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Experiment Instructions

HM 284 Series and Parallel


Connected Pumps
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS
All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

Experiment Instructions
Dipl.-Ing. (FH) Dipl.-Ing.-Päd. Michael Schaller

This manual must be kept by the unit.

Before operating the unit:


- Read this manual.
- All participants must be instructed on
handling of the unit and, where appropriate,
on the necessary safety precautions.

Version 1.6 Subject to technical alterations

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HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

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HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Table of Contents

1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
1.1 Didactic notes for teachers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

2 Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.1 Intended use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.2 Structure of safety instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
2.3 Safety instructions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7
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2.4 Ambient conditions for the operating and storage location . . . . . . . . . 7

3 Description of the HM 284 device . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9


3.1 Fluid energy machines range and introduction to HM284. . . . . . . . . . 9
3.2 Process schematic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
3.3 Device design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
3.4 Device function and components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12
3.5 Operation and measurement data acquisition. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
3.5.1 Program installation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
3.5.2 Program operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
3.6 Commissioning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
3.7 Operating modes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.7.1 Pump in standalone operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.7.2 Pumps in series operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
3.7.3 Pumps in parallel operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
3.8 Decommissioning, storage and disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

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HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23


4.1 Classification of fluid energy machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
4.1.1 Power machines / work machines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
4.1.2 Turbomachines / positive displacement machines . . . . . . . . 24
4.2 Fundamental physical principles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.2.1 Laws of conservation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.2.1.1 Continuity equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
4.2.1.2 Conservation of momentum . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
4.2.1.3 Conservation of energy. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30
4.2.1.4 Bernoulli's principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31
4.2.2 Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34
4.2.2.1 Specific work. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
4.2.3 Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
4.2.4 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40
4.2.5 Energy conversion in the motion of fluid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

5 Further basic principles for HM 284 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45


5.1 Converting pressure energy into velocity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45
5.1.1 Supply pressure and head of centrifugal pumps . . . . . . . . . 45
5.2 Pump characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47
5.3 System characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
5.4 Operating point: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
5.5 Pumps in series and parallel connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51
5.5.1 Parallel connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52
5.5.2 Series connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
5.5.3 Selecting the type of connection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

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HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6 Experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59
6.1 Experiment 1: Recording a system characteristic curve . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.1.1 Objectives of the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.1.2 Conducting the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60
6.1.3 Measured values with calculations of the analysis . . . . . . . . 61
6.1.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
6.1.5 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65
6.2 Experiment 2: Determining the reference speed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
6.2.1 Objective of the experiment: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67
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6.2.2 Conducting the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67


6.3 Experiment 3: Determining the pump characteristic curve . . . . . . . . 68
6.3.1 Objectives of the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
6.3.2 Conducting the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68
6.3.3 Measured values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.3.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.3.4.1 Pump characteristic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
6.3.4.2 Efficiency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71
6.3.5 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75
6.4 Experiment 4: Pumps in series operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.4.1 Objectives of the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.4.2 Conducting the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76
6.4.3 Measured values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
6.4.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77
6.4.5 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

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HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.5 Experiment 5: Pumps in parallel operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81


6.5.1 Objectives of the experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.5.2 Conducting the experiment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81
6.5.3 Measured values . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
6.5.4 Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82
6.5.5 Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84
6.6 Final analysis of the experiments and proposal for further
experiments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85

7 Appendix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
7.1 Technical data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
7.2 List of formula symbols and units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
7.3 Tables and graphs. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

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HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

1 Introduction
The HM 284 "Series and Parallel Connected
Pumps" device is part of the GUNT Labline fluid
energy machines series.
The GUNT Labline fluid energy machines allow
experiments on power engines and machines
such as pumps, fans and water turbines.
All devices in the GUNT Labline fluid energy
machines range are equipped with electronic
sensors for PC-based measurement data
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acquisition and are operated from a PC.


Measurements can be represented graphically
and characteristics can be recorded using the
measurement data acquisition software provided.
The GUNT Labline series of devices puts the HSI
"Hardware-Software Integration" product
approach into effect.
The experimental unit is designed as a tabletop
device. The measurement data acquisition
software supplied and a PC provided by the
customer are required to operate the HM 284
device.
Centrifugal pumps belong to the group of dynamic
pumps. They are the most widely used type of
pump in the world. The advantages are mainly:
– simple design
– no oscillating masses
– few parts
– little wear
– reliable
– suitable for different media
– direct coupling to electric motor without
gearing.

1 Introduction 1
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

If necessary, different operating ranges can be


covered by connecting two or more pumps.
The centrifugal pumps in HM 284 pump water.
HM 284 essentially consists of the centrifugal
pump with drive motor, the throttle valve, the flow
meter and the water tank. These components are
connected to the water circuit by pipes.

Characteristic curves and operating points can be


recorded by:
• Using the throttle valve to vary the flow
resistance.
• Variable speed at pump 1 and optionally
switchable pump 2.
• Varying the pump circuit
(series and parallel connection).

Learning objectives for the centrifugal pump


are:
• Principle of operation of a centrifugal pump
• Recording a system characteristic curve
• Recording a pump characteristic curve
• Identifying characteristic data
• Investigation of typical dependencies (flow rate
and the supply pressure dependent on the
speed).

2 1 Introduction
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

1.1 Didactic notes for teachers

HM 284 can be employed both in the training of


skilled workers and in academic engineering
education.
Areas where the HM 284 experimental unit can
be employed include:
• Demonstration experiments
The demonstrator operates the previously
prepared experimental unit while a small group
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of five to eight students observe. Key effects


can be demonstrated over an operating time of
half an hour.
• Practical experiments
Small groups of two or three students can carry
out experiments for themselves. The time
required to record measurements and some
characteristic curves can be estimated at about
one hour.
• Project work
HM 284 is particularly well suited to carrying
out project work. In addition to detailed studies
using HM 284, it is possible to conduct a wide
range of comparative experiments using the
separate HM 283 centrifugal pump and
comparisons to the HM 285 and HM 286
positive-displacement pumps.
In this case a single, experienced student can
operate the experimental unit.

These materials are intended to be used to help


you prepare your lessons. You can compose
parts of the material as information for students
and use it in class.

1 Introduction 3
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

We also provide these experiment instructions in


pdf format on a CD to support your lessons. We
grant you unlimited reproduction rights for use
within the context of your teaching duties.

We hope that you enjoy using this


experimental unit from the GUNT Labline
range and wish you success in your important
task of introducing students to the
fundamentals of technology.
Should you have any comments about this
device, please do not hesitate to contact us.

4 1 Introduction
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

2 Safety

2.1 Intended use

The unit is to be used only for teaching purposes.

2.2 Structure of safety instructions

The signal words DANGER, WARNING or


CAUTION indicate the probability and potential
severity of injury.
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An additional symbol indicates the nature of the


hazard or a required action.

Signal word Explanation

Indicates a situation which, if not avoided, will result in


DANGER death or serious injury.

Indicates a situation which, if not avoided, may result in


WARNING death or serious injury.

Indicates a situation which, if not avoided, may result in


CAUTION minor or moderately serious injury.

Indicates a situation which may result in damage to


NOTICE equipment, or provides instructions on operation of
the equipment.

2 Safety 5
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Symbol Explanation

Electrical voltage

Hazard area (general)

Note

Wear ear defenders

6 2 Safety
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

2.3 Safety instructions

WARNING
Electrical connections are exposed when the
switch cabinet is open.
Risk of electrical shock.
• Disconnect the plug from the power supply
before opening the switch cabinet.
• All work must be performed by trained
electricians only.
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• Protect the switch cabinet from humidity.

