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Southern Illinois University Carbondale

OpenSIUC
Articles School of Music

Spring 2017

A Practical and Historical Guide to Johann


Sebastian Bach’s Solo in A Minor BWV 1013
Douglas Worthen
worthen@siu.edu

Follow this and additional works at: http://opensiuc.lib.siu.edu/music_articles


Today's flute publications often limit texts which analyze our repertoire in depth. This online
publication offers a more thorough treatment of one of the flute's most iconic works.

Recommended Citation
Worthen, Douglas. "A Practical and Historical Guide to Johann Sebastian Bach’s Solo in A Minor BWV 1013." (Spring 2017).

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A Historical and
Practical Guide to
Johann Sebastian Bach’s

Solo in A Minor
BWV 1013




By Dr. Douglas E. Worthen,
Associate Professor, Southern Illinois
University Carbondale


Copyright 2017 All Rights Reserved




1
All of us probably began our time. Yet his interest in solving
exposure to the works of Johann musical puzzles was not limited to his
Sebastian Bach by playing some of his brilliant canons, fugues, and
Menuets, Bourées or other dances in methodical investigation of
our elementary method books. Even temperament. Bach’s works for flute
from these first experiences, most of challenge the flute’s accepted range,
us responded to the beauty, integrity, agility in distant key modulations,
and energy of Bach’s compositions. articulation, and even dynamics and
The structure and organization of balance. Each work seems
books for beginners is usually experimental in some parameter, and
developmental, with laudably clear an interesting and effective
and defined goals of note reading, interpretation will take advantage of
facility, range, dynamics, and rhythm. Bach’s interest in probing perceived
To augment this instruction, students limitations of the instrument.
can turn to resources such as Trevor Thanks to Christoph Wolff’s
Wye’s excellent books on tone, scales, Chronology of Bach’s works included
and other specific technical issues. in Grove’s 1 , the flute repertoire has
These books contain technical goals come into clearer focus, and at least
with explanation, something three rather distinct periods of
conspicuously lacking in many other activity have emerged. The first, 1723
texts. However, the connection that to 1724, includes his Partita for flute
must be made between these abstract alone, BWV 1013, and the Sonata in E
exercises and the actual repertoire is minor, BWV 1034. The second, his
not always clear. The following Sonata in A, BWV 1032 and the great
articles present Bach’s works Sonata in B minor, BWV 1030, both
didactically, offering a methodical written c. 1735-1736. Finally, the
approach that attempts to bridge Sonata in E major, BWV 1035, c. 1741
theory and practice. as well as the Musical Offering, BWV
Johann Sebastian Bach’s works 1079, c. 1747, are clearly in their own
have unparalleled significance in the more Gallant style.
flute repertoire. No other primary Though they are not confirmed
common practice composer left works to be from Bach’s hand, The Eb Major
of such quality and quantity for this Sonata, BWV 1031 and the G Minor
instrument. The scope of the proposed Sonata BWV 1020 have remarkable
upcoming series of commentaries will similarities and are certainly
include historical, theoretical, and wonderful music. Christoph Wolff’s
practical information by which chronology in Grove’s lists the Eb
musicians, be they baroque or Major as c.1730-1734, and suggests
modern, amateur or professional, will that the G minor sonata was written
be inspired to create new and by C. P. E. Bach, though there is no
informed interpretations woven from evidence as to the date of its origin.
the warp of artifact and history and The C Major Sonata, dated c.1736,
the weft of present performance seems radically different than the B
convention and taste. Minor or the A major, and was not
Bach was not seen as being
particularly innovative in his own

