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Interr J Nav Archit O

Oc Engng (20009) 1:50~56


Some pracctical design aspectss of appen
ndages for passengerr vessels

Haag Soo Jang1, Hwa Joon Lee

L 1, Young Ryeol
R Joo1, Juung Joong Kim
m1, and Ho Hwan
H Chun2

Saamsung Heavy Industries,
I Co.. Ltd., Korea
Naval Architeecture & Oceaan Engineeringg, Pusan Nationnal, Universityy, Busan 609-7335, Korea

AB BSTRACT: The T hydrodyna amic effect of appendages

a forr high-speed passenger
p vessels, such as Roo-Pax, Ro-Ro
veessels, is very severe
s and, therefore, it is esssential to carryy out the designn of appendagees for high-speeed passenger vessels
v from
the preliminary design
d stage to
o the final detaail design stagee through a fulll survey of the reference vesseels together wiith sufficient
tecchnical investiigation. Otherwwise, many prooblems would be b caused by mismatches
m bettween the appeendages and thhe hull form.
Thhis paper invesstigates the deesign characterristics of some appendages, such s as the sidde thruster, thee shaft-strut, annd the stern
weedge, based onn the design exxperience accuumulated at Sam msung, on CFDFD, and on moddel test results for high-speedd passenger
veessels. Further to this investig
gation, some prractical and vaaluable design guidelines for such appendagges are suggessted.

EY WORDS: Passenger
P vesssels; Appendagge; Side Thrusteer; Shaft-Strut;; Stern Wedge;; Powering Perrformance


In passenger vessels, variious appendagges are generaally Thiis paper investiigates the design characteristtics of some
atttached to the hull. These appendages are a employed to appenddages such as the
t side thrusteer, the shaft-sttrut, and the
guuarantee high comfort and good g maneuveerability, and thet stern wedge
w based onn the design experience
e accuumulated at
win shaft type isi usually adop pted to providee a redundancyy in Samsunng, on CFD, anda on model test t results forr the Ro-Ro
prropulsion systeems and a high h-speed perform mance in shalloow Passengger Ferry (heereinafter referrred to Ro-Paax) and the
drraught since these
t vessels usually
u operatte in harbors or cruise vessel(Rhyu
v ett al. 2003). Thee object of thiss paper is to
water channels. Therefore, ap ppendage desiign requires fullf suggestt some practiccal and valuabble design guuidelines for
technical consideration of hydrodynam mic performannce such apppendages.
asspects such ass resistance, propulsion, seea keeping, and a
maneuvering p
performance, and strength and structuural
peerformance asppects including g noise/vibratioon. In general, it Table 1 Principal Partticulars.
is difficult to establish th he dimensionss or design of
apppendages in thhe early design n stage since thhe detailed desiign R
Ro-Ro Ro-Pax
off the vessel is not
n still fixed. Huull Type
1150m 154m 185m 210m 50,000 GT
In this view,, appendage deesign should bee carried out with
w C
Class Class Class Class Class
a full preliminaary investigation; otherwise, many negatiive
LOA [m] 152.0 154.0 185.0 212.0
0 235.0
prroblems wouldd be caused, su uch as an increaase of resistannce,
a reduction of self-propulsion
s n performance,, a possibility of
L [m]
LBP 140.0 144.0 172.0 198.0
0 211.1
crreating harmfuul cavitation, a delay in the constructiion
scchedule by manufacturing g problems, among otheers. B [m] 23.6 24.6 28.4 25.0
0 29.0
Coonsequently, special attention should be paaid to appendaage
deesign during thet entire desiign process thhrough sufficieent Td [m] 6.37 6.0 6.75 6.6
6 7.1
technical investiigation and a survey
s of the reference
r vesseels,
annd the optimal design of appeendages shouldd be performedd in G [Ton]
GT 1
15,000 22,500 34,000 28,000
0 50,000
acccordance withh the design pro ogress of the veessel.
Speeed [knots] 19.8 26.5 25.5 30.0
0 24.0

Corresponding author:
a H. H. Chun
e--mail: chunahhh@pusan.ac.kr
Copyright © 2009 Society of Naval Architects of Korea. Production and hosting by ELSEVIER B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC 3.0 license
( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/ ).
Inter J Nav Archit Oc Engng (2009) 1:50~56 51



The principal particulars of the passenger vessels

considered in this paper are listed in Table 1, and they were
utilized in the investigation of the characteristics and to
suggest the optimal design of appendages.