WARNING
Noise emission > 80dB(A).
Risk of hearing damage.
• Wear ear defenders.

NOTICE
To prevent algae growth and sludge formation:
• Only operate the device with water of potable
quality.

2.4 Ambient conditions for the operating and storage location

• Enclosed space
• Free from dust and humidity.
• Tabletop.
• Frost-free.

2 Safety 7
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

8 2 Safety
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

3 Description of the HM 284 device

3.1 Fluid energy machines range and introduction to HM284

The fluid energy machines range allows


experiments on power engines and machines
such as pumps, fans and water turbines.
The HM 284 "Series and Parallel Connected
Pumps" device is part of the fluid energy
machines series. HM284 allows experiments on
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interconnected centrifugal pumps and is a fully


functional stand-alone experimental unit.

The range of devices includes the other


experimental unit that covers a similar topic:
• HM 283, Experiments with a Centrifugal
Pump
Comparative experiments across devices can be
used to achieve additional learning goals.
Comparative measurements across devices
using the pumps and fan/compressor in this range
are recommended and offer additional benefits.

The following chapters provide a detailed


description of the HM284 supply unit.

3 Description of the HM 284 device 9


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

3.2 Process schematic

Fig. 3.1 shows the process schematic of the


experimental unit with all measuring points and
essential components.

Measuring points Components


Energy input Pel of pump 1 Pump 1
·
Volume flow V Pump 2
Pressure p1 upstream of pump 1 Three-way valve for selecting operating mode
Pressure p2 downstream of pump 1 Valve for pump 2
Pressure p3 downstream of pump 2 Valve for volume flow quantity
Outlet valve

Fig. 3.1 HM284: Process schematic

10 3 Description of the HM 284 device


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

3.3 Device design

The practical implementation of the process


schematic can be seen in Fig. 3.2. The measuring
points and components listed above can be seen
in the diagram.

8 7
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9
5

3
10

11

12 1 2

1 Pump P2 7 Volume flow sensor, FI1


·
2 Pump P1 8 Valve for flow rate V , V3
3 Pressure p1 upstream of pump P1 9 Water tank
4 Pressure p2 downstream of pump P1 10 Shut-off valve for pump P2, V2
5 Pressure p3 downstream of pump P2 11 Outlet valve, V4
6 Three-way valve for operating mode, V1 12 Housing
Fig. 3.2 HM 284: Main components

3 Description of the HM 284 device 11


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

3.4 Device function and components

The experimental unit consists of the controllable


pump P1 (2) and the optionally switchable
constant-speed pump P2 (1). Water is sucked in
from the water tank (9) and pumped through the
piping in the circuit. The experimental unit can be
operated in a variety of different operating modes
using the 3-way valve for the operating mode
(6) and the shut-off valve for pump P2 (10). The
valve for flow rate (8) is used to adjust the
system's flow resistance. In this way, it is possible
to analyse the behaviour of the pressures p1, p2
and p3 (3, 4, 5) and the flow rate (7) of the system
and the pumps.
Relatively small cross-sections of the suction
lines affect the system characteristics in operation
and can be used to evaluate the flow configuration
and to expand knowledge of fluid mechanics.

12 3 Description of the HM 284 device


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

3.5 Operation and measurement data acquisition

The main switch (16 in Fig. 3.3) is used to turn


16 15
the power supply on and off. It uses a I/0 rocker
switch design.
The connection sockets are located next to the
main switch (power supply no. 13, USB no. 14).
The fuse holder (15) holds the two microfuses.
The integrated microcontroller board is used to
control the device and for measurement data
acquisition.
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The measurement data acquisition program


13 14 provided is used both to operate the experimental
Fig. 3.3 Rear of the device, with main unit and to detect and display the measurement
switch and connection sockets data. The measurement data acquisition program
(referred to simply as the program below) is
installed on a PC provided by the customer (cf.
Chapter 3.5.1, Page 15).
The experimental unit and the PC are connected
via the USB port.
The program is used to operate the radial fan
(switch on, change speed and switch off). The
program offers the following options for displaying
the current measured values and calculated
values:
• System diagram
• Graphical presentation of the measured
values.
Fig. 3.4 Rear of the device, with cables
connected • The available measured values and calculated
values are recorded in measurements files.
These measurements files can be imported
into a spreadsheet program (e.g. MS Excel®)
for further processing.

3 Description of the HM 284 device 13


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

The program's help feature explains how to use


the program (see also Chapter 3.5.2, Page 16).

It should also be pointed out that the measured


values and calculated values are measured
continuously in rapid succession. These values
are averaged before they are displayed and
written to the data file. This mostly compensates
for fluctuations.
"Taring" the values at standstill sets the applied
pressures to zero at the moment of taring. The
effect of taring can be clearly seen while the
program is running.

14 3 Description of the HM 284 device


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

3.5.1 Program installation

Required for installation:


• A ready-to-use PC with USB port (for minimum
requirements see Chapter 7, Page 87).
• G.U.N.T. CD-ROM
NOTICE! All components required to install and
operate the program are included on the CD-
ROM provided by GUNT with HM 284. No other
tools are required.
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Installation procedure
NOTICE! The device must not be connected to
the PC's USB port while the program is being
installed. The device may only be connected after
the software has been successfully installed.
• Start the PC.
• Insert GUNT CD-ROM.
• In the "Installer" folder, launch the "Setup.exe"
installation program.
• Follow the installation procedure on screen.
• Installation will run automatically after starting
it. The following program components are
installed onto the PC:
– LabVIEW® - Runtime software for PC-
based data acquisition.
– Driver routines for USB data acquisition.
• After the installation has finished, restart the
PC.

3 Description of the HM 284 device 15


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

3.5.2 Program operation

• Select the program and start via:


Start / Programs / G.U.N.T. / HM 284
• When you start the software for the first time
after installation you are prompted to select the
desired language for the program operation.
Notice! The language may be changed at any
time in the "Language" menu.
• Afterwards the system diagram for HM 284
appears on the screen.

Fig. 3.5 Language selection • Various pull-down menus are available for
other functions.
• For detailed instructions on use of the program
refer to its Help function. You can get to the
help function via the "?" pull-down menu and
selecting "Help".

16 3 Description of the HM 284 device


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

3.6 Commissioning

• Observe the safety instructions (cf. Chapter 2,


Page 5 ff.)
• Install the measurement data acquisition
program on the PC (cf. Chapter 3.5.1,
Page 15f).
• Connect the experimental unit to the PC using
the USB cable provided (USB connection
socket see no. 14 in Fig. 3.3, Page 13).
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• Fill the water tank with potable water up to the


height of the baffle plate. You may also add
algae retardants to the water.

NOTICE
• Evaporation may lead to calcium deposits in
the water tank, therefore GUNT recommends
draining the water should the device not be in
operation for a long time (> 1 week).

Bleed valve
• Bleed the transparent pump housings using the
bleed valves, see Fig. 3.6. To do so, open the
valve (turn to the left). The trapped air escapes.
When drops are pressed out of the valve, the
valve can be closed again.

Abb. 3.6 Bleed valve on the pump

3 Description of the HM 284 device 17


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

NOTICE
Risk of damage to the device.
• Before connecting to the electrical power
supply:
Make sure that the laboratory power supply
meets the specifications on the device's rating
plate.

