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OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:

PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY


& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
COVER SHEET
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 1 of 33

DOCUMENT TITLE:

ENGINEERING STANDARD SPECIFICATION


FOR
ANCHOR BOLTS
PARSIAN SEPEHR COMPANY AND ALL RIGHTS ARE RESERVED. NEITHER IN WHOLE
NOR IN PART MAY BE REPRODUCED OR TRANSMITTED TO THIRD PARTY WITHOUT
THIS DOCUMENT AND THE DESIGN IT COVERS IS THE PROPERTY OF PALAYESH

PRIOR WRITTEN CONSENT OF OWNER.

1 14.04.2012 For BEP A.K.F. H.S. M.S.

0 20.09.2011 For Approval M.B. H.S. H.J.

REV. DATE DESCRIPTION PREPARED CHECKED APPROVED

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 2 of 33

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Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 3 of 33

Table of Contents
1.  GENERAL........................................................................................................................................................................ 4 
1.1  SCOPE................................................................................................................................................................. 4 
1.2  REGULATIONS ................................................................................................................................................... 4 
1.3  CODES AND STANDARDS ................................................................................................................................ 4 
1.4  UNITS .................................................................................................................................................................. 5 
3.  DISTRIBUTION OF ANCHOR BOLT FORCES .............................................................................................................. 6 
3.1  DISTRIBUTION OF TENSION IN ANCHOR BOLTS........................................................................................... 6 
3.2  DISTRIBUTION OF SHEAR IN ANCHOR BOLTS .............................................................................................. 6 
4.  DESIGN ........................................................................................................................................................................... 7 
5.  INSTALLATION ............................................................................................................................................................... 9 
5.1  SETTING OF ANCHOR BOLTS .......................................................................................................................... 9 
5.2  PLACING ........................................................................................................................................................... 10 
5.3  TOLERANCES .................................................................................................................................................. 10 
6.  GUIDANCE TO USE OF ANCHOR BOLTS .................................................................................................................. 11 
7.  NOMENCLATURE ......................................................................................................................................................... 11 
8.  BOLT DESCRIPTION .................................................................................................................................................... 12 
9.  ANCHOR BOLT DETAILS AND FABRICATION NOTES:............................................................................................ 12 
APPENDIX A:  DESIGN BASIS FOR ANCHORING TO CONCRETE ......................................................................... 22 

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 4 of 33

1. GENERAL

1.1 SCOPE

This specification covers the requirements for the design, material and construction of anchor bolts
needed to be provided in reinforced concrete pedestal and foundation blocks in Parsian C2+ Recovery
& Fractionation Plant in Assaluyeh and Mohr, Islamic Republic of Iran.

1.2 REGULATIONS

1.2.1 The work shall be done in accordance with the national and local law and regulations.

1.2.2 For subjects not covered by regulations or specifications, the design, material and
construction, shall be based on good engineering and working practice. The methods are
subject to approval by Owner.

1.3 CODES AND STANDARDS

Anchor bolts design and construction shall conform to the latest edition before 3rd August 2011
(Signing date of EP contract) of the following standards and codes:
a) American Concrete Institute (ACI)
- ACI 318 M Building Code Requirements for Reinforced Concrete
b) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
- ASTM A36 M Specification for Carbon Structural Steel.
- ASTM A153 Specification for Zinc Coating.
- ASTM A193 M Specification for Alloy-steel and stainless steel bolting
materials for high-temperature service
- ASTM A194 Specification for carbon and alloy steel nuts for bolts for
high-pressure or high-temperature service or both.
- ASTM A307 M Specification for Carbon Steel Bolts and Studs.
- ASTM A563 M Specification for Carbon and Alloy Steel Nuts.
- ASTM F436 M Specification for Hardened Steel Washers.
- ASTM F1554 Specification for Anchor bolts.
c) American Institute of Steel Construction (AISC)
- Manual of Steel Construction
d) Deutsche Norm (DIN)
- DIN 125 Washers, Medium type primarily for hexagon bolts and nuts.
- DIN 555 Hexagon nuts, Metric thread, Type g.
- DIN EN 10025 Hot rolled products of non-alloy structural steels.
- DIN 28082 (Part 2) Bottom ring with bracket supports or twin ring with web
dimensions.

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 5 of 33

e) Related Project Specification:


- 0-ST-00-ESS-742 Concrete Design and Materials
- 0-ST-00-CSS-751 Concrete Materials and Construction
- 0-ST-00-ESS-743 Design of Steel Structures
- 0-ST-00-CSS-752 Fabrication and Erection of Steel Structures
In case of conflict between the applicable international standards and codes and this
specification, the more stringent requirement shall govern.

