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Connected Pumps

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

Experiment Instructions

Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Dipl.-Ing.-Päd. Michael Schaller

- Read this manual.

- All participants must be instructed on

handling of the unit and, where appropriate,

on the necessary safety precautions.

i

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

ii

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Table of Contents

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

1.1 Didactic notes for teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.1 Intended use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.2 Structure of safety instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2.3 Safety instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

3.1 Fluid energy machines range and introduction to HM284. . . . . . . . . . 9

3.2 Process schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10

3.3 Device design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

3.4 Device function and components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

3.5 Operation and measurement data acquisition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

3.5.1 Program installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

3.5.2 Program operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

3.6 Commissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

3.7 Operating modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3.7.1 Pump in standalone operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3.7.2 Pumps in series operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3.7.3 Pumps in parallel operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

3.8 Decommissioning, storage and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

iii

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.1 Classification of fluid energy machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

4.1.1 Power machines / work machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4.1.2 Turbomachines / positive displacement machines . . . . . . . . 24

4.2 Fundamental physical principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4.2.1 Laws of conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4.2.1.1 Continuity equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

4.2.1.2 Conservation of momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

4.2.1.3 Conservation of energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

4.2.1.4 Bernoulli's principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

4.2.2 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

4.2.2.1 Specific work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36

4.2.3 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

4.2.4 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40

4.2.5 Energy conversion in the motion of fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5.1 Converting pressure energy into velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

5.1.1 Supply pressure and head of centrifugal pumps . . . . . . . . . 45

5.2 Pump characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

5.3 System characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

5.4 Operating point: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

5.5 Pumps in series and parallel connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

5.5.1 Parallel connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52

5.5.2 Series connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

5.5.3 Selecting the type of connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

iv

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6 Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59

6.1 Experiment 1: Recording a system characteristic curve . . . . . . . . . . 60

6.1.1 Objectives of the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

6.1.2 Conducting the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

6.1.3 Measured values with calculations of the analysis . . . . . . . . 61

6.1.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

6.1.5 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

6.2 Experiment 2: Determining the reference speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

6.2.1 Objective of the experiment: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67

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6.3 Experiment 3: Determining the pump characteristic curve . . . . . . . . 68

6.3.1 Objectives of the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

6.3.2 Conducting the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

6.3.3 Measured values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

6.3.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

6.3.4.1 Pump characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

6.3.4.2 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71

6.3.5 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

6.4 Experiment 4: Pumps in series operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

6.4.1 Objectives of the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

6.4.2 Conducting the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

6.4.3 Measured values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

6.4.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77

6.4.5 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

v

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.5.1 Objectives of the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

6.5.2 Conducting the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

6.5.3 Measured values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

6.5.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82

6.5.5 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84

6.6 Final analysis of the experiments and proposal for further

experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

7 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

7.1 Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87

7.2 List of formula symbols and units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

7.3 Tables and graphs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

vi

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

1 Introduction

The HM 284 "Series and Parallel Connected

Pumps" device is part of the GUNT Labline fluid

energy machines series.

The GUNT Labline fluid energy machines allow

experiments on power engines and machines

such as pumps, fans and water turbines.

All devices in the GUNT Labline fluid energy

machines range are equipped with electronic

sensors for PC-based measurement data

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

Measurements can be represented graphically

and characteristics can be recorded using the

measurement data acquisition software provided.

The GUNT Labline series of devices puts the HSI

"Hardware-Software Integration" product

approach into effect.

The experimental unit is designed as a tabletop

device. The measurement data acquisition

software supplied and a PC provided by the

customer are required to operate the HM 284

device.

Centrifugal pumps belong to the group of dynamic

pumps. They are the most widely used type of

pump in the world. The advantages are mainly:

– simple design

– no oscillating masses

– few parts

– little wear

– reliable

– suitable for different media

– direct coupling to electric motor without

gearing.

1 Introduction 1

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

covered by connecting two or more pumps.

The centrifugal pumps in HM 284 pump water.

HM 284 essentially consists of the centrifugal

pump with drive motor, the throttle valve, the flow

meter and the water tank. These components are

connected to the water circuit by pipes.

recorded by:

• Using the throttle valve to vary the flow

resistance.

• Variable speed at pump 1 and optionally

switchable pump 2.

• Varying the pump circuit

(series and parallel connection).

are:

• Principle of operation of a centrifugal pump

• Recording a system characteristic curve

• Recording a pump characteristic curve

• Identifying characteristic data

• Investigation of typical dependencies (flow rate

and the supply pressure dependent on the

speed).

2 1 Introduction

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

skilled workers and in academic engineering

education.

Areas where the HM 284 experimental unit can

be employed include:

• Demonstration experiments

The demonstrator operates the previously

prepared experimental unit while a small group

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can be demonstrated over an operating time of

half an hour.

• Practical experiments

Small groups of two or three students can carry

out experiments for themselves. The time

required to record measurements and some

characteristic curves can be estimated at about

one hour.

• Project work

HM 284 is particularly well suited to carrying

out project work. In addition to detailed studies

using HM 284, it is possible to conduct a wide

range of comparative experiments using the

separate HM 283 centrifugal pump and

comparisons to the HM 285 and HM 286

positive-displacement pumps.

In this case a single, experienced student can

operate the experimental unit.

you prepare your lessons. You can compose

parts of the material as information for students

and use it in class.

1 Introduction 3

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

pdf format on a CD to support your lessons. We

grant you unlimited reproduction rights for use

within the context of your teaching duties.

experimental unit from the GUNT Labline

range and wish you success in your important

task of introducing students to the

fundamentals of technology.

Should you have any comments about this

device, please do not hesitate to contact us.

4 1 Introduction

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

2 Safety

CAUTION indicate the probability and potential

severity of injury.

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hazard or a required action.

DANGER death or serious injury.

WARNING death or serious injury.

CAUTION minor or moderately serious injury.

NOTICE equipment, or provides instructions on operation of

the equipment.

2 Safety 5

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Symbol Explanation

Electrical voltage

Note

6 2 Safety

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

WARNING

Electrical connections are exposed when the

switch cabinet is open.

Risk of electrical shock.

• Disconnect the plug from the power supply

before opening the switch cabinet.

• All work must be performed by trained

electricians only.

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WARNING

Noise emission > 80dB(A).

Risk of hearing damage.

• Wear ear defenders.

NOTICE

To prevent algae growth and sludge formation:

• Only operate the device with water of potable

quality.

• Enclosed space

• Free from dust and humidity.

