angle of Triangular weir (see Figure 4.7); and � �
width of the Rectangular weir. Obviously, both Equations (4.5) and (4.6)
can be written in the form
� � ��� ��������������������������������������������������
The above equation can be linearized by taking the logarithms of both
sides such that
��� � � ��� � � � ��� � �����������������������������������������
If the experimental results of log � and log � are plotted on arithmetic
paper, then a straight line will be obtained with the slope n and intercept
log �. The value of � can then be used to determine the discharge
coefficient � for both Rectangular and Triangular weirs

���������������������� � ������������������������������������������������
�������

����������������������� � ����������������������������������
����������� ��

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APPARATUS
Figure (4.8) shows the arrangement in which water from the bench supply
valve is led through a flexible hose to a pipe distributing the water fairly
evenly in the enlarged end of the tank. A contraction section leads the
water to a short channel, into which either the Rectangular or Triangular
weirs may be fitted. Water flowing over the weir is collected in the exit
tank, the outlet of which leads to the weigh tanks of the Hydraulic Bench.
The water level in the channel may be observed in the still tube which is
connected to the side of the channel. In this tube, there is a point gauge,
where the hook is secured to a vertical screwed rod. By turning a nut at the
top of the tube, the hook may be raised or lowered, its elevation at any
time being read off a scale and markings on the nut. The screw rod has 1
thread per millimeter and the nut is marked off into equal divisions where
each division represents tenth of millimeter.

PROCEDURE
1. Connect the bench supply hose to the inlet pipe. Push the flexible
outlet hose into the pipe leading to the bench weighing tank (see
Figure 4.8).
2. Insert the weir into the hydraulic bench.
3. Open the water supply until the level reaches the crest of the weir.
Close the supply valve.
4. Set the point gauge dial to zero and slide the hook up or down until
the point just coincides with the water surface. Subsequent readings
of the water level will then be relative to the true datum at crest
level.

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5. Set the point gauge to a specific reading and adjust the bench supply
valve until the water level corresponds roughly to the point gauge
setting.
6. Measure the flow rate by timing the collection of water in the bench
weighing tank.

RESULTS
1. Calculate values of � for each flow rate.
2. Plot a graph of log � against log � on arithmetic paper.
3. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have learned
from the experiment and answer the following questions:
- Is C constant over the flow range for each weir?
- How accurate are your results?
- What are the reasons that affect accuracy?

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Figure (4.8) Arrangement of apparatus for measuring flow over weirs.


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DATA SHEET

DATE:�………………..�

Rectangular�weir:�

Initial�reading�when�water�is�at�the�weir�crest�level�Hi�=�………..�

Qty� Time�� Q� H�� H=�Hi�Hg�


Run�No.� 3
C�
(Kg)� (s)� (m /s)� (mm)� (mm)�
�� �� �� �� �� �� ��
�� �� �� �� �� �� ��
�� �� �� �� �� �� ��
�� �� �� �� �� �� ��
�� �� �� ��
�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

Triangular�weir:�

Initial�reading�when�water�is�at�the�weir�crest�level�Hi�=�………..�

� =�…………�

Qty� Time�� Q� H�� H=�Hi�Hg�


Run�No.� C�
(Kg)� (s)� (m3/s) (mm) (mm)
�� �� �� �� �� �� ��
�� �� �� ��
�� �� �� �� �� �� ��
�� �� �� �� �� �� ��
�� �� �� �� �� �� ��
�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

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EXPERIMENT NO. 4

Frictional Head Loss along a Pipe

OBJECTIVE
To study the variation of friction factor f and estimate pipe roughness
element�.

INTRODUCTION
Frictional head loss is termed major head loss, because it usually accounts
for most of the pressure drop in dynamic water systems. For a fluid
flowing between two points in a pipe, the frictional head loss is involved
in the energy equation as
��� �� ��� ��
� � �� � � � �� � ��
�� � �� �
where � � average flow velocity; � � pressure; � � potential head; �� �
frictional head loss; � � gravitational acceleration; and � � specific
weight of fluid. If the pipe is horizontal (�� � �� ) with constant diameter
(�� � �� ), the energy equation can be rewritten in the form
�� ��
� � ��
� �
This relation is shown graphically in Figure (4.9) and can be useful to
estimate pipe properties such as friction factor and roughness element.

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Figure (4.9) Diagram illustrating head loss.