The resistance performance of the side thruster was first

investigated through model tests and studied to obtain a
solution to minimize additional resistance
(a) Bare hull

Side thruster

The side thruster is the most universal maneuvering

propulsion device (MPD), which assists a ship in
maneuvering in cases in which it lacks maneuvering
performance from the rudder itself. The side thruster has the
advantage of being more able to control a ship in severe
winds or currents, but it also has some disadvantages since it
causes an increase of resistance, requires additional space for
installation and is a source of noise and vibration.
In the case of a passenger vessel, the side thruster is
required to move the vessel alongside the berth by itself
(without the assistance of a tugboat) and in some vessels the
side thruster is installed in the stern as well as in the bow.
Because it is difficult to install the thrusters on a fine hull
form, and because the required thruster capacity is greater
than that of a commercial vessel, the number of side thrusters
(b) Bow thruster(tunnel, grid and CPP)
on a passenger vessel is normally more than two. Therefore,
it is considered that the resistance increase due to the
Fig. 1 Paint test results of 50,000GT Cruise vessel.
installation of the side thrust system would be somehow
larger than expected, resulting in a severe speed-loss penalty.
In this view, it is essential to investigate the effect of the side
thruster system on resistance. Systematic model tests, in
which the elements of the side thruster were changed, were
conducted, and the effects on the resistance were investigated.

Elements of side thruster

The side thruster system includes several components such as

the tunnel, the CPP, the grid and, sometimes a scallop. The
scallop decreases an additional form resistance by being
fitted into the hull to remove a step of the tunnel in the rear,
and this is accomplished through a streamline investigation.
The results of a paint test on a 50,000 GT cruise vessel
are shown in Fig. 1. Fig. 1(a) shows the streamline test result
for the bare hull, and (b) is the case for the hull with the bow
thruster (tunnel, grid and CPP). The scallop was not fitted for
this ship. Fig. 2 shows the paint test result for a 138K LNGC Fig. 2 Paint test result of 138K LNGC with bow thruster
with the bow thruster, in which case the scallop is applied. (tunnel with scallop, grid and CPP).
52 Inter J Nav Archit Oc Engng (2009) 1:50~56

Results of model tests is not installed. In general, it is known that the scallop
decreases an additional form resistance due to the reduction
Table 2 shows the comparison of resistances measured of the tunnel step in the rear, but this was not the case. It was
for the several cases relative to the percentage of the total also observed from a local flow investigation by an in-house
EHP for the bare hull. Case 1 is the result for the bare hull. CFD code that the local flow behavior according to the
Case 2 is the case of applying the tunnel only, and it is noted presence of the scallop was not good compared with that of
that the tunnel-only installation on the hull increases the EHP the tunnel without the scallop for this particular ship.
by 8.9% compared with the result for the bare hull. Case 3, Therefore, it is recommended that the scallop should be
the case of installing the tunnel and CPP, shows an increase carefully chosen by investigating the characteristics of local
of EHP of 1.8% compared with the result of the bare hull, flow phenomena around the hull form with the tunnel inlet.
which is much less than that in Case 2. This reason can be
explained by the fact that the CPP in the tunnel prevents
some in-flow phenomena into the tunnel and thus suppresses Summary
the flow separation and vortices generation by the tunnel inlet.
It is known that that the grid, installed on the tunnel inlet, y Some useful conclusions based on the present study into
suppresses the flow separation, as seen in Case 4, which the effect of the side thruster on resistance can be made.
yields a 3.5% EHP increase, which is still much lower than The resistance increase due to the tunnel presence on the
that of Case 2 with the tunnel only, but somewhat larger than hull is approximately 10%, but the presence of the CPP
that of Case 3. If the grid and CPP are both installed, as in and the grid suppress the flow separation and vortex
Case 5, the resultant EHP increase of 1.3% is the lowest generation, and therefore, the final resistance increase due
among the tested cases, showing the most effective to the side thruster system is not very significant, being
suppression of the flow separation and vortices. In order to about 1~2%.
confirm this result, the model test result for the 38K LNGC, y However, the careless installation of the scallop increases
being the same as that for Case 5 for the cruiser, is shown in the resistance compared with that of the tunnel without
Case 5* in Table 2. the scallop.
It can be seen from the Table that the magnitude of EHP
increase is very similar for the two ships, showing that the In this paper, the investigation was carried out from the
tested results are reliable. It is noteworthy to mention that perspective of resistance performance, but a study into the
Kim et al. (2006) investigated the effect of the grid, installed effect of the side thruster on noise and vibration should be
on the tunnel inlet, on the resistance and suggested a new also performed for passenger vessels. Therefore, more
tunnel grid system giving a lower resistance increase. research should be conducted into the above problem to
achieve a more optimal design of side thruster.