• Connect experimental unit to the mains power


supply.
• Turn main switch (no. 16 in Fig. 3.3, Page 13)
to "1".
• Turn on PC and launch program for
measurement data acquisition.
• Press "Tare" button to calibrate to zero.
• Turn on the pump(s) via the program.
• Check that each component is functioning
correctly.
• Switch off pump.
• Main switch to "0".
• Disconnect experimental unit from mains
electricity supply.

18 3 Description of the HM 284 device


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

3.7 Operating modes

3.7.1 Pump in standalone operation

To set the experimental unit to standalone


operation, valve V1 must connect the pump P1
directly to valve V3.
To achieve this, the lever on valve V1 must be
rotated until the symbol assumes the position as
shown in Fig. 3.7.
In this valve position, pump P2 has no function.
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Valve V2 must be closed so as to avoid possible


backflow through pump P2.
Fig. 3.7 HM284 in standalone
operation Pump P1 draws in water from the tank and pumps
it through valve V1 and V3 back into the tank. By
throttling the volume flow with valve V3, it is
possible to vary the resistance against which the
pump works.
The behaviour of pump P1 can then be analysed.

3.7.2 Pumps in series operation

To set the experimental unit to series operation,


valve V1 must connect the pressure side of
pump P1 to the suction side of pump P2.
To achieve this, the lever on valve V1 must be
rotated until the symbol assumes the position as
shown in Fig. 3.8.
Pump P2 is only supplied with water from
pump P1. Valve V2 must be closed so as to avoid
flows into or out of the tank.
Fig. 3.8 HM284 in series operation

Pump P1 sucks in water from the tank. The


pressure is increased and the water fed to

3 Description of the HM 284 device 19


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

pump P2, where a further pressure increase


takes place.
Before the water is pumped back to the tank, the
volume flow can be throttled with valve V3. The
pumps then work against an increased
resistance.

20 3 Description of the HM 284 device


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

3.7.3 Pumps in parallel operation

To set the experimental unit to parallel operation,


valve V1 must connect the pressure side of
pump P1 directly to valve V3.
To achieve this, the lever on valve V1 must be
rotated until the symbol assumes the position as
shown in Fig. 3.9.
Pump P2 provides additional volume flow to
pump P1. Pump P2 requires a separate water
supply for this purpose. This is done by opening
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Fig. 3.9 HM284 in parallel operation


valve V2 on the suction side.
Pump P1 and pump P2 suck in the water out of
the tank and compress it together via valve V3
back into the tank.
By throttling the volume flow with valve V3, it is
possible to vary the resistance against which the
pumps work.

3 Description of the HM 284 device 21


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

3.8 Decommissioning, storage and disposal

• Observe the safety instructions (cf. Chapter 2,


Page 5 ff.)
• If not yet done:
– Disconnect experimental unit from mains
electricity supply.
– Disconnect connection between PC and
experimental unit (USB cable).
• Thoroughly clean the entire experimental unit.
– Do not use any aggressive cleaning agents
to clean the device. GUNT recommends a
mild acetic cleaner.
– Only soft cloths should be used for cleaning,
in order to avoid chafing on the transparent
water tank.
Store the experimental unit and components
under cover, clean, dry and free of frost.

22 3 Description of the HM 284 device


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines

The basic principles set out in the following make


no claim to completeness. For further theoretical
explanations, refer to the specialist literature.

More detailed knowledge is examined in the sub-


sequent section on device-specific basic princi-
ples.
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4.1 Classification of fluid energy machines

Fluid energy machines are flowed through by a


fluid; this can be a gas or a liquid. When flowing,
energy is exchanged between the fluid energy
machine and the fluid.
The extensive field of fluid energy machines can
be divided into many subject areas.
This section on the basic principles looks at two
key criteria for differentiation in more detail.

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines 23


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.1.1 Power machines / work machines

The distinguishing characteristic of this classifica-


tion is the direction of the flowing energy.
Power machine:
The fluid's energy is removed by the machine and
converted into the shaft's mechanical energy.
Typical examples include water turbines used in
the provision of electricity.
Work machine:
The machine transfers energy to the fluid. The
pressure and/or the flow velocity of the fluid
increases. One typical application is a water
pump.

4.1.2 Turbomachines / positive displacement machines

The distinguishing characteristic is the functional


principle.
Turbomachine:
Energy is continuously added to or removed from
the flow by deflection at stator and rotor blades.
This kinetic energy of the fluid is converted into
pressure energy (work machine) or mechanical
energy (power machine). The fluid is conveyed
continuously. No abrupt change in the energy
transfer can be detected.
Positive displacement machine:
A changeable volume drives the fluid or is driven
by the fluid. The pressure difference across the
machine must be big enough to overcome flow
resistances (work machine) or mechanical resist-
ances (power machine). The fluid flow and the
movement of the machine are coupled.

24 4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.2 Fundamental physical principles

The following section looks at the physical princi-


ples with reference to fluid energy machines.

4.2.1 Laws of conservation

The laws of conservation describe variables that


do not change in the fluid energy machine, in
other words that are preserved.
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4.2.1.1 Continuity equation

The continuity equation states that the mass flow


that flows through a system remains constant.
· = V·   = c  A   = const
m (4.1)

A = Cross-section area in m2
c = Flow velocity in m/s
m· = Mass flow in kg/s
·
V = Volume flow in m3/s
 = Density in kg/m3

In incompressible fluids, the density  is not


dependent on the pressure. Gases at low pres-
sure differences can also be considered as
incompressible. In this case, the formula can be
reduced to:
·
V = c  A = const (4.2)

Usually two points in the flow are compared to


each other. The path traced by a fluid particle is
referred to as the flow filament. These flow fila-

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines 25


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

ments are found in the flow conduit as a bundle,


which represents the flowed-through shape.
The significance of the continuity equation is par-
Nozzle
Flow filaments ticularly evident when comparing diffuser and
Inlet Outlet nozzle.
c2 In an incompressible medium it follows:
c 1  A 1 = c 2  A 2 and from this:
A1
c1 A2 c1 A
----- = -----2- (4.3)
c2 A1
Fig. 4.1 Schematic change in velocity
in the nozzle of a Pelton tur- A = Cross-section area in m2
bine c = Flow velocity in m/s
The velocities are inversely proportional to the
flow cross sections.

Nozzle
Nozzle:
Flow filaments c2 The flow velocity is accelerated by the cross sec-
A2 tion becoming smaller.
t
le

c1 Fig. 4.1 shows an adjustable nozzle, as used in


ut

A1
O

Pelton turbines. Fig. 4.2 is a nozzle in which the


Inlet outlet cross section is reduced by means of
blades and deflection.
Fig. 4.2 Nozzle: change in velocity by
means of flow deflecting
blades

26 4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Diffuser:
Diffuser The flow velocity c is decelerated by the flow
Outlet cross section becoming larger.
A2 c2 The diffuser in Fig. 4.3 is similar in design to the
nozzle (Fig. 4.2). In this case though, the arrange-
A1
t
le

ment of the blades results in an increase in the


In

c1 size of the cross section A.


Flow filaments
With a known surface area ratio, it is therefore
Fig. 4.3 Diffuser: change in velocity by possible to calculate the resulting change in
means of flow deflecting
blades velocity.
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Fig. 4.4 shows the blades of an axial turbine.


While the first blade row is formed as a nozzle, the
second blade row initially only appears as a
deflection.