1.4 UNITS

Units shall be in accordance with the (SI) system:


- Length : Meter (m) and millimeter (mm)
- Force : Kilo Newton (KN)
- Weight : Kilogram (kg)
- Moment : Kilo Newton – Meter (KN-m)
- Stress and Pressure : MPa
- Loading : Kilogram force / square meter (Kgf/m²)

2. MATERIAL

2.1 Materials used for anchor bolts, nuts, plates, washers and sleeves, shall conform to the following
specifications, unless otherwise noted on the drawings:

- Anchor bolts: ASTM F 1554 GRADE 36


Minimum Tensile Strength =400 MPa:
Fy =248 MPa or equivalent
- Anchor plates: ASTM A36 M
- Nuts: ASTM A563M
- Washers: ASTM F436 M or DIN 125
- Pipe sleeves: ASTM A 53 Grade B

2.2 Manufacturer's certification shall constitute sufficient evidence of conformity with the standards.

2.3 High strength bolts can be used only after consultation with Owner and anchor bolts
manufacturer.

2.4 Threads on bolts and rods shall conform to Unified Standard series of ASME B1.13M class 2A
tolerances or ISO metric screw thread.

2.5 All parts of anchor bolts and, nuts and washers shall be hot-dip galvanized according to ASTM
A153 class C except for expansion bolts which will be electrolytically galvanized and some types
of high strength anchor bolts such as ordinary bolts with tensile strength larger than 860 MPa

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 6 of 33

which hot-dip galvanizing is not an option for them in ASTM standard. In such cases, either 3mm
corrosion allowance shall be considered or an appropriate protective coating shall be used and
periodic inspection and maintenance shall be done to prevent corrosion. Cold (electrolytical)
galvanizing for anchor bolts and nuts with diameters less than 20mm is permissible.

2.6 A coating thickness of 65 to 70 micron shall be provided during galvanizing, unless otherwise
noted.

2.7 All bolts assemblies shall be fabricated in accordance with the details shown in this specification.

2.8 Bolts shall be supplied with double nuts where specified on the construction drawings.

2.9 Where slide plates are used, the bolts shall be supplied with a ferrule in accordance with this
specification to prevent the nuts being over tightened. Ferrules shall be as specified on the
construction drawings.

3. DISTRIBUTION OF ANCHOR BOLT FORCES

3.1 DISTRIBUTION OF TENSION IN ANCHOR BOLTS

3.1.1 Vessels with circular anchor bolt arrangements

Anchor bolt maximum tension can be calculated by conservatively assuming an elastic


distribution of forces and moments:

4M W
Tension= −
N × BC N
M: Maximum moment on the base plate
N: Number of anchor bolts
BC: Bolt circle diameter
W: Minimum weight of vessel
Using more accurate methods which solves for the location of the neutral axis and
determines the compressive forces under the base plate and tensile forces in anchor
bolts is recommended.

3.1.2 Structural column anchor bolts

For a structural column, anchor bolt tensions shall be determined by a method which
considers strain compatibility and equilibrium of forces and moments.

3.2 DISTRIBUTION OF SHEAR IN ANCHOR BOLTS

3.2.1 Means of carrying shear:

Shear applied to an anchorage shall be carried by one of the following mechanisms:

• Friction due to net compression and compression from moment couple. (This is a
non-ductile mechanism).

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 7 of 33

• Anchor bolts

• Embedments such as shear keys. It is essential that grout completely fill a shear
key slot. Use of grout holes in the base plate is suggested. When shear keys are
used they shall be sized to carry the entire anchorage shear.

3.2.2 Shear in ductile anchorage groups:

If shear capacity of anchor bolts not carrying tension exceeds total design shear then
anchor bolts carrying tension may be assumed to carry no shear.
If total design shear exceeds shear capacity of anchor bolts not carrying tension, then
anchor bolts carrying tension shall be assumed to carry the difference.

3.2.3 Shear in non-ductile anchorage groups:

If friction capacity exceeds applied total design shear, then anchor bolts may be assumed
to carry no shear.
If total design shear exceeds friction capacity, then the entire shear shall be assumed to
be carried by the anchor bolts. Each bolt shall be assumed to carry shear in proportion to
its cross sectional area, neglecting bolts having shear capacity limited by edge distance.
(ASCE - Engineering Report for Petrochemical Facilities - No.1)

• For minor structures like walkways shear can be transferred to foundations or


pedestals by friction between base plate and grouting. In this case the friction
coefficient is assumed equal to:
0.55 When the bottom of the base plate is raised above the concrete
surface, as on a grout bed.
0.70 When the bottom of the base plate is on the concrete surface.
0.90 When the top of the base plate is at or below the concrete surface.
These values are for limit state conditions. For ASD these values shall be used
with a factor of safety equal to 2.0.
75% of dead load shall be used in calculating the frictional resistance.

• In major structures shear shall be transferred to pedestal/foundation through


anchor bolts. In this case appropriate square washers of weldable materials with
standard holes shall be provided. These washers shall be field welded to base
plate. Washers and their connection to base plate shall be clearly introduced on
the drawings.

• For columns which transfer significant shear loads to foundations or pedestals,


shear keys shall be provided.