2
included in the Neue Bach-Ausgabe, autograph survives from either this or
indicating that it too may be spurious. the E minor, however both have been
It nonetheless bears a closer look, and authenticated.
adds to a progressive approach when There is evidence that the Solo was
learning the sonatas based on written as early as 1717 in Cöthen,
chronology. The two G Major Trio however its style suggests that it could
Sonatas, BWV 1038 for fl. Vln. and B.C. have been written as late as 1723-24,
in the early part of the fourth decade after he arrived in Leipzig. This would
of the Eighteenth Century, and make it contemporary to the E minor
BWV1039 for two fl. and B.C., written Sonata, and during a period when
later in the decade, make for an Bach composed cantatas in which the
interesting comparison and fall within flute played a prominent role. Later,
the second period, during which we Bach chose more unusual keys (E
have other works in a three-voice Major and even modulating to B
texture. major!) for his flute sonatas, exploring
Introducing and studying this the varied affects of these tonalities.
repertoire in the aforementioned Some musicologists assert that Bach
chronology has the advantage of new little of the flute’s limitations,
beginning with one and then moving citing phrases which offer no obvious
to two and then three voices, as well breathing points. Yet similar
as moving from High Baroque to compositions by flutists Blockwitz and
Gallant style. Each period of activity Blavet have very similar perpetual
has two principal authenticated motion, suggesting that such
works. Once the reader has a clearer breathing demands were common.
picture of Bach’s compositional styles Bach must have known to avoid the
based on a chronology, attributed third register high F even in a logical
works can be more accurately arpeggiation (see Partita Allemande,
appraised. M. 5 and 6), and knew that a high A
would in fact be possible, providing a
The Partita for flute alone, spectacular end to the Allemande
BWV 1013 movement of the Solo.
Unlike the modern instrument,

many of the Baroque traverso’s
Historical Context
pitches must be produced by weaker,

fork fingerings. For this reason, scale
The Partita was likely Bach’s first solo
collections have radically different
piece for flute1. Although this work is
properties and are associated with
usually referenced by its Baroque
specific emotional Affects. The Partita
Partita form, its original title was Solo
and E Minor Sonata favor a “strong”
p[our une] flûte traversière par J. S.
tonality, meaning that most of the
Bach, and the four movements,
notes, and specifically the tonic and
Allemande, Corrente, Sarabande, and
5th, are not forked fingerings. In the
Bourèe angloise, are French spellings
case of the A minor Partita, the tonic A
of these dance movements. The
is strong, and the 5th (E) makes a
Partita’s first movement is in the hand
strong lower dominant. The Low D
of two different copyists. No extant
works well for a strong subdominant,

3
however the third (C), is a bit veiled. track of the number of voices implied
by the texture. Like many suggestions
below, this process is intended to set
STRUCTURES in motion a methodology by which all
repertoire might be studied.
An important advantage of looking at
Bach’s works chronologically is that Allemande:
he wrote first for one, then two and
finally three voice textures. The A superficial scan of the structure
harmonies implied in the Partita are shows a piece in binary form: A:||B:||
presented monophonically, and the with a coda beginning half way
rhythm of those changing harmonies through M. 34. The Allemande topic is
is a primary topic of the discourse. suggested by the typical upbeat
Although the basic harmonic (anacrusis) of three or seven
movement will be discussed later, it is sixteenths. The last note in the first
Score
Bach A minor Excerpts
advisable for the Bach A minorexample falls on a strong beat (thesis),
student to go Excerpts
through the piece and make his or her and should feel like an arrival. (see
[Subtitle]
own harmonic analysis first, keeping [Subtitle]
[Composer]
below)
[Composer]

œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ # œ rœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ r
[Arranger] [Arranger]

c œ #œ œ œ œ
! Flute & c œ # œ œ + œ ! œ ! ‰ Œ œÓ œ !‰ Œ Ó

œ # œœ œ j as an echo œ œonly œ # œ œ when


This 4 first unit establishes the tonality being a repeat of measure two, is
œ œ r 3 œ œ œ œ r 3 œ œ œ
œ
! ‰ Ó œ
œ # œ œ œ Fl. & œ #4œ œ œ #œœ œ# œ œ˙ œ
of A Minor, and is repeated, propelling
the piece forward to the second
! ‰
Œ Ó c œ4 œ œ heard
# œœœ ˙ softer œbut with œj the
performed
‰ Œ c ‰
measure. Already in measure two, identical inflections as measure two.
Bach presents five-notes that So far, we have a first measure
" & "" as well
"movement, "" as important " "" composed " " " " "
9
foreshadow the opening of the third of 2 identical halves, and a
Fl.
Solo pour une Flute Traversiere
material to follow. 2 Measure three,
second measure repeated in its
entirety:
. Johann Sebastian Bach
17 A B B
" & ""
"Allemande "" " "" "" " "
" "
œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ
# œ œ œœœ œœœœœ# œ œ œœœ œœœ œœœœœ# œ œ œœœ
Fl.