• Tabletop.

• Frost-free.

2 Safety 7

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

8 2 Safety

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

experiments on power engines and machines

such as pumps, fans and water turbines.

The HM 284 "Series and Parallel Connected

Pumps" device is part of the fluid energy

machines series. HM284 allows experiments on

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

functional stand-alone experimental unit.

experimental unit that covers a similar topic:

• HM 283, Experiments with a Centrifugal

Pump

Comparative experiments across devices can be

used to achieve additional learning goals.

Comparative measurements across devices

using the pumps and fan/compressor in this range

are recommended and offer additional benefits.

description of the HM284 supply unit.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

experimental unit with all measuring points and

essential components.

Energy input Pel of pump 1 Pump 1

·

Volume flow V Pump 2

Pressure p1 upstream of pump 1 Three-way valve for selecting operating mode

Pressure p2 downstream of pump 1 Valve for pump 2

Pressure p3 downstream of pump 2 Valve for volume flow quantity

Outlet valve

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

schematic can be seen in Fig. 3.2. The measuring

points and components listed above can be seen

in the diagram.

8 7

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9

5

3

10

11

12 1 2

·

2 Pump P1 8 Valve for flow rate V , V3

3 Pressure p1 upstream of pump P1 9 Water tank

4 Pressure p2 downstream of pump P1 10 Shut-off valve for pump P2, V2

5 Pressure p3 downstream of pump P2 11 Outlet valve, V4

6 Three-way valve for operating mode, V1 12 Housing

Fig. 3.2 HM 284: Main components

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

pump P1 (2) and the optionally switchable

constant-speed pump P2 (1). Water is sucked in

from the water tank (9) and pumped through the

piping in the circuit. The experimental unit can be

operated in a variety of different operating modes

using the 3-way valve for the operating mode

(6) and the shut-off valve for pump P2 (10). The

valve for flow rate (8) is used to adjust the

system's flow resistance. In this way, it is possible

to analyse the behaviour of the pressures p1, p2

and p3 (3, 4, 5) and the flow rate (7) of the system

and the pumps.

Relatively small cross-sections of the suction

lines affect the system characteristics in operation

and can be used to evaluate the flow configuration

and to expand knowledge of fluid mechanics.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

16 15

the power supply on and off. It uses a I/0 rocker

switch design.

The connection sockets are located next to the

main switch (power supply no. 13, USB no. 14).

The fuse holder (15) holds the two microfuses.

The integrated microcontroller board is used to

control the device and for measurement data

acquisition.

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13 14 provided is used both to operate the experimental

Fig. 3.3 Rear of the device, with main unit and to detect and display the measurement

switch and connection sockets data. The measurement data acquisition program

(referred to simply as the program below) is

installed on a PC provided by the customer (cf.

Chapter 3.5.1, Page 15).

The experimental unit and the PC are connected

via the USB port.

The program is used to operate the radial fan

(switch on, change speed and switch off). The

program offers the following options for displaying

the current measured values and calculated

values:

• System diagram

• Graphical presentation of the measured

values.

Fig. 3.4 Rear of the device, with cables

connected • The available measured values and calculated

values are recorded in measurements files.

These measurements files can be imported

into a spreadsheet program (e.g. MS Excel®)

for further processing.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

the program (see also Chapter 3.5.2, Page 16).

values and calculated values are measured

continuously in rapid succession. These values

are averaged before they are displayed and

written to the data file. This mostly compensates

for fluctuations.

"Taring" the values at standstill sets the applied

pressures to zero at the moment of taring. The

effect of taring can be clearly seen while the

program is running.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

• A ready-to-use PC with USB port (for minimum

requirements see Chapter 7, Page 87).

• G.U.N.T. CD-ROM

NOTICE! All components required to install and

operate the program are included on the CD-

ROM provided by GUNT with HM 284. No other

tools are required.

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Installation procedure

NOTICE! The device must not be connected to

the PC's USB port while the program is being

installed. The device may only be connected after

the software has been successfully installed.

• Start the PC.

• Insert GUNT CD-ROM.

• In the "Installer" folder, launch the "Setup.exe"

installation program.

• Follow the installation procedure on screen.

• Installation will run automatically after starting

it. The following program components are

installed onto the PC:

– LabVIEW® - Runtime software for PC-

based data acquisition.

– Driver routines for USB data acquisition.

• After the installation has finished, restart the

PC.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Start / Programs / G.U.N.T. / HM 284

• When you start the software for the first time

after installation you are prompted to select the

desired language for the program operation.

Notice! The language may be changed at any

time in the "Language" menu.

• Afterwards the system diagram for HM 284

appears on the screen.

Fig. 3.5 Language selection • Various pull-down menus are available for

other functions.

• For detailed instructions on use of the program

refer to its Help function. You can get to the

help function via the "?" pull-down menu and

selecting "Help".

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

3.6 Commissioning

Page 5 ff.)

• Install the measurement data acquisition

program on the PC (cf. Chapter 3.5.1,

Page 15f).

• Connect the experimental unit to the PC using

the USB cable provided (USB connection

socket see no. 14 in Fig. 3.3, Page 13).

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height of the baffle plate. You may also add

algae retardants to the water.

NOTICE

• Evaporation may lead to calcium deposits in

the water tank, therefore GUNT recommends

draining the water should the device not be in

operation for a long time (> 1 week).

Bleed valve

• Bleed the transparent pump housings using the

bleed valves, see Fig. 3.6. To do so, open the

valve (turn to the left). The trapped air escapes.

When drops are pressed out of the valve, the

valve can be closed again.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

NOTICE

Risk of damage to the device.

• Before connecting to the electrical power

supply:

Make sure that the laboratory power supply

meets the specifications on the device's rating

plate.

supply.

• Turn main switch (no. 16 in Fig. 3.3, Page 13)

to "1".

• Turn on PC and launch program for

measurement data acquisition.

• Press "Tare" button to calibrate to zero.

• Turn on the pump(s) via the program.

• Check that each component is functioning

correctly.

• Switch off pump.

• Main switch to "0".

• Disconnect experimental unit from mains

electricity supply.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

operation, valve V1 must connect the pump P1

directly to valve V3.

To achieve this, the lever on valve V1 must be

rotated until the symbol assumes the position as

shown in Fig. 3.7.

In this valve position, pump P2 has no function.

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backflow through pump P2.

Fig. 3.7 HM284 in standalone

operation Pump P1 draws in water from the tank and pumps

it through valve V1 and V3 back into the tank. By

throttling the volume flow with valve V3, it is

possible to vary the resistance against which the

pump works.

