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INTRODUCTION TO

PRECAST CONCRETE

At the end of this chapter, students are able to:


•State the comparison of precast construction to
the in-situ construction
•Discuss the benefits of using precast concrete
•Elaborate the precast concrete system including
the application of the IBS system in Malaysia
What is a PRECAST?
 Precast concrete is a construction product
produced by casting concrete in a
reusable mould or "form"
 Produced in a controlled environment,
and then transported to the construction
site and lifted into place.
 In contrast, the conventional in-situ
construction is poured into site-specific
forms and cured on site.
What is IBS?
 Industrialised Building System

A construction system which


components are manufactured in a
factory, on or off site, positioned and
assembled into structures with
minimal additional site work(CIDB,
2003)
What is IBS?
IBS is also defined as a construction
system that is built using pre-fabricated
components. The manufacturing of the
components is systematically done using
machine, formworks and other forms of
mechanical equipment. The components
are manufactured offsite and once
completed will be delivered to
construction sites for assembly and
erection. (Rahman and Omar, 2006)
What is IBS?
According to Warszawski (1999) IBS can be
defined as a set of interrelated element that act
together to enable the designated performance
of the building. Industrialized building system
also can be defined as a building system which
involves industrialized production of building
elements or components as well as erection
and assembly of these elements into a desired
building structure through mechanical means
using as little in-situ construction as possible.
The elements are thus precast of prefabricated
either in an off-site factory or in an on-site
casting yard.
Establishment and Development of IBS Timeline
in Malaysia
Categories of IBS
1. Precast Concrete Framing, Panel and Box
Systems which contain precast columns,
beams, slabs, 3-D components (balconies,
staircases, toilets, lift chambers), permanent
concrete formwork, etc;
2. Steel Formwork Systems which contain
tunnel forms, beams and columns moulding
forms, permanent steel formworks, metal decks,
etc;
3. Steel Framing Systems which include steel
beams and columns, portal frames, roof
trusses, etc;
4. Prefabricated Timber Framing Systems
which contain timber frames, roof trusses, etc;
5. Block Work Systems which contain
interlocking concrete masonry units (CMU),
lightweight concrete blocks, etc.
CONSTRUCTION
PRECAST
BUILDINGS
Precast Construction Method Statement

 OPTION 1: OPTION 2: OPTION 3:


PRECAST PRECAST CAST IN-SITU
COLUMN, WALL, BEAM &
BEAM, SLAB AND SLAB PRECAST
SYSTEM SYSTEM HYBRID
SYSTEM
Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd
Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 1

STEP 1: FOUNDATION
PREPARATION
 Preparation of foundation
Protruding  Casting of In-situ column stumps /
Starter
Bars ground beams with protruding starter
bars ready to receive Precast Columns

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 1
3 tiers STEP 1: FOUNDATION PREPARATION
Precast STEP 2: COLUMN INSTALLATION
Column  Precast column is slotted into protruding starterbar
 Column is propped to the required level and
verticality
 Column is grouted with high strength non-shrink
grout
Protruding
Grouting Starter
Of Starter Bars
Bars

Propping
Of Columns

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 1
STEP 1: FOUNDATION PREPARATION
STEP 2: COLUMN INSTALLATION
STEP 3: BEAM INSTALLATION
 Precast beam is lifted into position
Precast  Dowel bar is grouted, ready to receive
Beam hollow core slab

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 1
STEP 1: FOUNDATION PREPARATION
STEP 2: COLUMN INSTALLATION
STEP 3: BEAM INSTALLATION
STEP 4: HOLLOW CORE SLAB
INSTALLATION
 Precast Hollow Core Slab is lifted onto
Precast
Column position
Precast
Hollow
Core Slab