Table 2 Comparison of the resistance performance.

Vessel Case Tunnel Grid Scallop CPP (EHP)bare Effect DESIGN OF SHAFT/STRUT
1 Bare hull 100.0 - Shaft/strut
2 Yes No No No 108.9 Tunnel
Yes No No Yes
The strut is a kind of bracket that is installed between the
Cruiser 3 101.8 CPP
hull and the shaft when it is necessary to support the shaft
4 Yes Yes No No 103.5 Grid
and the propeller. It is also required to sustain its own weight
Grid as well as that of the shaft and the propeller. And the strut
5 Yes Yes No Yes 101.3
+CPP should be designed to resist the excitation force and moment
5* Yes Yes No Yes 101.7 that are induced by the rotational motions of the propeller and
the vibration of shaft. This paper proposes the idea of an
LNGC Grid optimal design for the shaft/strut through an investigation of
6 Yes Yes Yes Yes 104.7 +CPP the design for the main strut and the arrangement between the
+Scallop strut and the shaft.

As mentioned above, two side thrusters were installed for the Design of main strut
cruiser and thus, because it was considered that the effect of
the scallop in this case would be worse, the scallop was not There are generally two types of main strut, the single
fitted. In order to understand the effectiveness of the scallop type and the twin type being usually called the vee type. The
fitting regarding the resistance, the model test result of the vee-strut type having twin struts is more widely used
138K LNGC is added to Table 2 as Case 6, showing that the compared with the single-strut type from propulsion and
installation of the scallop for this ship results in a resistance strength points of view. The vee-strut type is classified into a
increase compared with that of Case 5*, in which the scallop radial type and a tangential type according to the connection
Inter J Nav Archit Oc Engng (2009) 1:50~56 53

method at the barrel. In the case of the radial type, the center weight basis, but that the radial struts tend to reduce the flow
of the strut section coincides with the center of the shaft line, between the strut arms more than the tangential struts,
as shown in Fig. 3(a). In contrast, in the tangential type, the causing some other hydrodynamic problems such as wake
sideline of the strut arm is linked to the outline of the barrel, peak.
as seen in Fig. 3(b). The ship designer usually considers that for the main strut,
the structural aspect is more important than the
hydrodynamic aspects. Therefore, an investigation of the
strength of the strut in the preliminary design stage is
required. The Finite Element Method (FEM) is generally
used in this structural analysis, but it requires significant time
and special knowledge. For this reason, the guidance of
Design Data Sheets (DDS) proposed by Losee is usually in
use in the preliminary design stage for naval and commercial
ships. Table 3 shows a comparison of the safety factors for
the longitudinal section modulus calculated by FEM and
DDS, respectively, for a 210m Class Ro-Pax. The two safety
factors are similar to each other and therefore, the use of
DDS method in the preliminary design stage is justified to
predict the strength of the strut.

(a) Radial type struts

Table 3 Comparison of safety factors obtained by two
Safety factor
Calculation method Strut type for longitudinal
section modulus
FEM 3.1
DDS 3.2

Table 4 shows the results by DDS for a 185m Class Ro-

Pax in order to compare the strengths of the tangential and
radial struts. The EPH section proposed by DTMB is applied
to the strut arm and is 5.0 in chord/thickness ratio. The result
shows that the strengths of the tangential and radial struts are
(b) Tangential type struts
very similar to each other.

Fig. 3 Types of vee-struts.

