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All content following this page was uploaded by Jaber Almedeij on 20 May 2014.

Water Resources

Engineering

Jaber Almedeij

Associate Professor of Civil Engineering

College of Engineering and Petroleum

Kuwait University

Ismail Esen

Professor of Civil Engineering

College of Engineering and Petroleum

Kuwait University

2011

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Authorship, Translation & Publication Committee, Kuwait University

P.O. BOX: 28301 Safat , Code No. 13144, State of Kuwait

Tel. (00965) 24811375 - Tel. & Fax : (00965) 24843185

E-mail:atpc@ku.edu.kw

http://www.pubcouncil.kuniv.edu.kw/atapc

Journal of the Social Sciences 1973. Annals of the Arts and Social Sciences 1980.

Kuwait Journal of Science and Eengineering 1974. Arab Journal for the Humanities 1981.

Jounal of the Gulf and Arabian Peninsula studies 1975 . The Educational Journal 1983 .

Authorship Translation and Publication Committee 1976. Journal of Sharia and Islamic Studies 1983 .

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TAPLE OF CONTENTS

Pages

Preface

Contents

Part I: Theoretical Considerations

1 Open Channel Flow

List of Symbols……………………………………………………………… 3

1.1 Introduction……………………………………………………….............. 5

1.2 Basic Principles………………………………………………………… 6

Classiﬁcation of Flows………....………………………………… 6

State of Flows……………………………………………………… 7

Channel Geometry…………………………….......………………… 10

Energy Concepts……………………………………..........………… 12

1.3 Uniform Flow………………………………………………..........……… 20

Most Efﬁcient Section……………………………………………… 25

1.4 Rapidly Varied Flow…………………………………………....……… 27

Hydraulic Jump………………………………………....………........... 27

1.5 Gradually Varied Flow……………………………………….....……… 31

Control Section………………………………………………….......... 34

Direct Step Method………………………………………………… 35

Problems…………………………………….................…………………........ 38

2 Surface Water Hydrology

List of Symbols……………………………………………………………… 46

2.1 Introduction……………………………………………………………… 47

2.2 Precipitation……………………………………………………………… 49

2.3 Abstractions……………………………………………………………… 54

iii

Evapotranspiration…………………………………………………… 55

Inﬁltration …………………………………………………………… 56

2.4 Hydrograph Analysis…………………………………………………… 61

Time Base of Hydrograph…………………………………………… 65

Unit Hydrograph……………………………………………………… 65

Unit Hydrographs of Different Duration………………………… 71

Rational Method……………………………………………………… 74

2.5 Flood Routing…………………………………………………………… 80

Reservoir Routing…………………………………………………… 81

Channel Routing……………………………………………………… 86

Problems …………………………………………………………… 89

3 Groundwater Hydrology

List of Symbols…………………………………………………………… 96

3.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………… 98

3.2 Occurrence of Groundwater…………………………………………… 100

3.3 Basic Equation of Groundwater Flow……………………………… 105

3.4 Unidirectional Flow…………………………………………………… 108

3.5 Hydraulics of Wells……………………………………………………… 112

Steady Flow to a Well……………………………………………… 114

Unsteady Flow to a Well…………………………………………… 118

Pumping Tests……………………………………………………… 122

P r o b l e m s …………………………………………………………… 124

4 Laboratory Experiments on Hydraulics

List of Symbols……………………………………………………………… 131

4.1 Introduction…………………………………………………………… 133

iv

4.2 Writing Laboratory Report……………………………………………… 134

4.3 Components of Hydraulics Laboratory……………………………… 135

Hydraulic Bench……………………………………………………… 135

Tilting Flume………………………………………………………… 137

4.4 Experiments…………………………………………………………… 138

Experiment No. 1: Flow through a Sharp Edged Oriﬁce……… 140

Experiment No. 2: Flow through a Venturi Meter……………… 147

Experiment No. 3: Flow over a Weir…………………………… 153

Experiment No. 4: Frictional Head Loss along a Pipe………… 159

Experiment No. 5: Uniform Flow in Open Channels………… 166

Experiment No. 6: Energy Considerations in Open Channel

Flow: Speciﬁc Energy-Depth Relation…………………………… 171

Experiment No. 7: Energy Considerations in Open Channel

Flow: Depth-Discharge Relation………………………………… 177

Experiment No. 8: Hydraulic Jump………………………………… 182

Appendix

Water Density and Viscosity……………………………………………… 187

SI Units………………………………………………………………… 187

English Units………………………………………………………… 188

Units and Conversions……………………………………………………… 189

SI Preﬁxes…………………………………………………………………… 190

Bibliography……………………………………………………………… 191

Abstract in English…………………………………………………………… 195

Abstract in Arabic…………………………………………………………… 197

v

iO�«

This book is intended to be used for an undergraduate

course in water resources engineering at the Civil

Preface

Engineering Department of Kuwait University, and for

students who have already had basic knowledge in ﬂuid

mechanics. Despite the many books available in water

resources engineering, they are written to provide a wide

and diverse range of subjects that may not be suitable in

a uniﬁed framework for an introductory course designed

with speciﬁc regional applications similar to those for

Kuwait with desert environment. The main objective here

thus is to provide our students with relevant background

information in water resources that can be useful for our

engineering applications. Practicing engineers in our

governmental and private agencies will also ﬁnd this

book useful.

The material in the book is prepared in sufﬁcient

detail so that the readers can follow the developments

from basic principles. The book is divided into two parts.

Part I consists of three chapters discussing the theoretical

considerations. Chapter 1 is for open channel ﬂow,

chapter 2 for surface water hydrology, and chapter 3 for

groundwater hydrology. Part II provides experimental

considerations and consists of chapter 4 for laboratory

vi

experiments on hydraulics. The experiments presented in this

chapter are based on the apparatus available in the Hydraulic

Laboratory of Kuwait University. This chapter is prepared in

a manner that students can use the same book to tabulate their

laboratory observations and perform the necessary calculations.

The principle contributors to part II for the experimental

considerations are listed as follows: Reem Aljeraiwi, Research

Assistant, Kuwait University; and Sadequr Rahman Consulting

Engineer, Kuwait University. The authors also thank Professor

Nabil Zaghloul and Eng. Lulwa Almansour who reviewed this

part and provided us with many useful suggestions. We would

like also to acknowledge the encouragement and support of our

colleagues in the water, environmental and coastal engineering

group at the Civil Engineering Department of Kuwait University.

Without their patient support this work would not have been

completed.

Jaber Almedeij

Ismail Esen

vii

Part I:

Theoretical Considerations

1

iO�«

2

2�

�

Chapter 1

Chapter 1

Open Channel Flow

Open Channel Flow

List of Symbols

� � area, L2

� � acceleration, L/T2

� � channel top width, L

� � channel bottom width, L

� � Chezy coefficient, L1/2/T

� � hydraulic depth, L

� � pipe diameter, L

� � specific energy, L

� � force, F

�� � boundary friction force, F

�� � Froude number, dimensionless

� � friction factor, dimensionless

� � gravity acceleration, L/T2

�� � head loss, L

� � roughness element of channel, L

� � channel length, L

� � characteristic length, L

� � mass, M

� � ratio of horizontal to vertical change of channel wall side,

dimensionless

� � Manning coefficient, dimensionless

� � wetted perimeter, L

3

3�

�

� � pressure, F/L2

� � discharge, L3/T

� � discharge per unit width of channel, L2/T�

� � hydraulic radius, L

�� � Reynolds number, dimensionless

� � slope, dimensionless

�� � energy slope, dimensionless

�� � channel bed slope, dimensionless

�� � water surface slope, dimensionless

��� � average energy slope between two sections, dimensionless

� � velocity, L/T

�� � critical velocity, L/T

� � weight of water, F

� � water depth, L

�� � critical water depth, L

�� � uniform water depth, L

� � elevation from an arbitrary datum, L

� � specific weight, F/L3

� � slope angle

� � viscosity, FT/L2

� � kinematic viscosity, L2/T

� � density, M/L3

4

4�

�

1.1 Introduction

Two types of conduits are used to transport water; namely, open channels

and the closed conduits. The main difference between these channel types

is the free surface, which is an interface between the air and water layer.

An open channel has a free surface unlike a closed conduit where the

water must flow full. At the free surface, the pressure is constant, and for

many situations it is atmospheric. Accordingly, in open channels the

gravity constitutes the main force that causes the flow, and hence, a

channel bed slope must be maintained downstream. Thus, an open channel

flow is often referred to as a gravity flow. In closed conduits, the flow

results from an external pressure force that may cause the water to flow

against the direction of the bed slope, and is often referred to as a

pressurized flow1.

The accurate solution of an open channel flow is more difficult and

empirical compared to that of a closed conduit flow. One factor that

complicates the solution in open channels is the variation of the location of

the free surface with respect to time and space. Another factor is that the

depth of flow is highly interrelated with factors such as discharge,

boundary roughness, slope and the channel cross section2. One additional

factor is that the boundary roughness, slope and channel cross section can

also be variable along the reach, such as for the case of natural rivers and

streams.

������������������������������������������������������������

1

Storm and sanitary sewers are typically designed as gravity pipe flow, while water supply

pipes are designed as pressurized flow.

2

The channel cross section considered here is taken normal to the direction of the flow.

5

5�

�

Open channels can be classified as being natural or artificial,

covered or open at the top, prismatic or nonprismatic, and regular or

irregular. Natural channels include rivers, streams and estuaries, while

artificial channels include storm and sanitary sewers, culverts and canals.

All natural, and most artificial, channels are open at the top, but some of

the artificial channels are covered for security or for some other reasons.

An example of a closed open channel is the pipe storm or sanitary sewer.

Examples to those that are open at the top are the natural rivers and the

artificial canals for drainage and irrigation. Channels are also classified as

prismatic or nonprismatic. A prismatic channel has a constant bed slope

and a cross sectional shape that do not vary along the reach. Otherwise, the

channel is nonprismatic. Based on shape, artificial channels are usually

built with regular geometric cross sections such as rectangular, trapezoidal,

triangular or circular shapes. Natural channel sections have, in general,

irregular shapes.

Classification of Flows

Flow in open channel can be classified based on time � and space �. For

time criterion, the flow may be steady or unsteady. Steady flow has a

water depth constant with time at a particular point on the channel, while

the depth in unsteady flow changes with time at a particular point on the

channel. For space criterion, the flow may be either uniform or

nonuniform. Uniform flow has a constant water depth along the reach of

the channel, but the depth of water in nonuniform flow changes along the

reach of the channel. Nonuniform flows, also termed varied flow, can

6

6�

�

further be classified as rapidly varied and gradually varied flows. For

rapidly varied flow, the water depth changes significantly over a relatively

short distance such as the case for a hydraulic jump or a hydraulic drop.

For gradually varied flow, the depth changes rather slowly over a

relatively long distance such as the case of a reservoir upstream of a dam.

According to this classification, four combinations of flows can be

considered. Steady uniform flow has a constant water depth that does not

change with time and space, and is found practically only in lab flume

experiments. Although this case is rarely found in nature, it is widely used

for the design of open channels due to its simplicity. Unsteady uniform

flow has a depth function of time ����, which requires the water surface

fluctuating with time while remaining parallel to the channel bottom.

Obviously, this case is very rare and cannot be found in nature. Therefore,

the term uniform flow is used hereafter to refer only to steady uniform

flow. Steady nonuniform flow has a depth function of space ����, such as

a reservoir behind a dam. Unsteady nonuniform flow has a depth function

of both space and time ���� �� and is very common in nature, such as

waves and hydraulic bores1.

State of Flows

The state or behavior of an open channel flow is governed by the effects of

gravity and viscosity forces relative to the inertial force

������������ � ����� � �

������������������������������������������������������������

1

�Hydraulic�bore�is�a�standing�wave�in�an�open�channel�that�moves�upstream�as�a�result�of�

high�tides�in�certain�estuaries,�a�result�of�a�cloudburst,�or�a�sudden�release�of�a�large�volume�

of�water�from�a�reservoir.�The�hydraulic�bore�is�also�very�common�in�ephemeral�streams�

characteristic�of�desert�environments.��

7

7�

�

�� �

������������ � � ��� � � � ���

�� �

� � �

������������� � ����� � � �� �

� � � �� � � �

�� �

where � � mass; � � gravity acceleration; � � density; � � characteristic

length; � � viscosity; � � area; � � velocity; and � � acceleration.

Dimensionless parameters measuring the ratios of these forces can be used

as a basis for considering whether or not the variables have a significant

influence on the flow.

Two dimensionless parameters are considered, the Reynolds number

and the Froude number. Reynolds number shows the effect of the inertia

relative to viscosity forces as

������������ �� � � � �� ��

�� � � � � ������������������������

������������ ��� ����� �

where � � kinematic viscosity of fluid. An open channel flow is laminar if

Reynolds number is small (�� � ���) and turbulent if it is large (�� �

����), while in between the flow is transition or intermittent (��� �

�� � ����) 1 . In laminar flow, the water particles have no significant

mixing with each other, flowing in laminas or layers. In turbulent flow, the

movement of water varies irregularly. In transition, the flow is unstable

and difficult to control, and would be either laminar or turbulent.

High values of Reynolds number in turbulent flows indicate small

viscous forces relative to inertial forces and, therefore, the viscosity could

possibly be neglected as a variable. Since the viscosity of water is very

������������������������������������������������������������

1

The length�in the Reynolds number expression is represented by the hydraulic radius �.

Since for full flow pipe � � ���, the flow in pipe is considered laminar when �� � ����,

turbulent �� � ����, and transition ���� � �� � ����.

8

8�

�

low1, it is difficult to have laminar flows in open channels. Usually the

flow in open channel is turbulent with high Reynolds numbers. Thus, the

viscous forces would not be needed for the dynamic similarity of open

channel flows. However, when a high viscosity liquid flows in an open

channel or when water flows with relatively low Reynolds numbers, the

effect of viscosity should be taken into consideration.

Both gravity and inertial forces emphasize the dynamic similarity in

open channel flow. The effect of gravity as the driving force in open

channel flow is present due to the existence of the free surface. The ratio

of inertial to gravity forces is used to develop the Froude number as

������������ �� � � � �� �

�� � � �� � �� � �������������������

������������ �� � �� ���

in the first power as in the Reynolds number. For �� � �, the flow has

relatively high � and shallow �, which is referred to as supercritical flow.

If �� � � , the flow has relatively low � and deep � , referred to as

subcritical flow. For �� � �, the flow is critical with critical � and �.

Another reason to take the square root in the above expression is to

develop ���, which is equal in open channel to the celerity � of a gravity

wave 2 . This provides an indication about the wave propagation. When

�� � �, � � ��� , implying a stationary wave (� � �). However if �� �

�, a wave can move upstream (� � �). Flow with �� � � is characterized

by a wave moving downstream (� � �).

������������������������������������������������������������

1

The kinematic viscosity for water at 20oC is � � ����� � ���� �� ��.

2

�Wave�velocity�traveling�along�the�reach�of�the�channel.�

9

9�

�

Channel Geometry

To perform the hydraulic analysis for an open channel with a specific

geometry, the following elements are most commonly used: � is the flow

depth from the free surface to the bottom of the channel; � is the width of

the channel bottom; � is the cross sectional area normal to the flow

direction; � is the wetted perimeter measured as the length of the line of

contact with the water and the channel; and � is the top width at the free

surface. Other geometrical elements used to designate the geometry of the

channel cross section are the hydraulic radius� and the hydraulic depth�,

defined as

�

�� �������������������������������������������������������������

�

�

� � �������������������������������������������������������������

�

The hydraulic radius is a measure of the efficiency at which the channel

can flow. For a given channel geometry and slope, the greatest hydraulic

radius provides the largest flow. The hydraulic depth constitutes a mean

depth of flow, which becomes equal to the actual depth for the case of a

rectangular cross section, where � � �.

Table (1.1) shows the geometric elements for regular channel cross

sections. The simplest channel shape is the rectangular section. Many

theoretical developments focus on rectangular section to simplify the

mathematics associated with open channel flow. The circular section is

another important one to consider, since it is used widely for drainage and

sewer systems. A composite cross section is one made up of several

subsections.

10

10�

�

�

Area Wetted perimeter Top width

Cross section

� A P B

� �� � �

Circular �� � ��� �� � � ���

� � �

�

Rectangular �� � � �� �

�

��

� Trapezoidal �� � ��� � �� � � � � ��� � ��� � �� � ��� � � � ���� � �� �

�

� ��

Triangular ��� � �� � � ��� � ��� � �� � ��� � ���� � �� �

�

�

�

B

B

d y y

��

b

Circular Rectangular

1 y 1

m1 m2 1 1 y

m1 m2

b

Trapezoidal Triangular

11

11�

�

Energy Concepts

The energy equation between two sections in an open channel is shown in

Figure (1.1) and can be expressed based on the principle of conservation of

energy as

�� ��� �� ���

� � �� � � � �� � �� ����������������������������������

� �� � ��

Where � � pressure; � � specific weight of fluid; ��� � pressure head;

� � ��� � velocity head; � � potential head; and �� � head loss. The head

terms in the equation represent different types of energy per unit weight of

water contained in the channel, referred to as head since they have the

dimensions of length. The loss in energy between the two sections

designated as �� usually reflects the major loss due to boundary friction. If

other losses are present, e.g. due to effects of turbulence, they can be

added on the right side of the equation. If pressure distribution is assumed

to be hydrostatic, i.e.� � ��, then the energy equation can be written as

��� ���

�� � � �� � �� � � �� � �� ���������������������������������

�� ��

A useful term defined as the energy head referred to the channel bed

as datum (i.e., � � �) is the specific energy�, given as

��

� ��� �������������������������������������������������������������

��

12

12�

�

��� ��

�� ��

�� ���

��

� �� ��

�

Flow

��

� ��

�

��

�� �

��

Datum

�

Figure (1.1). Distribution of energy heads in open channel flow between two sections.

This term provides a means to analyze complex flow situations. From the

continuity equation with flow discharge expressed as � � ��, the specific

energy can be rewritten as

��

� ��� �������������������������������������������������������

����

For a given �, if � � ���� then � � ����. This expression can be used to

plot the relation between � and � as shown in Figure (1.2). It is seen that

as � becomes very large, � approaches � so that the straight line � � � is

an asymptote of the upper limit. When y approaches zero, � becomes very

large approaching infinity so that the � axis is an asymptote of the lower

limit. It is also seen that for each value of � there are two positive flow

depths;�� and �� , named the alternate depths1. The fact that there can be

more than one possible depth for a given specific energy leads to the

������������������������������������������������������������

1

Solving the specific energy equation can also produce negative values of which are not

considered, as they have no physical meaning in open channel flow.

13

13�

�

question of which depth will occur in the flow. This can be evaluated by

calculating the Froude number ��. The smaller water depth �� corresponds

to the supercritical flow (�� � �), and the larger depth �� to the subcritical

flow (�� � �). It is worth noting that for a given �, there is only one

minimum possible value of specific energy, called the critical energy �� ,

producing a single critical depth�� . This statement can be proved true

mathematically by showing that if the specific energy is minimized, i.e.

when ����� � �, then the flow condition will be critical �� � �.

� � � ��

��

�� �

�� � � ��Constant�

�� �

�� � ��

�

Figure (1.2). Specific energy diagram.

14

14�

�

Example 1.1 Show that when the specific energy is minimized, then

the flow condition will be critical �� � �.

Solution

Differentiating the specific energy given by Equation (1.8) with

respect to depth of flow �

�� �� ����� � �� �� �� ��

��� ��� ������ � ��� �

�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

Given that � � ��

�� � � ��

���

�� �� ��

As seen in the figure, when the depth of flow increases by ��, the

incremental change in area is

�� � ��� ��

��

which can be written as

��

��

��

��

Substituting this value into the above equation

�� ��

��� �

�� ��

Remembering that the hydraulic depth is defined by � � ���

�� ��

���

�� ��

When the specific energy is minimum, then ����� � � resulting

with

��

����

��

or

15

15�

�

��

� � � �� � �

��

specific energy and critical depth become respectively

� � ��

�� � �� ������������ � �

� �

Solution

For rectangular channels, hydraulic depth � equals the depth of flow

�. At critical flow

��

�� � ��

����

where �� � critical velocity. This can be written as

��� ��

�

�� �

Using this expression together with Equation (1.7), the minimum

specific energy for rectangular channels becomes

��� �� �

�� � �� � � �� � � ��

�� � �

To express the critical depth in terms of discharge per unit width of

channel,

� �� �� �

�� �

� �

or

�

�� �

��

16

16�

�

Therefore,

��� ����� �� ��

� �

�� �� �

Solving

� ��

�� � �

�

channel 4 � wide when the flow rate is 15 �� ��.

Solution

For critical flow in rectangular channel,

�� ������ � ������� �

�� � � � ��

���� ���� �������

Solving the above equation gives �� � ������� . Note that, the

solution can also be determined by using the equation developed in

the previous example, i.e.

� � � � ������ � �������

�� � � �� �� � �������

� � ����

17

17�

�

Example 1.4 Water flows in a triangular channel with a discharge

of � � ���� �� . Determine the specific energy, hydraulic depth,

Froude number, and the alternate depth.