4 !œ œœ
œ œ #œ œœ# œœœœœœœœœœœœœœ
&4 œ œ #œ œ
" "& " " " " " " " " " " "
25

Fl.

œ "b œ

œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
#œ œ œ œœœœ œ œœ œœ œœœ will help œpropel œ œ
Instead of practicing the movement
note allemande anacrusis. This gesture

& # œ œœœ œ œ b œand œœmore


œœ œcreate
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœœ œœ œ
œœ œconnections
5
from the beginning to the end, as is the phrases forward,
œ
traditionally done, I propose studying
segments of similar length. Later,
œ subtle
from one phrase to the next. The
when deciding where to breathe in performer may choose whether or not

"œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œb œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
performance, some phrases will be to breathe before the anacrusis based

œ œœ "œœœœ œ œ
œœ œœœœœœ
prepended with the three or seven
œ œ œ # œ œ œœœœ œ
9

& #œ
4

13 œ " œ œ œ
Flute
Flute Bach
BachAAminor
on his or her individual intention and
minorExcerpts
Excerpts encouraged to practice the passage
taste. faster, thereby becoming comfortable
[Subtitle]
To begin, we will start with [Subtitle]
[Composer]
with the phrase length, and [Composer] then
[Arranger]
œ œ
phrases of three measures, and then gradually slow the tempo to [Arranger] the
œ œ# œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œœœœ r
!!œ œ is
œœ œphrase
cc œ # œ the # three
œ œ ‰r !Œ ‰12 ÓŒ are
œ !bar œ œin
move to two measures and less. In the desired speed. Bar 9 to the first
above &
œ œœ œ œsixteenth œ Ó œsimilarly
# œœ œ
& #œ œ three measures, with a breath # œafter œ
example, of
measures long.
Those who are accustomed to final low “D”.

œ # œ œ œ# œ jœ‰
breathing after only two measures are
Score œ œ œ r! ‰ Ó
r 3 œ œ œ Œ c œ œ
443œ œ œ œ #œœ# œœ œ ˙ Œ œc œ œ œ
5

& œ œ #œ œ œ ! ‰ Ó
5
& # œ œ More Bach Partita ˙ œ œj ‰

œ œ œ œ
A
Score
More Bach Partita [Subtitle]
A1 [Composer]
œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œœ b œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ [Arranger]
! œœ œ47œq =œ 120 œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œœ
œ
9

& œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ # œ n œ œ [Arranger]
!
9
[Subtitle]
&
[Composer]

& c 47œ qœ =œ120 œ œ œ R !‰ Œ Ó


œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ nœ
œœ œœœœœœ œ œœœœ œœœœ œ!‰ Œ Ó
Flute
c

&
b œ œ œ
œœ œ
œ œ R
œœ b œ œœ œ œœœœ œœœœœ œ
C 11
Flute

& #
# œ
œ œ œ œ œ rr "" " " " " " " " "
œ œ œœ œ œ œ
11

&
" " "
4

&
" " "
4
Fl.
Fl. 18&
Sequences that transport the tonality by half bars are two measures long, for
& "" "" "" ""
r
"" " "
r " " " " r " "
18

& rr
example bars 7 and 8. The double stems indicate a two voice texture.

œ œ rr œ œ rr r
œ œ œ œ rr r # œ œ œ œ nœœ r
œ œ œ œœ œ
&&! !œ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œ # œ œ n œR !œR‰! ‰Œ Œ Ó Ó
œ œ
7
7
Fl.
"" "" "" " " " "
Fl. 27

&
227 More Bach Partita
&
then 12 and 13:
r rr œ œœ œ r r œ œ nœœn œ "œ œ
œ œ œ " r œ
&! ! œ œœ œœ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ #
œ œ œ
" œ # œ##œœ# œœ œœ œœ œ œœ
26

œ # œ
RR
10 10

& & #œ# œ


Fl.
Fl.Fl.