4. DESIGN

4.1 Depending upon the loads used for anchorage design and detail of the anchorage, anchor bolt
connections are classified as ductile or non-ductile. For ductile connections the embedment is
proportioned using the ultimate capacity of the actual bolt. For non-ductile connections the
embedment is proportioned using the factored design loads.

4.2 In regions of moderate or high seismic risk or for structures assigned to intermediate or high

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 8 of 33

seismic performance or design categories anchors shall be designed to be governed by tensile or


shear strength of a ductile steel element unless the attachment that the anchor is connecting to
the structure undergoes ductile yielding at a load level corresponding to anchor forces no greater
than the design strength of anchor.

4.3 Anchors and anchor groups shall be designed for critical effects of factored loads as determined
by elastic analysis. Plastic analysis approaches are permitted where nominal strength is
controlled by ductile steel elements, provided that deformational compatibility is taken into
account.

4.4 In regions of moderate or high seismic risk or for structures assigned to intermediate or high
seismic performance or design categories; design strength of anchors shall be taken as
0.75 φN n and 0.75 φVn

4.5 The values of f 'c used for calculation purposes in this specification shall not exceed 69 MPa for
cast-in anchors and 55 MPa for post-installed anchors. Testing is required for post-installed
anchors when used in concrete with f 'c greater than 55 MPa.

4.6 When the consequence of the failure of a single anchorage is particularly undesirable, e.g. the
failure of a single anchorage leads to the collapse of a vessel or piping which contains highly
flammable, toxic or explosive materials, anchor bolt connection shall be ductile, i.e. the
anchorage design shall be based on the ultimate tensile capacity of the bolt. In this case
reinforcement in the supporting member shall be properly detailed to yield prior to concrete
failure. (Refer to appendix “A” for more explanation)

Important note:
According to the recommendations of “ASCE Task Committee on Anchor Bolt Design for
Petrochemical Facilities”, the preferred method of transferring anchor loads to the concrete is
as follows:

• Tension force transfer tension through vertical pier reinforcement

• Shear force transfer shear through ties in the pier

• Lateral bursting force provide minimum edge distance or ties at bolt head
However, it should be noted that provisions of appendix “A” which are based on ACI 318, are
applicable for bolt diameters less than 50mm and the embedment lengths of not more than
630mm. In other cases, use of supplementary reinforcements is mandatory.

4.7 The length of anchor bolt embedment shall be checked by the designer in accordance with ACI
318.

4.8 Hooked anchor bolts (types “J” and “L”) shall not be used in regions of moderate or high seismic
risk (Failure is governed by pull out strength of anchor). These types can be used for secondary
and light elements.

4.9 Size of anchor bolts shall be 20mm Dia. Minimum, Except for plinth of stairs or ladders.

4.10 No increase in allowable stresses shall be taken when wind or earthquake are considered.

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 9 of 33

5. INSTALLATION

5.1 SETTING OF ANCHOR BOLTS

5.1.1 Anchors shall be installed according to manufacturer's recommendations.

5.1.2 The oversized dimension of holes on base plates shall be as following table. For anchor
bolts which are designed to resist shear forces appropriate washers with standard holes
shall be used.

TABLE-1 OVERSIZED DIMENSION OF HOLES


Bolt diameter (mm) Oversize dimension (mm)
20-25 8
25-50 12
>50 24

TABLE-2 SQUAR WASHER PLATE DIMENSIONS


Bolt diameter
16 20 24 30 36 42 48 56 64 72 80
(mm)
SQ. washer
40 50 60 70 80 95 110 135 150 165 185
plate dim. (mm)
Washer
6 8 8 10 12 15 20 20 25 25 30
plate THK. (mm)

5.1.3 Anchor bolts which are placed at top of pedestals shall be enclosed by lateral
reinforcement. These lateral reinforcements shall surround at least four pedestal vertical
bars and shall include at least two 12mm or three 10mm bars in top 125mm of pedestal.

5.1.4 Anchor bolts shall not be heated to facilitate equipment installation.

5.1.5 Contractor shall furnish and place embedded items required for adjoining work, before
the concrete is placed.

5.1.6 Anchor bolts shall be positioned accurately and supported against displacement.

5.1.7 Pockets can be used in order to install equipment/machine anchor bolts. Pocket
dimensions and location shall be based on fabricator catalogue.

5.1.8 Voids in sleeves, inserts and anchor slots shall be filled temporarily with readily
removable material to prevent the entry of concrete into the voids.

5.1.9 The Owner shall be given at least 24 hours check-out time, after placement of anchor
bolts and before depositing concrete.

5.1.10 Before concreting, the projection length of anchor bolt shall be greased and supplied with
nuts and wrapped properly, not to harm in the bolt thread.

5.1.11 Anchor bolts and other relative assemblies shall be clean of dust, rust, oil or any other
deleterious materials which have defects on the bond of anchor bolts and surrounding
concrete.