Precast
Beam

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 1
STEP 1: FOUNDATION PREPARATION
Beam top STEP 2: COLUMN INSTALLATION
concrete STEP 3: BEAM INSTALLATION
casting
STEP 4: HOLLOW CORE SLAB INSTALLATION
STEP 5: ASSOCIATED WORKS
 Shear key joint is grouted
M&E
services  Beam top rebar is installed
laying  Beam top concrete casting (C40)
 M&E services installation

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 1
STEP 1: FOUNDATION PREPARATION
Beam top STEP 2: COLUMN INSTALLATION
concrete STEP 3: BEAM INSTALLATION
casting
STEP 4: HOLLOW CORE SLAB INSTALLATION
STEP 5: ASSOCIATED WORKS
 Shear key joint is grouted
M&E
services  Beam top rebar installation
laying  Beam top concrete casting (C40)
 M&E services installation

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 1
STEP 1: FOUNDATION PREPARATION
STEP 2: COLUMN INSTALLATION
STEP 3: BEAM INSTALLATION
STEP 4: HOLLOW CORE SLAB INSTALLATION
STEP 5: ASSOCIATED WORKS (Cont..)
Topping  Placing of hollow core slab topping
concrete reinforcement/wire mesh.
 Casting of topping concrete

Topping
rebar/mesh

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 2

Step 1: FOUNDATION PREPARATION


 Preparation of foundation
 Casting of In-situ raft foundation / ground
beams with protruding starter bars ready
to receive Precast Walls/Columns

Protruding
Starter
Protruding Bars
Starter
Bars

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 2

 Step 1: FOUNDATION PREPARATION


 Step 2: PRECAST WALL/COLUMN
INSTALLATION
 Precast wall/column is slotted into protruding
starterbar
 Wall is propped to the required level and
verticality
Precast  Wall is grouted with high strength non-shrink
Wall
grout

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 2

 Step 1: FOUNDATION PREPARATION


 Step 2: PRECAST WALL/COLUMN
INSTALLATION
 Precast wall/column is slotted into protruding
starterbar
 Wall is propped to the required level and
verticality
 Wall is grouted with high strength non-shrink
grout

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 2

Step 1: FOUNDATION PREPARATION


Step 2: PRECAST WALL/COLUMN
INSTALLATION
Step 3: HOLLOW CORE SLAB INSTALLATION
 Precast Prestressed Precast Hollow Core Slab
is installed
Precast
Hollow
Core
Slab/
Plank

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 2

Step 1: FOUNDATION PREPARATION


Step 2: PRECAST WALL/COLUMN INSTALLATION
Step 3: HOLLOW CORE FLOOR SLAB
INSTALLATION
Step 4: FLOOR TOPPING WORKS
 Placing of hollow core slab topping
reinforcement/wire mesh.
 Placing of M&E services, ie, electrical ducting,
Concrete junction box,etc.
Topping  Casting of hollow core slab topping concrete

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 2

Step 1: FOUNDATION PREPARATION


Step 2: PRECAST WALL/COLUMN INSTALLATION
Step 3: HOLLOW CORE FLOOR SLAB
INSTALLATION
Step 4: FLOOR TOPPING WORKS
Step 5: REPEAT STEP 1 – 4 FOR THE
SUBSEQUENCE LEVEL

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 3

 Step 1: FOUNDATION
 Excavate to depth required
 Casting of cast in-situ pilecap
 Casting of In-situ column stumps
 Casting of non-suspended ground floor
slab (optional) or casting at a later stage
after floors above is cast.

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 3

 Step 1: FOUNDATION
 Step 2: COLUMN
 Cast in-situ column is cast to
receive in-situ beam

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 3

Step 1: FOUNDATION
Step 2: COLUMN
Step 3: BEAM
 Cast in-situ beam is cast
 Side form is removed but base form
and prop remains

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 3

Step 1: FOUNDATION
Step 2: COLUMN
Step 3: BEAM
Step 4: HOLLOW CORE SLAB
 Prestressed Precast Hollow core Slab is
hoist directly from the cargo trailer and
placed onto cast in-situ beam
 Shearkey is grouted
 M&E services is placed