" " "


29
Note that in bars 32 and 33, as in bars 7 and 8 above, the half bar harmonic rhythm
& " ! " "
13

& " ! " "


13

&
Fl. is emphasized by the leading tone (half step) immediately preceding the strong beat,
Fl.
Fl. indicated by the double stem.

r r r r
r
Bars 32 and 33:
r œ r œ
& ! œ œ œ b œ œ œ" œ n œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ© © œ œ œ" œ œ œ œ # œ # œ œ # œ # œ œ #"œR ! ‰ Œ Ó
17
32

&& " œR " "


17
Fl.
Fl.
Fl.

" " "


20

&
"" "" ""
Fl. 2035

&&
5
Fl.
Fl.
œ œ œ œ #œ-œœ-œœœœœœ œ œœœ œœœœ œœœ œ œœœœ
œ œ
œ œ
œ " œœ #Sebastian
œ œ œ œBach œ œ œ œ œ
œ4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ
4 œ ! œ œ œ œ- œ-œœ œ œ œ œ œœœ œ œ#œœ œ œ œ œ œœœ #œœœ œ œ n#œœ œed.œDouglasœ Worthen
&&Allemande
Johann

œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ
4 œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ p œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ
b œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ
œ& 4œ ! œ œAs the harmony changes more and more rapidly, and the phrases and breaths move
œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ " œ œœ œ œ#œœ œ œ œ œ œ
œ # œ # œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ - œ-"b œœ œœ# œ œ œ œœ œ œ
œ
œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ b œ œœ œœœ œœ œœ œœ œœ p œ " œ œ b œ œ
œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œMoving to measures where the harmony changes on every beat, a falling fifth
œ œ œ# œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœœœ
from three to two measures in length, the sense of urgency and intensity grows.

& œ # œœ œœ œ œ œ œ
œœ œ œœ- œ- œb œ œ
" œ #œ œ
œ # œ œ
progression follows in bars 13 through 15:
œ œ œœ œ œ œ
œœ " œ
œœ #œœ# œ œœ œœœ#œœœ# œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œ n #œœœœ œ #œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœœ œ œœ "œ œœœœœœ œœœœœ œœ # œ œ œ# œœ"œ œ œœœ œb œœ œœ œœ
œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ- œ- œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ " œ œ œ œ # œœœ n œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ
œ #œ œ
œ
œ œ # œ œ œ # œ # œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ # œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
& œœœ œ œ œ- - œ œ"œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœœ œ œœ œ œ # œ œ œ n œ œ"œ œ œ œ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ"œ œ œ œœ

œœ œœœ œ œœ œœ œ œ# œ œœ œ œœœ œœ # œœ # œbnœœ # œœ œ# œœœn œ œ n œ œ b œ n œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ


œ# œ
œ # œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ
" œœœ œ œ œ# œœ œ # œ œ œ œ
œ End of bar 15 and bar 16:
#œ œ œœœœ œ œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ " œ
"œœ œ# œ œ œ# œ n œ n œ "œ œ# œ
b œ œ œ #
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
b œ #œœ œ
œ
œ œœœœœœœ Ÿœ œ #œœœœ"œœ œ2.œœ œ œœ œœœŸ œœœœ œ# œœ œœ œ# œ n "œ# œ " œ œn œœœœ œœbœœœœ # œœœ œœœœœ œœ œœœ
œ
& # œ œ œ # œœ. œ ˙œ #. œ œ # œ œœ # # œœ . œ œœœ œ œœ œœœ œ œœœœ #œœ œ œ œ œ œœ #œœ œœ œ œœ œœœ#œœ œ# œœ
# œ œ œ # œ # œ" œ œ œ. œ n œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœœœ œ œ- œ œ œ œ # œ œ ##œœ" œ œ
œ œ œ # œ œ œ œœ
œ Ÿ œ " #œ
œ œ " œ " œ œŸ
œ œ œ# œ# œœ œ œ # œ #œœrhythm and utilize the three sixteenth allemande prefix. œ
. œœ œ˙ œ n œ œ. œœ##œœœ œœ œ œ œœ. œœœœœœ œ œœ " œ œ œ œ œ # œ œœ#œ#œœ œœ œ œ œ
The last bars before the first ending and again at the coda slow down the harmonic
" œ œ œœ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
1. 2.

& œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ . œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ # œ œœ #œœ œœ # œ nœœ œ œ # œ œ" # œœ œ n#œœ


œ œ œ # œ œ œ
œ œ# œ #œœœœ œ " œ œœœœ # œ œœ# œ # œœ # œœ œ n œ œ n œ - œ# œœ # œ
Bars 18 and 19:

œ œœ # œ n œ #œ nœ # œ œ
b œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
#œ #œ p © 2014 Douglasœ Worthen #œ
" œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ # œ n œ # œ # œ n œœ œœ# œn œ œ"œ b œ œn #œœ# œ œ

#
œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ" œ œ œ # œ œœ nœœœ #œœ œœnœ
œ œ œ2. # œ œœ œœ #Ÿœœ. œ œ
&œ œ œœœŸœ . œ# œ˙ "quarters as indicated below: œœ
The section is brought to a close with an authentic cadence of three consecutive
œœ œœ #œ
.. œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ
p œ ©œ2014 œœœœ œœ
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œœœ œœ œœœ œ œ ˙ .. œ# œ œ œ .œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ


Douglas

# œ œ# œ œ œ œ #œ
œ œ "œ œ #œ - œ
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#œ œ #œ
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# œ œ p © 2014 Douglas Worthen # œ œ #œ nœ œ #œ #œ nœ


œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ



p © 2014 Douglas Worthen


6
r 3 œ œ œ
œ # œ [Arranger]
œ
& œ #œ œ œ ! ‰ Ó œ œ Œ c œ j‰
Bach4 Aœœ #minor œ ˙ œ œ
5

œ # œ œ
œ œœ œœ œœœœ œœ r
Flute
Excerpts
œ
& c œ #œ œ ! œ
[Subtitle] œ œ ! ‰ Œ [Composer]
Ó œ #œ œ
œ œ œ œ
œ œ œc œ œœ œ œ ! œœ œ œ# œ œœ œœœ œ œœ œœœ œ œœ œœœb œ r œ! ‰ œŒ Ó œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ
[Arranger]

& ! & œ # œ œ
9

œ œ œ #œ œœ # œ œ
œ œ œ r ! ‰ Ó 3 œ œ œ œ œ Œ c œ œ œ j‰
5

& #œ œ 4 #œ ˙
Opening the second half of the movement, Measures 20-23 follow the same
model as the opening transposed down a fifth, in E Minor. œ
rœ œ œ #œ œ Œ c œ œ œ œ
#œ œ j
& œœb œ# œœ œœœ ! œ‰ œœÓ œ œ 4 œ œ

œ 3 ‰
5

œ ˙ œ œ œ œ" œ
œ
#9 œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œœœ œœ œœ œœr œ œ œ œ b œ" œ œ œ" œ œ œ œ" œ
11

&
& ! œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
!
9

&
œ# œ œœ bœœ œœœœ œœ œœ œœ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ
A B B
! œ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ
17

& # œ b œ œ #œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ r# œ œ " œ# "œ œ œ "# œ "œ "


11

& œ œ œœ
œ œ œ œ œ œ rœ œ
œ œ
& #œ " " " " "
11

œ œ

œ !‰ Œ Ó œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
Measures 9 to 11 are found transposed to D minor (M.26) modulating to G major in
" ! œ
20

& R "" " " " " " " œ" "" œ "" "" œ "
18

&
bar 29, and from there arriving in C major in bar 32.
18

&

#œœœœ#œœ# œœœœœœœœœœœ œ œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œœœœœ #œœœœœ œœœ œ#œœœœœœœ œ œœœœœœ œ œœœœœ# œœœœœœ œ œœœœ# œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ œ œœ œ œ œœœœœœœ
A A1 C
œ
œœœ œœ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœ œ œœ
24

& !œ
& œ& ! œ œœ œ # œœ œ œ œ œ # œ
26
26

œ œ œ œ œœ œ
œœœœ œœ œœœœ œœ œœœœ œœ œœœ œœ œ œœœœ œœœ œœ
&œ œœ œœœœ œœ œœ œ œœœœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
29

& œ& œ œœ œ œ œ " œ


29

R!‰œŒ Ó œ " œ
27


œ
& R!‰ Œ Ó " " "
32

œ
R ! ‰ Œ Ó " " "
32

& ©


©
Segments that are a single bar in eighth-note beats, as was seen in bar
length have a number of harmonic ©
4. The same structure appears again
designs. Some occur after a high in bar 39.
degree of harmonic activity, and serve The asymmetry of five iterations of
to slow down the Aharmonic
Bach rhythm.
minor Excerpts the figure in bar 36 into 37 entirely

œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ
Though the harmony in measures 24 obliterates the common time meter,

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ œ œœ
to 25 moves by the half bar, accents creating a sense of cadenza-like
œ œ #œ œ œ œ
are created by half-step appoggiaturas
on the second, fourth, and sixth # œ œ
freedom:

r
M. 36-37
r œ œ
œ # œ œ # œ œ œ # œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ R
‰ Œ Ó ! œ #œ !‰ Ó

# œ# œ œ œ
" Œ ! œ œ œ œ# œ ! "
7

œ
œ œœœ œœ œœ œ œœœœ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ œ# œ œ œœœœœœ œ œ œœœ
&! œ œ # œ# œ œ œ œ œ œœ #œ œ œ

rr œ rr
œ œ# œ # œ n œ œœœ
! œ ## œœ œœ # œ œœ œœ œ # œœœn œ œœœœœ # œ# œ
œ œ œœR !‰
œ
# œ# œ The R !‰most
ÓÓ ""
34

& ! œ
34

&
The scales and arpeggios, beginning complex and
on the second beat of bar 37 continue sometimes controversial measures of
the quasi-cadenza, using common the piece are bars 17 and 42. At this

#œ#œ
!! # œ # œ œœ œœœœœœœœœ# œ œ !!
conventions borrowed from Italian point the listener perceives two

& ŒŒ "" ""


37
37string writing of the period. (A breath voices, the upper voice in falling thirds

& after the first note (G#) reinforces the


Allemande gesture and preserves the œ# œ œ and the lower voice in seconds. The
pitch of the third to last sixteenth has
intriguing ambiguity created by been often questioned, however the
overlapping phrases). Bar 40 is an choice of allowing the diminished
40example in this style, utilizing a third to stand is clearly more

& "" "" ""


40
dominant E pedal point. interesting in performance.
&

M. 17

œ
# œ œ ##œœ n œ # œ œœ ##œœ n œ œ n œn œ œ œ b œ œ n œn œ# œ œ r !r ‰ Œ Ó
43

& #œ nœ #œ nœ œ bœ œ #œ œ œ ! ‰ Œ Ó
43

& R œ
R
œ #œ œ œ
M.42

# œ œ n œ nœ œ bœ #œ
# œ # œ œ œ n œ œ n œ b œ
& #œ nœ #œ n œ œ œ b œ œ b œ # œœ œ œR œ! ‰ Œ Ó
œ "
45

!‰ Œ Ó "
45

& R

" " " "


48As the movement draws to a close each, we can begin to compare the
&
" " " "
48with a coda beginning half way function, key, and gesture that might

& through bar 44, the allemande seven


note figure returns, and the intervals
be associated with them. It is
advisable to go through the segments
become suddenly more extreme. The slurring all the notes and playing them
leaps of a tenth naturally bring back in precise rhythm, focusing on an even

" " " "


52

&
the tempo, and the added half bar of and consistent air pressure and

" " " "


52
the coda is never returned, allowing minimum finger motion.
& the performer to play the highest A for
two full beats.
First, practice all of the three
measure segments. The measures
marked A arpeggiate the tonality by
56Further Practice of the Allemande repetition, whereas the measures

&
" "
marked B use the cadential chord "
" " "
56

&
Whether using a Baroque progression i - V7 6/3 - i 6/3 – V
traverso or a modern instrument, the reinforcing the tonality. Their
following suggestions should be declamatory nature allows the
equally valuable. By first grouping the performer to play without haste. Not
phrases by the number of measures of all the three measure segments are