THEORY
For pipe flow, frictional head loss can be obtained from Darcy-Weisbach
equation
� ��
�� � � �������������������������������������������
� ��
where � � friction factor; � � pipe length; and � � pipe diameter. The
estimation of friction factor depends on the flow condition whether
laminar or turbulent. Reynolds number�� is the parameter that typically
determines whether the flow is Laminar or turbulent
��
�� �

where �= Kinematic viscosity of fluid. Experiments suggest that when
�� � ����, viscous effects dominate and the flow becomes laminar; when
�� is between 2000 and 4000, the flow is in transition region; turbulent
flow occurs when Re > 4000 as inertial effects dominate. For laminar flow

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�� � ����, the friction factor depends only on Reynolds number and can
be determined from
��
��
��
For turbulent flow, the friction factor can be estimated as a function of
both Reynolds number�� and relative roughness ��� using the Colebrook
equation
� � ����
� ����� �� � � ����������������������������
�� ���� ����
where � � pipe roughness element. This equation has been plotted by
Moody as shown in Figure (4.10), referred as Moody diagram.

APPARATUS
Figure (4.11) shows the arrangement in which water from a supply tank is
led through a flexible hose to a tube along which the frictional head loss is
measured. Piezometric tubes are installed at upstream and downstream
pipe sections. The Piezometric tubes are connected to U-tube manometer,
which reads the differential pressure directly in millimeter of water, or a
U-tube which reads in millimeter of mercury. The rate of flow along the
pipe is controlled by a needle valve at the pipe exit and is measured by
timing the collection of water in a measuring cylinder (the discharge being
so small as to make the use of bench weighing tank impracticable).

161
159�

Figure (4.10) Moody diagram (source: L. F. Moody, Trans. ASME, Vol. 66, 1944).

PROCEDURE
1. Connect the bench supply hose to the inlet of the apparatus and
direct the flexible outlet pipe into the bench drain.
2. Open the needle valve, start the bench pump, and slowly open the
bench supply valve so that water flows through the apparatus.
3. Open the bleed screws at the top of the mercury U-tube, then slowly
close the needle valve so that air is expelled from the piezometric

162
160�

tubes. Open the air valve to release air from the water manometer.
When all air bubbles have been driven out, close the bleed screws
and air valve.
4. With the needle valve closed, check that the mercury levels in the
U-tube are in balance. If not, then repeat the process of expelling
air.
5. Close the water manometer isolating tap.
6. Open the needle valve and read the heights of the two columns of
mercury in the U-tube. Measure the flow rate by timing the
collection of water into the measuring cylinder.
7. Repeat (6) until you have different sets of readings over a range of
flow rates.

RESULTS
1. Calculate friction factor f for each flow rate using Equation (4.11).
2. Using the turbulent data (�� � ����), estimate the pipe roughness
element� from Equation (4.12) (or from Moody diagram).
3. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have learned
from the experiment.

163
161�

Figure (4.11) Arrangement of apparatus for measuring frictional head loss.


164
162�

DATA SHEET
DATE:�………………..�

Temperature�of�water��=…………..��������������Kinematic�viscosity�of�water�v�=……………�

Pipe�diameter�D=…………������������ ������������Pipe�area�of�cross�section�A�=�…………………�

Distance�between�pressure�points�L=………………..�

Qty� Time�� Q� V� h1� h2� hf� f� Re� k�


Run�No.�
(ml)� (s)� (m3/s)� (m/s) (mm) (mm) (m) � � (mm)
�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �

�� �� �� � � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

k�(average)�=…………..��

165
163�

EXPERIMENT NO. 5�

Uniform Flow in Open Channels

OBJECTIVE
To establish uniform flow and determine the Manning roughness
coefficient n for a rectangular open channel with glass walls.

INTRODUCTION
In open channels, uniform flow occurs when all the forces exerted on the
water are in balance and there is no flow acceleration except the gravity.
The pressure distribution of water becomes in this case hydrostatic,
� � �� . This flow can be assumed in prismatic open channels with
constant cross section and bed slope. The main properties of uniform flow
are the constant water depth y and velocity V, and the parallel slopes of
channel bed �� , water surface �� and energy grade line�� (Figure 4.12).

��� ��
� �� �
��

�� ���
�� � �
��
Flow
�� �
��
�� �
�� �

Datum
Figure (4.12) Uniform flow in open channel condition.