Nozzle Deflection

Fig. 4.4 The nozzle of an axial


turbomachine

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines 27


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.2.1.2 Conservation of momentum

Momentum is a kinetic quantity. The variables of


mass m and velocity c are applicable:

I = mc (4.4)

c = Flow velocity in m/s


I = Momentum in Ns
m = Mass in kg
A change in momentum takes place as a result of
a change in the velocity c. The change in velocity
is caused by an acceleration a = c--- . As a result of
t
this relationship, a force is connected to the term
of the change in momentum:

I = mat = Ft (4.5)

or for a mass flow:


· ct = Ft
I = m (4.6)

a = Acceleration in m/s²
F = Force in N
m· = Mass flow in kg/s
t = Time in s
The momentum is a directional quantity. The
quantities I, c and F all point in the same direction.

28 4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Looking at these formulae it can be seen that the


c2y momentum changes when a force acts.
c2
Fig. 4.5 shows how a water jet is deflected at a
c2x blade. While the value of the velocity c remains
constant, the horizontal velocity component
F changes its algebraic sign.
c1y c 1y = c 2y c 1x = – c 2x
c1
A force has to act on the blade so that the deflec-
·
m c1x
tion can take place; with Formula (4.6) we get:
Fig. 4.5 A water jet is deflected at a F = m ·  c – c 
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2x 1x
blade
·   2   –c  
F = m 1x

c = Flow velocity in m/s


F = Force in N
m· = Mass flow in kg/s

The momentum is transferred from one body to


another when a force acts. Within a system that
has no interaction with its surroundings, the
momentum is constant.
Changes in velocity also occur in the previous
Nozzle c2y example of diffuser and nozzle. Forces are also
c2
acting here.
c2x Fig. 4.6 illustrates this schematically on the blade
of a nozzle.
c1 Fx
The force F acting on the blade corresponds to
Fy
F the force which deflects the fluid.

Fig. 4.6 Nozzle: retention force to keep


the blade in position.

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines 29


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.2.1.3 Conservation of energy

Work and energy are similar quantities. Accord-


ingly, energy is also stated in units of joules.
Energy is the capacity to do work.
Energy can be present in various forms (this list
only represents a small selection):
– Mechanical energy
• Kinetic energy
• Potential energy
• Spring energy
– Thermal energy
– Electrical energy
– Chemical energy
– Hydraulic energy
• Hydrostatic energy
• Potential energy
• Hydrodynamic energy
The forms of energy can be converted from one
form to another. In engineering, machines are
used for this purpose. Fig. 4.7 shows one exam-
ple.

Electric Pump
motor
Electrical Mechanical Hydraulic
energy energy energy
Fig. 4.7 Energy conversion by a unit consisting of electric motor and pump

30 4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.2.1.4 Bernoulli's principle

Bernoulli's principle provides essential under-


standing in the consideration of fluid energy
machines. It correlates energies present in a flow.
No energy is added to or removed from the fluid in
this approach.
The important thing to remember when consider-
ing the various energies is the fact that the forms
of energy can be transformed.
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The following forms of energy are considered:


• Hydraulic energy

E hyd = p  V (4.7)

Ehyd = Hydraulic energy in J


p = Static pressure in N/m2
V = Volume in m3

• Potential energy

E pot = m  g  h (4.8)

Epot = Potential energy in J


g = Gravitational acceleration in m/s2
h = Height in m
m = Mass in kg

• Kinetic energy
1 2
E kin = ---  m  c (4.9)
2

Ekin = Kinetic energy in J


c = Flow velocity in m/s

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines 31


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Thermal energy can be ignored if the temperature


is constant.

If we consider a fluid particle on its flow path, in


practice we can assume that the total energy of
the particle remains constant.

For this assumption, the formulae can be summa-


rised to form Bernoulli's energy equation.
Transposed we get:
2 2
c1 p c2 p
-------- + -----1- + g  h 1 = -------
- + -----2- + g  h 2 (4.10)
2  2 

c = Flow velocity in m/s


g = Gravitational acceleration in m/s2
h = Height in m
p = Static pressure in N/m2
 = Density in kg/m3

Strictly speaking this assumption is only valid


for frictionless fluids, since friction leads to
losses.
Usually two points in the flow are compared to
each other. One possible energy conversion is
shown again using the example of nozzle and dif-
fuser.

32 4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Nozzle Diffuser

c3
p2

p1
c2 p4
c1
p3
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Fig. 4.8 Conversion of pressure energy into velocity kinetic energy and back again

The example of diffuser and nozzle (Fig. 4.8)


shows the conversion of velocity and pressure.
Pressure and velocity terms are coupled energet-
ically; if one term falls, the other term rises.

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines 33


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.2.2 Work

Work in the physical sense is performed when a


force acts along a path; in this case force F and
distance s point in the same direction.

W = Fs (4.11)

F = Force in N
W = Physical work in J
s = Active distance of the force in m
An example related to fluid mechanics can be
seen in the axial turbomachine shown previously.

Rotating Direction of movement


impeller
Direction of force

Stationary
guide
wheel
Fig. 4.9 Work done within a turbomachine

In a turbine, the stationary guide wheel provides


the incident flow to the rotor blade. A force acts on
the rotor blade in the direction of movement.
According to Formula (4.11) work is done in this
process while the Impeller is rotating. This work is
transferred from the fluid to the turbine.

34 4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Another example of work done can be shown


using a piston pump.

Flowing fluid

Direction of movement
Direction of force
p1 p2
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Fig. 4.10 Transfer of work within a piston pump

During the stroke s of the piston pump in Fig. 4.10,


fluid is conveyed out of the cylinder. This causes
the pressure p required to overcome the flow
resistances in the downstream system to build up
in the fluid.
The force F that has to be applied by the piston
s results from the pressure p of the fluid and the sur-
face area A of the piston. Formula (4.11)
becomes:
p
F W = Fs = pAs (4.12)

A = Cross-section area in m2
A F = Force in N
Fig. 4.11 Variables at a piston pump
p = Pressure in Pa
W= Physical work in J
s = Active distance of the force in m

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines 35


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

This work is transferred from the pump to the fluid.


Since the processes within a double stroke are
uneven, it is better to calculate mean values in this
case.

4.2.2.1 Specific work

The work W transferred within a fluid energy


machine can be based on the mass of the fluid.
This corresponds to the specific work:

Y = W
----- (4.13)
m
m = Mass in kg
W = Physical work in J
Y = specific work in J/kg

Because of the possibility of converting energy,


this specific work can also be used to define the
velocity head or pump head:

h = Y
---- (4.14)
g

h = Height in m
g = Gravitational acceleration in m/s2

The velocity head or pump head is an important


quantity in the design and selection of turbines
and/or pumps.

36 4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.2.3 Power

Power is the work done per unit of time t. As


already explained in Chapter 4.2.1.3, energy is
the ability to perform work. Accordingly, energy
can be used in the same way as work.
Generally speaking, power is defined as:

P = W
----- = E
---- (4.15)
t t
E = Energy in J
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P = Power in watts
t = Time in s
W= Physical work in J

The key power calculations related to this series


of equipment are:

Electrical power:

P el = U  I (4.16)

Pel = Electrical power in W


U = Voltage in V
I = Current in A

Mechanical power

P mech = M   (4.17)

Pmech = Mechanical power in W


M = Torque in Nm
 = Angular velocity in 1/s

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines 37


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Hydraulic power
in incompressible fluids
Powers can be calculated from all of the energies
listed in Chapter 4.2.1.4, Page 31. Potential
energy has a lesser role in the fluid energy
machines considered here, because it is con-
verted into pressure energy and/or kinetic energy
before it enters the machine.

