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Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Chapter 3B
The Importance of Practicing
Ethics in Research

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-1


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Basic Principles of Ethical Research

Individuals serving as participants in the research must be treated so


that their dignity is maintained in spite of the research or the
outcomes.

As long as researchers continue to use humans and animals as


participants, the way in which these people and animals are treated
and how they benefit; even indirectly, from participation are critical
issues that must be kept in the forefront of all our considerations.

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-2


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Protection from Harm

Participants (used to be referred to as subjects) must be prevented


from physical or psychological harm.

If there is any doubt at the out set that


there is a significant risk involved (relative to the payoffs), then the
experiment should not be approved.
 In the case of a terminally ill child, the most dramatic and even
unconfirmed techniques that may save the child's life (but may also
hasten the child's death) may have a high risk, but the potential benefits
may be just as important to consider.

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-3


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Maintenance of Privacy
Maintenance of privacy speaks to several concerns, but most directly to
anonymity.
 Being anonymous within a research context means that there is no way
that anyone other than the principal investigator (usually the director) can
match the results of an experiment with the participant associated with
these results.
Anonymity is most often maintained through the use of a single master
sheet which contains both the names of the participants and their
participant number.
Only the number is placed on scoring sheets, code sheets, or other testing
materials.
The list of corresponding names and numbers is kept in a secure place out
of the public eye and often under lock and key.
A second concern regarding privacy is that one does not invade another's
private space to observe behavior and collect data.
For example, it would be unethical secretly to record the verbal interaction
between therapists and their clients. Although this might be a rich source of
information, it would not be legitimate unless the client and therapist agreed to it.

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-4


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Coercion

People should not be forced, for whatever reason, into participation


in a study.

If they do not want to participate, then an alternative way to fulfill a


course or job requirement should be provided.

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-5


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Informed Consent

Without question, every research project that uses human


participants should have an informed consent form that is read and
signed by each participant or the person granting; participation (in
the case of a minor child with the parent signing).

A place for the prospective subjects (or their parents) to sign,


indicating that they agree to participate and that they understand the
purpose of the research, also appears on the form.

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-6


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Informed Consent
Such a letter contains at least the following information for
participants:
 The purpose of the research
 Who you arc
 What you arc doing
 How long you will be involved
 An offer to withdraw from the experiment at any time for any reason
 Potential benefits to you as well as to society
 Potential harm or risk for discomfort to you
 An assurance that the results will be kept in strictest confidence
 How you can get a copy of the results
 How you can be reached should anyone have questions.

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-7


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Informed Consent with Children


There is an obvious problem when it comes to ensuring informed
consent with children many investigation in which the child is too
young to give consent of any kind. In this we, the parents must
determine whether they will allow their child to participate.
It needs to be ensured that children will not be placed in any danger,
either physical or psychological.
 Are 6-year-old children old enough to make .a decision about
withdrawing?
 Can they understand the long-range implications or the potential risks
of the research in which they are participating?
Make any experimental session or treatment with children as
pleasant as possible.

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-8


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Informed Consent with Children

Encourage them, make the activities pleasant, and reward them


when you have finished (as long as the promise of a reward does
not interfere with what you are studying).
remember that children are physically, emotionally, and
socially different from 'adults, and those differences must be taken
into account when they are used as subjects.
Finally, get all the institutional clearances you need to proceed.
Make sure your adviser or professor knows what you are doing.

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-9


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Confidentiality

Whereas anonymity means that records cannot be linked with


names, confidentiality is maintained when anything that is learned
about the participant is held in the strictest of confidence.
This means that information is disguised when necessary (which
touches on anonymity as well) but, more important, all the data are
kept in a controlled situation.
The best way to maintain confidentiality is to minimize the number
of people who see or handle the data.
 For example, concerns about AIDS and the results of screening tests.

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-10


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Debriefing
You design an experiment in which one group of participants is
asked to do some thing for a reason other than which they are
told.
For example, You might tell young children not to play with a
particularly attractive toy and then videotape their behavior without
their knowledge.
Once the experiment is completed, it is your responsibility to
inform them that they have been deceived to some extent for the
purposes of the experiment.
The easiest way to debrief' participants is to talk with them
immediately following- the session or to send a newsletter telling
participants the general intent and results of the study but leaving
out specifics such as names.
Boka banano jabe na, Research hobar pore deceive korar karon clear
kore bole dite hobe
M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-11
University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Sharing Benefits

When one group benefits from participation in a study, any other


group that participated in the study should benefit as well. This does
not mean that it is possible that all people with the disease can be
helped. That may not he feasible. But all direct participants in the
experiment should benefit equally.

 For example: Treatment group vs. Control Group

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-12


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology
Ensuring High Ethical Standards

 Do a computer simulation in which data are constructed and


subjected to the effects of various treatments.
 When the treatment is deemed harmful, do not give up. Rather, try
to locate a population that has already been exposed to the harmful
effects of some variable.
 Always secure informed consent.
 When possible, publish all reports using group data rather than
individual data.
 If you suspect that the treatment may have adverse effects, use a
small, well informed sample.
 Ask your colleagues to review your proposal, especially your
experimental procedures, he fore you begin.
 Get approval from the Institutional Review Board.

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-13


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

A Summary of Ethical Guidelines

The person conducting the research is the one who is the first and
most important judge of its ethical acceptability.
Every effort should be made to minimize risk to the participants.
The researcher is responsible for ensuring ethical practices,
including the behavior of assistants, students, employees,
collaborators, and anyone else involved in the process.
A fair and reasonable agreement must be reached between the
researcher and the subjects prior to the beginning of the research.
If deception is necessary, the researcher must be sure it is justified
and a mechanism must be built in to ensure that subjects (or their
representatives in the case of children or people who cannot make
such decisions) are debriefed when the research is concluded.
Researchers must respect a subject's choice to withdraw and must
not coerce the subject to return to the study.

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-14


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

A Summary of Ethical Guidelines

Whenever possible, participants should be shielded from physical


and psychological harm.
Once the research is complete, results of the work should be made
available, and the participant should be given a chance to clarify
any discrepancies of which she or he might be aware.
If the research activity results' in harm of any kind, the researcher
has the responsibility of correcting the harm.
All the information about the participants of a study, and any related
results, are confidential.

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-15


University of Dhaka
Chapter 3B Business Research Methodology

Thank You

M. Jahangir Alam Chowdhury 1-3B-16


University of Dhaka