166
164�

THEORY
For uniform open channels, the flow rate � is estimated from the Manning
equation
� ��� ���
�� �� �� �������������������������������������������������

���� ��� ���
�� �� �� ��������������������������������������������

where � � Manning roughness coefficient, dimensionless; � � hydraulic
radius, (� ���); � � cross sectional area of flow; � �wetted perimeter;
and � � slope of channel bed. Obviously, this equation is dimensionally
inconsistent, where � has units of �� �� and �� � ���� for SI and English
units, respectively; � has�� and �� � for SI and English units, respectively;
and � has and �� for SI and English units, respectively. Several tables are
available in the literature for the selection of � value for a particular open
channel. In general, the selection of � value is based on best engineering
judgment. Representative values for various surfaces are given in Table
(4.1).

Table (4.1). Typical values of Manning roughness coefficient n

Material �

Glass 0.009-0.01
Unfinished concrete 0.015
Concrete, troweled 0.012
Concrete, wood forms, unfinished 0.015
Asphalt, smooth 0.013
Asphalt, rough 0.016

167
165�

APPARATUS
Figure (4.13) shows the general layout for the flume. The flume is a long
glass rectangular channel of constant cross section with a varying bed
slope (tilting flume). A centrifugal pump draws water from the water
storage tank and delivers it to the flume through the supply pipe. The rate
of flow can be controlled by a gate valve. The depth of water in the flume
can be measured with a point gauge.

PROCEDURE
1. Select four different sections in the central part of the flume. These
sections may be about 1 m apart.
2. Open the supply valve, adjust the channel bed slope and flow rate, and
wait until the flow becomes uniform with the flow depths chosen in
step (1) being approximately the same.
3. Measure � and y values.
4. Repeat steps (2) to (3) until you have different sets of readings over a
range of flow rates.

RESULTS
1. Calculate the average depth y and Manning coefficient n for each
flow rate.
2. Compare your results with the standard n value of 0.009 � 0.01 for
glass.
3. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have
learned from the experiment and answer the following questions.
- How accurate are your Manning n results?
- What are the reasons that affect accuracy?

168
166�



Figure (4.13) Tilting flume schematic diagram.

169
167�

DATA SHEET

DATE:�………………..�

Width�of�flume�b�=………………….� ��Slope�of�flume�So�=………………….�

Channel�bed�elevation�at:��
Section�1,�y1i�=………………….������� � ��Section�2�,y2i�=………………….�

Section�3,�y3i�=………………….������� � ��Section�4,�y4i�=………………….�

Run�No.� 1� 2� 3� 4� 5
3
Flow�rate�(m /s)�

Q� �� �� �� ��

Water�surface�elevation�(mm)� � �� �� ��

Section�1,�y1f� � �� �� ��

Section�2,�y2f� � �� �� ��

Section�3,�y3f�

Section�4,�y4f�

Water�depth�(mm)�

Section�1,�y1�=�y1f��y1i� � �� �� ��

Section�2,�y2�=�y2f��y2i�

Section�3,�y3�=�y3f��y3i� � �� �� ��

Section�4,�y4�=�y4f��y4i� � �� �� ��

Mean�water�depth�(m)� � �� �� ��

y�=�(y1+y2+y3+y4)/4� � �� �� ��
2
A�=�b�y������(m )� � �� �� ��

P�=�b+2y����(m)�

R�=�A/P�����(m)� � �� �� ��

Manning�n�(Equation�4.13)� �� �� �� ��

Manning�n�(average)�=�………………�

170
168�

EXPERIMENT NO. 6�

Energy Considerations in Open Channel Flow:


Specific Energy-Depth Relation

OBJECTIVE
To determine the relation between specific energy and water depth for
flow over a hump located in a horizontal channel.

INTRODUCTION
Specific energy � can be defined as the energy with respect to the channel
bed. From the continuity equation � � ��, the specific energy can be
written in terms of discharge as
�� ��
� ��� ���
�� �������
For a given �, if the area of flow cross section is � � ����, then the
specific energy will be � � ����. This expression can be used to plot the
relation of � with respect to � as in Figure (4.14). It is seen that for each
value of � there are two positive flow depths of �� and �� , named the
alternate depths. The fact that there can be more than one possible depth
for a given specific energy leads to the question of which depth will exist
in the flow. This can be evaluated by calculating the Froude number
�� � �� gy . The smaller water depth �� corresponds to the supercritical
flow (�� � �) and the larger depth �� to the subcritical flow (�� � �). It is
worth noting that at the minimum possible value of specific energy, called

171
169�

the critical energy �� , there is only a single critical depth�� with Froude
number equal to unity (�� � �).