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 10 of 33

5.1.12 Nuts shall be tightened completely after installation of base plate. Nuts shall not be
welded.

5.1.13 Reuse of anchor bolts from demolished concrete shall not be permitted.

5.1.14 Anchor bolts shall be protected from physical damages and corrosion until installation of
the supported facilities is completed.

5.1.15 A cold applied zinc-rich compound primer or coating shall be used in field after
installation and nut tightening if galvanized parts are damaged during shipment or
erection.

5.2 PLACING

5.2.1 Anchor bolts shall have a minimum clearance 6 bolt diameter from the centreline of bolts
to the edge of concrete, but not less than 100mm.

5.2.2 Minimum distance from the edge of the sleeves or anchor plates to the edge of concrete
shall be 75mm.

5.2.3 Minimum distance from the face of pockets to the nearest outer edge of concrete shall be
100mm.

5.2.4 Minimum distance from the edge of the base plate to edge of the concrete
pedestal/foundation shall be 50mm.

5.2.5 Minimum distance between anchor bolts on the bolt circle of vertical vessels shall be, as
follows:

• For bolts diameter of 64mm and smaller : 450mm

• For bolts diameter of 68mm and larger : 500mm

5.2.6 Anchor bolts shall have a minimum clearance of 4 bolt diameter from centreline of
each bolt to the centreline of adjacent bolt within a given group.

5.3 TOLERANCES

5.3.1 All steel structure’s anchor bolts shall be set with substantial gauge plate locating the
bolts with a tolerance in relation to the plant coordinate system of 2mm for anchor bolts
up to 25mm diameter and 4mm for anchor bolts larger than 25mm diameter. Gauge plate
shall also be provided for vertical mechanical equipment with 4000mm B.C.D. and over
or bolts No. 16 and over.

5.3.2 CONSTRUCTION CONTRACTOR shall install anchor bolts and assemblies accurately
with respect to position, orientation, alignment and projection indicated in the drawings.

5.3.3 The following tolerances shall be kept as maximum allowable tolerances and may be
changed according to DETAIL DESIGNER or manufacturer's requirements:

a) The variation in distance between the centers of any two anchor bolts in a group of
anchor bolts shall be equal to or less than ± 1.5mm.
b) The variation in distance between the centers of adjacent anchor bolt groups shall be
equal to or less than ± 1.5mm.

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 11 of 33

c) The variation in elevation of the tops of anchor bolts shall be equal to or less than
13mm.
d) The accumulated variation in distances between centers of anchor bolt groups along
the column line with multiple anchor bolt groups shall be equal to or less than 2mm
per 10,000 mm but not to exceed a total of 25mm.
e) The variation in distance from the center of any anchor bolt group to the established
column line through that group shall be equal to or less than 6mm.
The tolerances that are specified in (b), (c) and (d) shall apply to offset dimensions shown
in the structural drawings. These dimensions are measured parallel and perpendicular to
the nearest established column line for each column.

5.3.4 For equipment anchor bolts manufacturer's tolerances shall apply.

6. GUIDANCE TO USE OF ANCHOR BOLTS

As a general recommendation, type CZ to be used as far as possible.


- Type CZ should be used for equipments and major structural bases.
- Type J, JS, L, LS and DZ should be used for small equipments and minor structural bases.
(Tension not allowed for type DZ)
- Type E should be used for structural and equipment bases where foundation/slab thickness is too
small for using other types.
- Type K should be used for anchoring small equipment bases after concrete is poured and can be
used if equipment is in place.
- All anchor bolts for vibrating machine and heavy equipments (e.g. Towers, Reactors, Drums, Heat
exchangers, Tanks) and major steel structure shall be fasten with double nuts.

7. NOMENCLATURE

D= Sleeve inside Dia. for type “CZ” & “E”


DN= Nominal outer diameter of sleeve for type “JS” &”LS”
d= Nominal diameter of bolt
G= Bend length for type “L” &”LS”
H= Bolt length from bottom end to top of rough concrete.
h= Sleeve length for type “JS” & “LS”
k= Circular plate diameter for type “JS” &”LS”
L= Bolt length from bottom of bolt bend to top of rough concrete.
Ld= Bolt length from top of anchor plate to top of rough concrete for type “DZ”
M= Centre to centre of bolt legs for type “FU”
N= Thread length
P= Projection length
Pb= Bottom projection for type “E”

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 12 of 33

R= Bend radius
SL= Sleeve length for type “CZ” & “DZ”
T= Anchor plate thickness for type “CZ”
Ts= Slab thickness
tb= Thickness of bottom embedded plates for type “E”
Tp= Thickness of square plate washer for type “E”
t= Circular plate thickness for type “JS” &”LS”
W= Anchor plate width

8. BOLT DESCRIPTION

Anchor bolts shall be identified by two, three, four or five part symbols with a suffix where required and
prefixed by “M” indicating ISO metric, as follows:

M … … … - … X and/or F= … (…)

Bolt diameter “d”

Type of bolt

Projection “P”

Dimension “SL”, for type CZ, DZ


or dimension “L”, for other types

Suffix “X” denotes extra nut required


Suffix “F” denotes ferrule required

Ferrule length

Suffix “Pb” only for type E

Example:
M 24 CZ 80-410= 24mm Dia. Bolt type CZ with 80mm projection, sleeve 410mm long.
M 16 LS 70-280X= 16mm Dia. Bolt type LS with 70mm projection, dimension “L” of 280mm, and extra
nut.