�

� � ��� �

�

Solution

For the channel cross section,

� � ��� � �� � ��� � � � ���

�

�� � �� � � � � � ���� � �������

�

The required information can be determined as

�� ��

� ��� � ��� � � ������

���� � � ���� � �����

� ����

�� � � ������

� �

� ��� ������

�� � � � � �����

��� ��� ����� � ����

To determine the alternate depth, it should be noted that the specific

energy remains the same, i.e.

��

� ��� � ������

� � ���� � �� � ��

This equation has two positive roots, one of them is the original

depth of � � �����. The other is the alternate depth and is found as

� � ������.

18

18�

�

Example 1.5 Open channel flow takes place in a horizontal channel

transition. The channel sections are rectangular, and the flow rate is

� � ���� ��. At the entrance section, depth of flow is 1.5 �, and

width of channel is 2 � . At the exit section, a critical depth is

encountered. What should be the downstream width �? Ignore head

losses at the transition.

�� � � Top�view�

��� �

�� Profile�view�

Solution

For horizontal channels, when head losses are neglected, Equation

(1.6) can be written as

��� ���

�� � � �� �

�� ��

or

�� � ��

For the entrance section

��� ����� �� ����� �� ��

�� � �� � � �� � � �� �

�� �� ��

����� � ������

� ��� � � �������

� � ����

For the exit with the rectangular cross section, since we would like

to have critical flow conditions

19

19�

�

��� �

�� � �� � � � � �������

�� � �

which can be solved for �� � ������� . To determine the

downstream width of the channel with the critical flow conditions,

����� ���� � ������

�� � � ��

���� ����� � �����

resulting with

� � �������

Uniform flow is considered to be steady only, because unsteady uniform

flow is practically nonexistent. In open channels, uniform flow occurs

when all the forces exerted on the water body are in balance and there is

no acceleration of flow. Under uniform flow, the gravity force is balanced

with the resistance force. The pressure distribution of water becomes in

this case hydrostatic with � � ��. This flow can be assumed to occur in

prismatic open channels with constant cross section and bed slope. The

main properties of uniform flow are the constant water depth and velocity,

and the parallel slopes of channel bed �� , water surface �� and energy

grade line�� (Figure 1.1). It can be shown that for uniform flow �� and ��

are equivalent, as �� � ����� � ���� and �� � ��� � ����� � ���� ,

but �� is not, defined as �� � �� �� � ����. However, if the longitudinal

slope angle � is small enough (� � ��� ), then �� , �� and �� will be the

same and can be considered equal to a common slope �.

The Darcy-Weisbach equation can be used to derive the velocity of

flow in an open channel

20

20�

�

� ��

�� � � �������������������������������������������������

�� ��

Assuming a small longitudinal slope angle � and substituting by � � �� �

�,

� � �������������������������������������������������������

where

��

��� ������������������������������������������������������

�

which is termed the Chezy equation and � is called the Chezy coefficient.

The friction factor� is a function of channel roughness, hydraulic radius

and Reynolds number. However, for completely turbulent flows 1 , the

Reynolds number can be eliminated from the analysis of open channel

flow, and thus the friction factor can be determined explicitly from the

Colebrook equation as

� �

� ������� ����������������������������������������

�� �����

this equation is limited, because more investigation is required for the

determination of the proper value of �.�

by proposing that

������������������������������������������������������������

1

Completely turbulent flow becomes independent of Reynolds number by which the water

viscosity will have no significant effect on flow friction and energy head loss.

21

21�

�

� ���

� ���������������������������������������������������������

� � ��

���� ���

� ���������������������������������������������

�

to obtain

� ��� ���

�� � � ������������������������������������������

�

���� ��� ���

�� � � ����������������������������������

�

where � � roughness or Manning coefficient of the channel. The Manning

equation is widely adopted for the estimation of water velocity in open

channels. It should be noted that� has units of ��� and ������ for SI and

English units, respectively, and � has units of� and �� for SI and English

units, respectively. Same values for �are used for both systems of units.

Several tables are available in the literature for the selection of the � value

for a particular open channel. In general, the selection of the � value is

based on best engineering judgment. Representative values for various

surfaces are given in Table (1.2).

An examination of the Manning equation reveals that it can be

solved explicitly for �, � or �, while a trial and error solution is necessary

when it is required to find the flow depth or any of the remaining

parameters. The depth associated with uniform flow is designated �� and it

is called uniform or normal depth.

22

22�

�

Lined canals �

Untreated gunite 0.016

Wood, planed 0.012

Wood, unplaned 0.013

Concrete, troweled 0.012

Concrete, wood forms, unfinished 0.015

Rubble in cement 0.020

Asphalt, smooth 0.013

Asphalt, rough 0.016

Natural channels

Gravel beds plus large boulders 0.040

Earth, straight, with some grass 0.026

Earth, winding, no vegetation 0.030

Earth, winding 0.050

open channel given �� � ���� �� , � � ����� , � � ������ and

� � ���.

Solution

� � ��� � ���

� � � � ��� � � � ���

� ���

�� �

� � � ���

Using

23

23�

�

� ��� ���

�� �� �

�

� ��� ���

�� �� � � �����������

����� � � � ���

the flow depth is determined as

�� � �����

� � ������ � ����, �� � ����, �� � �� � �, � � ����� and

� � �����, determine the bottom width �.

Solution

��� ��

� � �� � ��� � �� � � � � � � �� � �� � � � � � �

� �

� � � � ��� � �� � �� � �� � � � � ���

� �����

�� �

� � � ���

Using

���� ��� ���

�� �� �

�

���� � � � � � ���

��� � �� � � � �� � � ����������

����� � � ���

The channel bottom width is determined as

� � �����

24

24�

�

Most Efficient Section

A common concept used for the design of uniform open channels is the

most efficient section. This design concept is typically valid for

nonerodible open channels 1 and is employed to determine the channel

cross section with the greatest water discharge capacity for a given area,

slope and roughness coefficient.

From the Manning equation it is seen that for a given �, �� and �,

the water discharge � is maximized when the wetted perimeter � is

minimized. From a hydraulic point of view, the increased water discharge

resulting from minimum � is due to the reduction in the contact area by

which the head loss due to friction is reduced. There is another advantage

of determining minimum�� for a channel in that the construction cost of

the lining material is also reduced.

The solution to obtain � minimum requires

�� ���

� ������������������ � � ������������������������������������

�� ��

To demonstrate the process of determining the most efficient section,

consider a rectangular cross section with

�

�� � �� � �������������������������������������������������

�

Here, the solution of the above derivatives results with � � �� � . Using

� � �� yields � � ��. Thus, if the width of a rectangular channel is twice

the depth of water, the channel will flow most efficiently. Table (1.3)

presents the geometric elements for most efficient sections for different

channel geometries.

������������������������������������������������������������

1

�For�erodible�open�channels,�the�principle�of�maximum�permissible�velocity�that�will�not�

cause�erosion�of�the�channel�boundary�is�used�to�determine�the�efficient�section.���

25

25�

�

One comment merits mentioning. Although the cross sections

presented in Table (1.3) are most efficient, the practical aspect of

constructing a channel accordingly may not be always straightforward.

Difficulties can be found in the excavation of soil and in the use of

material for channel lining that would make investigating other design

Cross section

A P B

�

Trapezoid, half of a hexagon ��� � ���� ���

�

� �

Semicircle � �� ��

�

�

designed for the most efficient section but should be modified for

practicability.

Example 1.8A rectangular channel is to be constructed with

� � ������� to handle a design flow rate of � � ������ ��. The

lining of the channel is to be unfinished concrete with � � �����.

Using the most efficient cross section method, determine the depth

and width of the channel to be excavated.

Solution

For the most efficient rectangular section,

� � �� �

26

26�

�

� � ��

� �� � �

�� � �

� �� �

Therefore,

� ��� ��� � � ���

�� �� � � ��� � � � � � ���

� � �

�

� � �

��� � ��� � � � � ������������

����� �

yields

� � �������

The width of the channel can be obtained from

� � �� � �������

Rapidly varied flow is a nonuniform flow with the water depth changing

significantly over a relatively short distance. Accordingly, the loss in

energy due to the boundary friction is generally small and can be

neglected. Rather, most of the head loss within the flow is caused by the

high turbulence. For this case, the pressure distribution within the flow

cannot be assumed hydrostatic as the streamlines are highly curved. An

example of a rapidly varied flow is the hydraulic jump.

Hydraulic Jump

A hydraulic jump occurs in the transition from supercritical to subcritical

flow (Figure 1.3). The depths of flow upstream and downstream of the

jump are called conjugate depths. The transition between supercritical and

subcritical flow results with an effective energy loss that cannot be

neglected. Owing to the complex internal flow pattern with energy losses

27

27�

�

that initially are unknown, the momentum equation is employed for the

formulation and analysis of the hydraulic jump problem.

��

��� ���

�� ��

Subcritical

�� Flow

Supercritical

��

Flow

�

�

Figure (1.3). Hydraulic jump.

�

For a system of one input and one output as in Figure (1.4), the

momentum equation can be written as

� �� � ����� � �� �

Here, the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to conditions before and after the jump,

respectively. Considering the forces

�� � �� � �� � � ��� � � ����� � �� �

where �� and �� � hydrostatic forces at two sections; �� � boundary

friction force; and � � weight of water. Since �� and � ��� � can be

neglected for a short distance and for a small �, respectively, then

�� � �� � ����� � �� �

For a rectangular cross section of width��

� � � � �

��� � � ���� � � �� � � �

� � �� � �� �

28

28�

�

� (2)�

�

(1)

Flow� � ��� ��

�� �

�� �� �

�� �

�

�

�

Figure (1.4). A system of one input and one output in nonuniform open channel flow.

�

��

�� � ��� � �� � ����� ������������������������������������

�

��

�� � ��� � �� � ����� �������������������������������������

�

where ��� � �� ����� and ��� � �� ����� .

The head loss�� through the hydraulic jump can be computed as

�� ��

�� � �� � �� � ��� � � � ��� � �

����� �� ����� ��

yielding

��� � �� ��

�� � ����������������������������������������������

��� ��

It should be emphasized again that Equations (1.17) and (1.18) are valid

only for rectangular open channels.

29

29�

�

The length of the jump � can be estimated from Figure (1.5). The

location of the hydraulic jump is usually determined from water surface

profile computations both upstream and downstream of the jump.

�

Figure (1.5). Length of hydraulic jump for a rectangular open channel (source: Chow 1959, Open-

Channel Hydraulics).

drainage systems. The most common application is to provide energy

dissipation in hydraulic structures such as dams and weirs in order to

prevent scouring downstream of the structures. The hydraulic jump can

also be used to maintain high water levels in channels for irrigation or

other water distribution purposes. Knowledge of the surface profile of a

hydraulic jump is desirable in this case for designing the freeboard for the

channel. The hydraulic jump is also important in the design and analysis of

storm sewer systems as the increase in downstream water depth may result

in surcharged pipe flow conditions.

30

30�

�

channel. The discharge in the channel is � � ������ �� and the depth

upstream of the jump is �� � ����� . Determine the downstream

depth �� , the energy loss ��, and the length of the jump �.

Solution

Given that,

�� ���� ������ � ����

��� � � � � ���

���� ���� ����� � ���

then

�� ���

�� � ��� � �� � ����� � � ��� � �� � ������� �

� �

� �����

The energy loss is determined from,

��� � �� �� ���� � �����

�� � � � ������

��� �� � � ��� � ���

� is determined from Figure (1.5) with ��� � ��� to have ���� �

����, and hence

� � ������ � ���� � ��� � ��������

Gradually varied flow is a nonuniform flow with a water depth changing

slowly over a relatively long distance so that the water surface can be

assumed continuous. Unlike uniform flow, the three slopes of channel

bottom �� , water surface �� and energy grade line�� are no longer parallel.

Owing to the reason that the energy losses in this case are due to the

boundary friction along the channel length, the water surface profile for

31

31�

�

gradually varied flow can be determined from the energy equation. Given

�� � �� �� , small � to have �� � �� �� , and hydrostatic pressure

distribution � � ��,�the energy equation can be written as

��� ���

� �� � �� �� � � �� � �� ��

�� ��

which is rearranged

��� ���

��� � � � ��� � �

�� ��

� �� � ��

��

This equation can be written in the limit as

� �� �� �� ��

�� � � � � � �� � ��

�� �� �� �� ��

It can also be shown that ����� � � � �� � , and thus

�� �� � ��

� ���������������������������������������������������

�� � � �� �

which is the differential equation for gradually varied flow, valid for any

channel shape.

As can be noticed, ����� represents the slope of the water surface

with respect to the bottom of the channel. For ����� � �, the water depth

� is constant, which is the case for uniform flow. For ����� � � , �

increases with �, suggesting a backwater curve with a flow depth that

increases with the distance. For ����� � �, � is inversely proportional to

�, which is a drawdown curve with a water depth that decreases with the

distance.

The differential equation for gradually varied flow emphasizes three

special cases. If ����� � �, the water surface profile will be tangent at ��

, which is the case for uniform flow. If ����� � � , singularity or

undefined point at �� � � exists, which is a critical flow with water depth

32

32�

�

�� . The third case is ����� � ���, implying both water surface being

tangent to the uniform depth of flow, and singularity at critical flow

conditions. Cases 1 and 2 tell that so long as it is gradually varied flow, the

water depth will never become �� and �� . Case 3 is seldom encountered,

because uniform flow at critical conditions is unstable.

Accordingly, the water surface profile for gradually varied flow can

be classified as shown in Table (1.4). The actual flow depth �, the normal

depth�� , and the critical depth�� divide the flow in the channel into three

zones: zone 1 with � greater than both �� and �� ; zone 2 with � between

�� and �� ; and zone 3 with � less than both �� and �� . Then the slope can

be designated as mild “M”, steep “S”, or critical “C”, depending on

whether �� is greater than, less than, or equal to �� , respectively. A

horizontal slope “H” and an adverse slope “A” occur1 when �� � � and

�� � � , respectively. As seen in this table, there will be 12 possible

profiles, each classified by both the type of slope and the zone number. For

example, an M1 profile indicates a mild slope (�� � �� ) and the actual

depth of water is in zone 1 (� � �� � �� ).

It is also worth noting the water surface profile for special flow

conditions. As the flow condition tends to critical, the water surface

approaches an infinite slope����� � � under which a hydraulic drop or a

hydraulic jump may occur similar to that found between M3 to M2. The

flow condition for this case is no more gradually but rapidly varied flow.

In addition, as the flow tends to be uniform, the water profile approaches

�� asymptotically similar to curves M1, M2, S2 and S3. Furthermore, as

������������������������������������������������������������

1

�These�types�of�flows�exist�only�for�a�short�section�in�a�more�complex�channel�reach,�since�

flow�cannot�continue�on�a�horizontal�bed�or�against�gravity�for�a�long�section.��

33

33�

�

zero and ����� � �� . Here, the water surface profile approaches a

horizontal asymptote similar to curves M1, S1 and C1.

�

Table (1.4). Classification of water surface profiles for gradually varied flow in open channels

Channel

Profile Type Depth Range

Conditions

� � �� � ��

M1

Mild

M2 �� � � � ��

�� � ��

M3 �� � �� � �

S1 � � �� � ��

Steep

S2 �� � � � ��

�� � ��

S3 �� � �� � �

C1 � � �� �� ��

Critical

�� � ��

C2 �� �� �� � �

H2 � � ��

Horizontal

�� � �

H3 �� � �

A2 � � ��

Adverse

�� � �

A3 �� � �

Control Sections

A section at which there is a known relation between the flow rate�and

the depth of flow�is called a control section. Some examples to control

sections are the followings: broad crested weir (critical depth occurs in the

vicinity of the crest of the weir); free overfall (the flow is critical at a

34

34�

�

distance ��� of to ��� from the brink); change of slope from mild to steep

(critical depth occurs at the point where the slope changes); and flow under

a sluice gate (critical depth occurs a short distance downstream from the

sluice gate). These all produce critical flow somewhere by which they

control the depth for some distance upstream or downstream. By

measuring the critical depth at a control section, the flow rate can

accurately be computed by setting Froude number (Equation 1.2) to be

equal to one.

The water surface profile can be computed numerically using the

differential equation of gradually varied flow. Equation (1.19) can be

written in the form

��

�� � �������������������������������������������������������

�� � ���

where

��� � ���

��� � �����������������������������������������������������

�

where ��� � average slope of the energy grade line between sections 1 and

2. The energy grade line changes in gradually varied flow due to the

variation in velocity along the channel reach. The computation of water

surface profile is based on calculating �� for as small changes in �by

assuming the flow between sections 1 and 2 to be uniform. Accordingly,

�� is approximated by the Manning equation. The computation of a water

surface profile begins at section 1 where the depth of flow is known 1 .

������������������������������������������������������������

1

�This�section�is�called�the�control�section,�which�defines�the�boundary�condition�for�the�

problem�and�exists�when�a�depth�discharge�relation�can�be�established.�

35

35�

�

Given the flow discharge for sections 1 and 2, the water velocity � ,

specific energy�, and energy grade line�� are estimated. The objective is

to find the distance between these two sections, ��. The computations then

proceed to find the distance to another section with specified flow

conditions using the previously determined conditions until the overall

distance is estimated for the water profile. The process of computing �� is

step by step in the upstream direction (negative ��) or in the downstream

direction (positive �� ). The accuracy of the procedure increases by

considering an increasing number of sections.

� � ����� and �� � ������ has a gradually varied flow profile as

shown in the figure. Calculate the total distance between A and B

using 0.1 m depth increments.

yo�

y�=�1.4�m�

M2�Profile�

Flow� y�=�1�m�

yc�

A� B�

Solution

The calculations in the table are obtained from the equations below,

resulting with � � ��������

� � ��������������������������

� ��

�� � �����������������������

� � � ��

36

36�

�

�

��

�

��

� ���

��

�� �

�� � � ��� � ��������������������������������

��

�� � ���� � ��

��� ���� � ��� ��

��� �

�

��

�� �

�� � ���

y A R V E Sf �E� Sf �X�

1.4 11.2 1.04 1.79 1.56 6.84� ����

1.3 10.4 0.98 1.92 1.49 8.54� ���� -0.07 7.69� ���� 414.2

1.2 9.6 0.92 2.08 1.42 1.09� ���� -0.07 9.70� ���� 189.19

1.1 8.8 0.86 2.27 1.36 1.42� ���� -0.06 1.25� ���� 92.31

1 8 0.80 2.50 1.32 1.89� ���� -0.04 1.65� ���� 38.1

Total = 733.79

37

37�

�

Problems

1. Determine the uniform flow depth y, area A, and wetted perimeter P for

the following conditions: a) trapezoidal channel, �� � ���, �� � ���,

� � ��� m, � � �� m3/s, � � �����, � � �������; b) circular channel,

� � ��� m, � � ���� m3/s, � � �����, � � �����; and c) rectangular

channel, � � �� ft, � � ���� ft3/sec, � � ����, S � 0.0004 . [Answers:

a) � � �� �� m, � � ��� �� m2, � � ��� �� m; b) � � �� ��� m,

� � �� �� m2, � � �� �� m; c) � � ��� � ft, � � ��� ft2, � � ��� �

ft]

�� � �� � ����, � � ��� m/s, � � �����, and � � �����. Find the

bottom width �. [Answer: 1.8 m]

3H : 1V is to carry 10 m3/s at an average velocity of 0.8 m/s. What

slope should it have at uniform flow conditions? [Answer: �� =

0.00012]

������ and Manning � � ���� is to carry 40 m3/s at uniform flow

conditions? Sketch the cross section indicating base width, depth of

flow, and side slopes. [Answers: � = 1.95 m; �� = 1.69 m]

5. Uniform flow takes place in a wide open channel. If the flow rate is

doubled, by what percentage the depth of flow increases? [Answer:

51.6%]

38

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�

6. Uniform flow takes place in the two channels shown. Case 1 represents

a rectangular open channel, and Case 2 shows the same channel with

the addition of a thin center board. By what percent is the flow rate

reduced because of the addition of the board? All surfaces are of the

same material. [Answer: 23.7%]

1�m 1�m�

whose cross section is as shown. If the flow rate is � � ��m3/s and

Manning � � �����, what is the depth of flow? What is the slope of the

channel? [Answers: 2.98 m; 0.0036]

4�m

2�m� 1

1

handle a design flow rate of 4.4 m3/s. The lining of the channel is to be

smooth asphalt. Based on the criterion of most efficient section,

determine the dimensions of the channel to be excavated. [Answers:

� � � m, � � � m]

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�

9. Show that for circular pipes of diameter �, the hydraulic radius� is

related to the pipe diameter by ��� � ��.

� ��

10. Use Darcy equation �� � � and Manning equation � �

� ��

�

���� � ��� to prove that � � � � ��� ���� �����.

�

of 3 m and side slopes of 2H : 1V. Calculate the critical depth.

[Answer: 1.50 m]

12. Water flows in a triangular channel with side slopes 1:1. The

discharge is � � ��m3/s. a) Plot the specific energy� for values of

depth ��between 1 m and 4 m at 0.2 m intervals. b) Using the above

plot, determine the critical depth of flow. Check your answer by

computations from the condition that �� � �. c) Using the above plot,

determine the alternate depth�� for �� � � m. d) Compute the Froude

numbers for the two depths mentioned in part c) above.