The behaviour of pump P1 can then be analysed.

valve V1 must connect the pressure side of

pump P1 to the suction side of pump P2.

To achieve this, the lever on valve V1 must be

rotated until the symbol assumes the position as

shown in Fig. 3.8.

Pump P2 is only supplied with water from

pump P1. Valve V2 must be closed so as to avoid

flows into or out of the tank.

Fig. 3.8 HM284 in series operation

pressure is increased and the water fed to

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

takes place.

Before the water is pumped back to the tank, the

volume flow can be throttled with valve V3. The

pumps then work against an increased

resistance.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

valve V1 must connect the pressure side of

pump P1 directly to valve V3.

To achieve this, the lever on valve V1 must be

rotated until the symbol assumes the position as

shown in Fig. 3.9.

Pump P2 provides additional volume flow to

pump P1. Pump P2 requires a separate water

supply for this purpose. This is done by opening

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valve V2 on the suction side.

Pump P1 and pump P2 suck in the water out of

the tank and compress it together via valve V3

back into the tank.

By throttling the volume flow with valve V3, it is

possible to vary the resistance against which the

pumps work.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Page 5 ff.)

• If not yet done:

– Disconnect experimental unit from mains

electricity supply.

– Disconnect connection between PC and

experimental unit (USB cable).

• Thoroughly clean the entire experimental unit.

– Do not use any aggressive cleaning agents

to clean the device. GUNT recommends a

mild acetic cleaner.

– Only soft cloths should be used for cleaning,

in order to avoid chafing on the transparent

water tank.

Store the experimental unit and components

under cover, clean, dry and free of frost.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

no claim to completeness. For further theoretical

explanations, refer to the specialist literature.

sequent section on device-specific basic princi-

ples.

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fluid; this can be a gas or a liquid. When flowing,

energy is exchanged between the fluid energy

machine and the fluid.

The extensive field of fluid energy machines can

be divided into many subject areas.

This section on the basic principles looks at two

key criteria for differentiation in more detail.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

tion is the direction of the flowing energy.

Power machine:

The fluid's energy is removed by the machine and

converted into the shaft's mechanical energy.

Typical examples include water turbines used in

the provision of electricity.

Work machine:

The machine transfers energy to the fluid. The

pressure and/or the flow velocity of the fluid

increases. One typical application is a water

pump.

principle.

Turbomachine:

Energy is continuously added to or removed from

the flow by deflection at stator and rotor blades.

This kinetic energy of the fluid is converted into

pressure energy (work machine) or mechanical

energy (power machine). The fluid is conveyed

continuously. No abrupt change in the energy

transfer can be detected.

Positive displacement machine:

A changeable volume drives the fluid or is driven

by the fluid. The pressure difference across the

machine must be big enough to overcome flow

resistances (work machine) or mechanical resist-

ances (power machine). The fluid flow and the

movement of the machine are coupled.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

ples with reference to fluid energy machines.

do not change in the fluid energy machine, in

other words that are preserved.

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that flows through a system remains constant.

· = V· = c A = const

m (4.1)

A = Cross-section area in m2

c = Flow velocity in m/s

m· = Mass flow in kg/s

·

V = Volume flow in m3/s

= Density in kg/m3

dependent on the pressure. Gases at low pres-

sure differences can also be considered as

incompressible. In this case, the formula can be

reduced to:

·

V = c A = const (4.2)

each other. The path traced by a fluid particle is

referred to as the flow filament. These flow fila-

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

which represents the flowed-through shape.

The significance of the continuity equation is par-

Nozzle

Flow filaments ticularly evident when comparing diffuser and

Inlet Outlet nozzle.

c2 In an incompressible medium it follows:

c 1 A 1 = c 2 A 2 and from this:

A1

c1 A2 c1 A

----- = -----2- (4.3)

c2 A1

Fig. 4.1 Schematic change in velocity

in the nozzle of a Pelton tur- A = Cross-section area in m2

bine c = Flow velocity in m/s

The velocities are inversely proportional to the

flow cross sections.

Nozzle

Nozzle:

Flow filaments c2 The flow velocity is accelerated by the cross sec-

A2 tion becoming smaller.

t

le

ut

A1

O

Inlet outlet cross section is reduced by means of

blades and deflection.

Fig. 4.2 Nozzle: change in velocity by

means of flow deflecting

blades

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Diffuser:

Diffuser The flow velocity c is decelerated by the flow

Outlet cross section becoming larger.

A2 c2 The diffuser in Fig. 4.3 is similar in design to the

nozzle (Fig. 4.2). In this case though, the arrange-

A1

t

le

In

Flow filaments

With a known surface area ratio, it is therefore

Fig. 4.3 Diffuser: change in velocity by possible to calculate the resulting change in

means of flow deflecting

blades velocity.

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While the first blade row is formed as a nozzle, the

second blade row initially only appears as a

deflection.

Nozzle Deflection

turbomachine

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

mass m and velocity c are applicable:

I = mc (4.4)

I = Momentum in Ns

m = Mass in kg

A change in momentum takes place as a result of

a change in the velocity c. The change in velocity

is caused by an acceleration a = c--- . As a result of

t

this relationship, a force is connected to the term

of the change in momentum:

· ct = Ft

I = m (4.6)

a = Acceleration in m/s²

F = Force in N

m· = Mass flow in kg/s

t = Time in s

The momentum is a directional quantity. The

quantities I, c and F all point in the same direction.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

c2y momentum changes when a force acts.

c2

Fig. 4.5 shows how a water jet is deflected at a

c2x blade. While the value of the velocity c remains

constant, the horizontal velocity component

F changes its algebraic sign.

c1y c 1y = c 2y c 1x = – c 2x

c1

A force has to act on the blade so that the deflec-

·

m c1x

tion can take place; with Formula (4.6) we get:

Fig. 4.5 A water jet is deflected at a F = m · c – c

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2x 1x

blade

· 2 –c

F = m 1x

F = Force in N

m· = Mass flow in kg/s

another when a force acts. Within a system that

has no interaction with its surroundings, the

momentum is constant.

Changes in velocity also occur in the previous

Nozzle c2y example of diffuser and nozzle. Forces are also

c2

acting here.

c2x Fig. 4.6 illustrates this schematically on the blade

of a nozzle.

c1 Fx

The force F acting on the blade corresponds to

Fy

F the force which deflects the fluid.

the blade in position.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

ingly, energy is also stated in units of joules.

Energy is the capacity to do work.