Hydraulic power of the fluid


·
P hyd = p  V (4.18)

Phyd = Hydraulic power in W


p = Static pressure in N/m2
·
V = Volume flow in m3/s

Kinetic power of the fluid


1 · 2
P kin = ---  m c (4.19)
2
Pkin = Kinetic power in W
c = Flow velocity in m/s
m· = Mass flow in kg/s

Note on energy and power:


Energy is the quantity which is preserved. How-
ever, it is often used in calculations since it is eas-
ier to calculate from measured values.
Energy is converted in the fluid energy machine.
Similarly, a proportion of energy is stored in each
machine, for example in the rotational energy of
the shafts and impellers.

38 4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

The stored energies are relatively small com-


pared to the transferred power. If there is a
change in the operating point, either spent power
is stored over a short time or stored work is
released over a short time. The change in speed
to the new operating point happens quickly. This
time response can be explained by
Formula (4.15), Page 37.
The forms of energy in fluid energy machines are
quickly converted into each other. In contrast, lots
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of heat transfers with heating up and cooling down


processes take place slowly.

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines 39


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.2.4 Efficiency

The efficiency is defined as the ratio of benefit to


effort.
P out
 = ----------
-  100 % (4.20)
P in

Pin = Incoming power: the effort in W


Pout = Outgoing power: the benefit in W
 = Efficiency in %

Real energy conversions are subject to loss. Fig.


4.12 illustrates this using the example of an elec-
trically driven pump. The thickness of the arrows
represents the transferred power.

Electrical Mechanical Hydraulic


input power power effective power

Pout

Pin Electric
motor Pump

Losses: Losses:
Electrical Hydraulic
Mechanical Mechanical

Fig. 4.12 Energy conversion by a unit consisting of electric motor and pump

40 4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

4.2.5 Energy conversion in the motion of fluid

An energy balance can be established between 2


points of a flow conduit.
For the flow conduit from Fig. 4.13 we can say,
regardless of the direction of flow, that gravita-
A1 1
tional potential energy is converted into pressure
p1
energy from cross section 1 to cross section 2.
h1 Since the cross sections of the two points being
·
m A < A1=A2 considered are the same, we should not expect
any change in velocity. If there is a flow, the flow
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velocity will be greatest in the middle between the


·
m points being considered.
h2 A2
p2 The energies of pressure, velocity and vertical
height add up to the total energy. According to the
2
2 2 (lossless) Formula (4.10) this total energy
p1 c1 p c2
----- + ----- + g  h 1 = -----2 + ----- + g  h 2 remains the same.
 2  2

Fig. 4.13 2 points of a schematic flow


Nevertheless, it is still possible to act on this
conduit energy by technical means. This is shown in Fig.
4.14 by means of an example. According to Ber-
noulli, changes in the velocity kinetic energy
and/or pressure energy are also possible.

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines 41


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

1
p1
A1
c1

Removes energy from the fluid


h1
Increases the energy of the fluid

Work machine Power machine


e.g. pump e.g. turbine
Energy

Fluid energy
Mechanical machine Mechanical
work work

2
p2
A2
c2
h2
2 2
p1 c1 p c
----- + ----- + g  h 1  -----2 + ----2- + g  h 2
 2  2

Fig. 4.14 Energy conversion at a pump/turbine

As shown in the figure, the action can occur on the


fluid energy by means of:
– Work machines
(Pumps/ventilators/fans/compressors):
These convert a mechanical rotational move-
ment into the fluid's pressure energy or velocity
kinetic energy. The structural design takes
account of the required pressure ratios and
mass flows as well as the size and direction of
the connections.
– Power machines (turbines):
These convert pressure energy or velocity
kinetic energy into mechanical energy. As with
the work machines, pressure ratios and mass
flows are critical variables that determine the
structural design.

42 4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

The power of the fluid is dependent on the pres-


sure and the volume flow. In a lossless machine,
this would correspond to the shaft power on the
machine (cf. Formula (4.17) and Formula (4.18)).
By equating we get the expression:
·
M = pV (4.21)

M = Torque in Nm
p = Pressure in Pa
·
V = Volume flow in m3/s
 = Angular velocity in 1/s
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Looking at powers is equivalent to looking at the


converted energy differences. In the case of
mechanical power, it can be assumed that the
lower levels of torque and velocity lie at zero.
This is not necessarily the case when it comes to
·
hydraulic power. While the volume flow V can
often be regarded as constant due to incompress-
ible behaviour, under pressure it often has to be
calculated with the pressure difference p2-p1. This
is because the lower pressure level does not have
to correspond to the ambient pressure. The for-
mula becomes:
·
M   =  p2 – p1   V (4.22)

The shaft power of the machine in this case is


equivalent to the hydraulic power of the fluid. Ini-
tially it does not matter whether the shaft power is
achieved by a large torque or high angular veloc-
ity. Likewise, the power of the fluid may signify a
large volume flow or a high pressure difference.

4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines 43


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

However, the technical implementation can only


deliver high efficiency for one particular design
case. The types of fluid energy machines differ
depending on the objectives and the environmen-
tal conditions.

44 4 Basic principles for GUNT Labline fluid energy machines


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

5 Further basic principles for HM 284

5.1 Converting pressure energy into velocity

Pressure and velocity are both forms of energy.


Pressure energy can be converted into velocity
kinetic energy.
The pump adds energy to the fluid. This happens
as pressure and/or velocity kinetic energy.
Assuming that all of the pressure is converted into
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velocity kinetic energy, we can derive the


following from Formula (4.10), Page 32:

c = 2  p-
---------- (5.1)

c = Flow velocity in m/s


p = Static pressure in Pa
 = Density in kg/m3

5.1.1 Supply pressure and head of centrifugal pumps

Centrifugal pumps generate a head which is inde-


pendent of the density of the fluid.
For the same head, a higher pressure is needed
at higher density. The pressure is proportional to
the weight of the fluid:

p = gh (5.2)

g = Gravitational acceleration in m/s2


h = Head in m
p = Static pressure in Pa
 = Density in kg/m3

5 Further basic principles for HM 284 45


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Note: Where the pumped medium is water, the


unit is often specified in "mWC". This non-SI com-
pliant unit derives from "metre Water Column".
This pressure results from the conversion of
velocity to pressure. The impeller transfers veloc-
ity kinetic energy to the fluid as it passes through.
From Formula (5.1) and Formula (5.2) we can
transpose:
2
p - = ----------
h = ---------- c - (5.3)
g 2g
c = Flow velocity in m/s
g = Gravitational acceleration in m/s2
h = Head in m
p = Static pressure in Pa
 = Density in kg/m3
Thus the velocity of the fluid is decisive for the
resulting pressure and/or the head. This is directly
related to the rotational speed of the impeller.
Because the pressure is measured, it is this
measured variable that is the focus of the descrip-
tion that follows.
Conversion is possible by Formula (5.2):
p-
h = ---------- (5.4)
g
Some diagrams show the pressure in bar and also
as a head in m. The factor has been adopted to
m
the secondary y-axis with 10 --------
- for better axis
bar
scaling.

46 5 Further basic principles for HM 284


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

5.2 Pump characteristic

The pumps used are centrifugal pumps. They


transfer energy to the fluid by accelerating the
fluid on a circular path in the impeller.
The inertia forces cause the water to be thrown
outwards.
The characteristic curves of centrifugal pumps
can be approximated fairly well by parabolas. This
is done in the figure below:
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Pressure p in bar

·
Volume flow V in L/min

Fig. 5.1 Schematic characteristic curve of a centrifugal pump

When talking about energy transfer it is possible


to make a qualitative distinction between high
pressures and high flow rates.
The processes can be explained as follows:

5 Further basic principles for HM 284 47


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

High pressures:
At low flow rates, the fluid particles are moved in
a narrower circular path. If there is no flow, the
pump swirls the fluid in a circle. The centrifugal
force is highest here. This force is seen as
pressure.
High flow rates:
The trajectory of a fluid particle deviates more and
more from the circular path with increasing flow
rates and approaches a straight line that points
outwards from the centre. The centrifugal forces
responsible for the pressure build-up become
smaller.