8
transpositions of the same material, expressing and differentiating each
and so vary in their respective phrase unit, no matter what the
gestural meanings. Some are indeed articulation or loudness. Working with
modulatory, for instance bars 9-11 a metronome, but taking as much time
(which has a different gesture and as is necessary for each breath, make
meaning when the unexpected C# is sure the finger movements are relaxed
introduced), 26 -28, and 29-31. The and close to the keys or holes. Fingers
two bar segments should be should be comfortable and move
subsequently evaluated and practiced. evenly whether on traverso or the
They often move sequentially on modern instrument. Other variants
every beat, and imply direction and can include changing the rhythm to
drive. Their intervals are often dotted sixteenths or an eighth with a
unexpected, and include augmented sixteenth triplet. Practicing each
fourths. Since the range is not as large segment in retrograde reveals how
in these measures, singing them will often Bach uses a reverse order of
help the performer direct the sound of pitches in his writing.
each note to its center. The one bar Now that a substantial amount
segments have yet more variants, and of technical work has been done, turn
include chromatic and rhythmic off the metronome and play the piece
energy. As you play through these using as much rubato and dynamic
segments, notice their individual change as you can possibly muster.
characteristics. Exaggerating the gesture is always the
In order to create a smooth and test of fire. If the gesture does not fit
consistent air stream, practice slurring the text, it will seem completely wrong
the entire piece, observing the new when exaggerated, but will still be
breath marks in the text below, which tolerable if the gesture matches the
incorporate the prepended anacruses. text. Now, bringing the gestures back
In order to focus the tone, try flutter- to scale, record a performance of the
tonguing (with the tip of the tongue) movement. You will notice that if you
the entire movement, again always are making a point by tenuto, only half
observing the breaths and phrases. as much gesture is needed to make the
Repeat, this time playing the same effect in analogous moments.
movement up an octave. Now repeat Suggested breath marks added
the entire process, pianissimo, to to the score may be seen below:
develop control over the loudness. As
the piece is stitched together, continue
to consider various ways of

9
Solo pour une Flute Traversiere
Johann Sebastian Bach

œ œ œ œ œœœ œ œ
# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ
Allemande

4 ! œ œ œ
&4 œ œ #œ œ œ #œ œ
p
"
# œ œ œ œœ
œ œ œ œ œ œ- œ-"b œ œ
œ œœœœ œœœœ œ œ bœ œ
& œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ
4

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ "œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ
œ œ- œ- œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœœœ œ œ œ œ
œ œ
7

& œ œ

œ œ œ
œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ "œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ # œ œ œ œœœœ œ
10

&

œ œ # œ œ œ œ # œ # œ" œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œ "
&œ œ œ œ #œ œœœ œœœ
13

œ #œ

"œ œ # œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œn œ# œ œ # œn œ œn œ œb œ n œ# œ œ œ œ
& œ #œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ
16

œ œ "
œ
œ #œ œ œ. œ ˙ " œ
œ #œ œ œ. œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
. œ œ œ œ œ
1. 2.

. œ œ
19

& œ œ #œ

œ œ œ œ # œ œ "œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ
# œ
& œœœœ#œœœœœœ œœœ#œ œœœœ#œœœœœœ œ # œ #œ nœ œ #œ #œ nœ
22

p © 2014 Douglas Worthen


10

2 [Title]

bœ œ œ œ ! œ œ #œ œ
œ
& œ œ #œ œ #œ nœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
25

œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ!œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œœ
28

&œ #œ œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ! œ œ œ b œ œ n œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ # œ œ # œ # œ œ œ
œ œ œœ œ
31

!
#œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ # œ œ œ œ œ! œ œ œ # œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œœ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ#œ œ #œ nœ œ #œ
34

& #œ

!
U
œ
œ# œ œ œ # œ# œ œ œn œ œ œ œ # œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ! œ œ œ
œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ
37

& #œ

!
#œœœœ œ œœœ œ œœœœœœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œ nœ# œ œ œ nœ nœ œ bœ # œ
œœœœ œ œ œ bœœ œ
40

&

! ! ! œ œ
œœ œ œ # œ U
œ ! œ n œ b œ œ # œ
œ œ œ œ œ œ
& œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ nœ œœœ œ
43

˙
œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ ! œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ
œ. œ
46