Energy can be present in various forms (this list

only represents a small selection):

– Mechanical energy

• Kinetic energy

• Potential energy

• Spring energy

– Thermal energy

– Electrical energy

– Chemical energy

– Hydraulic energy

• Hydrostatic energy

• Potential energy

• Hydrodynamic energy

The forms of energy can be converted from one

form to another. In engineering, machines are

used for this purpose. Fig. 4.7 shows one exam-

ple.

Electric Pump

motor

Electrical Mechanical Hydraulic

energy energy energy

Fig. 4.7 Energy conversion by a unit consisting of electric motor and pump

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

standing in the consideration of fluid energy

machines. It correlates energies present in a flow.

No energy is added to or removed from the fluid in

this approach.

The important thing to remember when consider-

ing the various energies is the fact that the forms

of energy can be transformed.

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• Hydraulic energy

E hyd = p V (4.7)

p = Static pressure in N/m2

V = Volume in m3

• Potential energy

E pot = m g h (4.8)

g = Gravitational acceleration in m/s2

h = Height in m

m = Mass in kg

• Kinetic energy

1 2

E kin = --- m c (4.9)

2

c = Flow velocity in m/s

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

is constant.

practice we can assume that the total energy of

the particle remains constant.

rised to form Bernoulli's energy equation.

Transposed we get:

2 2

c1 p c2 p

-------- + -----1- + g h 1 = -------

- + -----2- + g h 2 (4.10)

2 2

g = Gravitational acceleration in m/s2

h = Height in m

p = Static pressure in N/m2

= Density in kg/m3

for frictionless fluids, since friction leads to

losses.

Usually two points in the flow are compared to

each other. One possible energy conversion is

shown again using the example of nozzle and dif-

fuser.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Nozzle Diffuser

c3

p2

p1

c2 p4

c1

p3

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Fig. 4.8 Conversion of pressure energy into velocity kinetic energy and back again

shows the conversion of velocity and pressure.

Pressure and velocity terms are coupled energet-

ically; if one term falls, the other term rises.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.2.2 Work

force acts along a path; in this case force F and

distance s point in the same direction.

W = Fs (4.11)

F = Force in N

W = Physical work in J

s = Active distance of the force in m

An example related to fluid mechanics can be

seen in the axial turbomachine shown previously.

impeller

Direction of force

Stationary

guide

wheel

Fig. 4.9 Work done within a turbomachine

the incident flow to the rotor blade. A force acts on

the rotor blade in the direction of movement.

According to Formula (4.11) work is done in this

process while the Impeller is rotating. This work is

transferred from the fluid to the turbine.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

using a piston pump.

Flowing fluid

Direction of movement

Direction of force

p1 p2

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fluid is conveyed out of the cylinder. This causes

the pressure p required to overcome the flow

resistances in the downstream system to build up

in the fluid.

The force F that has to be applied by the piston

s results from the pressure p of the fluid and the sur-

face area A of the piston. Formula (4.11)

becomes:

p

F W = Fs = pAs (4.12)

A = Cross-section area in m2

A F = Force in N

Fig. 4.11 Variables at a piston pump

p = Pressure in Pa

W= Physical work in J

s = Active distance of the force in m

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Since the processes within a double stroke are

uneven, it is better to calculate mean values in this

case.

machine can be based on the mass of the fluid.

This corresponds to the specific work:

Y = W

----- (4.13)

m

m = Mass in kg

W = Physical work in J

Y = specific work in J/kg

this specific work can also be used to define the

velocity head or pump head:

h = Y

---- (4.14)

g

h = Height in m

g = Gravitational acceleration in m/s2

quantity in the design and selection of turbines

and/or pumps.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.2.3 Power

already explained in Chapter 4.2.1.3, energy is

the ability to perform work. Accordingly, energy

can be used in the same way as work.

Generally speaking, power is defined as:

P = W

----- = E

---- (4.15)

t t

E = Energy in J

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P = Power in watts

t = Time in s

W= Physical work in J

of equipment are:

Electrical power:

P el = U I (4.16)

U = Voltage in V

I = Current in A

Mechanical power

P mech = M (4.17)

M = Torque in Nm

= Angular velocity in 1/s

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Hydraulic power

in incompressible fluids

Powers can be calculated from all of the energies

listed in Chapter 4.2.1.4, Page 31. Potential

energy has a lesser role in the fluid energy

machines considered here, because it is con-

verted into pressure energy and/or kinetic energy

before it enters the machine.

·

P hyd = p V (4.18)

p = Static pressure in N/m2

·

V = Volume flow in m3/s

1 · 2

P kin = --- m c (4.19)

2

Pkin = Kinetic power in W

c = Flow velocity in m/s

m· = Mass flow in kg/s

Energy is the quantity which is preserved. How-

ever, it is often used in calculations since it is eas-

ier to calculate from measured values.

Energy is converted in the fluid energy machine.

Similarly, a proportion of energy is stored in each

machine, for example in the rotational energy of

the shafts and impellers.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

pared to the transferred power. If there is a

change in the operating point, either spent power

is stored over a short time or stored work is

released over a short time. The change in speed

to the new operating point happens quickly. This

time response can be explained by

Formula (4.15), Page 37.

The forms of energy in fluid energy machines are

quickly converted into each other. In contrast, lots

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processes take place slowly.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.2.4 Efficiency

effort.

P out

= ----------

- 100 % (4.20)

P in

Pout = Outgoing power: the benefit in W

= Efficiency in %

4.12 illustrates this using the example of an elec-

trically driven pump. The thickness of the arrows

represents the transferred power.

input power power effective power

Pout

Pin Electric

motor Pump

Losses: Losses:

Electrical Hydraulic

Mechanical Mechanical

Fig. 4.12 Energy conversion by a unit consisting of electric motor and pump

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

points of a flow conduit.

For the flow conduit from Fig. 4.13 we can say,

regardless of the direction of flow, that gravita-

A1 1

tional potential energy is converted into pressure

p1

energy from cross section 1 to cross section 2.

h1 Since the cross sections of the two points being

·

m A < A1=A2 considered are the same, we should not expect

any change in velocity. If there is a flow, the flow

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·

m points being considered.

h2 A2

p2 The energies of pressure, velocity and vertical

height add up to the total energy. According to the

2

2 2 (lossless) Formula (4.10) this total energy

p1 c1 p c2

----- + ----- + g h 1 = -----2 + ----- + g h 2 remains the same.

2 2

Nevertheless, it is still possible to act on this

conduit energy by technical means. This is shown in Fig.