13. Calculate the critical depth and critical energy for a discharge of

10 m 3 /s in the following channels: a) rectangular channel, � � � m; b)

triangular channel, �� � �� � � ; c) trapezoidal channel, � � � m,

�� � �� � � ; and d) circular channel � � � m. [Answers: a)

�� � �� ��� m, �� � �� ��� m; b) �� � �� ��� m, �� � �� ��� m;

�� � �� �� m, �� � �� �� m; �� � �� ���� m, �� � �� ��� m]

40

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�

14. Water is flowing in a rectangular channel at a discharge of 100

3

ft /sec. If the channel has a roughness coefficient � � �����, width

� � �� ft, and bottom slope � � ������, determine whether the flow is

subcritical or supercritical, compute the alternate depth, and plot the E-

Curve. Assume uniform flow. [Answers: subcritical, � � �� ��� ft]

carries a flow of 19 m3/s at a depth of 2.5 m. The flow enters a

transition region in which the bottom elevation is lowered by �� � ���

m. Calculate the flow depth and velocity in the transition, and plot the

E-Curve. [Answers: � � � m, � � �� ��� m/s]

16. Using Microsoft Excel, plot and tabulate the specific energy� as a

function of flow depth � for a rectangular channel having � � �� m3/s

and � � �� m.

17. Open channel flow takes place in a trapezoidal channel with bottom

width 1.5 m, and side slopes 2H : 1V. For a certain flow situation, the

alternate depths are �� � �m and �� � ��m. a) What is the flow rate? b)

What is the critical depth of flow? [Answers: 72 m3/s; 2.8 m]

with side slopes 2H : 1V to a rectangular section. In order to have

critical flow at the rectangular exit section, what should be the width �

of the section? The flow rate is � � ��m3/s. Ignore losses. [Answer:

1.94 m]

41

41�

�

1��

1�� 2�m�

�

1�m� �� �

��

2.5 m wide. From the depth measurements shown, estimate the flow

rate in the channel. [Answer: 8.56 m3/s]

Hydraulic jump

�� �� � ��m�

�� � � m

��

circular with diameter 1.2 m. Before the jump, the water depth is 0.6 m,

and just after the jump the sewer is full with a gage pressure of 7 kPa at

the top. Estimate the flow rate.[Answer: 3.86 m3/s]

channel that is 5 m wide. The depths �� and �� are 2.5 m and 10 cm,

respectively. The horizontal distances between locations 1, 2, and 3 are

sufficiently short that rapidly varied flow conditions can be assumed to

occur. If head loss is neglected through the sluice gate, determine a)

discharge �; b) depth downstream of the jump �� ; c) head loss through

the jump ��; and d) length of the jump �. [Answers: a) 3.433 m3/s; b)

0.93 m; c) 1.537 m; d) 5.7 m]

42

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�

Sluice gate

Q�

1� 2 3

22. A hydraulic jump takes place in a triangular channel with side slopes

1H :1V. Depth of flow before the jump is 1 m, and it is 2 m after the

jump. Determine the power loss through the jump. [Answer: 24.7 kW]

23. The head loss�� across a hydraulic jump is described by the equation

��� ���

�� � � �� � � ��

�� ��

where the subscripts 1 and 2 refer to the upstream and downstream

locations, respectively. Show that the dimensionless head loss�� ��� is

given by

�� �� ���� �� �

��� � �� � � � �

�� �� � ��

24. Gradually varied flow takes place in a rectangular open channel 4 m

wide having a bottom slope of 0.0025. If the depths of flow at two

sections 65 m apart are �� � ��� m and �� � ��� m, estimate the

Manning roughness coefficient � using only one step of calculations.

With this value of �, determine the normal depth of flow and classify

the water surface profile. Assume the flow rate is � � �� m3/s.

[Answers: 0.016; 2 m; M1 profile]

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�

25. Water flows at � � �� m3/s in a rectangular channel with � � � m,

� � �����, and �� � ������. If the flow depth at a gaging station is

measured as m, classify the gradually varied water surface profile,

and use the differential equation of gradually varied flow to state

whether the depth increases or decreases in the downstream direction.

Assume the energy slope �� � ������ . [Answer: M2 profile, ���

�� � ��� ���� decreases]

26. Water flows in a triangular channel with side slopes 2H : 1V. The

flow rate is 20 m3/s, and the Manning roughness is � � �����. At a

certain point in the channel, slope of the channel bed changes from

�� � �����to 0.008. a) Determine the critical depth and the normal

depth for the two channel reaches. b) Draw the qualitative water surface

profile and classify the profiles. c) Calculate the depths of flow in the

two channel reaches and draw the water surface profile. Carry out

computations until the depth differs from the normal depth of flow by

about ±5%. Use a total of about 15 sections for both channel reaches.

�� � �����

�� � �����

� � �����, and �� � ������. If the flow depth at a gaging station is

measured as 1 m, use the direct step method to estimate the location

where the flow depth is 1.1 m. [Answer: 5.7 m]

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28. A trapezoidal channel with � � �� ft, �� � �� � ���, � � �����,

and �� � ������. The channel is carrying a discharge � � ��� ft3/sec.

At a certain section a low dam was constructed to produce a depth of 8

ft in the channel. Using Microsoft Excel, tabulate and plot the resulting

water surface profile and find its total length from the dam site to an

upstream section where the flow is 1% greater than the normal depth.

45

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Chapter 2

Chapter 2

Surface Water Hydrology

Surface Water Hydrology

List of Symbols

� � area, L2

� � runoff coefficient, dimensionless

�� � runoff coefficient of �� , dimensionless

�� � composite runoff coefficient, dimensionless

� � cumulative infiltration, L

� � infiltration rate, L/T

�� � final infiltration rate, L/T

�� � initial infiltration rate, L/T

� � inflow at upstream location, L3/T

� � precipitation intensity , L/T

� � storage constant, T

� � decay constant, T-1

� � precipitation depth, L

���� � average precipitation depth, L

� � outflow at downstream location, L3/T

�� � peak runoff rate, L3/T

� � storage volume, L3

� � time, T

� � weighting constant, dimensionless

� � precipitation intensity index, L/T

46

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�

2.1� Introduction

Hydrology is the science dealing with the properties, occurrence,

distribution, and circulation of water on and below the earth surface and in

the atmosphere. Although water covers about 75% of the earth surface, a

small percentage is used directly for water supply. This is because about

96.5% of the earth water is found in the oceans as saltwater. If the earth

were a uniform sphere, the oceans would be sufficient to cover it totally to

a depth of about 2.6 km. Of the earth freshwater, about two thirds is polar

ice1 and most of the remainder is groundwater going down to a depth of

200 to 600 m. Below this depth, most groundwater is saline. Only 0.006%

of freshwater is accessibly contained in rivers. Despite the quite small

percentage of freshwater relative to the large volumes of saltwater in

oceans, this source is renewed continuously by the hydrologic cycle. The

hydrologic cycle is a process that begins by the evaporation of water in the

oceans and other water bodies. Evaporation is caused by the radiant energy

received from the sun. The water vapor then forms the clouds, which falls

back to the land as precipitation. The water that falls on land may directly

reach rivers, lakes, or oceans as surface runoff; or it may infiltrate through

the soil to form groundwater; or it may be intercepted by vegetation from

which it is transpired back into the atmosphere. Some snow and ice can be

stored in the earth polar regions and in high mountain areas. The processes

of the hydrologic cycle are described graphically in Figure (2.1). A

������������������������������������������������������������

1

The large amount of freshwater in Polar ice comes from the salty ocean. The salt molecules

are rejected back into the liquid as ice forms. However, as global warming continues, the

supply of this freshwater source may actually decrease as the melting polar ice cap will mix

back with the salty ocean. The increased volume of ocean water will also cause sea levels to

increase, thus contaminating freshwater sources along coastal regions.

47

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common practice is that hydrologists assess these processes quantitatively

by empirical or rational equations, because the path that a drop of water

will follow is apparently difficult to describe analytically.

at the outlet of a specific area called drainage basin, watershed, or

catchment (Figure 2.2). The basin constitutes a unit of hydrologic system

where all the input precipitation is discharged through the outlet as

streamflow unless it is lost by abstraction processes such as infiltration.

Thus the basin may be used as a reference area for calculating the

availability of water for a specific purpose. The boundary of a basin is

separated topographically by local geographical divides such as a ridge,

hill, or mountain that can be traced on a map. No specific limits have been

established for the size of a drainage basin as the area can be very small or

48

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1

large . A large basin can be divided into smaller subbasins or

subwatersheds when it is necessary to improve calculations.

2.2 Precipitation

Water that falls from the atmosphere to the earth surface is called

precipitation, which includes rainfall, snow, sleet, hail, fog, and dew. Most

of the precipitation is generally in the form of rainfall; therefore, the terms

precipitation and rainfall are considered synonymous. Amount of rainfall

is typically measured by a rain gage (Figure 2.3). The depth of water

collected in the cylinder during a storm indicates the amount of rainfall in

������������������������������������������������������������

1

For example,

a the largest river basin in the United States is the Mississippi river basin

draining 40% of that country with the main stem of the river being about 3900 km long.

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inches or millimeters. Rainfall intensity is a common parameter to describe

the variation of rainfall depth with respect to storm duration

�

�� ���������������������������������������������������������������

�

where � � precipitation intensity; � � precipitation depth; and � � time

duration of rainfall. A plot of rainfall intensity over time is called

hyetograph. Instead of rain gages, radar can be used. The most important

advantage of using radar for rainfall measurement is the large area

coverage with high spatial and temporal resolution. Satellite became also a

possible method for rainfall measurements. Satellite provides the only

systematic means of measuring rainfall over three quarters of the earth

and, thus, is widely associated with global climate change studies.

Rainfall measurements collected over a large area usually show

considerable variations. For different gage stations1, the average rainfall

over an area can usually be estimated by three methods.

The arithmetic mean is the simplest method for determining average

precipitation over an area and is calculated from the relation

�

�

���� � � �� �������������������������������������������������������

�

���

������������������������������������������������������������

1

Station is a permanent or temporary location where observations or measurements are made.

Many types of stations are available such as rainfall stations, weather stations, depth-

discharge stations, and ocean stations.

50

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�

�

�

Figure (2.3). Rain gages.

�

51

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�

number of gages. This method is satisfactory if the gages are uniformly

distributed over the area.

If some gages are considered more representative of the area than others,

then relative weights may be assigned in calculating average precipitation

using the thiessen polygon method. This method divides the watershed

into polygons, and the point precipitation�� located at the centroid of the

polygon is considered to estimate ���� as follows. Adjacent gages are

connected by straight lines on a map. Perpendicular bisectors of these lines

are drawn. The area �� enclosed by the perpendicular bisectors is

determined, and the gage near the centroid of each area is considered to

best represent the precipitation in that area. Figure (2.4) shows the thiessen

polygons for a small watershed. The average precipitation for the whole

P3

P2

P4

P1 A1

�

Figure (2.4). Example of thiessen polygons for a small watershed. Solid circles represent gage points.

�

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�

area is then calculated by

��

��� �� ��

���� � ����������������������������������������������������

��

��� ��

mean method, although the procedure here is inflexible as a new thiessen

network must be constructed each time there is a change in the position of

gages in the network. This method also assumes that the rainfall is

uniformly distributed over a relevant polygon, which is not always the

case.

Isohyetal Method

This method overcomes the difficulties found in the previously mentioned

arithmetic mean and thiessen polygon methods. Precipitation values

measured at all gages are indicated on a map. Lines of equal precipitation

referred as isohyets are then drawn. It may be noted that the isohyets

follow closely contours of elevation (Figure 2.5). The average

precipitation is then calculated from

�� �����

��

��� � � ��

�

���� � ������������������������������������

��

��� ��

the isohyets, the computations can be conveniently automated by using

contouring computer programs.

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�

P1

P2

P3

P4

A1

�

�

Figure (2.5). Example of isohyets for a small watershed.

2.3 Abstractions

Water surface runoff at the outlet of a basin is estimated by subtracting the

water losses including interception, depression storage, and infiltration that

are commonly referred to as abstractions from the rainfall input.

Interception is the process by which rainfall is abstracted before reaching

the ground. Dense vegetation such as wooded areas1 and roofs of buildings

that are not hydraulically connected by pipes to the ground surface are the

primary forms of interception. This water is transferred to the atmosphere

by evaporation. Depression storage is water accumulating in ground

������������������������������������������������������������

1

In projects involving clearing of wooded areas, increased surface runoff will be encountered

in storms because of reduced interception.

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depressions during a storm event that does not contribute to surface runoff.

This water is infiltrated into the ground and the remainder is transferred to

the atmosphere by evaporation and transpiration processes. Infiltration is

the dominant abstraction process by which water seeps into the ground

through the soil surface.

Evapotranspiration�

Knowledge of water losses due to evaporation and transpiration is

important to account for abstraction processes such as interception and

depression storage. Evaporation is the transfer of water from liquid to

vapor, while transpiration is the process by which plants remove moisture

from the soil and release it to the air as vapor. Evaporation and

transpiration processes can be considered together as evapotranspiration.

The rate of evapotranspiration is difficult to quantify, since it can vary

considerably from one area to another. An approach to estimate the

evapotranspiration over an area is attained by using an

evapotranspirometer, which is a container of soil and vegetation from

which the water loss is measured by weighting all water inflow from the

surface and outflow from the bottom of the container. However, as it is

also more convenient for desert regions, the estimation is simplified

sometimes by considering losses due to evaporation only. A typical

measuring instrument of evaporimeter is shown in Figure (2.6), which is

based on filling a circular pan with water and determining the decrease in

water levels after a specific period of time.

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�

�

�

Figure (2.6). Pan evaporimeter.

Infiltration

Infiltration is the process by which water seeps into the ground through the

earth surface. The spatial variation of infiltration rate over an area is

influenced by many factors including the properties of soil and vegetation

cover. Water surface runoff occurs only if the rainfall rate for a given time

is higher than the infiltration rate. The infiltration rate for a specific

location can be measured by a double ring infiltrometer (Figure 2.7). This

instrument consists of two rings driven partly into the ground and filled

with water. The double ring design helps preventing divergent flow in

layered soils. The outer ring acts as a barrier to encourage only vertical

flow from the inner ring. The water level in the inner and outer rings

should always be maintained at a constant level. The variation of water

level in the inner ring, i.e. amount of water added to keep the water level

56

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�

�

�

Figure (2.7). Double ring infiltrometer.

constant in the inner ring is recorded with respect to time. This can be used

to determine the volume of water infiltrated per unit area for a given time

and produce the infiltration chart for this location.

To analyze the infiltration process, the unsteady water flow through

the earth may be correlated with the condition of wetting front, which is

the interface under the ground between the wet and dry soil. Several

empirical models describing the infiltration rate of water through soil are

available, each with underlying assumptions and limitations. One of the

earliest infiltration models is the Horton equation (Chow et al., 1988).

Horton observed that infiltration � began at some initial rate �� and

exponentially decreased until it reached a constant rate �� caused by filling

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�

of soil pores by water (Figure 2.8). Horton model can be expressed

mathematically as

� � �� � ��� � �� �� ��� ������������������������������������������

where � � infiltration rate at any time �; �� � initial infiltration rate; �� �

final infiltration rate; and � � a decay constant. The total volume of water

per unit area that has infiltrated until a specific time is called the

Infiltration, f

fo

fc

Time, t

�

Figure (2.8). Horton’s exponential assumption for infiltration process.

�

equation

�� � ��

� � �� � � �� � � ��� ��������������������������������������

�

where � � cumulative infiltration. Table (2.1) provides examples for the

typical infiltration parameters of �� , �� , and � estimated for gatch and

sandy materials.

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�

Table�(2.1).�Typical�infiltration�parameters�estimated�for�specific�soils�in�Kuwait.�

�

Soil�Type fo fc k

(mm/h) (mm/h) (h�1)

*Gatch 175 14 14

Sand 618 42 4

�

*Gatch�is�a�soil�type�with�more�clay.�

resulting not only from infiltration but also from other processes such as

evapotranspiration is the � � index. This method assumes a constant

average loss rate of magnitude � throughout the entire basin. Rainfall

above � is called excess rainfall1, and below � are the losses. Figure (2.9)

shows a description of the � �index.

Rainfall intensity, i

Excess rainfall

Losses

Time, t

�

Figure (2.9). Description of the � �index.

������������������������������������������������������������ �

1

Excess rainfall is the rainfall amounts that will runoff over the basin after subtracting losses

from evaporation, transpiration, infiltration, etc.

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�

estimated as �� � 88 mm/h the time constant � � 1.2 h-1 and the

equilibrium capacity �� � 7mm/h.� Use the Horton equation to find

the values of � at � �10 ���, 30 ���, 1 h, 2 h and 6 h, and the

cumulative infiltration capacity � over the 6 h period.�

Solution

Horton equation is

� � �� � ��� � �� �� ���

Substituting the values for �� , �� , and �

� � � � ��� � ��� �����

the following table can be obtained by solving for each �

t f

(mm/h)

10 min = 1/6 h 73.3

30 min = 1/2 h 51.4

1h 31.4

2h 14.3

6h 7.1

�� � ��

� � �� � � �� � � ��� �

�

�� � �

� � ���� � �� � � ������� � � ��������

���

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�

2.4 Hydrograph Analysis

Hydrograph, which is a graph showing changes in water discharge over a

period of time for a given point on a channel or conduit, is commonly used

in many engineering applications. For example, hydrologists depend on

hydrographs to provide peak flow rates so that hydraulic structures can be

designed to accommodate the flow safely. Also, the area under the curve

of a hydrograph can provide the volume of water, which allows analysis of

reservoir sizes, storage tanks, detention ponds, and other facilities that deal

with volumes of runoff passing the point of interest during a time period.

The shape of the hydrograph changes according to the properties of

the basin and meteorological conditions such as rainfall pattern,

hydrologic losses, groundwater flow, and surface characteristics including

size, roughness, shape, slope and imperviousness. A specific hydrograph

can be estimated by following two main steps. Initially, continuous records

of water flow versus depth are taken at the channel location. In small

channels, these records are estimated by using a device such as a weir. In

large channels, placing a flow measuring device in the channel becomes

practically difficult, and instead flow rates are measured by using a current

meter. Then, a rating curve is plotted, which is a relation between flow rate

and stage 1.Indirect methods to estimate the water discharge for a given

depth is accomplished by employing open channel flow equations such as

that of Manning or Chezy. Next, the relation between flow rate and depth

is used to transform continuous records of stage versus time into a

hydrograph.

������������������������������������������������������������

1

Stage refers to the elevation of water surface above some datum and it is recorded using a

gaging measuring station.

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Hydrographs can be classified into annual and storm hydrographs.

Annual hydrograph

shows the long term water balance in a watershed with a relation between

discharge and time over the year, while a storm hydrograph shows the

effects of a particular rainfall event on the discharge of a channel. The

total volume of flow under the annual hydrograph is the basin yield.

Annual hydrographs may be perennial, ephemeral, or snow-fed (Figure

2.10). Perennials have continuous flow over the year which is typical of a

humid climate, and most of the basin yield comes from the subsurface

flow indicating that a large proportion of rainfall is infiltrated into the

basin and reaches the channel as groundwater. Ephemerals are typically

found in arid climates with long periods when the channel is dry indicating

that the groundwater table is considerably below the channel bed. Basin

yield from this watershed is the result of runoff from large storms. Snow-

fed annual hydrograph has a basin yield occurring mainly in spring and

early summer from snowmelt. The large volume of water stored as snow

and its steady release develop smoother flow variations over the year than

for the perennial or ephemeral.

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�

Perennial

Ephemeral

Snow-fed

�

Figure (2.10). Annual hydrographs (source: Chow et al. 1988, Applied Hydrology).

63

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�

A typical storm hydrograph is shown in Figure (2.11) with the

following various parts

AB: baseflow before the storm (groundwater)

BXCYD: storm hydrograph (or direct runoff hydrograph)

BXC: rising limb (concentration curve)

CYD: falling limb (recession curve)

XCY: peak segment

DE: baseflow after the storm (groundwater)

C: peak discharge

X

A

Y

B

D

E

t

�

�

baseflow and direct surface runoff hydrograph. Baseflow indicates the

groundwater contribution, and direct runoff indicates the runoff caused by

excess rainfall. The simplest method for the separation of baseflow and

direct runoff is by drawing a straight line from B to D. The portion of the

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hydrograph below BD is considered to be baseflow, and that above BD is

the direct runoff.

Time base of the hydrograph is defined as the time duration within which

the storm hydrograph occurs. Time base can be taken as equal to the sum

of the time duration of rainfall event producing the storm hydrograph and

the time of concentration for the drainage area. The time of concentration

is defined here as the flow time from the most remote point in the drainage

area to the outlet.

Unit Hydrograph

A unit hydrograph is the hydrograph of direct water surface runoff that

results from a total depth of one unit of excess rainfall (e.g., 1 in, 1 mm,

etc.) uniformly distributed over the basin and occurring within a specified

duration of time. Unit hydrograph method is useful in representing the

effects of variable rainfall patterns on a particular basin, since the

procedure developed can make use of the linear theory practiced in various

branches of engineering. Two characteristics of linear systems are that

they are linearly scalable (proportionality) and can be added together

(superposition). Scaling the unit hydrograph by the amount of excess

rainfall illustrates the concept of proportionality, while adding multiple

direct runoff hydrographs illustrates the concept of superposition.