Note: The representation shows the relationships


on a simple level. Detailed knowledge of energy
transfer is dealt with in HM 283 "Experiments
with a Centrifugal Pump".

5.3 System characteristic

Pumps are mainly used to pump fluids through


pipe networks or systems. This requires that a
certain pressure be applied to overcome the flow
resistances.

The following proportionality can be derived from


Formula (5.1) and Formula (4.2), Page 25:
·
Vc p (5.5)

c = Flow velocity in m/s


p = Static pressure in N/m2
·
V = Volume flow in m3/s

48 5 Further basic principles for HM 284


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Therefore four times the pressure must be applied


to realise double the flow through a system.
If the pressure is plotted against the volume flow,
we get a curve in the shape of a parabola:
Pressure p in bar
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·
Volume flow V in L/min

Fig. 5.2 Schematic system characteristic

5.4 Operating point:

The operating point of a pump/system


combination is located at the intersection of the
system and pump characteristics.
In order that the fluid can flow, it is necessary to
overcome the system resistance. The pump
allows for this by increasing the pressure of the
fluid.
If the system has a variable system resistance
(e.g. by switching between different flow

5 Further basic principles for HM 284 49


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

sections), then the operating point shifts on the


pump characteristic.
If the pump's output is varied by the speed, then
the operating point shifts on the system
characteristic.

Moving the operating point


by varying the system
characteristic

Operating point
Pressure p in bar

Moving the operating point


by varying the pump
characteristic

·
Volume flow V in L/min

Fig. 5.3 Schematic characteristics.


System characteristic and pump characteristic of a centrifugal pump

50 5 Further basic principles for HM 284


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

5.5 Pumps in series and parallel connection

Specific circuits mean that two or more pumps


can be connected to each other. This is useful in
order to achieve operating points above the limit
of a single pump.

Note:
There are analogies to electrical engineering:
– Pump vs. energy source (battery)
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– Pressure vs. voltage


– Volume flow vs. current

5 Further basic principles for HM 284 51


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

5.5.1 Parallel connection

In parallel-connected pumps, the outputs of both


pumps are joined together. The delivered volume
flow is increased. The pressure cannot be
increased above the level of a single pump.
In the ideal case of a (non-existent) completely flat
system characteristic, the volume flows are added
together without losses.
The following diagram indicates schematically
how a real system behaves.

Operating point
2 parallel
Pressure p in bar

Operating point 2 parallel


single pumps
Single
pump

·
Volume flow V in L/min

Fig. 5.4 Schematic characteristics. Single and parallel centrifugal pumps.

Connecting the pumps in parallel increases the


volume flow. However, the steep system
characteristic requires a significantly increased
pressure to further increase the throughput. As a
result, in the assumed case the increase is not as
steep.

52 5 Further basic principles for HM 284


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

5.5.2 Series connection

In series-connected pumps, the output of the first


pump is connected to the input of the next pump.
The delivered volume flow remains constant.
The subsequent pump increases the pressure of
the volume flow being passed through.
In the case of very steep system characteristics,
the pressures are approximately added together.
Lossless addition is only possible with the "0"
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volume flow.
As described in the Parallel connection section,
the use of a series connection leads to the
following result in the system characteristic:

5 Further basic principles for HM 284 53


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

2 pumps
in series
Pressure p in bar

Single
pump Operating point
2 in series

Operating point
single

·
Volume flow V in L/min

Fig. 5.5 Schematic characteristics. Single and series-connected centrifugal pumps.

The system characteristic is relatively flat. There


is not enough resistance against the pumps, so
that there is no increase to the possible pressure.
The achieved increase is very small.

54 5 Further basic principles for HM 284


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

5.5.3 Selecting the type of connection

The single pump characteristic can be extended


by switching to an additional pump, as has
already been discussed:

2 pumps
in series
Pressure p in bar
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2 pumps
Single in parallel
pump

·
Volume flow V in L/min

Fig. 5.6 Characteristics of single pump and parallel-connected and series-connected


pumps

The characteristic in which the pump is to be used


is crucial for the meaningful use of an additional
pump.
The following diagram provides an overview:

5 Further basic principles for HM 284 55


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

With 2 pumps
cannot be achieved
Pressure p in bar

2 pumps
in series

Single
2 pumps
pump
in parallel

·
Volume flow V in L/min

Fig. 5.7 Characteristics of single pump and parallel-connected and series-connected


pumps

The diagram shows the previous pump


characteristic curves with a boundary line that
divides parallel and series connection into two
regions. This line passes through the intersection
point of the pump characteristic curves from
series and parallel operation.
This results in regions that are better suited for the
single pump, the series-connected pumps or the
parallel-connected pumps.

The applied pressure causes the flow of the fluid


and is thus the cause of the volume flow. In each
operating mode, the operating point appears as
the intersection of the pump and system
characteristics.

56 5 Further basic principles for HM 284


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

When choosing a pump for an existing system,


the required pressure is thus the criterion for
selecting the pump. The system characteristic
curve is also crucial.
The diagram is divided into a region of steep
system characteristic curves, which are
preferably operated with pumps connected in
series, and rather flat curves that bring benefits for
pumps operating in parallel.
If one pump is not sufficient for the real
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application, an additional pump may help.


At low pressures, parallel connection has its
advantages in that it can provide a substantially
greater volume flow than pumps operating in
series.
If the required pressures through an existing
system are greater than the pressure of a single
pump, then only series connection can be used.
In principle, both types of connection are suitable
for the low pressure region above the intersection
of the pumps in series or parallel connection. This
raises the question of whether we want to hold
more reserves as maximum pressure or in the
maximum volume flow.
In the overall consideration we should not forget
that a single larger pump may certainly be
justified, depending on the procurement situation.

5 Further basic principles for HM 284 57


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

58 5 Further basic principles for HM 284


HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6 Experiments

The selection of experiments makes no claims of


completeness but is intended to be used as a
stimulus for your own experiments.
The results shown are intended as a guide only.
Depending on the construction of the individual
components, experimental skills and
environmental conditions, deviations may occur in
the experiments. Nevertheless, the laws can be
clearly demonstrated.
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The measured values of the moving fluid are


subject to constant fluctuations. This means that
the measured values are always varying around
the value of the operating point. Filtering is used
to smooth the measured values before they are
presented to the user.
Since GUNT wants to use this device to
demonstrate the physical relationships in practical
operation, the interpretation of the measured
values follows these relationships.
When operating points are saved, so are all
measured values and the derived calculation
variables. The values listed in the tables below
only represent a selection for a better overview.
The measurements file created by the
measurement data acquisition program is further
processed in this instruction manual with MS
Excel®.

6 Experiments 59
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.1 Experiment 1: Recording a system characteristic curve

6.1.1 Objectives of the experiment

The system characteristic has to be recorded with


pump P1 on the experimental unit.
The objective is to be able to interpret this
characteristic curve. The result shall be an
awareness of the interaction of the flow rate and
the pressure difference in a flow-through system.

