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I.

TITLE OF EXPERIMENT : Isolation of Ginger Oil from Ginger


Rhizome (Zingiber Officinale)
II. DAY, DATE OF EXPERIMENT : Wednesday, March 22th , 2017
III. GOALS OF EXPERIMENT :
1. Choosing the equipments that needed appropriate with the experiment have
done
2. Choosing the materials that needed appropriate with the experiment have done
3. Isolating ginger oil from ginger rhizome with correct procedure
IV. BASIC THEORY :
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is a plant that belongs to the Zingiberaceae
family. The plant is indigenous to warm tropical climates, particularly southeastern
Asia. It is extensively cultivated in India, China, Africa, Jamaica, Mexico and Hawaii
(Evans, 1989). The rhizome of Zingiber officinale is one of the most widely used
species of the ginger family and is a common condiment for various foods and
beverages. There is a growing demand on low-cost methods for extraction of
essential oil (Offei, 2015).
Kanadea and Bhatkhandeb (2016) explain, ginger oil is an essential oil that has
several applications in various industries. The essential oils are composed of
monoterpene hydrocarbons, sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated
monoterpene. Although the latter has the least concentration but is the major
contributor to the taste and aroma of food substances . The recovery of the essential
oils of ginger depend on variety and origin of the plant as well as the cultivation,
humidity at the time of harvest, the methods of extraction and to some extent on the
age of the plant.
According to Sharma, et al., (2015) ginger consist of volatile oil (1-4%), Starch
(40-60%), fat (5%), inorganic material (6%), residual matter (10%) and resinous
matter (5-8%). Ginger oil is constituted of monoterpene hydrocarbons, sequiterpene
hydrocarbons, oxygenated mono and sequiterpenes, and phenyl propanoids. The
essences due to their chemical nature are volatile at ordinary room temperature and
might be called volatile oils, ethereal oils or essential oils. Various techniques have
been employed to extract this valuable fraction of the plant material namely by water,
steam distillation or application of microwave and liquid carbon dioxide
(Kamaliroosta, et al., 2013).
Ginger oil is produced from ginger rhizome by using soxhlet extraction. Its
widespread use necessitates its cost-effective extraction and separation. Various
extraction methods, i.e. distillation, soxhlet extraction, Ultrasound assisted extraction
and autoclave agitator etc. However soxhlet extraction, shown to be a promising
technique for the operation, because of its high recovery, process simplicity, thermal
stability and low energy requirement. The applicability of soxhlet extraction for
extraction of ginger oil by using acetone, methanol, n-hexane, water, ethanol as
solvent.
Anderson (1987) in his book "Principles of Conventional Soxhlet Extraction"
explain that soxhlet extraction is a very useful tool for preparative purposes in which
the analyte is concentrated from the matrix as a whole or separated from particular
interfering substances. Sample preparation of environmental samples has been
developed for decades using a wide variety of techniques. Solvent extraction of solid
samples, which is commonly known as solid liquid extraction (also referred to as
leaching or Lixiviation in a more correct use of the physicochemical terminology), is
one of the oldest methods for solid sample pretreatment.
Conventional Soxhlet extraction remains as one of the most relevant techniques
in the environmental extraction Reld. This assertion is supported by the double use of
conventional Soxhlet: (1) as an extraction step in a given method, and/or (2) as a
well-established model for comparison of new extraction alternatives.In conventional
soxhlet, the sample is placed in a thimble-holder and during operation is gradually
Reld with condensed fresh solvent from a distillation Sask. When the liquid reaches
an over show level, a siphon aspirates the whole contents of the thimble holder and
unloads it back into the distillation Sask, carrying the extracted analytes in the bulk
liquid. This operation is repeated until complete extraction is achieved. This
performance makes Soxhlet a hybrid continuous/discontinuous technique. In as much
as the solvent acts stepwise, the assembly can be considered as a batch system,
however, since the solvent is recirculated through the sample, the system also bears a
continuous character. Soxhlet extraction apparatus:
Parts of soxhlet apparatus and its function:

1) Condenser: serves as a coolant, and speed up the process


2) Lead/Thimble: serves as a container for the samples to be retrieved
substance
3) Pipe F: serves as a way for solvent vapors
4) Chiffon: serves as cycle counting
5) Round-bottom flask: serves as a container for the sample and the solvent
6) Hot plate: serves as a solution heating
After extraction process with soxhlet apparatus, the ginger extract must be
evaporated to separate the solvent from the solution so produce a more
concentrated solution. The apparatus can be used evaporator. This is the picture
of evaporator parts and its function:
1. Hot plate: serves to regulate the temperature of the water bath at the desired
temperature (depending on the boiling point of the solvent)

2. Water bath: a container of water that is heated by a hot plate for a flask
containing a "sample"

3. The tip of the rotor "sample": serves as a round-bottom flask that samples is
placed.

4. Condenser hole: the entrance of water into the condenser where the water is
sucked up by the vacuum pump.

5. Condenser: serves as a coolant which accelerate the process of a phase change


from liquid phase to the gas phase.

6. Hole condenser: as a way of the water from the condenser.

7. Round-bottom flask: serves as a container for the solvent container.

8. The tip of the rotor "container": serves as a container of round bottom flask that
is placed.

Soxhlet extraction technique is employed for the extraction and separation of


chemical constituents in the medicinal plant, Elephantopus scaber L.The effect of
parameters, such as different parts of the plant (leaves, roots and stems), extraction
time and types of solvent (n-hexane and methanol) on the extracted yield and the
percentage of extraction were investigated. (Ahmad, et al., 2009).

Munawaroh dan Handayani (2010) explain, selection of ethanol as a solvent,


because ethanol can used to extract dry material, leaves, stems, and roots. While the
selection of n-hexane as solvent, because the n-hexane is stable and volatile, selective
on dissolving of substance, extracted a number of small candles and can extract
substances deodorizer in large quantities. The aims of oil purification process is to
separate the essential oil by solvent so that produce absolute volatile oil.

According to Kastianti dan Amalia, (2008), the chemistry and physical


properties of n-hexane and ethanol can be summarized:
N-hexane Ethanol

Refractive index is a useful fluid characterization parameter with widespread


industrial applications. The values for many pure liquids are known or readily
available in literature. However, when experimental data are not available, the
refractive index of binary and multi-component liquids are often estimated from the
pure components using mixing rules which are sometimes not accurate. (Isehunwa, et
al., 2015). The table below shows the refractive index of few solvent:

The calculation for the yield of the ginger oil is as follows:


According to Kurniasari, et al., (2008), gotten data:

Meanwhile, based on Aziz, et al., (2012), gotten data of comparative studies on


physical and chemical properties of essential oil of ginger from Bangladesh and
China.
V. EQUIPMENTS AND MATERIALS
 Equipments:

- A set of steam distillation apparatus 1 piece


- The glass beaker 3 pieces
- Measuring cup 1 piece
- Spatula 1 piece
- Stove / hot plate 1 piece
- Erlenmeyer 1 piece
- Funnel 1 piece
- Funnel separator 1 piece

 Materials:

-Wet ginger 1 gram

-Dry ginger 10 gram

-Na2SO4 anhydrous 2 mL

-n-hexane 150 mL

-aquadest as enough

VI. PROCEDURE

1. Sample Preparation

Ginger Rhizome

- It is washed until clean


- It is sliced thinly and dried
Dry Ginger

- It is milled until smooth

Ginger powder
2. Isolation of Ginger oil

Ginger powder

- It is weighed 10 grams for isolation and 1


gram for determining of water content
-
10 grams of 1 gram of
ginger powder ginger powder

- It is wrapped with filter paper


- It is placed in soxhlet extractor
(soxhlet thimble)
- 150 mL of n hexane, solvent
poured into round bottom
flask
- Extraction is done until
solvent colorless again

Residue
Extract

- Added Na SO anhydrous 1,4 g


2 4
(that oven previously)
- Shaken and allow until Na2SO4
be acumulated in bottom
- Poured the solution to other
bottom round flask
- Evaporated using evaporator

ginger oil Extract Solvent

- Poured into beaker glass indexMeasured the


- Heated on hot plate last volume of n
- hexane
Atsiri
- oil - Taken one drop as a
sample to
- Measured the last determine the
weight refractive index
Refractive
- Calculated the reflactive index index
rendement - Taken a few to
measure the
reflactive index
Rendement Refractive index
3. Determination of water content