The unit hydrograph theory is based on several assumptions. The

storm used in deriving the unit hydrograph should be restricted to constant

rainfall intensity within the time duration, implying a short duration storm

event. The time of concentration for the basin is considered to remain

constant for any rainfall intensity and duration. The rainfall intensity

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should also have uniform spatial distribution over the watershed area,

implying that the watershed is not too large. If the watershed area is too

large, then it can be divided into subareas of which each has to be analyzed

separately. The unit hydrograph reflects the unchanging characteristics of

the watershed when channel conditions remain unchanged and the

catchment does not have appreciable storage. An example for a violated

condition is when the watershed contains many reservoirs or when the

water flood overflows into the floodplain producing considerable storage.

The total duration of a unit hydrograph, referred as the base time, depends

only on rainfall duration, not the excess rainfall intensity. Here, the unit

hydrograph notation to be used is UHd, where “d” denotes the rainfall

duration.

Example 2.2 The rainfall hyetograph and the storm hydrograph for a

495 ��� basin are given. Assuming that the baseflow is constant at

100 �� ��, determine the � �index for the basin and ordinates of the

unit hydrograph.

Solution

The actual data given for the problem are listed in the Columns from

(1) to (3). Since the baseflow is assumed to be constant and equal to

100 �� ��, direct runoff hydrograph ordinates can be calculated in

Column (4) as the storm hydrograph values given in Column (3)

minus 100 �� ��. The area under the direct runoff hydrograph is the

total volume of excess rainfall. This volume should be equal to the

whole drainage basin filled with water to a depth

66

66�

�

�� � �����

���� � � ������� � ����

��� � ���

t Rainfall Storm DRH t from UH2

Intensity Hydrograph Beginning

(h) (mm/h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (h) (m3/s)

14:00 10 100 0

15:00 20 100 0 0 0

16:00 20 200 100 1 12.5

17:00 500 400 2 50

18:00 400 300 3 37.5

19:00 300 200 4 25

20:00 200 100 5 12.5

21:00 100 0 6 0

Total = 1100

Thus, the total effective rainfall for this storm is 8 ��. Referring to

the rainfall hyetograph below, the � � index can be obtained as

follows:

Assuming that � � �������, then the minimum possible value is

� � ������� resulting with

��� � �� � � � ��� � �� � � � ����� � ����

Therefore, our assumption that � is more than ������� is correct.

Then,� can be obtained by solving the relation

��� � �� � � � ��� � �� � � � ����

giving

� � ������

67

67�

�

Intensity

(mm/h)

20

10

This shows that the duration of the runoff producing rainfall starts at

15:00 hours and its intensity is constant at �� � �� � ������ .

Since the duration of the effective rain is 2 , the net rainfall is

� � � � ����, which of course equals the rainfall depth determined

previously. This particular unit hydrograph for the basin will be for a

2-hour duration and will be denoted by UH2. The ordinates of the 2-

hour unit hydrograph are obtained by dividing the direct runoff

values given in Column (4) by 8. Column (5) shows the time from

the beginning of the storm, and Column (6) gives the ordinates of

UH2.

Example 2.3 Use the given total hydrograph ordinates to find the

unit hydrograph UH1/2 resulting from a unit depth of ���� . The

storm has excess rainfall rate of 2.8 ���� and occurs within ½ hour

time duration.

Solution

The actual data given for the problem are listed in Columns (1), (2),

and (3). The direct runoff hydrograph (DRH) in Column (4) is

68

68�

�

calculated as the storm hydrograph values given in Column (2)

minus baseflow in Column (3). Since the excess rainfall occurs

within ½ h, its depth is calculated as ��� � ��� � ������. The unit

hydrograph in Column (5) is obtained by dividing the direct runoff

t Total Q Baseflow DRH UH1/2

(h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s)

1 3.3 3.3 0 0

2 3.5 3.5 0 0

3 7 3.5 3.5 2.5

4 16 3.6 12.4 8.9

5 13 3.5 9.5 6.8

6 9 3.4 5.6 4

7 6 3.4 2.6 1.8

8 3.3 3 0.3 0.2

9 2.7 2.7 0 0

10 2.4 2.4 0 0

ordinates of Column (4) with a unit of m3/s are divided by the excess

rainfall depth with unit of �� to obtain Column (5), the ordinates of

the latter have unit of �� �� rather than �� ���� �. This is due to the

concept of proportionality of which the unit hydrograph is based on

Example 2.4 Find the direct runoff hydrograph for a ���� excess

rainfall depth using the given unit hydrograph UH1 ordinates

resulting from a unit depth of ����.

Solution

The actual data given for the problem are listed in Columns (1) and

(2). The direct runoff hydrograph (DRH) in Column (3) is calculated

69

69�

�

as the unit hydrograph values given in Column (2) multiplied by

����.

t UH1 DRH

(h) (m3/s) (m3/s)

0 0 0

0.5 20 40

1 40 80

1.5 30 60

2 20 40

2.5 10 20

3 0 0

�

obtain the composite direct runoff hydrograph for the given rainfall

pattern.

� Excess rainfall depth

(mm)

5�

2.5�

1.25�

t (h)

Solution

The given rainfall pattern consists of four segments of duration 1 h

each and excess rainfall depths of 1.25, 1.25, 5, and 2.5���. The

hydrographs corresponding to the different segments of excess

rainfall depths are calculated in Columns (2) to (5). The composite

70

70�

�

direct runoff hydrograph ordinates in Column (6) are the sum of the

corresponding ordinates in Columns (2) to (5).

t 1.25UH1 1.25UH1 5UH1 2.5UH1 DRH

(h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s)

0 0 0

0.5 25 25

1 50 0 50

1.5 37.5 25 62.5

2 25 50 0 75

2.5 12.5 37.5 100 150

3 0 25 200 0 225

3.5 12.5 150 50 212.5

4 12.5 100 100 200

4.5 0 50 75 125

5 0 50 50

5.5 25 25

6 0 0

�

produces a composite storm hydrograph. In these cases, the unit

hydrograph can be obtained indirectly by following the reverse procedure

to the one shown in the previous example.

For a given unit hydrograph of a specific duration, another one with

different duration can be derived for the same watershed by two methods.

Lagging Method

Using a unit hydrograph of duration a hours, another one with duration b

hours can be obtained by laggingUHa by a hours as many as b/a times and

superposing all these hydrographs together. The sum of these hydrographs

71

71�

�

must be divided by b/a to obtain UHb. This method requires b/a to be

integer; therefore, this method is also called “Integral Multiples Method”.

Example 2.6 For the given 1 h unit hydrograph resulting from a unit

depth of 1 ��, obtain the 3 h unit hydrograph ordinates using the

Time UH1 1-h 2-h � UH3 = �/3

lagged UH1 lagged UH1

(h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s)

0 0 0 0

1 20 0 20 6.67

2 40 20 0 60 20

3 30 40 20 90 30

4 20 30 40 90 30

5 10 20 30 60 20

6 0 10 20 30 10

7 0 10 10 3.33

8 0 0 0

�

lagging method.

Solution

The actual data given for the problem are listed in Columns (1) and

(2). Since the duration of the rainfall is 1 h, and the total rainfall is 1

mm, the intensity of the rainfall becomes 1 mm/h. By lagging UH1

first by 1 hour, and then by 2 hours, and adding the ordinates, we

obtain a hydrograph of duration 3 hours and intensity 1 mm/h. Thus,

the total rainfall would be 3 ��. Ordinates of the corresponding

hydrograph are shown in Column (5), which is simply the sum of

Columns (2), (3), and (4). To obtain UH3, which requires a total

excess rainfall depth of 1 ��, the ordinates of Column (5) must be

divided by 3. The final UH3 ordinates are listed in Column (6).

72

72�

�

S-hydrograph Method

For a storm with excess rainfall duration not being an integral multiple of

the unit hydrograph, the S-hydrograph method can be used. S-hydrograph

is a direct runoff hydrograph for a continuous rainfall duration and

constant intensity. As shown in Figure (2.12), the S-hydrograph Sa can be

obtained by lagging and superposing infinitely many unit hydrographs

UHa with duration a and excess rainfall intensity1/a. If Sa is lagged for b

hours (denoted by Sb) and subtracted as Sa – Sb, then a hydrograph is

obtained of a rainfall duration b and intensity1/a, i.e. with total rainfall

depth b/a. Accordingly, a unit hydrograph of duration b can be determined

as

�� ���

��� � �����

�������������������������������������������������

a a a a a a

1/a� … Hyetograph�

Sa�

… UHa�

Time,�t

�

Example 2.7 Given the UH1 of Example 2.6, obtain UH3 by using

the S-hydrograph method.

73

73�

�

Solution

The actual data given for the problem are listed in Columns (1) and

(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11)

Time UH1 1-h 2-h 3-h 4-h 5-h S1 S3 S1–S3 UH3

lagged lagged lagged lagged lagged

UH1 UH1 UH1 UH1 UH1

(h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s)

0 0 0 0 0

0.5 20 0 20 20 6.67

1 40 20 0 60 60 20

1.5 30 40 20 0 90 90 30

2 20 30 40 20 0 110 110 36.67

2.5 10 20 30 40 20 0 120 120 40

3 0 10 20 30 40 20 120 0 120 40

3.5 0 10 20 30 40 120 20 100 33.33

4 0 10 20 30 120 60 60 20

4.5 0 10 20 120 90 30 10

5 0 10 120 110 10 3.33

5.5 10 120 120 0 0

�

(2). The ordinates of UH1 in Column (2) are lagged at least five

times until the limiting maximum value of 120 m3/s shown in

Column (8) is obtained. In this particular case, lagging UH1 only five

times would have been sufficient, because the maximum ordinate

120 has been reached and confirmed. After S1 is obtained, it is

lagged by 3 hours to determine S3 ordinates in Column (9). Column

(10) presents S1 – S3 which is a direct runoff hydrograph of duration

3 hours and a total rainfall depth of 3 mm. To obtain the ordinates of

the unit hydrograph of duration 3 hours, Column (10) must be

divided by 3/1 = 3. The UH3 values are listed in Column (11).

Rational Method

Rational method proposes a simple rainfall-runoff model to estimate the

peak discharge for a drainage basin, not the entire direct runoff

74

74�

�

hydrograph. The method assumes that when a steady rainfall rate occurs,

then runoff rate increases until the entire watershed is contributing to the

outlet. The peak discharge at the outlet is approached when the rainfall

duration starts exceeding the time of concentration, which is the time for

the most remote point to the outlet for the total drainage system. The

rational model is then expressed by

�� � �����������������������������������������������������������

where �� � peak runoff rate; � � runoff coefficient, dimensionless; � �

intensity of rainfall; and � � area of the watershed. All watershed losses

are incorporated into the runoff coefficient� (� � � � �); therefore � in

the rational equation is not excess rainfall. Recommended values of � for

other surfaces are given in Table (2.2). For composite areas

� �� ��

�� � ���������������������������������������������������������

� ��

where �� � average (or composite) runoff coefficient; and �� � runoff

coefficient of �� . The intensity of rainfall � is obtained from intensity-

duration-frequency (IDF) curves (Figure 2.13), where rainfall is assumed

to be uniformly distributed over the catchment area1.

In the IDF curves, the return period is the time interval for which an

event will occur once on average. A storm sewer is generally designed for

a return period of 5, 10, or 25 years. Because a drainage basin can

frequently receive storm events higher than that, streets and other open

channel systems must be designed to carry flood flow that is in excess of

the storm sewer capacity.

������������������������������������������������������������

1

�The� assumptions�of� steady�rainfall�intensity�and�equilibrium�between�inflow�and�outflow�

are� reasonably� valid� for� small� watersheds� with� a� short� time� of� concentration.� Thus,� the�

rational�method�can�usually�be�used�for�small�watersheds�not�larger�than�80�hectares.�

75

75�

�

160

140

Return Period

120

100

Intensity,�(mm/h)�

r) 100

/h

m 50

m

(i

, 80

itys

25

n

e

t 10

n

I 60

5

40

2

20

0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180

Duration, t (min)

Figure (2.13). Intensity duration frequency curves for Kuwait. The values are the standards used by the

Ministry of Public Works in Kuwait (source: plotted from numerical data provided by MPW).

76

76�

�

Table (2.2). Values of runoff coefficient C for various land surfaces. Source: Ministry of Public

Works in Kuwait.

Commercial Areas

Town Area 0.7-0.9

Neighborhood Areas 0.5-0.7

Residential Areas

Single Family Houses 0.4-0.6

Apartment Complex 0.5-0.7

Lawns, Parks, Green Areas 0.1-0.2

Industrial Areas 0.5-0.8

Desert Areas (ha)

27-80 0.15

80-220 0.1

220-1200 0.05

Over 1200 0.025

Roofs

Slopes � 1% 0.9

1% � Slopes � 5% 0.9

Slopes > 5% 0.9

Asphalted Paved Areas

Slopes � 1% 0.7

1% � Slopes � 5% 0.8

Slopes > 5% 0.9

Sidewalks

Slopes � 1% 0.5

1% � Slopes � 5% 0.6

Slopes > 5% 0.7

Unpaved Roads

Slopes � 1% 0.2

1% � Slopes � 5% 0.25

Slopes > 5% 0.3

Playgrounds, Cemeteries, Orchards

Slopes � 1% 0.1

1% � Slopes � 5% 0.15

Slopes > 5% 0.2

Green Belts, Gardens, Farms

Slopes � 1% 0.05

1% � Slopes � 5% 0.1

Slopes > 5% 0.15

77

77�

�

Example 2.8 Use the rational method to find the 10-year design

flow at the outlet of the basin shown in the figure with the given

information. Time of flow in pipe from inlet “a” to “b” is 2 minutes.

Use the IDF curves given in Figure (2.13).

Underground�pipe

� (1) (2)

��� � �������� �

����� ���� Outlet�

�� � �������

��� � �������� � Surface�

��� � ���� runoff� Inlet�“a” Inlet�“b”

�� ��� �������

�

Solution

When the watershed is composed of distinctly different areas, the

runoff coefficient for the whole area is determined as the weighted

average of the C values in each area. Thus, the composite runoff

coefficient becomes

���������� � ����������

�� � � ����

����� � �����

The time of concentration is determined as the most remote point to

the outlet for the total drainage system 30 + 2 = 32 min. Thus, at

time t = 32 min, the whole basin will contribute to runoff, and the

rainfall duration will be taken as 32 min for the determination of the

peak flow. With this rainfall duration and for a storm which is

expected to occur once every 10 years, Figure (2.13) gives the

intensity of rainfall as

� � � ������� � �����������

The total watershed area is

78

78�

�

� � ����� � �����

�� ��������

The peak runoff rate can now be calculated as

�� � ��� � ���� � ������� � �����

���� �������� ��

Example 2.9 Use the rational method to find the 5-year design flow

at the outlet of the basin shown in the figure with the given tabulated

information. Time of flow in pipe “ab” is 1.76 min and in pipe “cb”

is 1.75 min. Use the IDF curves in Figure (2.13).

(1) (2)�

Watershed�information

�

No.� t� A� C�

� (min)� (ha)� a

1� 5� 2� 0.7 (3) (4) (5)�

2� 7� 3� 0.7

3� 10� 4� 0.6

4� 10� 4� 0.5

5� 15� 5� 0.5 b

� c

Outlet�

Solution

The composite runoff coefficient is estimated as

������ � ������ � ������ � ������ � ������

�� � � ����

���������

The time of concentration is determined as the most remote point to

the outlet for the total drainage system, which is here contributed by

watershed number 5 with t = 15 min. Note that the times of water

travel into the pipes will have no effect in the solution as they

produce with their relevant watersheds a total time less than that

79

79�

�

determined for watershed number 5. With this value of rainfall

duration and for a return period of 5 years, Figure (2.13) gives the

intensity of rainfall as

� � � ������� � �������������

The total watershed area is

� � � � � � � � � � � � ����� � �������� �

The peak runoff rate can now be calculated as

�� � ��� � ���� � ��������� � ������

���� �������� ��

In a large watershed, the shape of a storm hydrograph will change as the

flow moves from upstream to downstream locations. The reason is related

to the different storage characteristics and time of water travel between the

two locations. Routing is the derivation of outflow hydrograph from

inflow hydrograph by considering water storage variation in between. The

following unsteady continuity equation is used in hydrologic routing

��

� ���� � �����������������������������������������������

��

where � � storage volume between upstream and downstream locations;

� � inflow at the upstream location; and � � outflow at the downstream

location. Two problems of flood routing are commonly analyzed: reservoir

routing, and channel routing. In reservoir routing the storage is considered

a nonlinear function, i.e. � � ���� and � � ���� ; while in channel

routing the storage is linearly related to ���� and ���� (see Figure 2.14).

80

80�

�

Reservoir Routing

Weir

�

Storage �

H Dam

Orifice

� � ���� �

�

Channel Routing

�

�

� � ���� ��

�

Reservoir Routing

For computational purposes, Equation (2.10) can be written in a

mathematical finite difference form as

���� � �� �� � ���� �� � ����

�� ��� �����������������������

�� � �

The indices � and � � � refer to the values at the beginning and the end of

time interval���, respectively. This equation can be conveniently rewritten

as

��� �����

��� � ���� � � � � �� � � � � ���� ��������������������

�� ��

81

81�

�

Typically, � is known for all � values, and � and � are known for the

initial time condition � � � . Consequently, the right side of Equation

(2.12) can be determined. The storage indication curve is a plot of

����� � � against � . Thus, once the right side of Equation (2.12) is

determined, the values of � can be read directly from the storage

indication curve. Values for ����� � � for the left side are calculated by

subtracting �� from ����� � �. The computations are repeated until the

entire outflow hydrograph is obtained. It should be noted that the storage

indication curve must be prepared for a fixed �� value same as that used in

the routing procedure.

elevation versus storage, and elevation versus outflow, determine the

outflow hydrograph. The water is discharged from the reservoir by a

spillway having a crest elevation of 113 m. In the beginning of the

storm, the reservoir is completely full with a water surface elevation

� � ����� and outflow discharge �� � �. Choose time increment

of �� � �h (= 7200 s) and perform the routing calculations up to

� � ��h.

Solution

The actual data given for the problem are listed in Columns from (1)

to (3). First, the ����� � � values in Column (4) are calculated and

plotted against � values in Column (2).

82

82�

�

Elevation, H Outflow, Q Storage, S 2S/�t + Q

(m) (m3/s) (106 m3) (m3/s)

113.000 0 15.00 4166.67

113.200 10 16.53 4601.67

113.400 28 18.12 5061.33

113.600 51 19.77 5542.67

113.800 79 21.48 6045.67

114.000 110 23.25 6568.33

114.200 144 25.08 7110.67

114.400 182 26.97 7673.67

114.600 223 28.92 8256.33

114.800 265 30.93 8856.67

115.000 312 33.00 9478.67

�

10000

8000

2S/�t�+�Q��(m3/s)

6000

4000

2000

0

0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350

Q��(m3/s)

�

83

83�

�

The routing calculations are tabulated in the next table, where the actual

given data are the time and inflow values listed in Columns (1) and (2).

The value of � � � at � � � is also given. The routing procedure can be

summarized by considering the first three rows.

Row 1

Column (3): �� � �� � � � �� � ����� ��

Column (6): �� � � initial condition

Column (4): ��� ���� �� � ���� � ��� ������ � � � ���������� �

�

Row 2

Column (3): �� � �� � �� � ��� � ������ ��

Column (5): from Equation (2.12) as ���� ��� � �� � � ��� � �� � �

���� ��� � �� � � �� � ������� � ���������� ��

Column (6): �� � ���� �� read from the figure using ������ �

�� � ���������� ��

Column (4): ��� ��� � �� � ���� ��� � �� � � ��� � ������� �

� � � � ��������� ��

Row 3

Column (3): �� � �� � ��� � ��� � ������ ��

Column (5): from Equation (2.12) as ���� ��� � �� � � ��� �

������� � ��������� ��

84

84�

�

�� � ���������� ��

Column (4): ��� ��� � �� � ���� ��� � �� � � ��� � ������� �

� � � � ��������� ��

the peak outflow is computed as ������ �� . Thus, almost 50%

reduction in the peak flow rate has been achieved, and the reservoir

has been effective in the control of flood. Also, the peak outflow has

occurred 12 hours after the time of the peak inflow, giving time to

take the necessary precautions.