11
Corrente tonguing one in a set of four
sixteenths. Sometimes the figure may
The Corrente is the Italian be reversed, tonguing the first
version of the French Courant, and sixteenth followed by the three
Bach wrote many such movements in slurred notes. There is a great deal of
his suites for solo strings and for evidence that Bach preferred
keyboard. Some courants were danced asymmetrical groupings, as evidenced
even slower than the Sarabande, by the slurs that he included in his
however the technical demands of this manuscripts. In the execution of this
fast Corrente are formidable. Of the figure, there is a tendency to clip the
four movements of this suite, this is last note of a slur before an articulated
clearly the most virtuosic, imitating pitch, so that one has more time to set
Italian string writing in brilliant up the articulation, but this stops the
bariolage style. It is therefore otherwise continuous flow of air. After
surprising that this fiery and brilliant marking the phrases and breaths
work is not heard more often as an following the model of the first
encore piece. The texture quickly movement, proceed to slurring each
moves to two voices in measure two, phrase in its entirety. Then continue
and then three voices in measure 13. by practicing one phrase at a time,
It is fruitful work to go through the slurring either one and three
entire movement and mark the voices sixteenths or three and one. Of
using double stems, as has been course, there are some moments
indicated in the previous examples. where this cannot be done due to the
Like the first movement, the Corrente eighth note motion, but these
gives prominence to the interval of a moments are few and far between.
10th, and the performer is well advised The treatises of the eighteenth
to scan the text for these intervals. century devote most of their text to
Sometimes the interval is used to articulation and ornamentation, while
define the compass or range of the very little material is presented about
phrase, as seen in the first two tone production. Might this be
measures. Later in the piece, on the because the acoustical spaces of the
first beats of measures 52, 53, and 54 period were so reverberant that clear
for example, the 10th defines the diction was imperative? Did the
harmonic space of the three-part acoustics generally favor the sound of
texture. When seen so often as well as the traverso, similar to today’s pop
seen in the context of the first musician having the advantage of
movement, the interval becomes amplification and artificial
topical. In Measure 41, the cadenza is reverberation? Seen as “flute speech”,
announced by the D# diminished 7th we can well imagine that the words
harmony. that were spoken into the flute relied
heavily on a variety of consonants of
One of the hardest things to do tonguing as well as vowels of tone.
on a flute is to keep the airstream at a
constant velocity and pressure while
tonguing. This movement is an ideal
vehicle to practice slurring three and

12
call for a weaker appoggiatura before
Sarabande: the beat, making the figure smoother
and less accentuated.
Baroque dance style is in large part
determined by the appropriate Bourée Angloise
succession of strong and weak beats of
each measure. In this movement, the This Bourée contrasts a “low”
Sarabande emphasizes the second style, or folk-like character with the
beat in the first measure, followed by former “high” style movements.
emphasis on the downbeat of the Examples of the Bourée and English
second measure. Still, moments style are common in the early
where Bach foils such expectations Eighteenth century, and generally
account for much of the interest and have a quarter anacrusis followed by a
variety in this movement. strongly accented downbeat. It is
Assuming that the movement’s unusual to end a suite with such a
first two measures fit the above model movement; a concluding Gigue is most
of a strong second beat in the first typical. Hence, performers often find
measure followed by a strong first this more rustic movement
beat in the second, and that this anticlimactic, and tend to either rush
pattern is repeated in measures three the tempo or exaggerate features of
and four, the four bar phrase structure the work. I suggest using the baroque
is clear. Still a major question does ti-ri-ti articulation in most of the
remain. Does the E natural in the iterations of two sixteenths followed
second bar feel like a resolution of the by an eighth. It sounds well on both
half note F? If so, a breath after the F baroque and modern instruments, and
would break the suspension, and can help with the natural stress of the
should be avoided. If the F is heard as dance movement.
the last note of the motif, then it
would at least soften, even if a breath
is not needed. The latter solution is
probably more in keeping with the
style of Bach’s early works, however
both solutions can make sense.
Although the Sarabande was
considered a slow dance at this point
in time, the work still moves quickly 1 Although the Brandenburg

enough that a four bar phrase is easily Concertos predate these works, the
attainable. flute was acting in a subordinate role
Measures five through eight all to the violin or keyboard.
clearly have a strong first beat. The 2 These five notes, transposed to C

short trill marked on the second beats Minor, are the first notes of the
of both measures six and eight are Musical Offering theme as well. It is
often played from the note above on remarkable that Bach both began and
the beat, however Frederick ended his writing for flute with this
Neumann’s interpretation is also famous motif.
worthy of consideration. This would

13



14