4.14 by means of an example. According to Ber-

noulli, changes in the velocity kinetic energy

and/or pressure energy are also possible.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

1

p1

A1

c1

h1

Increases the energy of the fluid

e.g. pump e.g. turbine

Energy

Fluid energy

Mechanical machine Mechanical

work work

2

p2

A2

c2

h2

2 2

p1 c1 p c

----- + ----- + g h 1 -----2 + ----2- + g h 2

2 2

fluid energy by means of:

– Work machines

(Pumps/ventilators/fans/compressors):

These convert a mechanical rotational move-

ment into the fluid's pressure energy or velocity

kinetic energy. The structural design takes

account of the required pressure ratios and

mass flows as well as the size and direction of

the connections.

– Power machines (turbines):

These convert pressure energy or velocity

kinetic energy into mechanical energy. As with

the work machines, pressure ratios and mass

flows are critical variables that determine the

structural design.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

sure and the volume flow. In a lossless machine,

this would correspond to the shaft power on the

machine (cf. Formula (4.17) and Formula (4.18)).

By equating we get the expression:

·

M = pV (4.21)

M = Torque in Nm

p = Pressure in Pa

·

V = Volume flow in m3/s

= Angular velocity in 1/s

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converted energy differences. In the case of

mechanical power, it can be assumed that the

lower levels of torque and velocity lie at zero.

This is not necessarily the case when it comes to

·

hydraulic power. While the volume flow V can

often be regarded as constant due to incompress-

ible behaviour, under pressure it often has to be

calculated with the pressure difference p2-p1. This

is because the lower pressure level does not have

to correspond to the ambient pressure. The for-

mula becomes:

·

M = p2 – p1 V (4.22)

equivalent to the hydraulic power of the fluid. Ini-

tially it does not matter whether the shaft power is

achieved by a large torque or high angular veloc-

ity. Likewise, the power of the fluid may signify a

large volume flow or a high pressure difference.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

deliver high efficiency for one particular design

case. The types of fluid energy machines differ

depending on the objectives and the environmen-

tal conditions.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Pressure energy can be converted into velocity

kinetic energy.

The pump adds energy to the fluid. This happens

as pressure and/or velocity kinetic energy.

Assuming that all of the pressure is converted into

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following from Formula (4.10), Page 32:

c = 2 p-

---------- (5.1)

p = Static pressure in Pa

= Density in kg/m3

pendent of the density of the fluid.

For the same head, a higher pressure is needed

at higher density. The pressure is proportional to

the weight of the fluid:

p = gh (5.2)

h = Head in m

p = Static pressure in Pa

= Density in kg/m3

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

unit is often specified in "mWC". This non-SI com-

pliant unit derives from "metre Water Column".

This pressure results from the conversion of

velocity to pressure. The impeller transfers veloc-

ity kinetic energy to the fluid as it passes through.

From Formula (5.1) and Formula (5.2) we can

transpose:

2

p - = ----------

h = ---------- c - (5.3)

g 2g

c = Flow velocity in m/s

g = Gravitational acceleration in m/s2

h = Head in m

p = Static pressure in Pa

= Density in kg/m3

Thus the velocity of the fluid is decisive for the

resulting pressure and/or the head. This is directly

related to the rotational speed of the impeller.

Because the pressure is measured, it is this

measured variable that is the focus of the descrip-

tion that follows.

Conversion is possible by Formula (5.2):

p-

h = ---------- (5.4)

g

Some diagrams show the pressure in bar and also

as a head in m. The factor has been adopted to

m

the secondary y-axis with 10 --------

- for better axis

bar

scaling.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

transfer energy to the fluid by accelerating the

fluid on a circular path in the impeller.

The inertia forces cause the water to be thrown

outwards.

The characteristic curves of centrifugal pumps

can be approximated fairly well by parabolas. This

is done in the figure below:

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Pressure p in bar

·

Volume flow V in L/min

to make a qualitative distinction between high

pressures and high flow rates.

The processes can be explained as follows:

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

High pressures:

At low flow rates, the fluid particles are moved in

a narrower circular path. If there is no flow, the

pump swirls the fluid in a circle. The centrifugal

force is highest here. This force is seen as

pressure.

High flow rates:

The trajectory of a fluid particle deviates more and

more from the circular path with increasing flow

rates and approaches a straight line that points

outwards from the centre. The centrifugal forces

responsible for the pressure build-up become

smaller.

on a simple level. Detailed knowledge of energy

transfer is dealt with in HM 283 "Experiments

with a Centrifugal Pump".

pipe networks or systems. This requires that a

certain pressure be applied to overcome the flow

resistances.

Formula (5.1) and Formula (4.2), Page 25:

·

Vc p (5.5)

p = Static pressure in N/m2

·

V = Volume flow in m3/s

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

to realise double the flow through a system.

If the pressure is plotted against the volume flow,

we get a curve in the shape of a parabola:

Pressure p in bar

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·

Volume flow V in L/min

combination is located at the intersection of the

system and pump characteristics.

In order that the fluid can flow, it is necessary to

overcome the system resistance. The pump

allows for this by increasing the pressure of the

fluid.

If the system has a variable system resistance

(e.g. by switching between different flow

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

pump characteristic.

If the pump's output is varied by the speed, then

the operating point shifts on the system

characteristic.

by varying the system

characteristic

Operating point

Pressure p in bar

by varying the pump

characteristic

·

Volume flow V in L/min

System characteristic and pump characteristic of a centrifugal pump

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

can be connected to each other. This is useful in

order to achieve operating points above the limit

of a single pump.

Note:

There are analogies to electrical engineering:

– Pump vs. energy source (battery)

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– Volume flow vs. current

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

pumps are joined together. The delivered volume

flow is increased. The pressure cannot be

increased above the level of a single pump.

In the ideal case of a (non-existent) completely flat

system characteristic, the volume flows are added

together without losses.

The following diagram indicates schematically

how a real system behaves.

Operating point

2 parallel

Pressure p in bar

single pumps

Single

pump

·

Volume flow V in L/min

volume flow. However, the steep system

characteristic requires a significantly increased

pressure to further increase the throughput. As a

result, in the assumed case the increase is not as

steep.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

pump is connected to the input of the next pump.

The delivered volume flow remains constant.

The subsequent pump increases the pressure of

the volume flow being passed through.

In the case of very steep system characteristics,

the pressures are approximately added together.

Lossless addition is only possible with the "0"

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volume flow.

As described in the Parallel connection section,

the use of a series connection leads to the

following result in the system characteristic:

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

2 pumps

in series

Pressure p in bar

Single

pump Operating point

2 in series

Operating point

single

·

Volume flow V in L/min

is not enough resistance against the pumps, so

that there is no increase to the possible pressure.