Time In In + In+1 2Sn/�t �Qn 2Sn+1/�t + Qn+1 Qn

(h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s)

0 0 60 4166.67 0

2 60 180 4224.67 4226.67 1

4 120 300 4394.67 4404.67 5

6 180 420 4666.67 4694.67 14

8 240 540 5028.67 5086.67 29

10 300 660 5464.67 5568.67 52

12 360 690 5958.67 6124.67 83

14 330 630 6418.67 6648.67 115

16 300 570 6766.67 7048.67 141

18 270 510 7018.67 7336.67 159

20 240 450 7184.67 7528.67 172

22 210 390 7276.67 7634.67 179

24 180 330 7302.67 7666.67 182

26 150 270 7274.67 7632.67 179

28 120 210 7198.67 7544.67 173

30 90 150 7080.67 7408.67 164

32 60 90 6926.67 7230.67 152

34 30 30 6738.67 7016.67 139

36 0 0 6522.67 6768.67 123

38 0 0 6308.67 6522.67 107

40 0 6308.67 95

�

85

85�

�

Channel Routing�

Many methods are available to solve Equation (2.10) for channel routing

and the most widely used is the Muskingum method. This method assumes

that the storage is a linear function of weighted inflow and outflow as

given by

� � ���� � ��� ��������������������������������������������

where � � storage constant with the dimension of time that approximates

the travel time of water through the channel; and � � dimensionless

weighting constant, � � � � ��� . Substituting Equation (2.13) into

Equation (2.12) yields

���� � �� ���� � ��� �� � ��� ��� �������������������������������

where

���� � ��

�� � ��������������������������������������

��� � �� � ����

���� � ��

�� � ���������������������������������������

��� � �� � ����

��� � �� � ����

�� � ���������������������������������������

��� � �� � ����

It should be noted that �� � ��� � �� � � . The significance of this

expression may be seen for steady flow condition, i.e. �� � ���� � �� �

���� , as Equation (2.14) becomes correct only when the sum of the

constants is unity

The parameters � and � may be estimated for a channel from given

inflow and outflow hydrographs for a particular storm. The estimation can

be achieved with reference to Equation (2.13) by plotting the storage �

against weighted discharge �� � ��� ��� for several selected values of �.

The Muskingum method assumes that this curve is a straight line. As seen

86

86�

�

in Figure (2.15), the selected values of � will result in loops. The value of

� that gives the narrowest loop will be chosen as the � value to be used in

future routing procedures. The inverse slope of the line of best fit for the

narrowest loop will give the value of �.

XI + (1-X) Q

�

��

�� � ��� ���

�

.

Figure (2.15). Estimation of the Muskingum and values.

and (2) through the channel where the Muskingum parameters are

� � ��� and � � �h. The outflow in the beginning of the storm is

equal to 20 m3/s. Perform the channel routing until � � ��h using

�� � �h.

Solution

The three Muskingum coefficients are calculated from Equations

(2.15) as

��� � ������

�� � � �����

��� � ���� � ���

87

87�

�

��� � ������

�� � � ������

��� � ���� � ���

��� � ���� � ���

�� � � �����

��� � ���� � ���

and third rows.

Row 2

Column (3): C0In+1 = 0.149 (34) = 5.1 m3/s

Column (4): C1In = 0.489 (20) = 9.8 m3/s

Column (5): C2Qn = 0.362 (20) = 7.2 m3/s

Column (6): Qn+1 = 5.1 + 9.8 + 7.2 = 22.1 m3/s

Row 3

Column (3): C0In+1 = 0.149 (103) = 15.3 m3/s

Column (4): C1In = 0.489 (34) = 16.6 m3/s

Column (5): C2Qn = 0.362 (22.1) = 8.0 m3/s

Column (6): Qn+1 = 15.3 + 16.6 + 8.0 m3/s = 39.9 m3/s

�

� (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)

Time Inflow C0In+1 C1In C2Qn Qn+1

�

(h) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s) (m3/s)

� 0 20 20

6 34 5.1 9.8 7.2 22.1

12 103 15.3 16.6 8.0 39.9

18 179 26.7 50.4 14.4 91.5

24 202 30.1 87.5 33.1 150.7

30 184 27.4 98.8 54.6 180.8

36 143 21.3 90.0 65.4 176.7

88

88�

�

Problems�

1. Rainfall measurements in millimeters at nine gage stations are

shown on the map below. Determine the average rainfall by a)

arithmetic mean method; and b) thiessen polygon method.

recorded at each gage during a storm event is listed. With the 1km x

1km grid, determine the average rainfall for this storm by a)

arithmetic mean method; and b) thiessen polygon method.

[Answers: a) 3.06 cm; b) 3.062 cm]

Gage� Rainfall

� (cm)�

A� 3.26�

B� 2.92�

C� 3.01�

D� 3.05�

�

89

89�

�

3. The initial infiltration rate on a small area was observed to be 115

mm/h, and it decreased exponentially to a final infiltration capacity

15 mm/h. A total of 375 mm of water infiltrated fora storm duration

10-h interval. a) Determine the time constant � in Horton equation;

and b) estimate the �-index for the basin for this storm.

i (mm/h) 100 50 150 125

�

of -index for the basin if the total excess rainfall is 80 mm.

gage located on a small urban watershed. Using a 0.5-h time step a)

plot the rainfall hyetograph; b) determine the total rainfall depth

during the storm event; and c) if the runoff depth was 4.65 mm, find

the � -index (mm/h). [Answers: b) 11.75 mm; c) 2.3 mm/h]

t�(hr)� 0.0�0.5� 0.5�1.0� 1.0�1.5 1.5�2.0 2.0�2.5 2.5�3.0 3.0�3.5 3.5�4.0� 4.0�4.5� 4.5�5.0

i�(mm/h)� 0� 2� 2.5� 5� 6� 5� 1.5� 1� 0.5� 0�

for the first hour, 1.2 mm/h for the second hour, 0.6 mm/h for the

third hour, and 0.4 mm/h for the last two hours. Using the Horton

equation with � � ��� h-1, �� � ��� mm/h, and �� � ��� mm/h, a)

find the infiltration rate at � � 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 h; b) estimate the

cumulative infiltration capacity over the 5-h storm period; c) plot

90

90�

�

(using Microsoft Excel) in one figure both the given rainfall

hyetograph and the infiltration curve, and tabulate your calculations;

and d) estimate the time when ponding begins. [Answers: a) 0.9,

0.433, 0.2776, 0.2258, 0.2086, and 0.203 mm/h; b) 1.634 mm; d) 1

h]

7. The storm hydrograph for a 17 km2 basin is shown below. For this

storm, the actual rainfall intensity was 5 mm/h occurring within a

duration of 5 h. Determine a) the time of concentration for the basin;

b) the -index for the basin; c) the ordinates of UH5; d) the direct

surface runoff rate at 7 p.m. on a day when actual rain fell at an

intensity of 8 mm/h from 1 p.m. to 11 p.m.

25

23

23 23

20

19

)s 15�

15

Q�(m3/s)�

3

/

m

�(

�

Q 10 11

10�

6 6

5

0 0 0

0 2 4 6 8 10

t�(hr)

t�(h)� �

below:

91

91�

� 25

Rainfall�hyetograph�

) 20 20�

m �

(m �

ll�a15 15�

f �

in

ar �

�s 10

10�

se �

cx �

E 5�

5

0

0 1 2 3

t�(hr)

t�(h)� �

300

Composite�hydrograph�

250

240

200�

200

�

s)/ ��

Q�(m3/s)�

3

150 150

(m

150�

� � 150

Q �

�

100

100�

60

50

0 30

0

0

0 2 4 6 8

t�(hr) �

t�(h)�

the 2-h unit hydrograph; and c) ordinates of the composite

hydrograph for the rainfall pattern given below:

25

Rainfall�hyetograph

) 20� 20

Excess�rainfall�(mm)�

m�

(m

l�l 15� �

15

fa �

n

ia �

�rs 10�

10

se �

� cx

E 5�5

�

�

0

0 1 2 3 4

t�(hr)

t�(h)

92

92�

�

9. Determine the composite direct runoff hydrograph resulting from the

given 1 h unit hydrograph and storm pattern. The abstractions have a

constant rate of � � ��� mm/h.

Rainfall rate�(mm/h) 0.5 1.0 1.5 0.5

�

t�(h)� 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1�h�UH�(m3/s)� 0 10 100 200 150 100 50 0

10. Using the given 2-h unit hydrograph (resulting from a unit

depth of 1 mm), construct a 4 h unit hydrograph using a) the Integral

multiples method; and b) the S-hydrograph method (use Microsoft

Excel).

2�h�UH�(m3/s)� 0� 69� 143� 328� 389� 352� 266� 192� 123� 84� 49� 20� 0�

�

5 mm/h is given below. Determine the 3-h unit hydrograph for this

basin.

1000

800

600

600�

s)/ �

Q�(m3/s)�

3

m �

� �(

Q 400�

400

200

0

0 2 4 6 8

t�(hr)

t�(h)� �

93

93�

�

12. The elevation vs. storage and outflow data for an uncontrolled

reservoir, and the ordinates of a storm hydrograph (inflow) are given

below. The elevation of the crest of the spillway is at 607 m, and the

elevation of the water surface in the reservoir at 12:00 hours

noontime on 20 November 2006 is 605 m. Determine the ordinates

of the outflow hydrograph for the next 48 h at 6 h intervals.

t i Elevation Storage Q

(h) (m3/s) (m) (m3/s) (m3/s)

0 0 604 0 0

6 50 605 250 000 0

12 120 606 930 000 0

18 150 607 2 020 000 0

24 140 608 3 480 000 25

30 130 609 5 320 000 71

36 110 610 7 520 000 130

42 90 611 10 080 000 200

48 70 �

54 30

�

height 20 m is initially filled with water to a depth of 10 m. The tank

is then filled with water at a constant rate of 0.6 m3/s and at the same

time a bottom orifice is opened to discharge water at a rate of

� � ��������� m3/s, where is the depth of water in the tank.

Knowing that at t = 0, � � �� m, determine the outflow at t = 0, 10,

20, and 30 minutes. What will be the maximum depth of water in the

tank?

14. Given the inflow hydrograph for a river reach, obtain the

outflow hydrograph using the Muskingum method. For the river

reach under consideration, assume that � = 0.4 and � = 34 h. The

94

94�

�

outflow in the beginning of the storm (i.e., at � = 0 h) is given as 22

m3/s.

i (m3/s) 22 35 103 109 86 59 39 28 22 20 19 18

� � ���� ����� ��� � ���,� where i is the intensity (mm/h), � is the

return period (year), and � is the time duration (min.). Using

Microsoft Excel, tabulate and plot on a logarithmic paper the IDF

curves for � = 2, 5, 10, 25, 50, and 100 for this location.

locations B and D. The time of flow in pipe AB is 2 min, pipe CB is

3 min, and pipe BD is 1 min. Use the IDF curves of Problem (15).

[Answers: �� (at B) = 0.0428 m3/s and �� (at D) = 0.0714 m3/s]

�

�

No.� A� C tc (2) (1)�

A

� � (hectare) (min)

1� 2� 0.8 18

� (3)� (4)

2� 1.5� 0.7 15

3� 1� 0.6 15 � C B�

4� 0.3� 0.6 10 (5)�

5� 3� 0.8 19 � D

�

�

�

�

95

95�

�

Chapter 3

Chapter 3

Groundwater Hydrology

Groundwater Hydrology

List of Symbols

� � area, L2

� � thickness of confined aquifer, L

� � diameter of average soil particle, L

� � gravity acceleration, L/T2

� � piezometric head, L

�� � head loss, L

�� � original piezometric head, L

� � hydraulic conductivity or coefficient of permeability, L/T

�� � �at temperature To C, L/T

��� � � at temperature 20o C, L/T

� � length, L

� � pressure, F/L2

� � discharge, L3/T

� � discharge per unit length of trench, L2/L

�� � Reynolds number, dimensionless

� � distance to pumped well, L

� � storage coefficient or storativity, dimensionless

�� � specific retention, dimensionless

�� � specific yield, dimensionless

� � drawdown, L

� � transmissivity, L2/T

� � time, T

96

96�

�

� � velocity, L/T

�� � volume of water retained, L3

�� � total volume of earth material, L3

�� � volume of voids, L3

�� � volume of water drained, L3

� � well function, dimensionless

�= elevation from an arbitrary datum, L

� � specific weight, F/L3

� � � viscosity at temperature To C, FL/T2

��� � viscosity at temperature 20o C, FL/T2

� � density, M/L3

� � porosity, dimensionless

97

97�

�

3.1 Introduction

The vertical distribution of water under the ground surface varies in the

degree of saturation according to void spaces (Figure 3.1). A region where

the void spaces are completely filled with water is called zone of

saturation, and that where the void spaces are partly filled with water is the

zone of aeration. The former zone is basically the groundwater1, which

� Ground surface

Soil-water

zone

Zone of aeration

(Vadose)

Intermediate

zone

Capillary

zone

Water table

Zone of saturation

(Groundwater)

Impermeable formation

�

������������������������������������������������������������

1

The term groundwater is sometimes used to denote all the water under the ground surface.

However, hydrologists are primarily concerned with water in the saturated zone and, thus, use

the term groundwater to denote this zone.

98

98�

�

occurs due to infiltration of precipitation, streams, lakes, and artificial

recharge. Groundwater hydrology is a term referring to the science dealing

with groundwater occurrence, properties, and movement. When surface

water is not readily available, groundwater becomes a significant source of

supply for municipalities, agriculture, and industry.

The unsaturated zone of aeration, also called vadose1, can further be

classified into three zones: soil-water, intermediate, and capillary. The

soil-water zone, where water from precipitation and irrigation is held by

surface tension forces, has agricultural importance as it supplies moisture

to plant roots. The intermediate zone varies according to the depth of water

table starting from zero when water table approaches the ground surface.

The capillary zone extends from the water table up to the limit of which

water may rise by capillary effect. This zone may extend only a few

centimeters for coarse earth formation to several meters for fine silt.

It is not surprising that the zone of saturation has been extensively

studied in the literature, while the flow behavior in the unsaturated zone is

not fully investigated as this layer lacks water during normal rainfall

events and thus hydrologists are not interested in it. However, if the

unsaturated zone has a shallow depth, then the water level may rise during

extreme rainfall events and approach the ground surface. This may affect

the entire life at this location including agricultural, commercial and

residential activities, and the flooding may last for a long period of time

before the water drains. The main questions to answer are, how long the

flood will remain in this zone before it drains (days, weeks, months, etc)

and how will the water drain (leaking down or disperse). As a matter of

������������������������������������������������������������

1

Vadose is a derivation of the Latin word vadosus which means shallow.

99

99�

�

fact, modeling this zone has recently been regarded as an important issue

not to prevent flooding, but to provide more factual information to the

public through early warning systems and to the insurance companies to

become able to price the location of the structure based on how close it is

from the flooding area. That is, if the location of the structure is within the

flooding area, then the insurance coverage rate would be higher. The

material presented here though attempts to emphasize on the classical

concepts that govern the flow and storage of the saturated rather than the

unsaturated zone.

3.2�Occurrence�of�Groundwater�

Figure (3.2) shows the occurrence of groundwater in various forms. A

formation that is fully saturated and transmits sufficient amounts of

groundwater is called aquifer 1 , and a formation that does not transmit

significant amounts of water is an impermeable layer such as clay or rock2.

There are two types of aquifers: confined and unconfined. Confined

aquifer, which is also known as artesian or pressure aquifer, is found

between two impermeable layers by which its flow becomes pressurized.

For a well penetrating a confined aquifer, the water level rises to a height

coinciding with the piezometric surface, i.e. surface of hydrostatic

pressure. A flowing well occurs if the piezometric surface is above the

ground level. Changes in piezometric surface would result in water

variation in the well and only small changes in the aquifer storage. Owing

������������������������������������������������������������

1

Aquifer is a derivation of the Latin words aqua (water) and ferre (to bear).

2

Clay is an example of an impermeable layer that is saturated but does not transmit water to

wells, referred as aquiclude. Rock is an example of an impermeable layer neither containing

nor transmitting water, referred as aquifuge.

100

100�

�

to this reason, the confined aquifer serves primarily as a conduit to move

water from a recharge area to discharge location. It should be noted that

when the piezometric surface falls below the bottom of the upper

impermeable layer, the aquifer becomes unconfined. An unconfined

aquifer, known also as water table aquifer, is directly recharged from the

ground surface, except if an impermeable layer is located in between. In

this aquifer, the variation of water table is related to changes in water

storage.

Recharge

area

Piezometric surface

Flowing artesian

well Water table Artesian

well well

Unconfined aquifer

formations

to geological conditions. For example, not all the water can be drained by

gravity or by a pumped well as part of it is held by surface tension, which

is a water property influenced by soil texture. Estimation of these

properties allows quantitative prediction of hydraulic response of aquifer

101

101�

�

to recharge and pumping processes. Therefore, it is important initially to

define parameters describing the hydraulic properties of the aquifer.

Storage Coefficient or Storativity (�) relates the change in water

volume within the storage of the aquifer per unit surface area of aquifer

per unit decline of hydraulic head (Figure 3.3). In unconfined aquifer,

water is stored in the void spaces and, thus, changes in storage are

followed by variations in the elevation of the water table. In confined

aquifer, water is stored with regard to earth material matrix (soil and

water) compressibility, and changes in storage are followed by variations

in piezometric surface. The storage coefficient is an indirect aquifer

property that cannot be measured directly, but it can be estimated from

pumping tests or from groundwater variation due to atmospheric pressure

or ocean tides. Specific Yield (�� ) is the ratio of the volume of water

drained under gravity to the total volume of earth material

��

�� � ����������������������������������������������������������

��

where �� � volume of water drained under gravity; and �� � total volume

of earth material. In unconfined aquifers, �� � �. Specific Retention (�� ) is

the ratio of the volume of water that stays in the pores of soil to the total

volume of earth material

��

�� � ����������������������������������������������������������

��

where �� � volume of water retained. Porosity (�) is a measure of the void

spaces in the earth material

��

�� � �� � �� ������������������������������������������������

��

102

102�

�

where �� � volume of voids. Hydraulic Conductivity or Coefficient of

Permeability (�) is a measure of how easily water can move through the

void spaces in the aquifer. � is a function of size and shape of voids

(Figure 3.4) and viscosity

���

�� � ��� ����������������������������������������������������

��

where �� � �at temperature To C; ��� � � at temperature 20o C; � � �

viscosity of water at temperature To C; and ��� � viscosity of water at

temperature 20o C. Typical values of porosity and hydraulic conductivity

are given in Table (3.1) for various natural materials

Material � �� K

(%) (%) (m/day)

Clay 45 3 0.041

Sand 35 25 33

Gravel 25 22 205

Gravel and sand 20 16 82

piezometric of water

surface table

Confined Unconfined

aquifer aquifer

Impermeable Impermeable

103

103�

�

(coarse�material)� (coarse�fine�material)� (fine�material)�

� � �

Hydraulic�conductivity�

High� Low�

�

aquifer if �� � ��� �� of water has been pumped by uniformly

distributed wells. The horizontal area of the aquifer is 150 ��� and

the specific yield is 0.25.

Solution

Given the following information,

�� � �� � ��� ��

�� � ����

the total volume of earth material from which the water was

extracted can be estimated from the Specific Yield equation,

��

�� �

��

104

104�

�

�� � ���

���� �

��

resulting with

�� � � � ��� ��

Thus, the average water level drop over the area is

�� � � ���

�� � � � ������

� ��� � ���

Consider a pipe filled with porous material as shown in Figure (3.5). Two

piezometers are placed on the pipe at points 1 and 2. A line joining the

water levels in the piezometers is called the hydraulic grade line. The

energy equation between points 1 and 2 along the centerline of the pipe

can be written as

��� �� ��� ��

� ��� � � � �� ���

�� � �� �

where � � flow velocity; � � pressure; � = elevation from an arbitrary

datum; � � specific weight of water; � � gravity acceleration; and �� �

head loss. Groundwater usually flows with very small velocity. Thus, the

velocity head terms � � ��� in the energy equation can be ignored. In this

case, the hydraulic grade line shown in the figure will be identical with the

energy grade line. Also, if the piezometric head is defined as the sum of

the potential head� and pressure head���

�

� � ��

�

then the energy equation reduces to

105

105�

�

� Hydraulic grade line

(Piezometric line)

(1)�

(2)

�� �

��

�

�

� ��

�

�

(1)

�

(2)

�� � �� �

Datum

�

�� � �� � ��

In laminar flow, head loss�� per unit length of conduit� is proportional to

the first power of the velocity � and hydraulic conductivity� as

��

���

�

Combining the above with the energy equation

�� � ��

� � �� �����������������������������������������������

�

or, in general

��

� � �� ����������������������������������������������������

��

This equation can also be written for the groundwater flow rate

��

� � ��� ��������������������������������������������������

��

106

106�

�

where � � flow rate; and � � cross sectional area of flow. This is the

Darcy’s law, which serves as the basis for the governing groundwater flow

equations. It can be noted that the ordinary derivative in Darcy’s law is

adopted by assuming one dimensional groundwater flow of horizontal

direction. Also, Darcy’s law is valid for small average velocity and

laminar flow regime. The validity here may be justified for a relatively

small Reynolds number��, defined for groundwater flow as

���

�� � ��������������������������������������������������

�

where � � diameter of average soil particle; and � � water density. As a

general rule, the Reynolds number should be smaller than about 1. In fact,

Reynolds number rarely exceeds 1 in actual groundwater cases by which

Darcy’s law becomes valid1.

�� at �� � �. The average size of the soil particles is 0.4 �� and

the temperature is 20ºC.

Solution

Using the definition of the Reynolds number and noting that at

temperature 20ºC the density of water is 998.2 ����� and its

viscosity is ����� � ���� �� ���� (see Appendix),

���

�� �

�

������������������������������������������������������������

1

Deviation of Darcy’s law can occur near pumped wells as Reynolds number exceeds 10 and

as the average velocity becomes not one dimensional but has additional vertical component.

This is in agreement with field observations reporting drawdown outside the well being

always greater than that predicted with steady flow equations derived from Darcy’s law.

107

107�

�

��

����� � ����

Then the flow velocity can be determined as

� � 0.00252 ���

The time it takes for water to travel 10 �� is

time = distance/velocity = �� � ��� �������� � ���� �

��� � � ������

Unidirectional flow considered here is steady, one dimensional and

horizontal between two water bodies. Although groundwater motion

occurs with very small velocities, the large cross sectional area through

which this motion takes place results in large quantities of water flow.

