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57. What is IP?.

IP is Internet Protocol. It is the network protocol which is used to send information from one computer to another
over the network over the internet in the form of packets.

58. What is a port?.

A port is an 16-bit address within a computer.Ports for some common Internet Application protocols.

File Transfer Protocol-21.


Telnet Protocol-23.
Simple Mail Transfer Protocol-25.
Hypertext Transfer Protocol-80.

59.What is hypertext?.

Sockets are endpoints of Internet Communication.They are associated with a host address and a port
address.Clients create client sockets and connect them to server sockets.

UDP is a connectionless protocol.

MIME(Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension) is a general method by which the content of different types of
Internet objects can be identified.
Networking (java.net)

Creating a URL

try {

// With components.

URL url = new URL(“http”,”hostname”, 80, “index.html”);

// With a single string.

url = new URL(

“http://hostname:80/index.html”);

} catch (MalformedURLException e) {

Parsing a URL

try {

URL url = new URL(“http://hostname:80/index.html#_top_”);

String protocol = url.getProtocol(); // http

String host = url.getHost(); // hostname

int port = url.getPort(); // 80

String file = url.getFile(); // index.html

String ref = url.getRef(); // top

} catch (MalformedURLException e) {

Reading Text from a URL

try {

URL url = new URL(“http://hostname:80/index.html”);

BufferedReader in = new BufferedReader(

new InputStreamReader(url.openStream()));

String str;

while ((str = in.readLine()) != null) {

process(str);

}
in.close();

} catch (MalformedURLException e) {

} catch (IOException e) {

Resolving a Hostname

Creating a Client Socket


try {

InetAddress addr = InetAddress.getByName(“java.sun.com”);

int port = 80;

Socket sock = new Socket(addr, port);

} catch (IOException e) {

Creating a Server Socket

try {

int port = 2000;

ServerSocket srv = new ServerSocket(port);

// Wait for connection from client.

Socket socket = srv.accept();

} catch (IOException e) {

Reading Text from a Socket

try {

BufferedReader rd = new BufferedReader(

new InputStreamReader(socket.getInputStream()));

String str;

while ((str = rd.readLine()) != null) {

process(str);

rd.close();

} catch (IOException e) {

Writing Text to a Socket

try {

BufferedWriter wr = new BufferedWriter(

new OutputStreamWriter(socket.getOutputStream()));

wr.write(“aString”);

wr.flush();

} catch (IOException e) {

Sending a Datagram

public static void send(InetAddress dst,


int port, byte[] outbuf, int len) {

try {

DatagramPacket request = new DatagramPacket(

outbuf, len, dst, port);

DatagramSocket socket = new DatagramSocket();

socket.send(request);

} catch (SocketException e) {

} catch (IOException e) {

}
}

Receiving a Datagram

try {

byte[] inbuf = new byte[256]; // default size

DatagramSocket socket = new DatagramSocket();

// Wait for packet

DatagramPacket packet = new DatagramPacket(

inbuf, inbuf.length);

socket.receive(packet);

// Data is now in inbuf

int numBytesReceived = packet.getLength();

} catch (SocketException e) {

} catch (IOException e) {

Joining a Multicast Group

public void join(String groupName, int port) {

try {

MulticastSocket msocket = new MulticastSocket(port);

group = InetAddress.getByName(groupName);

msocket.joinGroup(group);

} catch (IOException e) {

}
}

Receiving from a Multicast Group

public void read(MulticastSocket msocket,

byte[] inbuf) {

try {
DatagramPacket packet = new DatagramPacket(

inbuf, inbuf.length);

// Wait for packet

msocket.receive(packet);

// Data is now in inbuf

int numBytesReceived = packet.getLength();

} catch (IOException e) {

}
}

Sending to a Multicast Group

byte[] outbuf = new byte[1024];

int port = 1234;

try {

DatagramSocket socket = new DatagramSocket();

InetAddress groupAddr = InetAddress.getByName(

“228.1.2.3”);

DatagramPacket packet = new DatagramPacket(

outbuf, outbuf.length, groupAddr, port);

socket.send(packet);

} catch (SocketException e) {

} catch (IOException e) {