Table 4 Strength between radial and tangential strut.
Safety factor
Ship type Strut type for longitudinal
Regarding this difference of connection, Saunders (1957) section modulus
has stated that tangential arms are well spread at the hub, but
Tangential 2.93
they usually involve reentrant angles alongside the barrel
185m Class Ro-Pax
which are considerably smaller than 90 degrees, and that Radial 2.97
radial arms provide good attachments in supporting the shaft,
but that the passage between the arms at the hub surface may
be somehow constricted if the vee angle is too small.
Losee(1957) indicated that the radial arms for the vee-strut As shown above, DDS is usefully and practically used for
are more general. Sometimes, however, in the case of a too structural analysis of the strut in the preliminary design stage,
small angle between the arms, it may be desirable to provide but it is known that DDS is inadequate in evaluating the
greater separation between the arms at the barrel, and the vibration performance and that there is no such guidance in
outer surfaces of the arms may be made tangential to the LR(2003) or ABS(2003). In order to confirm this fact, the
barrel. However, this could introduce an additional transverse vibration characteristics of the tangential and radial strut arms
bending moment on the arms. Occasionally a compromise for the 185m Class Ro-Pax were investigated by DDS and
can be made between the radial and tangential arrangements. FEM analyses. The results estimated by DDS showed that the
In addition, Hackett and Jonk(1999) indicated that the radial safety factors for vibration are 1.53 and 2.25 for the
strut provides superior strength and stiffness on an unit- tangential and radial types, respectively. The safety factor for
544 Inter J Nav Archit Oc
O Engng (20009) 1:50~56

viibration is defiined as the nattural frequencyy of the strut arm

a Summaary
diivided by the propeller blaade frequencyy. However, the t
reesults by FEM M show safety factors of moore than 10 and a Som me useful concclusions basedd on the presennt study into
thherefore, it waas confirmed that DDS cannnot be used in strut typpe and arrangeements can be made.
viibration analysiis.
According to t the recomm mendation of Hackett
H and Joonk y Thee tangential typpe strut is preeferable to the radial type
(1999), it is desiirable to minimmize the wake peak
p by applyiing struut in that it minnimizes the wakke peak.
thhe tangential strrut instead of the
t radial strutt, since passengger y Lossee’s method (the DDS methhod) is used efffectively to
veessels require low noise an nd vibration performances to evalluate the strenggth of strut arm
m for a passengger vessel in
guuarantee a highh degree of comfort for the passenger.
p Bassed the preliminary deesign stage.
onn the design experience and d knowledge acccumulated froom y Shaaft arrangemeent can be carefully connsidered to
model test resullts, the authorss would like too recommend thet minnimize an addittional resistancce increase.
tanngential type to be generally used for passeenger vessels.

haft arrangem
ment DESIG
Shaft arranggement is an important
i facttor in appendaage Tecchnical investiigation and modelm tests of the stern
deesign for passsenger ships. Fig. 4 shows the results of wedge were perform med to improvee the resistancce and self-
reesistance tests according to a change of shhaft arrangemeent propulssion performannces. Based onn this study, some s useful
foor a 154m Class C Ro-Pax. Two struts, the main and a design guidelines are provided.
inntermediate struuts, are generaally in use in thhe case of a loong Traansom appendaages are classsified into duccktail, stern
shhaft case. Fig. 4 shows a co omparison of thet resistances in flap, annd stern wedgge in accordannce with the elements
e of
thhree cases, barre hull, hull with
w main struut, and hull with
w installaation, as shownn in Fig. 5. Forr high speed sm
mall vessels,
inntermediate andd main struts. It can be seen thhat the resistannce the trannsom appendagges are usuallyy installed to control
c trim
inn the last case, hull with two struts, is aboutt 18% larger thhan at highh speeds, resultting in some improvement
i i powering
thhat of the bare hull, whereas the second case, hull with one o perform mance. These transom
t appenndages are alsoo applicable
main strut, is abbout 13% largeer than that off the bare hull. In to meddium or large vessels to smoooth the stern waves and
thhe second case,, in which the bossing being made somewhhat also to decrease the pressure
p drag due to flow fiield change,
longer to support the shaft mo ore rigidly, it is noteworthy to resultinng in overall powering
p perfo
formance imprrovement. It
seee some resistaance gain com mpared with thhe last case withw was repported in Cum mming et al. (22006) that 5 to t 10% fuel
twwo struts. savingss for warships with
w the stern flap can be achhieved from
the seaa trials. Recenttly, Thornhill et
e al. (2008) validated
v the
drag reeduction due to the presennce of the steern flap by
showinng good correllations between CFD and experimental
Cts ×10-3

Fig. 5 Schematic
S draw
wing for variouus transom apppendages.
speed [kts]