Three cases are examined here.

Consider flow through a confined aquifer as shown in Figure (3.6a). The

confined aquifer connects a natural water body such as a river or lake to a

trench through which water is pumped at a constant rate of �. The trench

has been excavated parallel to the water body.

After steady state conditions are reached, the flow in the confined

aquifer can be described by Equation (3.5). Here, �� and �� are the

piezometric heads in water body and trench, respectively, and � is the

distance between the water body and the trench. If the pumping rate per

unit length of trench is �, then this equation can be rewritten as

�� � ��

� � �� ��������������������������������������������������

�

where � � thickness of the confined aquifer.

108

108�

�

Flow through a Partially Confined Aquifer

Consider a high pumping rate � so that the depth of water in the trench

falls below the upper impermeable layer as shown in Figure (3.6b). Here,

part of the aquifer is confined, and part of it becomes unconfined. Between

the water body and point � on the upper impermeable layer, the flow is

confined. As shown in this figure, point � is at a distance �� from the

water body. Similar to Equation (3.9), the flow rate per unit length of

trench � can be expressed as

�� � �

� � �� �����������������������������������������������

��

Between point � and the trench, the flow is unconfined. Here, �can be

expressed using Equation (3.7) as

��

� � ���

��

or

�

��� � � ��

�

By integrating both sides

�� ����

�

� ��� � � � ��

� � �

the flow rate per unit length becomes

�� � ���

��� ��������������������������������������������

��� � �� �

Equating Equations (3.10) and (3.11) yields

�� � � �� � ���

�� ��

�� ��� � �� �

This equation can be solved for �� as

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�

��� � ��

�� � ���

����� � �� � ���� ��� �

When the above expression for �� is substituted into Equation (3.10), �for

the entire system becomes

�

�� ������ � �� � ��� � ��� �����������������������������

��

�

Natural

water body Trench

(a)� ��

��

�� �

�� Impermeable

�� formation

��

(b)�

�

�

�

�� �

�� � �� ��

�� �

�

(c)�

�� �

�� �

�

� �� �

��

��

confined aquifer; c) seepage from a natural water body.

�

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�

Example 3.3 A trench 200 � long is excavated parallel to a river.

The distance between the river and the trench is 250 �. There is a

confined aquifer next to the river with its lower and upper

impermeable layers located 10 � and 4 � below the water surface

in the river, respectively. The hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer is

3.6 �����. Estimate the depth of water in the trench if it is pumped

at a rate of 100 �� ����.

Solution

Assume the aquifer remains confined, then Equation (3.9) describes

the flow into the trench. From the information given, it is noted that

� � ������� � ������ ������

�� � ����

� � ��� � � ���

Substituting these values into Equation (3.9)

���� � ��

��� � ���������� � �

���

and solving for �� , then

�� � ������

Since the thickness of the aquifer is � � ��� , and �� � � , our

assumption is not valid. Therefore, the aquifer must remain partially

confined and Equation (3.12) must be used to determine the depth of

water in the trench.

�����

��� � �������������� � ���� � ����� � ��� ��

��������

Solution of the above equation gives

�� � ������

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�

Seepage from a Natural Water Body

Consider a natural water body as shown in Figure (3.6c). Again, using

Equation (3.7), � can be written as

��

� � ���

��

or

��� � �����

If the impermeable layer is located at a depth �� below the free surface of

the water body, and if �� is located at � from the water body, then the

above equation can be integrated as

� ��

� ��� � � �����

� ��

which gives

� �

�� �� � ��� �����������������������������������������������

�� �

Flow to a well considered here is a radial flow of infinite areal extent that

will be discussed for both steady and unsteady cases. Water wells are

installed in an aquifer to provide water supply, recharge, or for

observation. Observation wells are used to collect water samples and to

monitor water levels. Some applications of well hydraulics are to avoid

overpumping by managing groundwater discharge or recharge1, to prevent

saltwater intrusion or pumping from other pollution source or storage, and

������������������������������������������������������������

1

If the average rate of annual pumping is greater than the annual groundwater recharge, then

water table or piezometric level may decline and water quality can possibly deteriorate.

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to estimate field parameters such as hydraulic conductivity from pumping

tests.

As shown in Figure (3.7), a water well consists of a casing and well

screen. Well casing serves as a lining to maintain an open hole to the

aquifer. The casing is usually grouted to prevent subsurface pollution

flowing into the aquifer and to protect the casing from corrosion. A

concrete slab is also placed around the casing to prevent surface pollution.

The screen provides a maximum amount of water supply with a minimum

hydraulic resistance. A gravel pack is placed around the screen to

minimize pumping sand and to maintain a high permeability zone.

This section provides the governing equations for radial groundwater

flow by assuming that the pumped well is fully penetrating the aquifer.

However, in some practical cases, it is not necessary to install wells with

full penetration especially where the aquifer is very deep and the water

� Concrete�slab�

Casing

Grout

Gravel

Impermeable�

formation�

Well�screen� Aquifer

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�

requirement is moderate. With partial penetration, actual flow velocities

will have components in the vertical direction. The assumption that flow

toward the well is horizontal may no longer be valid. Nevertheless, the

effect of partial penetration becomes negligible on the flow pattern beyond

a radial distance larger than about 1.5 times the aquifer thickness (Todd

and Mays, 2008). Under this consideration, the governing equations

provided for fully penetrating wells may be used without appreciable error.

If a well is pumped continuously for a long period, a steady state is

reached implying that piezometric head changes in space but not with

time. In this case, the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer becomes an

important property for modeling the radial flow.

Unconfined Aquifer

Consider a pumped well fully penetrating an unconfined aquifer as shown

in Figure (3.8). If the water table is initially horizontal, then a circular

depression would develop since no flow can take place without a gradient

toward the well. This depression is called the cone of depression. Here, the

flow area at a distance � is cylindrical with circumference ���and height�.

Obviously, �in unconfined aquifers indicates a point on the water table

surface. The difference between the original water table �� and that after

pumping � is the drawdown �, i.e. � � �� � �. Using Equation (3.7) and

noting that ����� � ������,

��

� � �������

��

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�

If two observation wells located at distances �� and�� from the pumped

well are used to measure the corresponding water tables �� and �� , then

the above equation can be integrated

�� ��

�

�� �� � ��� � ���

�� � ��

and simplified as

��� � ���

� � �� ��������������������������������������������

����� ��� �

� Observation wells

� Pumped well

�� � ��

� �� �

��

��

�� �

���

�

Figure (3.8) Flow to a well in an unconfined aquifer.

Equation (3.14) provides the pumping rate in terms of water levels in two

observation wells. This equation can also be used to estimate the hydraulic

conductivity � for the aquifer through pumping tests. Pumping should

continue until reaching the steady state and hence the water levels in the

observation wells would be constant.

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�

Confined Aquifer

In this case, flow to the well takes place between two impermeable layers

as shown in Figure (3.9). The thickness of the aquifer is �, and the flow

area at a distance � from the well is cylindrical with circumference ���

and height �. Again, Equation (3.7) provides

��

� � �������

��

which can be integrated

�� ��

�

�� �� � ���� � ��

�� � ��

and simplified as

�� � ��

� � ���� ����������������������������������������

������ ��� �

Equation (3.15) is known as Thiem Equation. Similar to Equation (3.14),

�� and �� denote the piezometric heads in two observation wells located at

distances �� and �� from the pumped well, respectively. Since there is no

water table as in the unconfined aquifer, � indicates a point on the

piezometric surface. Noting that the original height of the piezometric

surface from the lower impermeable layer is �� , the drawdown can be

defined as the difference in the piezometric levels before and after

pumping � � �� � �. Equation (3.15) can also be used to estimate the

aquifertransmissivity� � ��, which is a measure of how easily water in a

confined aquifer can flow through the porous medium.

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�

� Observation wells

� Pumped well

�� � �� �� �� �

�� � �

�� � �

���

�

Figure (3.9) Flow to a well in a confined aquifer.

thickness � � ���� thick. Two observation wells located �� �

����� and �� � ������ from the pumped well are known to have

drawdowns of �� � ��� and �� � ���, respectively. If the flow is

steady and � � ������ ���� , what would be the hydraulic

conductivity� and transmissivity �?

Solution

For confined aquifer,

�� � �� ���� � �� � � ��� � �� ��

� � ���� � ����

������ ��� � ������ ��� �

�� � ��

� ����

������ ��� �

Substituting the given values

���

��� � �������

�������������

which yields

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�

and

� � �� � ���� � ���� ���� � ���������� ����

The steady state assumption of groundwater flow to a well is not exactly

realistic as long as there is no balance in the aquifer between the water

input and output. As long as pumping continues, the piezometric head

however slightly might decrease. A more realistic approach is to analyze

the problem as one of unsteady flow. To model the radial flow in this case,

not only the hydraulic conductivity of the aquifer becomes important, but

also the storage coefficient and duration of pumping become significant.

For unsteady flow to a well fully penetrating a confined aquifer, the

drawdown � at a distance � from the pumped well in terms of storage

coefficient� and transmissivity � can be modeled by assuming that the

well is a mathematical sink of constant strength with the conditions � � ��

for � � � and � � �� as � � � for � � � as

�

� � �� ��

�� � �

��� � � �� �

�� �

Obviously, this equation cannot be integrated easily. For this reason, Theis

devised a method in which the equation could be solved by expanding the

exponential integral as a finite series ���� such that

�

�� �������������������������������������������������

���

�� �� ��

���� � ��������� � ����� � � � � � ���� �������

� � �� � � �� � � ��

� ��

� � � � �����������������������������������������������

�� �

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�

where ���� is known as the well function (Todd and Mays, 2008).

Equations (3.16a, b, c) represent Theis method 1 . To facilitate the

computations, the well function is presented for different values of � in

Table (3.2). If the value of � is small (� � ����), the well function can

also be simplified since only the first two terms of the series become

significant, by which Equations (3.16) can be combined into a single form

� ������

�� �� � � ����������������������������������������

��� � ��

Table (3.2). Values of the well function, ���� (source: Todd and Mays, 2008)

�� � 0.219 0.049 0.013 0.0038 0.0011 0.00036 0.00012 0.000038 0.000012

� ���� 1.82 1.22 0.91 0.70 0.56 0.45 0.37 0.31 0.26

� ���� 4.04 3.35 2.96 2.68 2.47 2.30 2.15 2.03 1.92

� ���� 6.33 5.64 5.23 4.95 4.73 4.54 4.39 4.26 4.14

� ���� 8.63 7.94 7.53 7.25 7.02 6.84 6.69 6.55 6.44

� ���� 10.94 10.24 9.84 9.55 9.33 9.14 8.99 8.86 8.74

� ���� 13.24 12.55 12.14 11.85 11.63 11.45 11.29 11.16 11.04

� ���� 15.54 14.85 14.44 14.15 13.93 13.75 13.60 13.46 13.34

� ���� 17.84 17.15 16.74 16.46 16.23 16.05 15.90 15.76 15.65

� ���� 20.15 19.45 19.05 18.76 18.54 18.35 18.20 18.07 17.95

� ����� 22.45 21.76 21.35 21.06 20.84 20.66 20.50 20.37 20.25

� ����� 24.75 24.06 23.65 23.36 23.14 22.96 22.81 22.67 22.55

� ����� 27.05 26.36 25.96 25.67 25.44 25.26 25.11 24.97 24.86

� ����� 29.36 28.66 28.26 27.97 27.75 27.56 27.41 27.28 27.16

� ����� 31.66 30.97 30.56 30.27 30.05 29.87 29.71 29.58 29.46

� ����� 33.96 33.27 32.86 32.58 32.35 32.17 32.02 31.88 31.76

������������������������������������������������������������

1

The assumptions of which Theis method is based on are often overlooked. The solution

assumes that aquifer material has hydraulic properties that are equal everywhere

(homogeneous) and in all directions (isotropic); aquifer extends to infinity (not bounded);

prior to pumping, the piezometric surface is horizontal; well is fully penetrating the aquifer

and pumped at a constant rate; flow is one dimensional, radial direction; and water pumped

from the aquifer responds directly with the declining head.

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�

This section considered the solution for unsteady flow in only

confined aquifer, because the case for unconfined aquifers becomes more

complicated. Nevertheless, a more general procedure to properly represent

the flow in any aquifer formation is achieved by considering computer

simulation modeling techniques based on numerical methods, which is

beyond the scope of this book.

conductivity 0.025 ����� , and storage coefficient 0.00084 is

pumped at a rate of 0.03 �� �� . Determine the drawdown at a

distance of 500 � after one year of pumping. Use Theis method for

computations and check the result by Jacob equation.

Solution

The Transmissivity of the aquifer is

� � �� � ����� � �� � �� � � � ������ ����

The parameter � is calculated from Equation (3.16c) as

� � � ������� ������

��� � � � ������

�� � � � ��� � � ���

With this value of �, the well function is read from Table (3.2) as

���� � ����

The drawdown is computed from Equation (3.16a) as

���� � ���� � ��

�� ������ � ������

�� � ���

Since in this case the value of � is small (� � ����), Jacob equation

can also be used to determine the drawdown. Using Equation (3.17)

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�

���� � ���� � �� ���� � ��� � � � ���

�� �� � � � ������

�� � ��� ������ � �������

Example 3.6 For the aquifer whose properties are given in the

previous example, pumping is stopped after eight months. Determine

the drawdown at the end of one year (i.e., four months after pumping

is stopped).

Solution

Note that the equations are developed for continuous pumping

starting at � � �. This problem can be solved by superposing two

pumping actions: i) continuous pumping with �� starting at � � �

and determining the drawdown at � � �� months; and, ii)

continuous recharging with � � starting at � � � months and

determining the negative drawdown at � � �� months, i.e. 4 months

after recharging starts.

Since the value of � will be small as was demonstrated in the

previous example, the drawdown can be determined by Jacob

equation

� ������� � �������

�� �� �

� ��

��� � � ��� ���

in which �� � �� months, and �� � � months. Simplifying

� �� ���� � ���� � �� ��

�� �� � �� � � � ������

��� �� �� � ��� �

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�

Pumping Tests

The basic hydraulic parameters of the aquifer can be estimated in the field

from pumping tests for both steady and unsteady state conditions. For

steady conditions, Equations (3.14) and (3.15) are used to compute the

hydraulic conductivity � for unconfined and confined aquifers,

respectively. The procedure is similar to that performed in Example (3.4).

Whenever unsteady effects are important and the various drawdown

observations do not produce consistent values of �, a procedure developed

by Theis for unsteady conditions should be used. Here, storage

coefficient� and transmissivity � become of concern. In this procedure,

the water depths at different � may be measured in a single observation

well. Thus, although �is kept constant, there will be several values of the

parameters � � �� and � . For confined aquifers, inspection of Equation

(3.16a) shows that � is proportional to ����, and of Equation (3.16c)

indicates that � is proportional to � � ��. Accordingly, it is noted that graphs

of (����vs. �) and (� vs. � � ��)will have similar shapes. First, the graph

( ���� vs. � ) is plotted using the values given in Table (3.2) on a

transparent logarithmic paper with as many logarithmic cycles as

necessary. The resulting graph is called the Type Curve. Then the graph (�

vs. � � ��)is plotted on a logarithmic paper using the pumping data. The two

curves are superimposed and positioned until the curves closely coincide

as in Figure (3.10). For the common point matched in the figure

corresponding values are read for � , ���� , � , and � � �� . Now, both

Equations (3.16a) and (3.16c) can be solved simultaneously for � and �. If

the values of u are small such that the Jacob equation can be used, then a

semi logarithmic plot of � (arithmetic scale) vs. � � ��(logarithmic scale)

122

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�

would result in a straight line. Values of � and �can be determined from

the coordinates of two points on this straight line.

�����

��

� � ��

Figure (3.10) Matching point technique to estimate hydraulic parameters from pumping tests under

unsteady state conditions.

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�

Problems

1. Water temperature in an aquifer is 35o C and the rate of water

movement is 80 m/day. The average particle diameter in the porous

medium is 0.2 mm. Find the Reynolds number and indicate whether

Darcy’s law is applicable.

2. A soil sample has a dry weight of 622.15 g and density 2.65 g/cm3.

After saturation with water, its weight became 705.83 g. Determine

the porosity of the soil sample. [Answer: 0.263]

3. Water flows down a vertical pipe of diameter 0.3 m filled with sandy

soil at a rate of 50 l/h. Given the piezometers readings shown,

determine the hydraulic conductivity � of the soil in m/day.

[Answer: 42.4 m/day]

� � ��� m

� ��� m

��� m

��m ��� m

water has been pumped at a constant rate from the trench. After

steady state conditions have been reached, a tracer was observed to

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travel from point A to point B in 3 hours 12 minutes. What was the

value of the hydraulic conductivity � in m/day? What was the

pumping rate � in m3/day? [Answer: 1080 m/day; 21600 m3/day]

�

��m� ��

A� ��m� � B � ��m�

�� m

hydraulic conductivity of the soil is 0.002 m/s. If it is desired to

pump water from the ditch at a rate of 0.3 m3/s, what should be the

length of the ditch? [Answer: 187.5 m]

River

4�m Ditch

2�m

Impermeable formation

m depth. After a long period of pumping at a rate of 3 m3/min, the

drawdowns in the wells at 20 and 40 m from the pumped well were

2 and 1 m, respectively. Determine the hydraulic conductivity of the

aquifer. What is the drawdown in the pumped well?

24 m. If the drawdown 50 m from the well is 1 m and the drawdown

100 m from the well is 0.5 m, then calculate the hydraulic

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conductivity and transmissivity of the aquifer. If the radius of the

pumped well is 0.5 m and the drawdown at the pumped well is

measured to be 4 m, then calculate the radial distance to where the

drawdown is equal to zero. Why is the steady state solution for the

drawdown equation not valid beyond this distance?

hydraulic conductivity 0.00001 m/s. The well is pumped at a rate of

0.01 m3/s for many days until steady state conditions are reached.

How long does it take for a water particle to travel from point A

(which is 500 m from the well) to point B (which is 100 m from the

well)? Points A and B are on the same radial line. [Answer: 8675

days]

hydraulic conductivity is 0.0001 m/s and the storage coefficient is

0.001. Determine the time �at which the drawdown at a point 50 m

from the well becomes 10 m when the well is pumped at a rate of

0.03 m3/s a)by using Jacob simplified solution; and b)by using the

complete well function. [Answers: a) 27.9 days; b) 26.5 days]

The well is pumped for a test at 50 m3/h and the values of the

drawdown at an observation well 20 m from the pumped well are

measured at different times. The results are tabulated below. a)

Determine the transmissivity and the storage coefficient of the

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aquifer using Theis method; and b) what will be the drawdown in the

pumped well at the end of six months?

Time, � (min) 2 5 10 20 40 60

Drawdown, � (m) 0.57 1.49 2.43 3.31 4.34 4.97

rate of 200 m3/day. The values of the drawdown at an observation

well 100 m from the pumped well are measured at different times as

shown in the table below. Determine the transmissivity and the

storage coefficient of the aquifer using Jacob equation.

Drawdown, � (m) 0.75 0.86 0.97 1.04 1.12 1.23

12. Two pumps are used to discharge water from a well fully

penetrating a confined aquifer. The capacity of each pump is 0.1

m3/s. After pumping for 2 days, one of the pumps broke down. What

is the drawdown at a point 200 m from the well 5 days after the

pump has broken down? � = 0.002 m2/s, � = 0.001. Use Jacob

simplified equation. [Answer: 18.1 m]

127

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128

Part II:

Experimental Considerations

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Chapter 4

Chapter 4

Laboratory Experiments on Hydraulics

Laboratory Experiments on Hydraulics

List of Symbols

� � area, L2

� � area of orifice, L2

�� � area of contraction, L2

� � channel bottom width, L

� � coefficient of discharge, dimensionless

�� � coefficients of contraction, dimensionless

�� � coefficient of discharge, dimensionless

�� � coefficient of velocity, dimensionless

� � diameter of pipe, L

� � diameter of orifice, L

�� � diameter of vena contracta, L

� � specific energy, L

�� � critical specific energy, L

�� � Froude number, dimensionless

� � friction factor, dimensionless

� � gravity acceleration, L/T2

� � piezometric head, L

�� � head loss, L

� � roughness element of pipe, L

� � length, L

� � Manning coefficient, dimensionless

� � wetted perimeter, L

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�

� � pressure, F/L2

� � discharge, L3/T

�� � theoretical discharge, L3/T

� � discharge per unit width, L2/T

� � hydraulic radius, L

�� � Reynolds number, dimensionless

� � slope, dimensionless

�� � energy slope, dimensionless

�� � water surface slope, dimensionless

�� � channel bed slope, dimensionless

� � velocity, L/T

� � water depth, L

�� � critical water depth, L

� � elevation from arbitrary datum, L

� � specific weight, F/L3

�= Kinematic viscosity, L2/T

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4.1 Introduction

Laboratory experiments help understanding physical problems and

providing the opportunity of testing basic concepts of subjects learned in

textbooks. In case of hydraulic engineering, laboratory experiments assist

intuitive understanding of relative phenomena such as flow reduction due

to a channel constriction or installing a weir, relation between pressure in

pipes and frictional head loss, uniform flow and energy considerations,

and rapidly varied flows including hydraulic jump and transitions. Owing

to the reason that all experiments involve measurements of various

quantities such as pressure, velocity, discharge and depth that are highly

interrelated with different flow conditions and states, knowledge of the

underlying principles becomes essential to conduct a successful laboratory

work.