1 gram of wet ginger

- It is placed into oven at temperature


110◦C
- It is weighed and repeated heating
process until reaches a constant
weight
Water content
VII. Experiment Result

No.Perc Procedure Experiment Result Reaction Conclusion


1. Sample Preparation Before : Ginger rhizome
unpeeled
Ginger Rhizome After : Ginger Rhizome
is washed until clean
- It is washed until clean
- It is slicedthinly and dried
Dry Ginger

- It is milled until smooth

Ginger
powder
2. Isolation of Ginger Oil Before : -Function of Na2SO4 -In this experiment
-Ginger Powder : anhydrous is to we can prove the
Ginger powder
Brown evaporate water value of atsiri
- It is weighed 10 grams for
-n-hexane : Colorless content in it solution rendement is 2,8%
isolation and 1 gram for
determining of water -Na2SO4 : White -Function of Na2SO4 is (appropriate with
content Powder water content in atsiri theory = 1,5-3%)
- 1 gram of After : oil can bounded by -We can prove
10 grams of
ginger powder -Dry Ginger + n- Na2SO4 anhydrous, so index refracture of
ginger powder
hexane when placed in it can produce pure n-hexane is
- It is wrapped with filter paper soxhlet : yellow atsiri oill 1,37193
- It is placedin soxhlet extractor
solution -Based on theory index (Appropriate with
(soxhlet thimble)
- 150 mL of n hexane, solvent -Dry Ginger + n- bias of n-hexane is theory = 1,37)
poured into round bottom flask hexane + Na2SO4 : the 1,37 -We can prove
- Extraction is done until solvent
colorless again color solution still -Idex bias of ginger is index refracture of
yellow and Na2SO4 1,48-1,49 atsiri oil is
not disolve Source : According to 1,487704
Residu Extract
e -The solution is Kurniasari, et al., (Appropriate with
decantationed to (2008) theory= 1,48-1,49)
separate solution with -Based on theory atsiri
Na2SO4 anhydrous oil can gotten is 1,5-
and then the solution 3% from weight of
Extract is evaporated initial ginger powder

-Added Na2SO4 anhydrous 1,4 g The cycle neede to Source : According to


(that oven previously) make the solution Sharma, et al., (2015)
-Shaken and allow until Na2SO4 colorless
be acumulated in bottom -When extraction Based on theory
-Poured the solution to other
process need 28 cycle boiling point of n-
bottom round flask
-Evaporated using evaporator hexane is 69℃
Mi = 10 gram Source : (Isehunwa, et
Ml = 0,28 gram al., 2015).
ginger oil Extract
Solvent Rendement
- Poured into beaker 𝑀
glass = 𝑀𝑙 𝑥 100%
𝑖
- Heated on hot plate 0,28
= 𝑥 100%
10
Atsiri- oil
- = 2,8%
Measured the last weight

- Calculated the Taken a few to measure -Refracture Index :


rendement the reflactive index
n-hexane = 1,383103

Rendement Refractive atsiri oil = 1,487704


index
Solvent
- Measured the last volume
of n hexane
- Taken one drop as a
sample to determine the
refractive index

Refractive
index
3. Determine of Water Content Before : Based on theory, if wet Water content in
-Wet Ginger:yellowish- ginger is heated for wet ginger is
1 gram of wet ginger
powder white several time, the mass 85%
- It is placed into oven at -Mass of wet ginger is 1 of it will decrease
temperature 110◦C
gram (Mi) because water content
- It is weighed and repeated
heating process until After : in ginger is evaporate
reaches a constant weight -Water Contant
𝑀𝑖−𝑀𝑙
= 𝑥 100%
Water content 𝑀𝑖
1−0,15
= 𝑥 100%
1