9. ANCHOR BOLT DETAILS AND FABRICATION NOTES:

9.1 Projection length of the anchor bolts should be equal to grout thickness + plate thickness or
height of anchor box + washer plate thickness (where required) + N1 (or N2).

9.2 The threaded length of anchor bolts shall be 3d and 4d for single nut and double nuts respectively
not less than 40mm.

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 13 of 33

9.3 The number of spot welds required, at each location indicated on the drawings, shall be as listed
in table 8; care shall be taken to ensure that the strength of anchor bolt is not impaired where
welds occur on anchor bolt shank.

9.4 Each assembly shall be transported fully assembled, (i.e.) with nuts attached to the anchor bolts
and washers in place.

9.5 Each assembly shall be identified by die - stamping its anchor bolt identification mark on the top
of the anchor bolt, or on a metal tag tied to the anchor bolt with soft iron binding wire.

9.6 All dimensions are in millimetre.

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 22 of 33

APPENDIX A: DESIGN BASIS FOR ANCHORING TO CONCRETE

A.1 DESIGN BASIS

Both Concrete and steel elements shall be designed by ultimate strength method (ACI 318).This
method is compatible with load and resistance factor design (AISC LRFD) which can be used for
steel parts. Alternatively, allowable stress design method (AISC-ASD) can be used for design of
steel parts. It shall be noted that all distances and forces in following formulas are in mm and N
respectively.

A.2 DESIGN STRENGTH

A.2.1 ULTIMATE STRENGTH METHOD:

(ACI 318, Appendix D) For the design of anchors based on ultimate strength method except as
required in (seismic provision):

φ Nn ≥ Nu
φ V n ≥ Vu

φ Nn and φ Vn are the lowest design strengths determined from all appropriate failure
modes(A.3).
N u : Factored tensile load
Vu : Factored shear load

Strength reduction factor for anchors in concrete shall be as follows when the load combinations
referenced in ACI 318(Chapter 9) are used:

a) Anchors governed by strength of a ductile steel element:


I) Tension loads 0.75
II) Shear loads 0.65
b) Anchors governed by strength of a brittle steel element:
I) Tension loads 0.65
II) Shear loads 0.60
c) Anchors governed by concrete breakout, side-face blowout, pullout or pryout strength:

Condition A Condition B
I) Shear loads 0.75 0.7
II) Tension loads
Cast-in headed studs, headed
Bolts or hooked bolts 0.75 0.7
Post-installed anchors with category as determined from ACI 355.2:
Category 1 0.75 0.65
(Low sensitivity to installation and high reliability)
Category 2 0.65 0.55
(Medium sensitivity to installation and Medium reliability)
Category 3 0.55 0.45
(High sensitivity to installation and low reliability)

Condition A applies where the potential concrete failure surfaces are crossed by supplementary
reinforcement proportioned to tie the potential concrete failure prism into the structural member.

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
PARSIAN C2+ RECOVERY
& FRACTIONATION
PROJECT
Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 23 of 33

Condition B applies where such supplementary reinforcement is not provided, or where pullout
or pryout strength governs.

Strength Reduction Factor, Φ, for


Strength Governed by use with Load Combination in
Section 9.2 Appendix C
Ductile steel element
Tension, Ns 0.75 0.80
Shear, Vs 0.65 0.75
Brittle steel element
Tension, Ns 0.65 0.70
Shear, Vs 0.60 0.65
Concrete Condition Condition
A B A B
Shear
Breakout, Vcb and Vcbg 0.75 0.70 0.85 0.75
Pryout, Vcp 0.70 0.70 0.75 0.75
Tension
Cast-in headed studs, headed bolts, or hooked bolts
Breakout and side face blowout, Ncb, Ncbg, Nsb and Nsbg 0.75 0.70 0.85 0.75
Pullout, Npn 0.70 0.70 0.75 0.75
Post-installed anchors with category determined per ACI 355.2
Category 1 (low sensitivity to installation and high reliability)
Breakout and side face blowout, Ncb, Ncbg, Nsb and Nsbg 0.75 0.65 0.85 0.75
Pullout, Npn 0.65 0.65 0.75 0.75
Category 2 (med. sensitivity to installation and med. reliability)
Breakout and side face blowout, Ncb, Ncbg, Nsb and Nsbg 0.65 0.55 0.75 0.65
Pullout, Npn 0.55 0.55 0.65 0.65
Category 3 (high sensitivity to installation and low reliability)
Breakout and side face blowout, Ncb, Ncbg, Nsb and Nsbg 0.55 0.45 0.65 0.55
Pullout, Npn 0.45 0.45 0.55 0.55