The aim of this chapter is to develop practical skills in measuring

techniques and analytical procedures. The experiments presented here are

based on the apparatus available in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Kuwait

University. Eight experiments are discussed dealing mainly with hydraulic

bench and tilting flume. Instructional description of each experiment

includes the object of the experiment, introduction and brief theoretical

background, description of apparatus, experimental procedure and results.

Data sheets are also provided to tabulate the measurements and

calculations of results. In general, the objective of an experiment is

important to state, because it is usually analyzed in the results to determine

whether or not the experiment has succeeded. The introduction and

theoretical background include concepts leading to the results. Describing

the experimental setup and the procedure is important for students to

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of the results. A common requirement here is discussing the implications

and paying attention to the errors that may exist during the experiments,

which reflect the reliability of the interpretation of the results.

Laboratory report is written to archive the work and to communicate with

the lab supervisor. The report should be prepared using a computer-based

word processing software, which incorporates features including

formatting, graphing, drawing, tabulating, and spell-check. Equations

should be embedded in the text of the report and formatted using

“Equation Editor” tool on your word processor. It is important to define all

variables used, but only one time in the report. For graphical presentation

of results, the horizontal axis is usually used for a quantity that is being

controlled or adjusted, and the vertical axis is used for the observed

dependent quantity. Scale should be carefully chosen, and the units for the

quantity be mentioned on the axis. For tables, heading of each column

must include, where relevant, the units of quantity being entered. As you

edit your report, delete unnecessary words, rewrite unclear phrases, and

modify grammatical errors.

A full report would generally contain the following:

1. Title page

a) Student name and ID

b) Experiment number and title

c) Date

d) Group number

2. Body of the Report

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a) Objective

b) Theory

c) Description of experimental setup

d) Procedures

e) Data

f) Results and discussion

g) Conclusions

Hydraulic Bench

Hydraulic bench is a self contained water circulating unit used to perform

experiments in Hydraulic laboratory. Various models describing principles

of fluid mechanics and hydraulics are available for operation with the

hydraulic bench. Among these are the models for orifice, Venturi meter,

weir, and pipe flows.

The hydraulic bench used in the hydraulics laboratory is developed

by Tequipment Ltd. The bench is composed of a single unit in which a

small centrifugal pump draws water from a sump resting below the bench

and delivers it to a bench supply valve. Below the bench top there is a

weighing tank into which the discharge from an apparatus being tested on

the bench may be directed through a short pipe terminating at flange just

above the bench level. The weighing tank is supported at one end of a

weigh beam, the other end of which carries a weight hanger sufficient to

balance the dry weight of the tank, plus a small amount of water. The

outlet valve in the base of the tank may be operated through a mechanism

by the Cam Lever.

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supporting framework, so that the top may be removed easily at any time

for inspection of the working parts below. Around the edge of the bench

there is a raised lip so that water leaking from apparatus does not spill over

the edge, but drains through a waste hole back to the sump. This is an

important feature of the equipment, as it is rarely possible to perform a

hydraulics experiment without some water splashing or leaking on to the

bench.

Apparatus under test is placed on the bench and connected by

flexible pipe to a bench supply valve, which normally serves to regulate

the rate of flow through the apparatus. Another flexible pipe is led from

the exit of the apparatus to the flange above weighing tank, so that the

discharge is returned through the open valve in the base of the weighing

tank to the sump.

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Tilting Flume

The tilting flume used in the Hydraulics Laboratory is developed by

Armfield. The flume is a self contained water circulating unit which draws

its water supply from a sump tank by a centrifugal pump. The flow rate is

controlled by a calibrated flow meter and gate valve positioned on the

centrifugal pump. Water enters the flume inlet through a smooth

contraction section. The level in the flume may be controlled by a weir

located at the exit of the working section. Water returns from the discharge

tank to the sump tank through a measuring channel fitted with plate and

notch weirs, into a volumetric measuring chamber. A hook and point

gauge enables the height of the fluid above the bed to be measured. The

jacking arrangement is used for slope adjustment and operated by a hand

wheel.

Discharge�Tank��

Smooth�

Sump�Tank� Contraction�

Section��

Hook�and� Jacking�

Point�Gauge� Arrangement��

Calibrated�Flow�meter�

Centrifugal�Pump�

Gate�Valve�

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4.4. Experiments

This part provides instructional description of experiments conducted in

the Hydraulic Laboratory of the Civil Engineering Department of Kuwait

University and develops skills in measuring techniques and analytical

procedures. The following experiments are considered: flow through a

sharp edged orifice, flow through a venturi meter, flow over weirs,

frictional head loss along a pipe, uniform flow in open channels, specific

energy and depth relations in open channels, depth and discharge relations

in open channels, and hydraulic jump. It should be noted that all the

experiments presented here are related to chapter “Open Channel Flow”,

while nothing is related to the two other chapters of “Surface Water

Hydrology” and “Groundwater Hydrology”. The reason is that, as it was

mentioned previously, the experiments are based on the apparatus

available in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Kuwait University. Providing

additional apparatus relevant to the two other chapters is subject to a

current space limitation in the hydraulic laboratory. This chapter, however,

can be improved further in a forthcoming edition once this limitation has

been resolved and more apparatus become available. It should also be

noted that the experiments on pipelines have been considered here in order

to establish essential concepts for the study of fluid flow in general. For

example, the experiment on frictional head losses along a pipe is not

directly related to the chapter on “Open Channel Flow” as the head losses

are measured through a pressurized pipe. This experiment is considered

here to establish the loss of energy due to friction. All experiments

demonstrate the highly interrelated hydraulic phenomena with fluid flow

regimes and provide more attention to the practical aspects while

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students understanding of the work.

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EXPERIMENT NO. 1

OBJECTIVE

To determine the coefficients of contraction �� , velocity �� and discharge

�� for a sharp edged circular orifice.

INTRODUCTION

Orifice is a device used to measure the fluid flow in a pipe. When fluid

passes through a constriction such as an orifice, the discharge becomes

considerably less than that calculated theoretically on the assumption of

conserved energy with uniform and parallel flow through the constriction.

This reduction in flow is due to the fact that when fluid flows through the

orifice it contracts within a short distance downstream the opening

accompanied by certain head losses. The cross section of this contraction

is called Vena Contracta, where the streamlines are considered to become

parallel.

THEORY

Figure (4.1) shows a sharp edged orifice placed in a pipe. The cross

section area of the orifice is “a” and the cross section area of the flow at

the contracted section after the orifice is “ac”.

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The coefficient of contraction is defined as

�� ������������������� ���� ��

�� � � �

� ��������������� �� � ��

�� �

�� � � � �������������������������������������������������������

�

where �� � diameter of vena contracta; and � � diameter of orifice.

The coefficient of velocity is defined as

�������

�� �

������������

������������ can be calculated from Bernoulli equation by neglecting losses

along the streamline between sections “O” and “C” as

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������������ � �����

where �� � velocity head through the water jet measured by a pitot tube

as shown in Figure (4.2); and � � gravitational acceleration. ������� is

expressed by

������� � ������

the coefficient of velocity becomes

�� � ���� ����������������������������������������������������

The fluid discharge through the orifice can be expressed as

� � �� �������

� �� ��� �����

Let

�� � �� � �� ���������������������������������������������������(4.3)

then

� � �� ������ (4.4)

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Figure (4.3) Apparatus used for the experiment: Includes cutaway section of hydraulic bench.

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APPARATUS

A schematic diagram of the apparatus is shown in Figure (4.3). The

apparatus is a complete recirculating system with no water added from

outside. The diffuser ensures a smooth inflow of water and must be kept

about 30 mm below the water surface of the tank. The weighing tank is

emptied by the lifting lever near the weights. The lever attached to the

weighing tank has a moment ratio of 1:3 so that an added weight of 5 kg

would mean an effective weight of 5 � 3 = 15 kg or a volume of 15 L of

water collected in the tank.

PROCEDURE

1. Connect a hose to the overflow pipe and push the other end of the

hose into the drain hole in the bench top.

2. Position the apparatus so that the orifice is directly above the pipe

leading to the bench weighing tank.

3. Switch on the bench pump and open the flow control valve to supply

water.

4. Set the traverse mechanism so that the sharp blade will pass through

the water jet emerging from the orifice. Traverse the blade to

intersect one edge and then the opposite edge of the jet. Record the

lead screw reading at each point (the lead screw has 1 thread per mm

and each division on the hand-nut represents 0.1 mm).

5. Measure the flow rate through the orifice by timing the collection

of water in the bench weighing tank.

6. Repeat for different sets of readings over a range of flow rates.

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RESULTS

1. Calculate the coefficients of contraction �� , velocity �� and discharge

�� from Equations (4.1), (4.2) and (4.3), respectively.

2. Calculate the discharge Q from Equation (4.4).

3. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have learned

from the experiment and compare the average values of �� , �� and ��

with the standard values �� = 0.62-0.66, �� = 0.996-0.998 and �� =

0.61-0.65. How accurate are your results? What are the reasons that

affect accuracy?

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DATA SHEET

� DATE:�………………..�

�

� Diameter�of�the�orifice,�d�=………………..�

�

Lead�Screw�Reading� dc� �H� �Hp� Cc� Cv� Cd� Qty� t� Measured�Q� Calculated�Q�

Run�

3

left�� Right� (mm)� � � � � � (kg)� (s)� (m /s)� (m3/s)�

No.�

side�of�jet� side�of�jet�

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � �� �

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � �� �

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� ��

146

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � �� �

�� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� �� � �� �

Cc�avg.�=�…………………����������������������������������������

Cv�avg.�=�…………………�

Cd�avg.�=�…………………

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�

EXPERIMENT NO. 2

OBJECTIVE

To calibrate the Venturi meter and estimate the value of discharge

coefficient C.

INTRODUCTION

Venturi meter is a device used for measuring flow rate along a pipe. The

fluid flowing in the pipe is led through a contraction section to a throat,

which has a smaller cross sectional area than the pipe, so that the velocity

of the fluid through the throat is higher than that in the pipe. This increase

of velocity is accompanied by a fall in pressure, the magnitude of which

depends on the rate of flow, so that by measuring the pressure drop, the

discharge may be calculated. Beyond the throat, the fluid is decelerated in

a pipe of slowly diverging section, the pressure increasing as the velocity

falls.

THEORY

Figure (4.4) shows the flow through a Venturi meter. If the head loss

between sections 1 and 2 is ignored, then from Bernoulli and continuity

equations it can be shown that the relation between the theoretical flow

rate �� and the difference of pressure heads (�� � �� ) is given as

����� � �� �

�� � �� �

� � ��� ��� ��

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in which �� �area of cross section 1; �� � area of cross section 2 (throat);

and �� and �� �piezometric heights at sections 1 and 2, respectively. In

actual flows, frictional shear and turbulence cause head loss and reduction

in theoretical flow rate. An experimentally measured coefficient � is used

to relate the actual flow � to the theoretical flow �� such that

�

��

��

and therefore,

����� � �� �

� � ��� �

� � ��� ��� ��

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has a range of ���� � � � ���� and depends on Reynolds number�� �

�� �� �� and �� ��� ; where � � kinematic viscosity of fluid; and�� and

�� � pipe diameters at sections 1 and 2, respectively.

APPARATUS

Figure (4.5) shows the arrangement of the Venturi meter, which is

manufactured in clear plastic material. Water is admitted from the bench

supply valve and passes through a flexible hose into the meter. Beyond the

control valve, which is just downstream of the meter, a further flexible

hose leads to the measuring tank. At a number of points along the length of

the convergent-divergent passage of the Venturi, piezometric tubes are

drilled into the wall and connections are made from each of these to

vertical manometer tubes which are mounted in front of a scale marked in

millimeters. The manometer tubes are connected at their top ends to a

common manifold in which the amount of air may be controlled by a small

air valve at one end. The whole assembly of Venturi meter, manometer

tubes, scale and manifold is supported on a base mounted on screwed feet

which may be adjusted to level the equipment.

PROCEDURE

1. Connect the bench supply hose to the inlet pipe and secure it with a

hose clip. Connect a hose to the outlet pipe and put the other end of

the hose into the hole leading to the bench weighing tank (see Figure

4.5).

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2. Open the outlet valve, then switch on the bench pump and open the

bench supply valve to admit water to the apparatus.

3. Partly close the outlet valve so that water is driven into the

manometer tubes. Then carefully close both valves so that you stop

the flow while keeping the levels of water in the manometers

somewhere within the range on the manometer scale.

4. Level the apparatus by adjusting the leveling screws until all the

manometers read the same value.

5. Open both valves and record the readings h1 and h2 of the inlet and

throat manometers. The water levels should be as shown in Figure

(4.6). Measure the flow rate by timing the collection of water in the

bench weighing tank.

6. Repeat (5) until you have different sets of readings over a range of

flow rates.

RESULTS

1. Calculate values of C for each flow rate.

2. Plot a graph of � against �.

3. Plot a graph of � against �� � �� �� �� using a semi-logarithmic

paper.

4. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have learned

from the experiment and check to what accuracy you have

determined the value of �.

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�

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DATA SHEET

DATE:�………………..�

�

d1�=……….� � � � � a1�=……….�

d2�=……….� � � � � a2�=……….�

The�ratio�d2/d1�=……….� � � Temperature�of�water�=……….��� �

Kinematic�viscosity�of�water���=……….��

Run�No.� C� Re�

(kg)� (s)� (m3/s)� (mm)� (mm)� (m/s)�

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EXPERIMENT NO. 3

OBJECTIVE

To determine the coefficient of discharge C for Rectangular and

Triangular weirs.

INTRODUCTION

Weir is a device used for measuring discharge in free surface flows such as

rivers and open channels. A weir can be of different shapes –Rectangular,

Triangular, Trapezoidal, etc. Figure (4.7) shows two different shapes,

Rectangular and Triangular (or V-shaped) weirs. Triangular weir is

practically suited for the measurement of small discharges.

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THEORY

Consider flow over the weir shown in Figure (4.7). The flow rate over the

weir depends mainly on the head � relative to the crest of the weir

measured upstream at distance about 3 to 4 times � from the crest. The

flow rate equations for both Rectangular and Triangular weirs are

�

������������������������ � � �������� �����������������������������������������

�

� �

������������������������� � � ������� ���� ��������������������������������

��

where � � discharge; � � coefficient of discharge; � � head above the

crest of the weir; � � angle of Triangular weir (see Figure 4.7); and � �

width of the Rectangular weir. Obviously, both Equations (4.5) and (4.6)

can be written in the form

� � ��� ��������������������������������������������������

The above equation can be linearized by taking the logarithms of both

sides such that

��� � � ��� � � � ��� � �����������������������������������������

If the experimental results of log � and log � are plotted on arithmetic

paper, then a straight line will be obtained with the slope n and intercept

log �. The value of � can then be used to determine the discharge

coefficient � for both Rectangular and Triangular weirs

�

���������������������� � ������������������������������������������������

�������

�

����������������������� � ����������������������������������

����������� ��

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APPARATUS

Figure (4.8) shows the arrangement in which water from the bench supply

valve is led through a flexible hose to a pipe distributing the water fairly

evenly in the enlarged end of the tank. A contraction section leads the

water to a short channel, into which either the Rectangular or Triangular

weirs may be fitted. Water flowing over the weir is collected in the exit

tank, the outlet of which leads to the weigh tanks of the Hydraulic Bench.

The water level in the channel may be observed in the still tube which is

connected to the side of the channel. In this tube, there is a point gauge,

where the hook is secured to a vertical screwed rod. By turning a nut at the

top of the tube, the hook may be raised or lowered, its elevation at any

time being read off a scale and markings on the nut. The screw rod has 1

thread per millimeter and the nut is marked off into equal divisions where

each division represents tenth of millimeter.

PROCEDURE

1. Connect the bench supply hose to the inlet pipe. Push the flexible

outlet hose into the pipe leading to the bench weighing tank (see

Figure 4.8).

2. Insert the weir into the hydraulic bench.

3. Open the water supply until the level reaches the crest of the weir.

Close the supply valve.

4. Set the point gauge dial to zero and slide the hook up or down until

the point just coincides with the water surface. Subsequent readings

of the water level will then be relative to the true datum at crest

level.

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5. Set the point gauge to a specific reading and adjust the bench supply

valve until the water level corresponds roughly to the point gauge

setting.

6. Measure the flow rate by timing the collection of water in the bench

weighing tank.

RESULTS

1. Calculate values of � for each flow rate.

2. Plot a graph of log � against log � on arithmetic paper.

3. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have learned

from the experiment and answer the following questions:

- Is C constant over the flow range for each weir?

- How accurate are your results?

- What are the reasons that affect accuracy?

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�

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DATA SHEET

�

DATE:�………………..�

Rectangular�weir:�

Initial�reading�when�water�is�at�the�weir�crest�level�Hi�=�………..�

Run�No.� 3

C�

(Kg)� (s)� (m /s)� (mm)� (mm)�

�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�� �� �� ��

�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�

Triangular�weir:�

Initial�reading�when�water�is�at�the�weir�crest�level�Hi�=�………..�

� =�…………�

Run�No.� C�

(Kg)� (s)� (m3/s) (mm) (mm)

�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�� �� �� ��

�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

�� �� �� �� �� �� ��

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EXPERIMENT NO. 4

OBJECTIVE

To study the variation of friction factor f and estimate pipe roughness

element�.

INTRODUCTION

Frictional head loss is termed major head loss, because it usually accounts

for most of the pressure drop in dynamic water systems. For a fluid

flowing between two points in a pipe, the frictional head loss is involved

in the energy equation as

��� �� ��� ��

� � �� � � � �� � ��

�� � �� �

where � � average flow velocity; � � pressure; � � potential head; �� �

frictional head loss; � � gravitational acceleration; and � � specific

weight of fluid. If the pipe is horizontal (�� � �� ) with constant diameter

(�� � �� ), the energy equation can be rewritten in the form

�� ��

� � ��

� �

This relation is shown graphically in Figure (4.9) and can be useful to

estimate pipe properties such as friction factor and roughness element.

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THEORY

For pipe flow, frictional head loss can be obtained from Darcy-Weisbach

equation

� ��

�� � � �������������������������������������������

� ��

where � � friction factor; � � pipe length; and � � pipe diameter. The

estimation of friction factor depends on the flow condition whether

laminar or turbulent. Reynolds number�� is the parameter that typically

determines whether the flow is Laminar or turbulent

��

�� �

�

where �= Kinematic viscosity of fluid. Experiments suggest that when

�� � ����, viscous effects dominate and the flow becomes laminar; when

�� is between 2000 and 4000, the flow is in transition region; turbulent

flow occurs when Re > 4000 as inertial effects dominate. For laminar flow

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�� � ����, the friction factor depends only on Reynolds number and can

be determined from

��

��

��

For turbulent flow, the friction factor can be estimated as a function of

both Reynolds number�� and relative roughness ��� using the Colebrook

equation

� � ����

� ����� �� � � ����������������������������

�� ���� ����

where � � pipe roughness element. This equation has been plotted by

Moody as shown in Figure (4.10), referred as Moody diagram.

APPARATUS

Figure (4.11) shows the arrangement in which water from a supply tank is

led through a flexible hose to a tube along which the frictional head loss is

measured. Piezometric tubes are installed at upstream and downstream

pipe sections. The Piezometric tubes are connected to U-tube manometer,

which reads the differential pressure directly in millimeter of water, or a

U-tube which reads in millimeter of mercury. The rate of flow along the

pipe is controlled by a needle valve at the pipe exit and is measured by

timing the collection of water in a measuring cylinder (the discharge being

so small as to make the use of bench weighing tank impracticable).

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Figure (4.10) Moody diagram (source: L. F. Moody, Trans. ASME, Vol. 66, 1944).

PROCEDURE

1. Connect the bench supply hose to the inlet of the apparatus and

direct the flexible outlet pipe into the bench drain.

2. Open the needle valve, start the bench pump, and slowly open the

bench supply valve so that water flows through the apparatus.

3. Open the bleed screws at the top of the mercury U-tube, then slowly

close the needle valve so that air is expelled from the piezometric

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tubes. Open the air valve to release air from the water manometer.

When all air bubbles have been driven out, close the bleed screws

and air valve.

4. With the needle valve closed, check that the mercury levels in the

U-tube are in balance. If not, then repeat the process of expelling

air.

5. Close the water manometer isolating tap.

6. Open the needle valve and read the heights of the two columns of

mercury in the U-tube. Measure the flow rate by timing the

collection of water into the measuring cylinder.

7. Repeat (6) until you have different sets of readings over a range of

flow rates.

RESULTS

1. Calculate friction factor f for each flow rate using Equation (4.11).

2. Using the turbulent data (�� � ����), estimate the pipe roughness

element� from Equation (4.12) (or from Moody diagram).

3. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have learned

from the experiment.