6.1.2 Conducting the experiment

To record the system characteristic curve we shall


proceed according to the following points:
1. Bleed the experimental unit
2. Set the experimental unit for standalone
operation of pump P1. See Fig. 6.1 in
Chapter 3.7.1, Page 19.
3. Open valve V3 fully

Fig. 6.1 Circuit for standalone 4. Use the Tare button to calibrate to zero
operation of pump P1
5. Leave pump P1 to run to 3300 1/min
6. Measured values for the suction pressure p1,
the pump outlet pressure p2 and the volume
flow V· should now be recorded
7. Reduce the volume flow bit by bit by gradually
slowing the pump speed and take the
measurements according to point 6
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until the volume flow is
completely throttled

60 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.1.3 Measured values with calculations of the analysis

·
Speed of Volume flow V Pressure p1 Pressure p2 ·
V kg
pump P1 in L/min in bar in bar ----------- in --------------------
2
n in 1/min p1 m  N
3300 47,5 -0,28 0,16 -0,081

3000 43,3 -0,23 0,13 -0,082

2700 38,6 -0,18 0,11 -0,081

2400 34,4 -0,15 0,09 -0,082

2100 29,8 -0,11 0,07 -0,080


All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

1800 25,4 -0,08 0,05 -0,081

1500 21,1 -0,06 0,04 -0,081

1200 16,7 -0,04 0,03 -0,080

900 12,4 -0,02 0,01 -0,077

600 7,7 -0,01 0,01 -0,074

300 3,4 0,00 0,01 -0,058

0 0 0,00 0,00

Tab. 6.1 Volume flows and pressures in the unthrottled system at various speeds

6.1.4 Analysis

If we plot the measured values of pressure over


volume flow in the diagram, we can clearly see a
quadratic dependence. The following diagram
shows quadratic trend lines assigned to the
measurements:

6 Experiments 61
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Pressure in bar

Head in m
Suction side
Pressure side

Volume flow in L/min

Fig. 6.2 Characteristics of the system in operation with pump P1

The dependency concerns the section upstream


of the pump that is flowed through (suction side,
piping from tank to p1) and downstream of the
pump (pressure side, from p2 to tank).
Pressure changes into velocity. This can be
demonstrated particularly well on the suction
side.
The dependency can be attributed to Bernoulli's
energy equation Formula (4.10), Page 32:
2 2
c0 p0 c1 p
-------- + ------ + g  h 0 = -------- + -----1- + g  h 1 (6.1)
2  2 
c = Flow velocity in m/s
g = Gravitational acceleration in m/s²
h = Height of the liquid column in m
p = Static pressure in Pa
 = Density in kg/m³

62 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

While the pump is being operated the pressure


level on the pump suction side falls, so that the
higher pressure in the water tank leads to the flow
of the fluid.
Formula (6.1) is used in the following to compare
the "water tank" location (= index "0") with the
pressure measuring point p1 location (= index "1")
in terms of energy.
Since the height difference of the pressure
measuring points is eliminated during zero
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calibration, this part of the formula can be ignored.


Velocity components c0 in the relatively large
water tank are negligible.
The pressure in the water tank is greater than the
location of the pressure measurement by the
amount of p1 (  p 0 – 1 = p 1 ).

2
p1 c1
--------
- = -------
- (6.2)
 2
Thank to the constant density of water, we can
derive from Formula (6.2) that the flow velocity is
proportional to the square root of the pressure:

c1  p1 (6.3)

c = Flow velocity in m/s


p = Static pressure in Pa
 = Density in kg/m³

6 Experiments 63
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

In the experiment, this proportionality is


demonstrated by the volume flow. This is also
proportional to the flow velocity:
·
V = A  c thus: (6.4)

·
V p 1 and also: (6.5)
·
V - = const
------------ (6.6)
p1
A = Flowed through cross-sectional area in m²
c = Flow velocity in m/s
p = Pressure in Pa
V· = Volume flow in m³/s

The results are listed in the table


4
of measurement
m
results. The unit in ---------------- is given by
s N
Formula (6.6).
The values oscillate rapidly around the value of -
kg
0,08 -------------------
2
-.
m  N

Flow resistances were ignored in this calculation.


This simplification can be made on the suction
side due to the relatively undisturbed flow. A more
precise consideration of flow resistances is
outside the scope of this manual, which is why
there is no analysis of the pressure side.
However, pressure is also converted into velocity,
which corresponds to a quadratic function.

64 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.1.5 Evaluation

The system characteristic curve indicates what


flow resistance a system has at a certain volume
flow.
Flowing through the system with a volume flow
requires a certain pressure differential. This
pressure differential is applied by the pump. The
pressure differential is the same as the pump's
supply pressure. This is the pressure differential
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that the pump applies between the suction side


and pressure side. The calculation is as follows:

 p P1 = p 2 – p 1 (6.7)

 pP1 = Pressure differential or supply pressure


over pump P1 in Pa
p1 = Pressure upstream of P1 in Pa
p2 = Pressure downstream of P1 in Pa

6 Experiments 65
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

System characteristic
Supply pressure in bar

Head in m
Volume flow in L/min

Fig. 6.3 System characteristic with pump P1 from the suction and pressure side (p2-p1)

A portion of this energy is used up in flow


resistances. This occurs particularly in bends and
abrupt changes in cross section.
The system's flow resistance can be altered by
valve V3. The next experiment shall address this
in more detail.
From the proportionality of Formula (6.3)
( c 1  p 1 ) we can further deduce that four times
the pressure is needed to double the volume flow
(the velocity).

66 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.2 Experiment 2: Determining the reference speed

6.2.1 Objective of the experiment:

This experiment is used to improve the results of


the following experiments.
The reference speed of the two pumps is
determined. This is the speed at which the pumps
have the same delivery characteristics.
Deviations from the theoretically equal speed are
possible due to manufacturing tolerances.
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The reference speed is roughly in the range of


2850 1/min.

6.2.2 Conducting the experiment

To find the reference speed we shall proceed


according to the following points:
1. Bleed the experimental unit.
2. Set up the experimental unit for series
operation. See Fig. 6.4 in Chapter 3.7.2,
Page 19.
3. Close valve V3 fully.

Fig. 6.4 Circuit for operating the 4. Use the Tare button to calibrate to zero
pumps in series
5. Switch on pump P2.
6. Switch to pump P1 and gradually increase the
speed until the ratio of the two pressures p3/p2
is equal to 2.
7. Note down the reference speed:

___________________ 1/min.

6 Experiments 67
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.3 Experiment 3: Determining the pump characteristic curve

6.3.1 Objectives of the experiment

The objective of the experiment is to create a


pump characteristic curve for pump P1.
By using valve V3 we can influence the system
characteristic. In doing so, it is possible to operate
the pump at different system resistances and to
plot the relationship between pressure differential
over the pump and volume flow.