= 85%
-Wet ginger heated in
oven. Then weighed
in several to know the
constant mass.
1st weighed = 0,6
2nd weighed = 0,4
3td weighed = 0,2
4th weighed = 0,2
5th weighed = 0,2
So the constant mass is
0,3 gram as Ml
-Wet Ginger become
dry
VIII. ANALYSIS
1. Sample Preparation
In the experiment "Isolation Ginger Oil from Ginger Rhizome", carried out by
Soxhlet extraction as a sample in the form of solids. The first step is to clean ginger
(washed) so that the dirt is still attached to the skin oils of ginger did not affect the
results that will be obtained. Then ginger that has been cleaned cut into thin to
accelerate the drying process. At the time of drying should not be dried directly in
the sun and do for some days (± 4 days) until it dry. Once dried, milled and ground
ginger, then it will produce dried ginger powder obtained yellow. This is done with
the intention that the form of the powder would have a greater surface area when
compared to the original form, so the solvent will be faster in dissolving
components of ginger.

2. Isolation of Ginger Oil


The purpose of second experiment is isolation of ginger oil to measure the
yield value and refractive index of extract or essential oil of ginger. The first step,
dry ginger powder is weighed 10 grams and 1 gram use o-hauss balance. 1 gram of
dry ginger powder is used for third experiment meanwhile 10 grams of dry ginger
powder is poured into the filter paper that have been rolled up first, appropriate of
diameter of the soxhlet apparatus (lead/thimble part) and lace-up top and bottom.
Ginger powder have to wrap in filter paper first so that the components of ginger
oil that dissolved in the solvent and that will come down to a round bottom flask
was be unmixed by ginger powder. Then the filter paper containing ginger powder
is put into soxhlet timble. After that, boiling stone (white color) is added into round
bottom flask. The function is flatten heat into flask/pumpkin. N-hexane (colorless)
is taken 150 mL and it is poured into round bottom flask as well as the soxhlet
extraction apparatus is assembled.

The soxhlet extraction apparatus is placed on the hot plate and it's turned on to
heat the solvent or n-hexane. Heating the solvent is done with reference to the
boiling point. The vapor that produced is going through a pipe F and will hit the
walls of the condenser to be a process of condensation (condensation) happen.
Solvent will be mixed with the sample and extract the desired compound from a
sample. Solvents will fulfill the chiffon and when chiffon is full, will be channeled
back to the round bottom flask. This process is called one cycle, the greater number
of cycles then it can be assumed that the solute in the solvent will also be
maximized.

The extraction process is done until the solvent colorless again. The color of n-
hexane and ginger oil is yellow. The cycle that needed in this extraction process is
28. If the solvent colorless, the extraction process is stopped and the extract in
round bottom f;ask is allowed cool. This process produces recidu and extract.
Recidu is ginger powder and extract is n-hexane and ginger oil mixture.

While waiting the solution, Na2SO4 anhydrous (white powder) is weighed 1.4
grams and it's entered into oven. The purpose is to lose the water contain in Na2SO4
anhydrous. After the extract is cool, Na2SO4 anhydrous is pored into round bottom
flask that include the extract and are stirred. The color of extract still yellow and
Na2SO4 anhydrous is not dissolved. The function of Na2SO4 anhydrous adding so
that the water content in extract can bond with Na2SO4 anhydrous and finally
produce pure essential or volatile oil.

After that, the extract is poured into another round bottom flask. Na2SO4
anhydrous still allowed in the first round bottom flask. The extract is evaporated
use evaporator apparatus. The function is separate the solvent from the solution to
produce concentrated substance (essential oil). Firstly, aquades is poured into water
bath. The round bottom flak that include extract is matched on rotor tip. Then on
the other rotor is matched with another round bottom flask as container of solvent
(n-hexane) and the evaporator apparatus is assembled. Next, set the kinds of solvent
that used become n-hexane and the pressure is set become 197 mmHg. The water in
water bath is heated use temperature under the biling point of n-hexane. We use 300
C because the boiling point of n-hexane is 690 C. The speed of rotation of round
bottom flask is set 65 rpm.

The solvent that contained in extract will be evaporated. Evaporation can occur
due to heating using a hot plate which is assisted by the pressure dropping on round
bottom flask of extract that accelerated with rotating on round-bottom flask of
extract. With vacuum pumps that drain the cold water from a container into the
condenser and removed again by the condenser to the container again and put again
and so on. This process runs continuously. so that when vapors from the solvent hit
the walls of the condenser, the solvent will undergo condensation process, namely
the process of a phase change from liquid phase to the gas phase. Condensation
process is done until the solvent that is not dripping again in round bottom flask
and it can also be seen by the increasing climate of the substance contained in the
extract round-bottom flask.

