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# MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Spring 2017
Recitation 2

## Problem 1: Dimensional Analysis

Centrifugal pumps are turbomachines in which the
pressure of a fluid is increased by the rotating action of an
impeller (driven by an electric motor or engine). They
come in a wide range of sizes, from very small pumps
used for toys or medical applications, to large industrial
pumps used for water or oil pumping stations. Extensive
studies show that the pressure rise across a pump, Δp,
generally depends on the volumetric flow rate, Q, the
impeller diameter, D, the rotational speed of the impeller,
Ω, as well as the fluid density and viscosity ρ and μ.
Consider a class of geometrically similar pumps, with different sizes, running at different speeds, and
used to pump different fluids.
a) Use dimensional analysis to find the relationship between Δp and Q.
b) A manufacturer claims that a pump with D = 0.020 m produces a pressure rise of Δp = 2.482x107
Pa when the impeller rotates at Ω = 60 rev/s. The pump delivers a volumetric flow rate Q =
1.9x10-2 m3/s of water (density ρ = 103 kg/m3, viscosity μ = 10-3 Pa-s). The pump efficiency is η =
0.85.
1. Calculate the power required to run this pump.
2. For a pump diameter of twice the size (D = 0.04 m), running under similar dynamic
conditions, what are the rotational speed of the impeller and the volumetric flow rate? What
is the power required to run this pump?
c) It has been shown experimentally that at a high Reynolds number, the pump performance
depends very weakly on the fluid viscosity. Hence, μ can be neglected in establishing the
relationship between Δp and Q. Moreover, measurements at a high Re number, performed on a
single pump of diameter D0, running at a speed Ω0, and pumping a fluid of density ρ0, show that
the relationship between Δp and Q can be approximated as
Δp = a0 - b0Q
where a0 and b0 are given (dimensional) constants.
1. Use this relationship and the dimensional analysis of part (a) to obtain a relation between the
power delivered to the fluid and the volumetric flow rate for a pump of the same family
(arbitrary ρ, D, Ω).
Assume the values of a0 and b0, D0, Ω0 and ρ0 are all known.
2. Use the result in (1) to find the rotational speed at which the maximum power is delivered to
the fluid.
Problem 2: Navier Stokes Equations
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A circular plate of radius ro is placed on top of a fluid of density ρ and viscosity μ and is forced down with
constant force F onto a flat parallel surface as shown. The motion is sufficiently slow that the acceleration
and kinetic energy of the fluid can be neglected. The outward viscous flow between the plates at any
radial position can then be assumed to have the same velocity distribution as a two-dimensional, fully
developed laminar flow, with very low Reynolds number. (h << r)
a) Use the conservation of mass in a control volume and derive an expression for the distribution of
pressure as a function of radius assuming that p = 0 at r = ro. Express your answer in terms of r, μ,
vo (the vertical velocity of the plate) and h (the gap).
b) Calculate the force F in terms of the same variables.
c) Noting that vo = -dh/dt, integrate part (b) to get the time necessary for the plate to move within a
distance h of the surface for a fixed value of F (assuming for the purpose of the calculation that h
is infinite when t = 0).

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