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 3
Step 1: FOUNDATION
Step 2: COLUMN
Step 3: BEAM
Step 4: HOLLOW CORE SLAB
Step 5: FLOOR TOPPING WORKS
 Mesh reinforcement (wire mesh) and
topping reinforcement is placed
 Topping concrete is poured to complete
the structural floor

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


Precast Construction Method Statement – Option 3

Step 1: FOUNDATION
Step 2: COLUMN
Step 3: BEAM
Step 4: HOLLOW CORE SLAB
Step 5: FLOOR TOPPING WORKS
Step 6: REPEAT STEP 1-5 FOR
SUBSEQUENCE FLOOR

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


PRECAST
BUILDINGS
IN MALAYSIA
JOB REFERENCES: SHOPPING MALL

CARREFOUR, KEPONG GIANT, KINRARA JAYA JUSCO, TEBRAU CITY

TESCO, SETIA ALAM

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


JOB REFERENCES: SHOPPING MALL

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


JOB REFERENCES: COMMERCIAL BUILDING

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


JOB REFERENCES: RESIDENTIAL & EDUCATION

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


JOB REFERENCES: PUBLIC BUILDING

Eastern Pretech (Malaysia) Sdn Bhd


The Advantages in Using IBS
High quality and good acceptance
• High quality-controlled products due to controlled
environment in factory, better material selection and
using high mechanised technology.
• Skilled workers with specific scope of works improve
efficiencies and reduce errors.
• Unaffected by weather element due to controlled
environment of casting area.
• The industrialised building systems can reduce
boredom and monotony by getting flexibility in
architectural design.
Cost
• Reducing on-site workers significantly reducing labour
cost for contractors.
• Minimising cost of transferring waste material due to
quality control and reducing waste material.
The ability to use the components' moulds repeatedly
which made of steel, aluminum, etc for different
projects.
• Exemption of the Construction Levy for housing
developers who utilise IBS components exceeding than
70%.
- No need to do rectification works because of closely
checking and controlling in factory and this will save a
lot of money.
Time

• Faster completion of projects due to advance off-site


preparations and simplified installation process.

• Manageable construction schedule by the use of


planning control, estimated lead time and forecasted
down time.

• Off-site production can start while the construction site


is under earthworks. This offers earlier occupation of
building and minimises interest payment.
Safety
• Promote safe and systematic factory working
environment as minimal workers, materials and
construction waste is required on-site.

Cleanness and neatness:


IBS provide cleaner sites due to:
• Systematic components storage and timely material
delivery (Just-in-Time principles).
• Reduction of construction material at site.
• Reduction of waste materials at site due to casting in
factory.
• Minimising the use of formworks and props at site
because of casting in factory.
Disadvantages

• Less flexible in design term

• Higher degree of site accuracy is required to ensure


that the precast concrete floor units can be
accommodated without any alterations or making
good
Comparison between Pre-Cast
and Cast in-situ
 Precast concrete structures are able to resist to
earthquake loading as reliably as cast-in place.

 The chance to cast monolithic building elements


- walls, columns, beams, suspended floors and
roofs which are beautifully detailed

 Limitless flexibility of size and shape with no


modular restrictions.

 A robust material which does not require much


maintenance.
 Quality control - the quality is better able to be
controlled by casting multiple units in the same
mould, by casting walls flat rather than standing
upright and through the ability to better control
environmental conditions.

 Lower costs.

 Finishing options inherent in solid concrete


construction.

 Interesting shape and texture possibilities.

 Speed of construction - with off-site production


the panels and other precast elements can be
made while the site is being prepared.
Materials used in Precast
Structures
 Concrete
 Steel reinforcement
 Structural steel and bolts
 Non-cementitious materials
Components of Precast
 Precast concrete floors
 Precast concrete beams
 Precast concrete column and shear walls
 Joints and connections
 Beam and column connections
 Ties in precast concrete structures