After it, the extracts from ginger oil was poured into a beaker glass to
evaporated with hot plate. Evaporation continue until the extract thickens. The
function of this evaporation is to eliminate the remnants of solvent (n-hexane) were
still present in the extract. The results from the evaporation of ginger oil extract is
atsiri oil, the next step is weighed to search for yield value and the refractive index
value of atsiri oil. The yield Value of atsiri oil is 2,8% (this appropriate with the
theory 1,5-3%), the value gotten from the calculation:
Mi = 10 gram
Ml = 0,28 gram
𝑀
Yield Value = 𝑀𝑙 𝑥 100%
𝑖

0,28
= 𝑥 100%
10

= 2,8%
Meanwhile, the n-hexane that used as a solvent in the extraction of previously
calculated final volume remaining, then take a few drops to determine the value of
refractive index.
In calculating the value of the refractive index, use refractometer equipment.
Refractometer is an instrument used to measure the level or concentration of
dissolved material based on its refractive index. Here are the steps in using a
refractometer:
 Part of the refractometer (prism) cleaned with one drop aquadest and wipe a
tissue outwards. Then the substance to be tested is dripped on the prism and
closed.
 Set incoming light and if thi is not sharp, turn the micrometer until look clearly
between dark-light.
 Set the micrometer so dark-light line crosspoint intersection two diagonal line
that instrument.
 Read valu in the below lens as refractive index value .
 If wanted to test with different substances prism should be cleaned first, then the
next step the same as above.
The value of the refractive index of n-hexane was obtained by 1.383103
(appropriate with the theory of 1.37193), while the value of the refractive index of
atsiri oil is 1.487704 (appropriate with the theory 1.48 to 1.49)

3. Determine The Water Contain

The next experiment is to determine the water content in the wet ginger. The
water content is the difference between the weight of the material before and after
heating. Each material is placed in the open air when the water level will reach
equilibrium with the surrounding air humidity. The water content of this material is
called water levels balanced. Each specific relative humidity to produce a certain
balanced moisture content any (Sudarmadji : 1989)

Slicing thin ginger function for greater surface area so that the evaporating
essential oils contained in each tissue more easily lifted along with the water vapor
and another function to know water content in wet ginger. Based on theory water
content of wet ginger is 80% - 90% (Sudarmadji : 1989). Slicing by 1 gram (initial
weight) wet ginger put in the oven with a temperature of 110C, then weighed again
to obtain a constant weight.

In this experiment, we used drying method (Thermogravimetri). The


principle of evaporative water in the material by heating. Then weigh the material
to a constant weight means all water has evaporated. This method is relatively easy
and inexpensive. The disadvantage among others: other materials in addition to
water also evaporates and lost with the vapor such as alcohol, acetic acid, essential
oils, and others.
𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ − 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑠𝑡𝑎𝑛𝑡 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ
𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑥 100%
𝑖𝑛𝑖𝑡𝑖𝑎𝑙 𝑤𝑒𝑖𝑔ℎ

The results of fifth weighed is 0,6 gram, 0,4 gram, 0,15 gram, 0,15 gram,
and 0,15 gram. So obtained constant weight is 0.15 grams of ginger powder from
the initial weight of 1 gram.

1 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚 − 0,15 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚


𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑥 100%
1 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚

0,85 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚
𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 𝑥 100%
1 𝑔𝑟𝑎𝑚

𝑊𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑛𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑡 = 85%

Thus obtained water content of wet ginger powder is 85 % and it in accordance with
theory.