Fiig. 4 Comparison of resistan nce for three cases: bare huull, Thee ducktail apppendage has been
b generallyy applied to
baare hull with one
o main strut (2nd App.) annd bare hull with
w passengger vessels for a long time ass a function of ramp and it
inntermediate andd main struts (1
1st App.). was allso known thhat this can reducer the wave-making
Innter J Nav Archhit Oc Engng (2009)
(2 1:50~566 55

reesistance due too a lengthening

g effect. It wouuld be difficultt to Model tests
innstall the stern flap appendagge on passengeer vessels due to
thhe problem of berthing
b backwward on the quuay. Recently, thet In order
o o the stern wedge on the
to evaluaate the effect of
steern wedge haas been used as a a transom stern appendaage resistannce and self-prropulsion perfformance, the model tests
sinnce there is noo protrusion beyond
b the sterrn. In this papper, were caarried out for the
t 154m classs Ro-Pax and theset results
thhe effect of the stern wedge on
o the resistancce and propulsiion can be also confirmeed the validityy of the numerrical results.
off the 154m classs Ro-Pax is invvestigated. Fig. 7 shows the wavve-making resistance coefficcients tested
for the two cases, shoowing that the wave
w resistance of the hull
with thhe stern wedgee is lower thann that of the bare
b hull by
Numerical Calcculation 17% att Fn = 0.36. Table 6 shows that t the required power is
reducedd by the sternn wedge instaallation whereeas the hull
Karafiath et al. (1999) reported the effecct of the adoptiion efficienncy is somehow w worsened. This
T fact can be b supported
off the stern weddge by model tests
t for amphiibious and sealift by the aforementioneed numerical reesult that mostt of the drag
huull forms, summ marizing that the
t adoption off the stern weddge reductioon is due to thhe pressure draag reduction inncluding the
caan improve thee resistance and d self-propulsiion performancces wave-m making resistannce. In fact, it i was observeed from the
foor speeds faster than Fn = 0.3
0 and up to a 7% gain in the t model test
t that the steern waves of thhe hull with the wedge are
seelf-propulsion performance
p att Fn = 0.35 is achieved.
a much smoothened com mpared with thhat of the bare hull.



1.75 ww/o
/o Wedge
w / Wedge
with wedge
CW Ⅹ10-3

Stern wedge
e 1.5



0. 28 0.3
0.3 0.32
0.32 0.34
0.34 0.36
Fiig. 6 Distributioon of hull surfa
face pressure att Fn = 0.36. F d Fn
N b

Fig. 7 Effect
E on wave resistance by stern
s wedge (model test).
Taable 5 Compaarison of the resistance calcullations.
Drag Originaal Hull Hull with wedgee
Table 6.
6 Effect on poowering by sterrn wedge (moddel test).
Cd (%) 100
0 94.4
Item Original Hulll Hull with
w wedge

Cdf (%) 100

0 99.5 PE 100 93.1

Cdp (%) 100

0 79.7 PD 100 93.0

Cd : total drag coeefficient, Cdf : friictional resistancce coefficient, w 100 108.2
Cdp : pressure ressistance coefficieent)
t 100 121.0
The flow fieelds for the 154m class Ro--Pax with an in-
hoouse CFD codde were comp puted to confiirm the pressuure ηh 100 99.2
chhange due to thhe stern wedgee. Fig. 6 showss that the surfaace
prressure on the stern with the stern wedge iss higher than thhat ηr 100 100.2

onn the hull witthout the sterrn wedge. Tabble 5 shows the t ηo 100 100.6
coomputational drag
d componen nts, and it can be understoood
(PE : efffective power, PD : delivered poower, w : wake fraction, t :
thhat the decrease in the pressuure resistance iss somewhat larrge,
thrust deduction
d fractioon, ηh : hull effi
ficiency, ηr : relaative rotative
ass reflected in thhe pressure disstribution in Fiig. 6, resultingg in
efficienccy ηo : open watter efficiency )
abbout a 5 ~ 6% decrease
d in thee total resistancce.
56 Inter J Nav Archit Oc Engng (2009) 1:50~56


It was proved by the CFD and experimental results that This work is a cooperative study between Samsung Heavy
the stern wedge can improve the powering performance by Industries Ltd. and Advanced Ship Engineering Research
reducing mainly the pressure drag and also some the wave- Center (ASERC) of Pusan National University, Korea.
making resistance decrease. The stern wedge has several
advantages compared with the ducktail and the stern flap
with regard to structure and shape without protrusion beyond
the stern. It is recommended that the length and the angle of REFERENCES
the stern wedge should be optimized in accordance with the
Rhyu, S.S. Jang, H.S. and Joo, Y.R., 2003. Model test report for
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proven CFD code.
Choi, S.H. Shin, S.C. Jang, H.S. and Joo, Y.R., 2002.
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Pax. SSMB Report No. R29213TT-T1, Shipbuilding &
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