The achieved increase is very small.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

by switching to an additional pump, as has

already been discussed:

2 pumps

in series

Pressure p in bar

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2 pumps

Single in parallel

pump

·

Volume flow V in L/min

pumps

is crucial for the meaningful use of an additional

pump.

The following diagram provides an overview:

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

With 2 pumps

cannot be achieved

Pressure p in bar

2 pumps

in series

Single

2 pumps

pump

in parallel

·

Volume flow V in L/min

pumps

characteristic curves with a boundary line that

divides parallel and series connection into two

regions. This line passes through the intersection

point of the pump characteristic curves from

series and parallel operation.

This results in regions that are better suited for the

single pump, the series-connected pumps or the

parallel-connected pumps.

and is thus the cause of the volume flow. In each

operating mode, the operating point appears as

the intersection of the pump and system

characteristics.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

the required pressure is thus the criterion for

selecting the pump. The system characteristic

curve is also crucial.

The diagram is divided into a region of steep

system characteristic curves, which are

preferably operated with pumps connected in

series, and rather flat curves that bring benefits for

pumps operating in parallel.

If one pump is not sufficient for the real

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At low pressures, parallel connection has its

advantages in that it can provide a substantially

greater volume flow than pumps operating in

series.

If the required pressures through an existing

system are greater than the pressure of a single

pump, then only series connection can be used.

In principle, both types of connection are suitable

for the low pressure region above the intersection

of the pumps in series or parallel connection. This

raises the question of whether we want to hold

more reserves as maximum pressure or in the

maximum volume flow.

In the overall consideration we should not forget

that a single larger pump may certainly be

justified, depending on the procurement situation.

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6 Experiments

completeness but is intended to be used as a

stimulus for your own experiments.

The results shown are intended as a guide only.

Depending on the construction of the individual

components, experimental skills and

environmental conditions, deviations may occur in

the experiments. Nevertheless, the laws can be

clearly demonstrated.

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subject to constant fluctuations. This means that

the measured values are always varying around

the value of the operating point. Filtering is used

to smooth the measured values before they are

presented to the user.

Since GUNT wants to use this device to

demonstrate the physical relationships in practical

operation, the interpretation of the measured

values follows these relationships.

When operating points are saved, so are all

measured values and the derived calculation

variables. The values listed in the tables below

only represent a selection for a better overview.

The measurements file created by the

measurement data acquisition program is further

processed in this instruction manual with MS

Excel®.

6 Experiments 59

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

pump P1 on the experimental unit.

The objective is to be able to interpret this

characteristic curve. The result shall be an

awareness of the interaction of the flow rate and

the pressure difference in a flow-through system.

proceed according to the following points:

1. Bleed the experimental unit

2. Set the experimental unit for standalone

operation of pump P1. See Fig. 6.1 in

Chapter 3.7.1, Page 19.

3. Open valve V3 fully

Fig. 6.1 Circuit for standalone 4. Use the Tare button to calibrate to zero

operation of pump P1

5. Leave pump P1 to run to 3300 1/min

6. Measured values for the suction pressure p1,

the pump outlet pressure p2 and the volume

flow V· should now be recorded

7. Reduce the volume flow bit by bit by gradually

slowing the pump speed and take the

measurements according to point 6

8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until the volume flow is

completely throttled

60 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

·

Speed of Volume flow V Pressure p1 Pressure p2 ·

V kg

pump P1 in L/min in bar in bar ----------- in --------------------

2

n in 1/min p1 m N

3300 47,5 -0,28 0,16 -0,081

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0 0 0,00 0,00

Tab. 6.1 Volume flows and pressures in the unthrottled system at various speeds

6.1.4 Analysis

volume flow in the diagram, we can clearly see a

quadratic dependence. The following diagram

shows quadratic trend lines assigned to the

measurements:

6 Experiments 61

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Pressure in bar

Head in m

Suction side

Pressure side

of the pump that is flowed through (suction side,

piping from tank to p1) and downstream of the

pump (pressure side, from p2 to tank).

Pressure changes into velocity. This can be

demonstrated particularly well on the suction

side.

The dependency can be attributed to Bernoulli's

energy equation Formula (4.10), Page 32:

2 2

c0 p0 c1 p

-------- + ------ + g h 0 = -------- + -----1- + g h 1 (6.1)

2 2

c = Flow velocity in m/s

g = Gravitational acceleration in m/s²

h = Height of the liquid column in m

p = Static pressure in Pa

= Density in kg/m³

62 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

level on the pump suction side falls, so that the

higher pressure in the water tank leads to the flow

of the fluid.

Formula (6.1) is used in the following to compare

the "water tank" location (= index "0") with the

pressure measuring point p1 location (= index "1")

in terms of energy.

Since the height difference of the pressure

measuring points is eliminated during zero

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

Velocity components c0 in the relatively large

water tank are negligible.

The pressure in the water tank is greater than the

location of the pressure measurement by the

amount of p1 ( p 0 – 1 = p 1 ).

2

p1 c1

--------

- = -------

- (6.2)

2

Thank to the constant density of water, we can

derive from Formula (6.2) that the flow velocity is

proportional to the square root of the pressure:

c1 p1 (6.3)

p = Static pressure in Pa

= Density in kg/m³

6 Experiments 63

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

demonstrated by the volume flow. This is also

proportional to the flow velocity:

·

V = A c thus: (6.4)

·

V p 1 and also: (6.5)

·

V - = const

------------ (6.6)

p1

A = Flowed through cross-sectional area in m²

c = Flow velocity in m/s

p = Pressure in Pa

V· = Volume flow in m³/s

4

of measurement

m

results. The unit in ---------------- is given by

s N

Formula (6.6).

The values oscillate rapidly around the value of -

kg

0,08 -------------------

2

-.

m N

This simplification can be made on the suction

side due to the relatively undisturbed flow. A more

precise consideration of flow resistances is

outside the scope of this manual, which is why

there is no analysis of the pressure side.

However, pressure is also converted into velocity,

which corresponds to a quadratic function.

64 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.1.5 Evaluation

flow resistance a system has at a certain volume

flow.

Flowing through the system with a volume flow

requires a certain pressure differential. This

pressure differential is applied by the pump. The

pressure differential is the same as the pump's

supply pressure. This is the pressure differential

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

and pressure side. The calculation is as follows:

p P1 = p 2 – p 1 (6.7)

over pump P1 in Pa

p1 = Pressure upstream of P1 in Pa

p2 = Pressure downstream of P1 in Pa

6 Experiments 65

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

System characteristic

Supply pressure in bar

Head in m

Volume flow in L/min

Fig. 6.3 System characteristic with pump P1 from the suction and pressure side (p2-p1)

resistances. This occurs particularly in bends and

abrupt changes in cross section.