A.2.2 ALLOWABLE STRESS DESIGN:

For the design of steel elements base on allowable stress design following is required:

R < Ra

R: Required strength (ASD)


Ra: Allowable stress design

A.3 FAILURE MODES

a) Steel strength of anchor in tension (clause A.4 and Fig.A.1(a)(i))


b) Steel strength of anchor in shear (clause A.4 and Fig.A.1(b)(i))
c) Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension (clause A.5.1 and Fig.A.1(a)(iii))
d) Concrete breakout strength of anchor in shear(clause A.5.2 and Fig.A.1(b)(iii))
e) Pullout strength of anchor in tension(clause A.6 and Fig.A.1(a)(ii))
f) Concrete side-face blowout strength of anchor in tension (clause A.7 and Fig.A.1(a)(iv))
g) Concrete pryout strength of anchor in shear(clause A.8 and Fig.A.1(b)(ii))

Format No: F 1215 - 0


OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
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Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 24 of 33

Fig.A.1: Failure modes for anchors

A.4 Steel strength of anchor in tension and shear

A.4.1 Allowable stress design:

According to AISC ASD for threaded fasteners of ASTM A307, A36, A325, A449 and A490:

Allowable tensile stress Ft =0.33 Fu


Allowable shear stress Fv =0.22 Fu (threads excluded from shear plane)
Allowable shear stress Fv =0.17 Fu (threads included in the shear plane)

In regions of moderate or high seismic risk or for structures assigned to intermediate or high
seismic performance or design categories allowable stresses shall not be increased due to wind
or earthquake loads.

Interaction expression for tension and shear:


ft 2 f
( ) + ( v ) 2 ≤ 1.0 (A-1)
Ft Fv

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OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
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Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 25 of 33

f t : Calculated tensile stress


f v : Calculated shear stress
Fu : Specified tensile strength of anchor steel

A.4.2 Ultimate strength design

A.4.2.1 Steel strength of anchor in tension:

The nominal strength N s of an anchor or group of anchors in tension shall not


exceed: N s =n Ase Fu (A-2)
Where Fu shall not be taken greater than 1.9 Fy or 862 MPa.
π 0.9743 2
Effective cross sectional area of anchor: Ase = (d 0 − )
4 nt
n: number of anchors in a group
nt : number of threads per mm

A.4.2.2 Steel Strength of Anchor in Shear:


The nominal strength of an anchor or group of anchors in shear shall not exceed (a)
through (c):

(a) For cast-in headed stud:


Vs =n Ase Fu (A-3)
Where Fu shall not be taken greater than 1.9 Fy or 862 MPa.

(b) For cast-in headed bolt and hooked bolt anchors:


Vs =n0.6 Ase Fu (A-4)
Where Fu shall not be taken greater than 1.9 Fy or 862 MPa.

(c) For post-installed anchors:


Vs =n (0.6 Ase Fu +0.4 Asl Fusl ) (A-5)

Where Fu shall not be taken greater than 1.9 Fy or 862 MPa.


Asl : Effective cross sectional area of expansion or undercut anchor sleeve, if sleeve
is within shear plane
Fusl : Specified tensile strength of anchor sleeve

• Where anchors are used with built-up (unconfined) grout pads, the above nominal strength shall
be multiplied by a 0.8 factor.

A.4.2.3 Interaction of Tensile and Shear Forces:


Anchors or group of anchors that are subjected to both shear and axial loads shall be
designed to satisfy the following requirements:

(a) If Vu ≤ 0.2 φ Vn then full strength in tension shall be permitted


φ Nn ≥ Nu

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OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
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Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
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(b) If N u ≤ 0.2 φ Nn then full strength in shear shall be permitted


φ V n ≥ Vu
(c) If N u ≥ 0.2 φ Nn and Vu ≥ 0.2 φ Vn then:
Nu V
+ u ≤ 1 .2 (A-6)
φN n φVn

A.5 Concrete breakout strength of anchors

For anchors with diameters not exceeding 50mm and tensile embedment not exceeding 635mm
in depth exceeding the above limitations or for situations where geometric restrictions limit
breakout capacity or both reinforcement oriented in the direction of load and proportioned to
resist the total load within the breakout prism, and fully anchored to both sides of the breakout
planes, shall be provided instead of calculating breakout capacity.