THEORY
Let a hump with a height �� placed on the bed of a rectangular channel
carrying a discharge � as shown in Figure (4.15). As a result, the flow
condition in the presence of the hump becomes nonuniform. The specific
energies �� and �� at sections 1 and 2 are related as follows
�� � �� � ��

� � � ��
��

�� �

�� � � ��Constant�

�� �

�� � ��

Figure (4.14) Specific energy diagram. �

172
170�

Energy�Line�

��� ���� ��� ����


�� � �� � �� �

�zmax� �z

Figure (4.15) Flow over a hump.

Here, the energy loss between sections 1 and 2 is considered as negligible.


By increasing the value of �� , the flow condition approaches critical
(�� � �) at ����� . That is
�� � �� � �����
Theoretically, the critical energy �� for rectangular cross section can be
estimated from

�� � ��

and

�� � �� � ��
in which � �discharge per unit width, �� � ����; and � � channel width.
If �� exceeds ����� , then the flow condition at the upstream location will
be modified to produce a critical condition over the hump.

173
171�

APPARATUS
A schematic diagram of the apparatus is shown in Figure (4.16). The
flume has rectangular cross section and incorporates a triangular hump on
the bed. The water supply is derived into the channel by a centrifugal
pump. The rate of flow can be controlled by a gate valve. The depth of
water in the flume can be measured with a point gauge.

PROCEDURE
1. Adjust the channel bed to be horizontal.
2. Install the hump on the channel bed near the upstream end of the
channel.
3. Admit water supply to the channel and adjust to give a smooth
surface profile over the hump.
4. Measure � at different stations with the help of travelling depth
gauge.
5. Measure � from the gauge reading.

RESULTS
1. Plot � and � curve for two measured values of �.

2. Calculate the two theoretical values of �� � �� � ��.
3. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have learned
from the experiment, and calculate the Froude number �� � �����
upstream and downstream of the hump for the two cases in order to
state the type of flow at these locations.

174
172�



Figure (4.16) Flow diagram of the flume.

175
173�

DATA SHEET
� DATE:�………………..�

� Width�of�flume,�b�=…………………..�


Distance Hump Run No.1 Discharge Q=……….…………. Run No.2 Discharge Q=……….………….
Station
from height 2 2
No. y V V /2g E=y+V /2g y V V2 /2g E=y+V2/2g
station 1 �z (m) (m/s) (m) (m) (m) (m/s) (m) (m)
1
2
3

176
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

174�

EXPERIMENT NO. 7

Energy Considerations in Open Channel Flow:


Depth-Discharge Relation

OBJECTIVE
To study the flow through a horizontal contraction in a rectangular channel
and determine the relation between depth and discharge.

INTRODUCTION
For a horizontal open channel, the specific energy � remains constant
through a contraction ifthe energy losses are neglected
��
� ��� � ��������
��
where � � flow depth; � � flow velocity; and � � gravitational
acceleration. This condition with negligible losses can typically be
considered when the contraction changes gradually and smoothly along the
relevant part of channel.

THEORY
The specific energy E for a rectangular channel can be written as
��
� ���� ���������������������������������������������
��� �
or
� � ������ � �����������������������������������������(4.15)

177
175�

where � � discharge per unit width, � � � ��. Figure (4.17) shows the
variation of � due to changes in � values through the contraction. Here,
from Equation (4.15) with constant �, the discharge becomes a function of
flow depth � � ����, which can be presented in Figure (4.18) by the so
called discharge diagram. This figure reveals that for each � value there
are two flow depths of �� and �� , called the alternate depths, while for the
maximum � there is only a single critical depth�� . The depth
corresponding to the maximum discharge may be established simply by
differentiating Equation (4.15) with respect to �. By noting that � is
constant, �� will occur at the narrowest section of the contraction (see
Figure 4.17).

Figure (4.17) Plan view of contraction and water surface profile.

178
176�

Figure
u (4.18) Discharge
s diagram for constant specific energy.

APPARATUS
A schematic diagram of the apparatus is shown in Figure (4.19). The
channel has a rectangular cross section and a contraction at the
downstream location. Water is supplied constantly into the channel. The
flow rate is determined using a flow measuring facility and the water depth
by a travelling measuring gauge.

C o n t r a c t i o n

Figure (4.19) Flow through a contraction.

179
177�

PROCEDURE
1. Adjust the channel bed to be horizontal.
2. Admit water supply to the channel, fix the stations, and record the
channel width at each station.
3. Measure � at different stations with the help of travelling depth
gauge.
4. Measure � from the gauge reading.