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�

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DATA SHEET

DATE:�………………..�

Temperature�of�water��=…………..��������������Kinematic�viscosity�of�water�v�=……………�

Pipe�diameter�D=…………������������ ������������Pipe�area�of�cross�section�A�=�…………………�

Distance�between�pressure�points�L=………………..�

Run�No.�

(ml)� (s)� (m3/s)� (m/s) (mm) (mm) (m) � � (mm)

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �

�� �� �� � � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

�� �� �� � � �� �� �� �� � �

k�(average)�=…………..��

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EXPERIMENT NO. 5�

OBJECTIVE

To establish uniform flow and determine the Manning roughness

coefficient n for a rectangular open channel with glass walls.

INTRODUCTION

In open channels, uniform flow occurs when all the forces exerted on the

water are in balance and there is no flow acceleration except the gravity.

The pressure distribution of water becomes in this case hydrostatic,

� � �� . This flow can be assumed in prismatic open channels with

constant cross section and bed slope. The main properties of uniform flow

are the constant water depth y and velocity V, and the parallel slopes of

channel bed �� , water surface �� and energy grade line�� (Figure 4.12).

��� ��

� �� �

��

�� ���

�� � �

��

Flow

�� �

��

�� �

�� �

Datum

Figure (4.12) Uniform flow in open channel condition.

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THEORY

For uniform open channels, the flow rate � is estimated from the Manning

equation

� ��� ���

�� �� �� �������������������������������������������������

�

���� ��� ���

�� �� �� ��������������������������������������������

�

where � � Manning roughness coefficient, dimensionless; � � hydraulic

radius, (� ���); � � cross sectional area of flow; � �wetted perimeter;

and � � slope of channel bed. Obviously, this equation is dimensionally

inconsistent, where � has units of �� �� and �� � ���� for SI and English

units, respectively; � has�� and �� � for SI and English units, respectively;

and � has and �� for SI and English units, respectively. Several tables are

available in the literature for the selection of � value for a particular open

channel. In general, the selection of � value is based on best engineering

judgment. Representative values for various surfaces are given in Table

(4.1).

Material �

Glass 0.009-0.01

Unfinished concrete 0.015

Concrete, troweled 0.012

Concrete, wood forms, unfinished 0.015

Asphalt, smooth 0.013

Asphalt, rough 0.016

167

165�

�

APPARATUS

Figure (4.13) shows the general layout for the flume. The flume is a long

glass rectangular channel of constant cross section with a varying bed

slope (tilting flume). A centrifugal pump draws water from the water

storage tank and delivers it to the flume through the supply pipe. The rate

of flow can be controlled by a gate valve. The depth of water in the flume

can be measured with a point gauge.

PROCEDURE

1. Select four different sections in the central part of the flume. These

sections may be about 1 m apart.

2. Open the supply valve, adjust the channel bed slope and flow rate, and

wait until the flow becomes uniform with the flow depths chosen in

step (1) being approximately the same.

3. Measure � and y values.

4. Repeat steps (2) to (3) until you have different sets of readings over a

range of flow rates.

RESULTS

1. Calculate the average depth y and Manning coefficient n for each

flow rate.

2. Compare your results with the standard n value of 0.009 � 0.01 for

glass.

3. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have

learned from the experiment and answer the following questions.

- How accurate are your Manning n results?

- What are the reasons that affect accuracy?

168

166�

�

�

�

�

169

167�

�

DATA SHEET

DATE:�………………..�

Width�of�flume�b�=………………….� ��Slope�of�flume�So�=………………….�

Channel�bed�elevation�at:��

Section�1,�y1i�=………………….������� � ��Section�2�,y2i�=………………….�

Section�3,�y3i�=………………….������� � ��Section�4,�y4i�=………………….�

Run�No.� 1� 2� 3� 4� 5

3

Flow�rate�(m /s)�

Q� �� �� �� ��

Water�surface�elevation�(mm)� � �� �� ��

Section�1,�y1f� � �� �� ��

Section�2,�y2f� � �� �� ��

Section�3,�y3f�

Section�4,�y4f�

Water�depth�(mm)�

Section�1,�y1�=�y1f��y1i� � �� �� ��

Section�2,�y2�=�y2f��y2i�

Section�3,�y3�=�y3f��y3i� � �� �� ��

Section�4,�y4�=�y4f��y4i� � �� �� ��

Mean�water�depth�(m)� � �� �� ��

y�=�(y1+y2+y3+y4)/4� � �� �� ��

2

A�=�b�y������(m )� � �� �� ��

P�=�b+2y����(m)�

R�=�A/P�����(m)� � �� �� ��

Manning�n�(Equation�4.13)� �� �� �� ��

Manning�n�(average)�=�………………�

170

168�

�

EXPERIMENT NO. 6�

Specific Energy-Depth Relation

OBJECTIVE

To determine the relation between specific energy and water depth for

flow over a hump located in a horizontal channel.

INTRODUCTION

Specific energy � can be defined as the energy with respect to the channel

bed. From the continuity equation � � ��, the specific energy can be

written in terms of discharge as

�� ��

� ��� ���

�� �������

For a given �, if the area of flow cross section is � � ����, then the

specific energy will be � � ����. This expression can be used to plot the

relation of � with respect to � as in Figure (4.14). It is seen that for each

value of � there are two positive flow depths of �� and �� , named the

alternate depths. The fact that there can be more than one possible depth

for a given specific energy leads to the question of which depth will exist

in the flow. This can be evaluated by calculating the Froude number

�� � �� gy . The smaller water depth �� corresponds to the supercritical

flow (�� � �) and the larger depth �� to the subcritical flow (�� � �). It is

worth noting that at the minimum possible value of specific energy, called

171

169�

�

the critical energy �� , there is only a single critical depth�� with Froude

number equal to unity (�� � �).

THEORY

Let a hump with a height �� placed on the bed of a rectangular channel

carrying a discharge � as shown in Figure (4.15). As a result, the flow

condition in the presence of the hump becomes nonuniform. The specific

energies �� and �� at sections 1 and 2 are related as follows

�� � �� � ��

� � � ��

��

�� �

�� � � ��Constant�

�� �

�� � ��

172

170�

�

Energy�Line�

�

�� � �� � �� �

�zmax� �z

By increasing the value of �� , the flow condition approaches critical

(�� � �) at ����� . That is

�� � �� � �����

Theoretically, the critical energy �� for rectangular cross section can be

estimated from

�

�� � ��

�

and

�

�� � �� � ��

in which � �discharge per unit width, �� � ����; and � � channel width.

If �� exceeds ����� , then the flow condition at the upstream location will

be modified to produce a critical condition over the hump.

173

171�

�

APPARATUS

A schematic diagram of the apparatus is shown in Figure (4.16). The

flume has rectangular cross section and incorporates a triangular hump on

the bed. The water supply is derived into the channel by a centrifugal

pump. The rate of flow can be controlled by a gate valve. The depth of

water in the flume can be measured with a point gauge.

PROCEDURE

1. Adjust the channel bed to be horizontal.

2. Install the hump on the channel bed near the upstream end of the

channel.

3. Admit water supply to the channel and adjust to give a smooth

surface profile over the hump.

4. Measure � at different stations with the help of travelling depth

gauge.

5. Measure � from the gauge reading.

RESULTS

1. Plot � and � curve for two measured values of �.

�

2. Calculate the two theoretical values of �� � �� � ��.

3. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have learned

from the experiment, and calculate the Froude number �� � �����

upstream and downstream of the hump for the two cases in order to

state the type of flow at these locations.

174

172�

�

�

�

�

175

173�

�

DATA SHEET

� DATE:�………………..�

�

� Width�of�flume,�b�=…………………..�

�

�

Distance Hump Run No.1 Discharge Q=……….…………. Run No.2 Discharge Q=……….………….

Station

from height 2 2

No. y V V /2g E=y+V /2g y V V2 /2g E=y+V2/2g

station 1 �z (m) (m/s) (m) (m) (m) (m/s) (m) (m)

1

2

3

176

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

�

174�

�

EXPERIMENT NO. 7

Depth-Discharge Relation

OBJECTIVE

To study the flow through a horizontal contraction in a rectangular channel

and determine the relation between depth and discharge.

INTRODUCTION

For a horizontal open channel, the specific energy � remains constant

through a contraction ifthe energy losses are neglected

��

� ��� � ��������

��

where � � flow depth; � � flow velocity; and � � gravitational

acceleration. This condition with negligible losses can typically be

considered when the contraction changes gradually and smoothly along the

relevant part of channel.

THEORY

The specific energy E for a rectangular channel can be written as

��

� ���� ���������������������������������������������

��� �

or

� � ������ � �����������������������������������������(4.15)

177

175�

�

where � � discharge per unit width, � � � ��. Figure (4.17) shows the

variation of � due to changes in � values through the contraction. Here,

from Equation (4.15) with constant �, the discharge becomes a function of

flow depth � � ����, which can be presented in Figure (4.18) by the so

called discharge diagram. This figure reveals that for each � value there

are two flow depths of �� and �� , called the alternate depths, while for the

maximum � there is only a single critical depth�� . The depth

corresponding to the maximum discharge may be established simply by

differentiating Equation (4.15) with respect to �. By noting that � is

constant, �� will occur at the narrowest section of the contraction (see

Figure 4.17).

178

176�

�

Figure

u (4.18) Discharge

s diagram for constant specific energy.

APPARATUS

A schematic diagram of the apparatus is shown in Figure (4.19). The

channel has a rectangular cross section and a contraction at the

downstream location. Water is supplied constantly into the channel. The

flow rate is determined using a flow measuring facility and the water depth

by a travelling measuring gauge.

C o n t r a c t i o n

179

177�

�

PROCEDURE

1. Adjust the channel bed to be horizontal.

2. Admit water supply to the channel, fix the stations, and record the

channel width at each station.

3. Measure � at different stations with the help of travelling depth

gauge.

4. Measure � from the gauge reading.

RESULTS

1. Plot the measured � and � curve for two experimental runs each with

different �.

2. Plot the theoretical � and � curve using Equation (4.15) for each

experimental run.

3. Superimpose the measured � and � values on the theoretical plot.

4. In your laboratory report, write a summary of what you have learned

from the experiment

and provide the following:

� calculation of Froude number �� � ����� upstream and

downstream of the contracted section in order to state the type of

flow at these locations; and

� comparison of the measured �� with the theoretical value �� �

�

�� � ��.

180

178�

�

DATA SHEET

DATE:�………………..�

�

Distance Channel Run No.1 Discharge Q=……………….. Run No. 2 Discharge Q=……………….

Station 2 2

from width y Q E = y+q / (2g y ) y q E = y+q2 / (2g y2 )

No.

station 1 (m) (m) (m2/s) (m) (m) (m2/s) (m)

1

181

6

10

11

�

��Run�No.�1�Eavg�=�…………….�

�

��Run�No.�2�Eavg�=�…………….�

179�

�

EXPERIMENT NO. 8

Hydraulic Jump

OBJECTIVE

To study the characteristics of a hydraulic jump.

INTRODUCTION

A hydraulic jump occurs in the transition from supercritical to subcritical

flow. The depths of flow upstream and downstream of the jump are called

conjugate depths. The transition between supercritical and subcritical flow

results with an effective energy loss that cannot be neglected. The

hydraulic jump has many applications in open channel and drainage

systems. The most common application is to provide energy dissipation in

hydraulic structures such as dams and weirs in order to prevent

downstream scouring. The hydraulic jump can also be used to maintain

high water levels in channels for irrigation or other water distribution

purposes. Knowledge of the surface profile of a hydraulic jump is

desirable in this case for designing the freeboard for the channel. The

hydraulic jump is also important in the design and analysis of storm sewer

systems as the increase in downstream water depth may result with

surcharged pipe flow condition.

THEORY

Consider the flow under a sluice gate in a horizontal channel such that a

hydraulic jump occurs as shown in Figure (4.20). Between sections 1 and

182

180�

�

2, the head loss is negligible and thus the corresponding specific energies

become equivalent

�� � ��

which can be rewritten in the form

�� ��

�� � � �� � ���������������������������������

����� �����

where � � flow depth; � � flow rate; � � gravitational acceleration; and

� � flow cross sectional area. This equality in specific energy makes it

possible to estimate the flow depth immediately before or after the sluice

gate if either depth is known. However, through the hydraulic jump, the

complex internal flow pattern results with energy losses that are initially

unknown

�� � ��

and thus the conjugate depths �� and �� cannot be estimated directly from

the energy concept. Rather, the momentum equation can be used to obtain

the following relations for rectangular channel cross section

��

�� � ��� � ����� � ������������������������������

�

��

�� � ��� � ����� � ������������������������������

�

where ��� � ����� ���� � and ��� � ����� ���� � are the Froude

numbers for sections 3 and 2, respectively. The energy loss �� through the

jump can be determined from

��� � �� ��

�� � �� � �� �

��� ��

183

181�

�

Figure (4.20) Flow under a sluice gate with the formation of a hydraulic jump.

APPARATUS

A schematic diagram of the apparatus is shown in Figure (4.21). The

channel has a rectangular cross section and an adjustable weir control at

the downstream location. Water is supplied constantly into the channel,

and its rate can be varied by a flow regulator valve. An adjustable sluice

gate is also available. The flow rate is determined using a flow measuring

facility and the water depth by a measuring gauge.

PROCEDURE

1. Fix the sluice gate such that the flow under the gate will be

supercritical.

2. Admit water supply to the channel and obtain the desired water depths

by adjusting the flow control valve and varying the height of the

downstream weir.

3. When the flow becomes steady, measure the flow rate � and depths y1,

y2 and y3.

4. Repeat the procedure for five different flow rates.

184

182�

�

RESULTS

1. Compute specific energy E corresponding to the measured depths �� ,

�� and �� .

2. For the experimentally measured values of �� , compute theoretical

values of �� and �� using Equations (4.16) and (4.18), respectively.

3. Plot �� ��� against ��� to verify Equation (4.18).

4. In your laboratory report, write summary of what you have learned

from the experiment and give your answers to the following question. Is

there an appreciable head loss through the hydraulic jump?

185

183�

�

DATA SHEET

� DATE:�………………..�

� Width�of�flume,�B�=…………………..�

�

Measured Theoretical

Q E1 E2 E3 �E2-3 Fr2 y3/y2

Run No. y1 y2 y3 y1 y3

(m3/s) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m) (m)

186

3

5

184�

�

Appendix

SI Units

T �� �� ��

o

( C) (kg/m3) (N.s/m2) (m2/s)

-3

5 1000.0 1.519 x 10 1.519 x 10-6

�

-3

10 999.7 1.308 x 10 1.308 x 10-6

�

-3

20 998.2 1.005 x 10 1.007 x 10-6

-3

30 995.7 0.801 x 10 0.804 x 10-6

40 992.2 0.656 x 10-3 0.661 x 10-6

-3

50 988.1 0.549 x 10 0.556 x 10-6

60 983.2 0.469 x 10-3 0.477 x 10-6

-3

70 977.8 0.406 x 10 0.415 x 10-6

-3

80 971.8 0.357 x 10 0.367 x 10-6

90 965.3 0.317 x 10-3 0.328 x 10-6

-3

100 958.4 0.284 x 10 0.296 x 10-6

187

185�

�

English Units

T �� �� ��

o

( F) (slug/ft3) (lb.sec/ft2) (ft2/sec)

40 1.94 3.23 x 10-5 1.66 x 10-5

-5

50 1.94 2.74 x 10 1.41 x 10-5

60 1.94 2.36 x 10-5 1.22 x 10-5

-5

70 1.94 2.05 x 10 1.06 x 10-5

-5

80 1.93 1.80 x 10 0.93 x 10-5

90 1.93 1.60 x 10-5 0.826 x 10-5

-5

100 1.93 1.42 x 10 0.739 x 10-5

120 1.92 1.17 x 10-5 0.609 x 10-5

-5

140 1.91 0.98 x 10 0.514 x 10-5

-5

160 1.90 0.84 x 10 0.442 x 10-5

180 1.88 0.73 x 10-5 0.385 x 10-5

-5

200 1.87 0.64 x 10 0.341 x 10-5

212 1.86 0.59 x 10-5 0.319 x 10-5

188

186�

�

foot meter 1 ft = 0.3048 m

Area square inch square centimeter 1 in2 = 6.452 cm2

square foot square meter 1 ft2 = 0.0929 m2

Acre Hectare 1 ac = 0.4047 ha

Volume cubic inch cubic centimeter 1 in3 = 16.39 cm3

189

cubic foot cubic meter 1 ft3 = 0.02832 m3

Mass slug kilogram 1 slug = 14.59 kg

Density slug/cubic foot kilogram/cubic meter 1 slug/ft3 = 515.4 kg/m3

Force pound newton 1 lb = 4.448 N

Pressure pound/square inch newton/square meter 1 lb/in2 (psi) = 6895 N/m2 (Pa)

Viscosity pound-second/square foot newton-second/square meter 1 lb.sec/ft2 = 47.88 N.s/m2

187�

�

SI Prefixes

1012 tera T

9

10 giga G

6

10 mega M

3

10 kilo k

-2

10 centi c

-3

10 milli m

10-6 micro ��

10-9 nano n

10-12 pico p

190

188�

�

Bibliography

York, US.

Hydraulic Engineering Systems. 4th Edition, Prentice-Hall, New

Jersey, US.

Sons, New Jersey, US.

York, US.

Brooks/Cole, California, US.

Engineering. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, US.

and Floodplain Analysis. 4th Edition, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, US.

Guide. 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, US.

191

189�

�

Development, Management, and Policy. 3rd Edition, John Wiley &

Sons, New Jersey, US.

hydrology. McGraw-Hill, New York, US.

Hydraulic Engineering Systems. 4th Edition, Prentice-Hall, New

Jersey, US.

G. (1992). Water-Resources Engineering. 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill,

New York, US.

New York, US.

Sons, New Jersey, US.

Oxon, UK.

Resources Publications, Colorado, US.

5th Edition, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, US.

Engineering. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, US.

192

190�

�

Groundwater Hydrology

New York, US.

Guide. 3rd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York, US.

York, US.

Development, Management, and Policy. 3rd Edition, John Wiley &

Sons, New Jersey, US.

Hydraulic Engineering Systems. 4th Edition, Prentice-Hall, New

Jersey, US.

G. (1992). Water-Resources Engineering. 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill,

New York, US.

New York, US.

Sons, New Jersey, US.

Hydraulic Engineering. 2nd Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey,

US.

193

191�

�

Resources Publications, Colorado, US.

Edition, John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, US.

Engineering. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, US.

Experiments on Hydraulics. Kuwait University Publication, Kuwait.

New Age International Publications, New Delhi, India.

Handbook of Hydraulics. McGraw-Hill, New York, US.

� Ettema, R., Arndt, R., Roberts, P., and Wahi, T. (2000). Hydraulic

Modeling Concepts and Practice. American Society of Civil

Engineers, Virginia, US.

CRC Press, Florida, US.

ASME, Vol. 66, 1944.

experiments with the hydraulic bench.

194

Abstract

in water resources engineering at the Civil Engineering Department

of Kuwait University and for students who have already had basic

knowledge in ﬂuid mechanics. The objective is to integrate the

fundamental concepts of three main topics: open channel ﬂow,

surface water hydrology, and groundwater hydrology. Detailed

laboratory experiments on hydraulics are also provided to assist

intuitive understanding of relative phenomena such as ﬂow reduction

due to a channel constriction or installing a weir, relation between

pressure in pipes and frictional head loss, uniform ﬂow and energy

considerations, and rapidly varied ﬂows including hydraulic jump

and transitions. The experiments are based on the apparatus available

in the Hydraulic Laboratory of Kuwait University and presented

in a manner that students can use the same book to tabulate their

laboratory observations and perform the necessary calculations.

195

iO�«

196

h�K*«

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X�uJ�« WF�U�

v�U�ô« ·bN�« Ælz«u*« UJO�UJO� UO�U�√ rN�b� W�KD� X�uJ�« WF�U�

ÁUO*« UO�u�Ë—bO� ¨W�u�H*« «uMI�« v� o�b��« ∫WO�U��« lO{«u*« Õd� u�

WODG� - bI� ¨p�– v�≈ W�U{ùU� ÆWO�u'« ÁUO*« UO�u�Ë—bO�Ë ¨WO�D��«

¨UJO�Ë—bON�« d���� v� ÂbI� v��«Ë ÁUO*« œ—«u� …œU* WKB�« «– »—U���«

l� UJO�Ë—bON�« d�«uE� WK�«b�*« U�öF�« rN� vK� W�KD�« …b�U�* p�–Ë

¨…œU??� W??�Ë«“ W��� ‰ö??� o�b��« qLA� »—U���« Ác??� Æl??z«u??*« o�b� rE�

w�UJ��ô« bIH�« ¨“U���« …dDM� vK� o�b��« ¨Í—u�M� œ«b� ‰ö� o�b��«

W�UD�« 5� W�öF�« ¨W�u�H*« «uMI�« w� rE�M*« o�b��« ¨»u��_« Èb� vK�

w� o�b��«Ë ¡U*« oL� 5� W�öF�« ¨W�u�H*« «uMI�« w� ¡U*« oL�Ë WO�uM�«

«c� Â«b���« V�UD�« lOD���Ë Æw�Ë—bON�« eHI�« «dO�√Ë ¨W�u�H*« «uMI�«

d���� v� WOKLF�« t�UE�ö� s�Ëb�� X�u�« fH� v�Ë …œULK� l�dL� »U�J�«

ÆUJO�Ë—bON�«

197

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198

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