Fig.A.2: (a) Calculation of ANo , (b) Calculation of AN

A.5.1 Concrete breakout strength of anchor in tension

The nominal concrete breakout strength, N cb or N cbg , of an anchor or a group of anchors in


tension shall not exceed:

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OWNER: MC: CONTRACTOR:
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Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 27 of 33

AN
For a single anchor N cb = ψ 2 ψ 3 Nb (A-7)
ANo
A
For a group of anchors N cb = N ψ 1 ψ 2 ψ 3 N b (A-8)
ANo
2
ANo =9 hef (A-9)
ANo is the projected area of the failure surface of a single anchor
AN is the projected area of the failure surface for the anchor or group of anchors which shall not
exceed n ANo , where n is the number of tensioned anchors.
The basic concrete breakout strength N b of a single anchor in tension in cracked concrete shall
not exceed:

1.5
N b =k f 'c hef ; k=10 for cast-in anchors (A-10)
k=7 for post-installed anchors
For cast-in headed studs and headed bolts with 280mm ≤ hef ≤ 635mm
Following equation can be used alternatively:
5
N b =3.8 f 'c hef 3 (A-11)

• Failure surfaces in narrow members:


For special cases of anchors in an application with three or four edges along with the largest
edge distance C max ≤ 1.5 hef , the embedment depth used in equations (A-9) to(A-14) shall be
limited to h'ef = C max /1.5

Fig.A.3: Failure surfaces in narrow members

• When an additional plate or washer is added at the head of the anchor, it shall be permitted to
calculate the projected area of the failure surface by projecting the failure surface outward

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1.5 hef from the effective perimeter of the plate or washer. The effective perimeter shall not
exceed the value at a section projected outward more than t (thickness of the washer or plate)
from the outer edge of the head of the anchor.

Fig.A.4: Effect of washer plate on projected area of concrete breakout

1
Calculation ofψ 1 : ψ 1 = ≤ 1 ; e' N ≤ s/2 (A-12)
2e' N
(1 + )
3hef
In the case where eccentric loading exists about two axes, the modification factor,ψ 1 shall be
calculated for each axis individually and the product of these factors shall be used as ψ1 in eq.
(A-8).

Fig.A.5: Definition of e' N for group anchors.


Calculation ofψ 2 :
The modification factor for edge effect is:

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ψ 2 =1 if C min ≥ 1.5 hef (A-13)


C min
ψ 2 =0.7+0.3 if C min <1.5 hef (A-14)
1.5hef

Calculation ofψ 3 :
When an anchor is located in a region of a concrete member where analysis indicates no
cracking ( f t < f r ) at service load levels, the following modification factor shall be permitted:
ψ 3 =1.25 for cast-in anchors
ψ 3 =1.4 for post-installed anchors
When analysis indicates cracking at service load levels, ψ 3 shall be taken as 1.0.

A.5.2 Concrete breakout strength of anchor in shear

The nominal concrete breakout strength in shear of an anchor or group of anchors shall not
exceed:

a) For shear force perpendicular to the edge on a single anchor:


AV
Vcb = ψ 6 ψ 7 Vb (A-15)
AVo
b) For shear force perpendicular to the edge on a group of anchors:
AV
Vcbg = ψ 5 ψ 6 ψ 7 Vb (A-16)
AVo
c) For shear force parallel to an edge Vcb or Vcbg shall be permitted to be twice the value
for shear force determined from (A-15) and (A-16), respectively, with ψ 6 taken equal to
1.
d) For anchors located at a corner, the limiting nominal concrete breakout strength shall be
determined for each edge, and the minimum value shall be used.

AV is the projected area of the failure surface on the side of the concrete member at its
edge for a single anchor or a group of anchors. The value of c1 shall be taken as the
distance from the edge to the axis of the anchor row selected as critical. AV shall not exceed
n AVo ,where n is the number of anchors in the group.
AVo is the projected area for a single anchor in a deep member and remote from edges in
the direction perpendicular to the shear force. Where anchors are located in varying
distances from the edge and the anchors are welded to the attachment so as to distribute the
force to all anchors, the strength shall be evaluated based on the distance to the farthest row
of anchors from the edge. So the value of c1 is the distance from the edge to the axis of the
farthest anchor row that is selected as critical and the entire shear shall be assumed to be
carried by this critical anchor row alone.
AVo =4.5 c12 (A-17)

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Hampa Energy
Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
TITLE: E.S.S. for ANCHOR BOLTS
Project No.: 2113
Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 30 of 33

Fig.A.6: Breakout cone for shear

Vb , the basic concrete breakout strength in shear of a single anchor in cracked concrete shall
not exceed:
l 0.2
Vb =0.6 ( ) do f 'c (c1 )1.5 (A-18)
do
l = load bearing length of anchor for shear, not to exceed 8 d o , mm
= hef for anchors with a constant stiffness over the full length of the embedded section such
as headed studs or post-installed anchors with one tubular shell over the full length of the
embedment depth.
= 2 d o for torque-controlled expansion anchors with a distance sleeve separated from
expansion sleeve.