The system's flow resistance can be altered by

valve V3. The next experiment shall address this

in more detail.

From the proportionality of Formula (6.3)

( c 1 p 1 ) we can further deduce that four times

the pressure is needed to double the volume flow

(the velocity).

66 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

the following experiments.

The reference speed of the two pumps is

determined. This is the speed at which the pumps

have the same delivery characteristics.

Deviations from the theoretically equal speed are

possible due to manufacturing tolerances.

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

2850 1/min.

according to the following points:

1. Bleed the experimental unit.

2. Set up the experimental unit for series

operation. See Fig. 6.4 in Chapter 3.7.2,

Page 19.

3. Close valve V3 fully.

Fig. 6.4 Circuit for operating the 4. Use the Tare button to calibrate to zero

pumps in series

5. Switch on pump P2.

6. Switch to pump P1 and gradually increase the

speed until the ratio of the two pressures p3/p2

is equal to 2.

7. Note down the reference speed:

___________________ 1/min.

6 Experiments 67

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

pump characteristic curve for pump P1.

By using valve V3 we can influence the system

characteristic. In doing so, it is possible to operate

the pump at different system resistances and to

plot the relationship between pressure differential

over the pump and volume flow.

proceed according to the following points:

1. Bleed the experimental unit

2. Set the experimental unit for standalone

operation of pump P1. See Fig. 6.5 in

Chapter 3.7.1.

3. Open valve V3 fully

Fig. 6.5 Circuit for standalone 4. Use the Tare button to calibrate to zero

operation of pump P1

5. Leave pump P1 to run to reference speed (see:

Chapter 6.2).

(The characteristic at this speed allows a direct

comparison with the subsequent experiments).

6. Measured values for the suction pressure p1,

the pump outlet pressure p2 and the volume

·

flow V should now be recorded.

7. Reduce the volume flow bit by bit by gradually

closing valve V3 and take the measurements

according to point 6.

8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until the volume flow is

completely throttled

68 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

pump P1 in L/min in bar in bar power Phyd power Pel in %

n in 1/min in W in W

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

Tab. 6.2 Volume flows and pressures of the device at different throttling

6.3.4 Analysis

flow produced with one pump is the interesting

factor.

The pressure difference, or the supply pressure,

can be calculated according to Formula (6.7):

p P1 = p 2 – p 1

6 Experiments 69

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

characteristic curve:

Supply pressure in bar

Head in m

Pump

Fig. 6.6 Pressure differential over volume flow of pump 1 generated at 2760 1/min

which can be closely approximated by a parabola.

The maximum pressure is applied when the pump

is not producing any volume flow. According to the

measurements taken by GUNT this was

1,090 bar (at reference speed).

When valve V3 is opened, the maximum possible

flow rate is 39,5 L/min. With a lower system

pressure loss, a higher volume flow could be

implemented.

70 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Pump

System

Supply pressure in bar

Head in m

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

Fig. 6.7 Pump and system characteristic curves, pump at 2760 1/min

measured pump and system characteristic

curves. We can see that the pump characteristic

curve is limited at the bottom due to the lowest

possible system curve (valve V3 open).

Each operating point is an intersection point of the

pump characteristic and system characteristic. To

illustrate this point, the system characteristic

curves from which the operating points result are

inserted mathematically as a parabola.

6.3.4.2 Efficiency

studying pump P1 in standalone operation in

more detail.

6 Experiments 71

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

efficiency which arises from the pump

characteristic curve.

The efficiency is the ratio of benefit to effort. The

effort corresponds to the electrical power that the

pump motor requires at the respective operating

point. It is measured and displayed directly by the

experimental unit .

The benefit of a pump is defined as the hydraulic

output. This can be calculated from pressure and

volume flow, see Formula (4.18), Page 38. For

the pump in standalone operation, this

corresponds to:

·

P hyd = p P1 V (6.8)

shaft power at the pump. In contrast to the input

power of the electric motor, this is relatively

difficult to determine, which is why the total

system efficiency at the coupling of the electric

motor and pump is often used.

The system efficiency can be calculated as

follows:

P hyd

= -----------

- 100 (6.9)

P el

= Efficiency in %

72 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

relationship:

Pump

System

Supply pressure in bar

in %

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

Efficiency

Volume flow in L/min

flow until it reaches a maximum point and then

falls off again. This is due to the value of the

hydraulic power. At the axis intersection points

this is zero, because here either pressure or

volume flow is equal to zero.

The incoming electrical power is converted into

hydraulic power by the pump. Different

mechanisms during operation also consume

energy, which ultimately can no longer be

converted into hydraulic power.

6 Experiments 73

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

• Friction

Mechanical friction on bearings and seals, as

well as friction in the fluid

• Gap losses

Overflow between the impeller and housing

• Electrical losses

Ohmic losses, magnetisation losses

• Turbulence

In the conversion of velocity into pressure

compared to large systems, since the electrical

losses and the gap losses increase

disproportionately.

and parallel at different speeds means it makes

sense to only study the efficiency in standalone

operation.

Efficiency in series and parallel operation is

therefore set to -1.

74 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.3.5 Evaluation

centrifugal pump.

Operating points are intersection points of pump

characteristic and system characteristic. An

efficiency can be calculated for each operating

point. The efficiency increases until it reaches a

maximum point and then falls off again.

If system and pump are not well matched to each

other, it may be that this maximum is not reached.

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

too steep or the pump curve is too flat.

6 Experiments 75

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

series one after the other. The goal is to apply

knowledge gained so far to this case and to

expand upon it.

mode, we shall proceed according to the following

points:

1. Bleed the experimental unit .

2. Set up the experimental unit for series

operation. See Fig. 6.9 from Chapter 3.7.2,

Page 19.

3. Open valve V3 fully.

Fig. 6.9 Circuit for series operation

4. Use the Tare button to calibrate to zero.

5. Leave pump P1 to run to reference speed (see:

Chapter 6.2).

(Pumps P1 and P2 have the same delivery

properties).

6. Switch to pump P2.

7. Measurements for the pump inlet pressure p1,

the pump outlet pressure p2 and p3 and the

·

volume flow V should now be recorded.

8. Reduce the volume flow a bit by gradually

closing valve V3 and take the measurements

according to point 7.