RESULTS
1. Plot the measured � and � curve for two experimental runs each with
different �.
2. Plot the theoretical � and � curve using Equation (4.15) for each
experimental run.
3. Superimpose the measured � and � values on the theoretical plot.
4. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have learned
from the experiment
and provide the following:
� calculation of Froude number �� � ����� upstream and
downstream of the contracted section in order to state the type of
flow at these locations; and
� comparison of the measured �� with the theoretical value �� �

�� � ��.

180
178�

DATA SHEET
DATE:�………………..�

Distance Channel Run No.1 Discharge Q=……………….. Run No. 2 Discharge Q=……………….
Station 2 2
from width y Q E = y+q / (2g y ) y q E = y+q2 / (2g y2 )
No.
station 1 (m) (m) (m2/s) (m) (m) (m2/s) (m)
1

181
6

10

11

��Run�No.�1�Eavg�=�…………….�

��Run�No.�2�Eavg�=�…………….�
179�

EXPERIMENT NO. 8

Hydraulic Jump

OBJECTIVE
To study the characteristics of a hydraulic jump.

INTRODUCTION
A hydraulic jump occurs in the transition from supercritical to subcritical
flow. The depths of flow upstream and downstream of the jump are called
conjugate depths. The transition between supercritical and subcritical flow
results with an effective energy loss that cannot be neglected. The
hydraulic jump has many applications in open channel and drainage
systems. The most common application is to provide energy dissipation in
hydraulic structures such as dams and weirs in order to prevent
downstream scouring. The hydraulic jump can also be used to maintain
high water levels in channels for irrigation or other water distribution
purposes. Knowledge of the surface profile of a hydraulic jump is
desirable in this case for designing the freeboard for the channel. The
hydraulic jump is also important in the design and analysis of storm sewer
systems as the increase in downstream water depth may result with
surcharged pipe flow condition.

THEORY
Consider the flow under a sluice gate in a horizontal channel such that a
hydraulic jump occurs as shown in Figure (4.20). Between sections 1 and

182
180�

2, the head loss is negligible and thus the corresponding specific energies
become equivalent
�� � ��
which can be rewritten in the form
�� ��
�� � � �� � ���������������������������������
����� �����
where � � flow depth; � � flow rate; � � gravitational acceleration; and
� � flow cross sectional area. This equality in specific energy makes it
possible to estimate the flow depth immediately before or after the sluice
gate if either depth is known. However, through the hydraulic jump, the
complex internal flow pattern results with energy losses that are initially
unknown
�� � ��
and thus the conjugate depths �� and �� cannot be estimated directly from
the energy concept. Rather, the momentum equation can be used to obtain
the following relations for rectangular channel cross section
��
�� � ��� � ����� � ������������������������������

��
�� � ��� � ����� � ������������������������������

where ��� � ����� ���� � and ��� � ����� ���� � are the Froude
numbers for sections 3 and 2, respectively. The energy loss �� through the
jump can be determined from
��� � �� ��
�� � �� � �� �
��� ��

183
181�

Figure (4.20) Flow under a sluice gate with the formation of a hydraulic jump.

APPARATUS
A schematic diagram of the apparatus is shown in Figure (4.21). The
channel has a rectangular cross section and an adjustable weir control at
the downstream location. Water is supplied constantly into the channel,
and its rate can be varied by a flow regulator valve. An adjustable sluice
gate is also available. The flow rate is determined using a flow measuring
facility and the water depth by a measuring gauge.

PROCEDURE
1. Fix the sluice gate such that the flow under the gate will be
supercritical.
2. Admit water supply to the channel and obtain the desired water depths
by adjusting the flow control valve and varying the height of the
downstream weir.
3. When the flow becomes steady, measure the flow rate � and depths y1,
y2 and y3.
4. Repeat the procedure for five different flow rates.

184
182�

RESULTS
1. Compute specific energy E corresponding to the measured depths �� ,
�� and �� .
2. For the experimentally measured values of �� , compute theoretical
values of �� and �� using Equations (4.16) and (4.18), respectively.
3. Plot �� ��� against ��� to verify Equation (4.18).
4. In your laboratory report, write summary of what you have learned
from the experiment and give your answers to the following question. Is
there an appreciable head loss through the hydraulic jump?

Figure (4.21) Schematic diagram of the apparatus.