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For cast-in headed studs, headed bolts or hooked bolts that are continuously welded to steel
attachments having a minimum thickness equal to or greater of 10mm or half of the anchor
diameter, the basic concrete breakout strength Vb in shear of a single anchor in cracked
concrete shall not exceed:
l 0.2
Vb =0.66 ( ) do f 'c (c1 )1.5 (A-19)
do
Provided that;
a) For groups of anchors the strength is determined based on the strength of the row of
anchors farthest from the edge,
b) The center to center spacing of the anchors is not less than 65mm,
c) Supplementary reinforcement is provided at the corner if c 2 ≤ 1.5 hef

For the special case of anchors influenced by three or more edges, the edge distance c1 used in
equations (A-17) to (A-22) shall be limited to h/1.5.

The modification factor for eccentrically loaded anchor groups is:


1
ψ5= ≤1 ( e'V ≤ s/2) (A-20)
2e'V
1+
3c1

Fig.A.7: Definition of dimension e'V

The modification factor for edge effect is:


ψ 6 =1 if c 2 ≥ 1.5 c1 (A-21)
c2
ψ 6 =0.7+0.3 if c 2 <1.5 c1 (A-22)
1.5c1

The modification factor for anchors located in a region of a concrete member where analysis
indicates no cracking ( f t < f r ) at service load:
ψ 7 =1.4 for anchors located in a region of a concrete member where analysis indicates
cracking at service load levels, the following modification factors shall be permitted:
ψ 7 =1.0 for anchors in cracked concrete with no supplementary reinforcement or edge
reinforcement smaller than a No.13 bar;
ψ 7 =1.2 for anchors in cracked concrete with supplementary reinforcement of a No.13 bar

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Hampa Engineering Corporation Engineering & Design Company
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or greater between the anchor and the edge;


ψ 7 =1.4 for anchors in cracked concrete with supplementary reinforcement of a No.13 bar
or greater between the anchor and the edge and with the supplementary reinforcement
enclosed within stirrups spaced at not more than 100mm.

A.6 Pullout strength of anchor in tension

The nominal pullout strength N pn of an anchor in tension shall not exceed:


N pn =ψ 4 N p (A-23)

For post installed expansion and undercut anchors the values of N p shall be based on the 5
percent fractile of results of tests performed and evaluated according to ACI 355.2. It is not
permissible to calculate the pullout strength in tension for such anchors.

For single cast-in headed anchor bolts, the pullout strength in tension shall be evaluated
using (A-24). For single L and J bolts the pullout strength in tension shall be evaluated using
(A-25). Alternatively values of N p based on the 5 percent fractile of tests performed and
evaluated according to ACI 355.2 procedures but without the benefit of friction can be used.

• The pullout strength in tension of a single headed bolt, N p shall not exceed:
N p = Abrg 8 f 'c (A-24)
Abrg is bearing area of the head of stud or anchor bolt, mm 2
( Abrg is not the area of the embedded head. It is the gross area of the head minus the gross
area of the anchor shaft)

• The pullout strength in tension of a single hooked bolt N p shall not exceed:
N p =0.9 f 'c eh d o where 3 d o ≤ eh ≤ 4.5 d o (A-25)
eh is distance from the inner surface of the shaft of a J or L bolt to the outer tip of the bolt.

For an anchor located in a region of a concrete member where analysis indicates no


cracking ( f t < f r ) at service load levels the following modification factor shall be permitted
ψ 4 =1.4
Otherwise ψ 4 shall be taken as 1.0.

The pullout strength of headed studs or headed bolts can be increased by providing
confining reinforcements, such as closely spaced spirals, throughout the head region. This
increase can be demonstrated by tests.

A.7 Concrete side-face blowout strength of anchor in tension

For a single headed anchor with deep embedment close to an edge (c<0.4 hef ), the nominal
side-face blowout strength N sb shall not exceed:

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Project No.: 2002 Project No.: Doc. No.: 0-ST-00-ESS-746 Rev. 1 Page 33 of 33

N sb =13.3c Abrg f 'c (A-26)


If the single headed anchor is located at a perpendicular distance, c 2 less than 3c from an edge,
the value of N sb shall be multiplied by the factor (1+ c 2 /c)/4 where 1 ≤ c 2 /c ≤ 3.

For multiple headed anchors with deep embedment close to an edge (c<0.4 hef ) and spacing
between anchors less than 6c, the nominal strength of the group of anchors for a side-face
blowout failure N sbg shall not exceed:
so
N sbg = (1+ ) N sb (A-27)
6c
so =Spacing of the outer anchors along the edge in the group,
N sb is obtained from eq. (A-26) without modification for a Perpendicular edge distance.

A.8 Concrete pryout strength of anchor in shear

The nominal pryout strength Vcp shall not exceed


Vcp = K cp N cb (A-28)

For a group of anchors:


Vcp = K cp N cbg

K cp =1.0 for hef <65mm


K cp =2.0 for hef ≥ 65mm
N cb , N cbg shall be determined from eq. (A-7, A-8)

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