9. Repeat steps 7 and 8 until the volume flow is

completely throttled.

76 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

pump 1 & 2 in L/min in bar in bar in bar

n in 1/min

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

Tab. 6.3 Volume flows and pressures during series connection and at different throttling

6.4.4 Analysis

plotted against the volume flow of pump P1 (cf.

formula (6.7)):

p P1 = p 2 – p 1

p P1 – 3 = p 3 – p 1 (6.10)

pump P1 and pump P2 in Pa

p3 = Pressure downstream of pump P2 in Pa

p1 = Pressure downstream of pump P1 in Pa

6 Experiments 77

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Series

Standalone

Supply pressure in bar

Head in m

Volume flow in L/min

corresponding to curve 1. This is increased by the

differential pressure of pump P2. At the maximum

volume flows (as in the previous experiment) the

minimum system characteristics are almost

identical, but it should not be forgotten that the

connecting section between pump P1 and

pump P2 also generates pressure losses, which

has to be applied by both pumps.

To better understand this effect, the pump

characteristic of pump P2 is added to the

standalone pump characteristic of pump P1.

78 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

p P2 = p 3 – p 2 (6.11)

p3 = Pressure downstream of pump P2 in Pa

p2 = Pressure downstream of pump P1 in Pa

pumps, which represents the additional pressure

drop through the connecting section:

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

Pump 2

Connecting section

Head in m

Pump 1

fully compensate for this additional pressure drop.

This results in the slightly negative supply

pressure.

6 Experiments 79

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.4.5 Evaluation

pressures of pump P1 and pump P2. By

connecting the pumps in series operation, the

pressure can be raised to roughly double.

80 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

parallel. The previously acquired knowledge is

applied to this case in a practical-oriented

manner.

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

mode, we shall proceed according to the following

points:

1. Bleed the experimental unit.

2. Set up the experimental unit for parallel

operation. See Fig. 6.12 in Chapter 3.7.3,

Page 21.

3. Open valve V3 fully.

Fig. 6.12 Circuit for parallel operation

4. Use the Tare button to calibrate to zero.

5. Leave pump P1 to run to reference speed (see:

Chapter 6.2).

(Pumps P1 and P2 have the same delivery

properties).

6. Switch to pump P2.

7. Measurements for the pump inlet pressure p1,

the pump outlet pressure p2 and p3 and the

·

volume flow V should now be recorded.

8. Reduce the volume flow a bit by gradually

closing valve V3 and take the measurements

according to point 7.

9. Repeat steps 7 and 8 until the volume flow is

completely throttled.

6 Experiments 81

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

·

Speed of Volume flow V Pressure p1 Pressure p2 Pressure p3

pump 1 & 2 in L/min in bar in bar in bar

n in 1/min

Tab. 6.4 Volume flows and pressures during parallel connection and at different throttling

6.5.4 Analysis

shows almost the same values. By operating at

the reference speed, we should expect the same

pressure differential and the same volume flow

across the two pumps.

In experiment 1 we showed that the system

characteristic is composed of the suction part

upstream of the pump and the pressure part

downstream of the pump.

Since the two pumps produce the same pressure

differential, this means that the suction pressures

of the two pumps are equal.

82 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

pressure) that results across the pumps is

calculated with the values of pump P1 (cf. formula

(6.7))

p P1 = p 2 – p 1 = p P2

in the following diagram:

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

Parallel

Standalone

Supply pressure in bar

Head in m

characteristic curve with the lowest pressure loss

can be found mathematically from the operating

point with maximum volume flow. The

corresponding parabolas are inserted into the

chart as dotted lines.

6 Experiments 83

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.5.5 Evaluation

pumps connected in parallel.

The new fluid flow results in a new system

characteristic curve. This must be re-evaluated in

comparison to the previous operating modes.

In the representation of the system characteristics

in Fig. 6.13 we can see that this new system

characteristic is flatter than the system

characteristic in standalone operation.

By doubling the suction cross-section, the flow

velocity is halved and the pressure loss during

intake is reduced to a quarter of the characteristic

(cf. Chapter 6.1.4, Page 61).

84 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.6 Final analysis of the experiments and proposal for further experiments

to learn in a practical manner how pumps behave

in standalone operation, and when connected in

series and in parallel.

The following diagram shows the curves already

discussed in the individual experiments:

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

Series

Parallel

Supply pressure in bar

Standalone

Head in m

Volume flow in L/min

in standalone, series and parallel operation

6 Experiments 85

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

• The system characteristic curve indicates the

amount of pressure required to flow through

the system at a certain volume flow.

• The system characteristic is composed of the

pressure side and suction side of the system.

• The pump characteristic curve indicates how

much pressure the pump can deliver at a

certain volume flow.

• System curve and pump curve intersect at the

operating point.

• Valve 3 can be used to influence the system

characteristic curve.

• In series operation, the pressures of the pumps

are added together.

• In parallel operation, the volume flows of the

pumps are added together.

• Flow control has an impact on the system

characteristic curve.

These conditions are due to physical factors.

86 6 Experiments

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

7 Appendix

Dimensions

Length x Width x Height: 67 x 60 x 67 cm

Weight: 62 kg

Connections

Electric power supply: 230 V, 50 Hz

Phases: 1

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

Microfuse 6,3 A delayed-action at 230 V

Alternatives optional, see rating plate.

Pumps in 50 Hz version

Speed range pump P1: 0...3300 1/min

Speed of pump P2: approx. 2800 1/min*

Impeller:

Diameter: 98 mm**

Diameter at blade inlet: 48 mm

Blade depth: 5 mm

Variant at 60 Hz

*Speed of pump P2: approx. 3300 1/min

**Diameter of pump P2: 80 mm

Water tank

Filling volume: approx. 15 L

7 Appendix 87

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Sensors

Suction side pressure range: -1...1 bar

Pressure side pressure range: -5...5 bar

Volume flow sensor: 10...140 L/min

Program environment:

LabVIEW Runtime

System requirements:

PC with Pentium IV processor, 1 GHz

Minimum 1024 MB RAM

Minimum 1 GB free hard disk space

1 CD-ROM drive

1 USB port

Graphic card resolution min. 1024 x 768 pixels, True Color

Windows XP / Windows Vista / Windows 7

Accessories supplied

Power connector cable

USB connection cable

Software CD

To be provided by customer

PC with Windows operating system, USB port

Filling with water

88 7 Appendix

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

symbols

p General pressure Pa

All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

supply pressure)

supply pressure)

P General power W

Difference

Efficiency

Density kg/m³

7 Appendix 89

HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

90 7 Appendix

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