185
183�

DATA SHEET

� DATE:�………………..�

� Width�of�flume,�B�=…………………..�


Measured Theoretical
Q E1 E2 E3 �E2-3 Fr2 y3/y2
Run No. y1 y2 y3 y1 y3
(m3/s) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m)

186
3

5
184�

Appendix

Water Density and Viscosity

SI Units

Temperature Density Viscosity Kinematic viscosity

T �� �� ��
o
( C) (kg/m3) (N.s/m2) (m2/s)

0 999.9 1.792 x 10-3 1.792 x 10-6


-3
5 1000.0 1.519 x 10 1.519 x 10-6

-3
10 999.7 1.308 x 10 1.308 x 10-6

15 999.1 1.140 x 10-3 1.141 x 10-6


-3
20 998.2 1.005 x 10 1.007 x 10-6
-3
30 995.7 0.801 x 10 0.804 x 10-6
40 992.2 0.656 x 10-3 0.661 x 10-6
-3
50 988.1 0.549 x 10 0.556 x 10-6
60 983.2 0.469 x 10-3 0.477 x 10-6
-3
70 977.8 0.406 x 10 0.415 x 10-6
-3
80 971.8 0.357 x 10 0.367 x 10-6
90 965.3 0.317 x 10-3 0.328 x 10-6
-3
100 958.4 0.284 x 10 0.296 x 10-6

187
185�

English Units

Temperature Density Viscosity Kinematic viscosity

T �� �� ��
o
( F) (slug/ft3) (lb.sec/ft2) (ft2/sec)

32 1.94 3.75 x 10-5 1.93 x 10-5


40 1.94 3.23 x 10-5 1.66 x 10-5
-5
50 1.94 2.74 x 10 1.41 x 10-5
60 1.94 2.36 x 10-5 1.22 x 10-5
-5
70 1.94 2.05 x 10 1.06 x 10-5
-5
80 1.93 1.80 x 10 0.93 x 10-5
90 1.93 1.60 x 10-5 0.826 x 10-5
-5
100 1.93 1.42 x 10 0.739 x 10-5
120 1.92 1.17 x 10-5 0.609 x 10-5
-5
140 1.91 0.98 x 10 0.514 x 10-5
-5
160 1.90 0.84 x 10 0.442 x 10-5
180 1.88 0.73 x 10-5 0.385 x 10-5
-5
200 1.87 0.64 x 10 0.341 x 10-5
212 1.86 0.59 x 10-5 0.319 x 10-5

188
186�

Units and Conversions

Quantity English units SI Units Conversion factor

Length inch centimeter 1 in = 2.54 cm


foot meter 1 ft = 0.3048 m
Area square inch square centimeter 1 in2 = 6.452 cm2
square foot square meter 1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2
Acre Hectare 1 ac = 0.4047 ha
Volume cubic inch cubic centimeter 1 in3 = 16.39 cm3

189
cubic foot cubic meter 1 ft3 = 0.02832 m3
Mass slug kilogram 1 slug = 14.59 kg
Density slug/cubic foot kilogram/cubic meter 1 slug/ft3 = 515.4 kg/m3
Force pound newton 1 lb = 4.448 N
Pressure pound/square inch newton/square meter 1 lb/in2 (psi) = 6895 N/m2 (Pa)
Viscosity pound-second/square foot newton-second/square meter 1 lb.sec/ft2 = 47.88 N.s/m2
187�

SI Prefixes

Multiplication factor Prefix Symbol

1012 tera T
9
10 giga G
6
10 mega M
3
10 kilo k
-2
10 centi c
-3
10 milli m

10-6 micro ��
10-9 nano n

10-12 pico p

190
188�

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Groundwater Hydrology

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Hydraulic Engineering Systems. 4th Edition, Prentice-Hall, New
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194
Abstract

This book is intended to be used for an undergraduate course


in water resources engineering at the Civil Engineering Department
of Kuwait University and for students who have already had basic
knowledge in fluid mechanics. The objective is to integrate the
fundamental concepts of three main topics: open channel flow,
surface water hydrology, and groundwater hydrology. Detailed
laboratory experiments on hydraulics are also provided to assist
intuitive understanding of relative phenomena such as flow reduction
due to a channel constriction or installing a weir, relation between
pressure in pipes and frictional head loss, uniform flow and energy
considerations, and rapidly varied flows including hydraulic jump
and transitions. The experiments are based on the apparatus available
in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Kuwait University and presented
in a manner that students can use the same book to tabulate their
laboratory observations and perform the necessary calculations.

195
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