IX. CONCLUSION
 In this experiment (isolation of ginger oil from ginger rhizome) the equipments
that used is soxhlet extraction, mortar, evaporator, separated funnel,
refractometer, spirtus, and beaker glass.
 In this experiment the the materials that used is Sodium sulfate anhidrate, dry
ginger, wet ginger, and n-hexane.
 One way that can be done to isolate ginger oil is the solvent extraction , the
type of solvent that suitable for this extraction is n-hekana, because n-
hexane's boiling point lower than the atsiri oil.
 In this experiment we can prove the value of atsiri rendement is 2,8%
(appropriate with theory = 1,5-3%)
 We can prove index refracture of n-hexane is 1,37193 (Appropriate with theory
= 1,37)
 We can prove index refracture of atsiri oil is 1,487704 (Appropriate with
theory= 1,48-1,49)
 Water content in wet ginger is 85%
X. QUESTION AND ANSWER
1. Make a reaserch question from the lab?
2. Briefly describe the working principles of soxhlet extraction used in this
experiment!
3. Where the separation solvent evaporator using the tool? Give a reason!
4. Based on the results of the essential oil yield you earn, whether the way ginger
powder drying and grinding effect on the outcome? Explain!
5. What anhydrous Na2SO4 function in this trial? Explain!
6. Please provide at least five compounds contained in the essential oil of ginger
and write formulas relate!

Answer:

1. Based on the experiment result, whether the value of the yield and refractore
index appropriate with the existing theory? Explain how the quality of the oil
obtained by the value of the yield!
2. The working principle of Soxhlet extraction, namely: Filtering the repeated so
that the results are perfect and solvents used are relatively few. When the
screening has been completed, then the solvent is evaporated back and the rest
is that the most important substances. Soxhletation method using a volatile
solvent with the principle of boiling point solvent and solute, the solvent must
have a boiling point below the solute. In addition, the solvent used is a solvent
that can dissolve the organic compounds contained in these materials, but does
not dissolve the unwanted solids.
3. The separation solvent evaporator using a tool made if:
 There are differences in boiling point between the solvent and the very
large solute, because the working principle is evaporative solvent
evaporator tool.
 Low levels of substances in solution (solution viscosity is low), because if
the solution viscosity is high, local concentration of solids sector in point
in the evaporator can be so high that it can cause damage solids (if solids
are sensitive to heat), or a local compaction.
4. Yes, the way ginger powder drying and grinding effect on the outcome of
essential oil yield.
 Drying: When done using the high temperature will spoil ginger oil,
because of the nature of the oil may evaporate.
 Smoothing: a subtle ginger powder has a large surface area, so the faster
the solvent to dissolve the oil component of ginger.
5. The function of Na2SO4 anhydrous adding so that the water content in extract
can bond with Na2SO4 anhydrous and finally produce pure essential or volatile
oil.
6. Zingeron, kamfena, gingerol, limonen, linalool, shogaol, borneol, 𝛼-felandren,
𝛽-felandren.

shogaol
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ATTACHMENT

 Isolation of Ginger Oil

Preaparing the equipments Weighing 10 gram of ginger Wrapping the ginger powder
and materials before conduct powder use ohaus balance. use filter paper. Then, bundle
the experiment. the upper and bottom part of
filter paper. It placed into
soxhlet thimbel.

Preaparing 150 mL of n-
Pouring n-hexene into round Arranging the soxhlet
hexene.
bottom flask. extractor.

Turn on the soxhlet extractor Weighing 1,4 gram of Adding 1,4 gram of Na2SO4
and observe until the solution Na2SO4 anhydrous and anhydrous into extract
colorless. It is mean the heating it use oven. solution and shaking it.
extraction is done.
Spreading vaseline to
Decantation the extract Pairing the round bottom
evaporatore.
solution. flask that contain with extract
solution with evaporatore.

Turn on the eavaporatore to


evaporate the extract solution
Moving the solvent into Weighing the last volume of
and wait until all of solvent
beaker glass. the solvent (n-hexene) again.
was evaporate.

Heating extract of ginger oil


use hot plate. After that
Pouring extract of ginger oil Washing refractometer use
measure the last weigh of it.
into beaker glass. aquades and tissue.

Determine the refractive index of n-hexene. Determine the refractive index and
rendement of atsiri oil.
 Determination of Water Content

Weighing 1 gram of wet ginger use ohaus Heating the wet ginger use oven.
balance.

After getting the constant weight,


determine the water content of ginger.
Weighing and repeating heat process until
reaches a constant weight