6.3.2 Conducting the experiment

To record the pump characteristic curve we shall


proceed according to the following points:
1. Bleed the experimental unit
2. Set the experimental unit for standalone
operation of pump P1. See Fig. 6.5 in
Chapter 3.7.1.
3. Open valve V3 fully

Fig. 6.5 Circuit for standalone 4. Use the Tare button to calibrate to zero
operation of pump P1
5. Leave pump P1 to run to reference speed (see:
Chapter 6.2).
(The characteristic at this speed allows a direct
comparison with the subsequent experiments).
6. Measured values for the suction pressure p1,
the pump outlet pressure p2 and the volume
·
flow V should now be recorded.
7. Reduce the volume flow bit by bit by gradually
closing valve V3 and take the measurements
according to point 6.
8. Repeat steps 6 and 7 until the volume flow is
completely throttled

68 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.3.3 Measured values

Speed of Volume flow V· Pressure p1 Pressure p2 Hydraulic Electrical Efficiency 


pump P1 in L/min in bar in bar power Phyd power Pel in %
n in 1/min in W in W

2760 39,5 -0,2 0,11 20 221 9

2760 32,3 -0,13 0,42 30 214 14

2760 27,1 -0,09 0,58 30 211 14

2760 22,6 -0,07 0,72 29 206 14

2760 18,7 -0,04 0,81 27 196 14


All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

2760 14,1 -0,03 0,88 21 187 11

2760 9,3 -0,01 0,93 15 181 8

2760 4,9 0,00 1,01 8 173 5

2760 0 0,00 1,09 0 169 0

Tab. 6.2 Volume flows and pressures of the device at different throttling

6.3.4 Analysis

6.3.4.1 Pump characteristic

The pressure difference compared to the volume


flow produced with one pump is the interesting
factor.
The pressure difference, or the supply pressure,
can be calculated according to Formula (6.7):
 p P1 = p 2 – p 1

6 Experiments 69
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

This results in the following diagram for the pump


characteristic curve:
Supply pressure in bar

Head in m
Pump

Volume flow in L/min

Fig. 6.6 Pressure differential over volume flow of pump 1 generated at 2760 1/min

The result is a profile of the measured points


which can be closely approximated by a parabola.
The maximum pressure is applied when the pump
is not producing any volume flow. According to the
measurements taken by GUNT this was
1,090 bar (at reference speed).
When valve V3 is opened, the maximum possible
flow rate is 39,5 L/min. With a lower system
pressure loss, a higher volume flow could be
implemented.

70 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Pump

System
Supply pressure in bar

Head in m
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Volume flow in L/min

Fig. 6.7 Pump and system characteristic curves, pump at 2760 1/min

Fig. 6.7 shows the measuring points from the


measured pump and system characteristic
curves. We can see that the pump characteristic
curve is limited at the bottom due to the lowest
possible system curve (valve V3 open).
Each operating point is an intersection point of the
pump characteristic and system characteristic. To
illustrate this point, the system characteristic
curves from which the operating points result are
inserted mathematically as a parabola.

6.3.4.2 Efficiency

The experimental unit also offers the possibility of


studying pump P1 in standalone operation in
more detail.

6 Experiments 71
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

In terms of energy, the interesting factor is the


efficiency which arises from the pump
characteristic curve.
The efficiency is the ratio of benefit to effort. The
effort corresponds to the electrical power that the
pump motor requires at the respective operating
point. It is measured and displayed directly by the
experimental unit .
The benefit of a pump is defined as the hydraulic
output. This can be calculated from pressure and
volume flow, see Formula (4.18), Page 38. For
the pump in standalone operation, this
corresponds to:
·
P hyd =  p P1  V (6.8)

Phyd = Hydraulic power in W

To calculate the pump efficiency, we need the


shaft power at the pump. In contrast to the input
power of the electric motor, this is relatively
difficult to determine, which is why the total
system efficiency at the coupling of the electric
motor and pump is often used.
The system efficiency can be calculated as
follows:
P hyd
 = -----------
-  100 (6.9)
P el

 = Efficiency in %

72 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

This calculation results in the following


relationship:

Pump
System

Supply pressure in bar

 in %
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Efficiency
Volume flow in L/min

Fig. 6.8 Pump and system characteristic curves

The efficiency increases with increasing volume


flow until it reaches a maximum point and then
falls off again. This is due to the value of the
hydraulic power. At the axis intersection points
this is zero, because here either pressure or
volume flow is equal to zero.
The incoming electrical power is converted into
hydraulic power by the pump. Different
mechanisms during operation also consume
energy, which ultimately can no longer be
converted into hydraulic power.

6 Experiments 73
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

This mainly includes


• Friction
Mechanical friction on bearings and seals, as
well as friction in the fluid
• Gap losses
Overflow between the impeller and housing
• Electrical losses
Ohmic losses, magnetisation losses
• Turbulence
In the conversion of velocity into pressure

The efficiencies for small systems are lower


compared to large systems, since the electrical
losses and the gap losses increase
disproportionately.

Note: The ability to operate the pumps in series


and parallel at different speeds means it makes
sense to only study the efficiency in standalone
operation.
Efficiency in series and parallel operation is
therefore set to -1.

74 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.3.5 Evaluation

The curve shows the characteristic of a


centrifugal pump.
Operating points are intersection points of pump
characteristic and system characteristic. An
efficiency can be calculated for each operating
point. The efficiency increases until it reaches a
maximum point and then falls off again.
If system and pump are not well matched to each
other, it may be that this maximum is not reached.
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This is the case if, for example, the system line is


too steep or the pump curve is too flat.

6 Experiments 75
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.4 Experiment 4: Pumps in series operation

6.4.1 Objectives of the experiment

In this experiment, the pumps are operated in


series one after the other. The goal is to apply
knowledge gained so far to this case and to
expand upon it.

6.4.2 Conducting the experiment

To record the measurements in this operating


mode, we shall proceed according to the following
points:
1. Bleed the experimental unit .
2. Set up the experimental unit for series
operation. See Fig. 6.9 from Chapter 3.7.2,
Page 19.
3. Open valve V3 fully.
Fig. 6.9 Circuit for series operation
4. Use the Tare button to calibrate to zero.
5. Leave pump P1 to run to reference speed (see:
Chapter 6.2).
(Pumps P1 and P2 have the same delivery
properties).
6. Switch to pump P2.
7. Measurements for the pump inlet pressure p1,
the pump outlet pressure p2 and p3 and the
·
volume flow V should now be recorded.
8. Reduce the volume flow a bit by gradually
closing valve V3 and take the measurements
according to point 7.
9. Repeat steps 7 and 8 until the volume flow is
completely throttled.

76 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.4.3 Measured values

Speed of Volume flow V· Pressure p1 Pressure p2 Pressure p3


pump 1 & 2 in L/min in bar in bar in bar
n in 1/min

2760 39,0 -0,19 0,14 0,10

2760 35,3 -0,16 0,29 0,44

2760 29,6 -0,11 0,49 0,88

2760 25,3 -0,08 0,64 1,20

2760 19,7 -0,05 0,78 1,50


All rights reserved, G.U.N.T. Gerätebau, Barsbüttel, Germany 10/2015

2760 14,6 -0,03 0,87 1,70

2760 10,6 -0,02 0,92 1,82

2760 5,4 -0,01 1,00 1,96

2760 0,00 0,00 1,08 2,16

Tab. 6.3 Volume flows and pressures during series connection and at different throttling

6.4.4 Analysis

The differential pressure (supply pressure) is


plotted against the volume flow of pump P1 (cf.
formula (6.7)):

 p P1 = p 2 – p 1

And the increase through both pumps:

 p P1 – 3 = p 3 – p 1 (6.10)

 pP1-3 = Pressure differential across


pump P1 and pump P2 in Pa
p3 = Pressure downstream of pump P2 in Pa
p1 = Pressure downstream of pump P1 in Pa

6 Experiments 77
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

This results in the following diagram:

Series

Standalone
Supply pressure in bar

Head in m
Volume flow in L/min

Fig. 6.10 Single pump and pumps in series operation

Pump 1 generates a differential pressure


corresponding to curve 1. This is increased by the
differential pressure of pump P2. At the maximum
volume flows (as in the previous experiment) the
minimum system characteristics are almost
identical, but it should not be forgotten that the
connecting section between pump P1 and
pump P2 also generates pressure losses, which
has to be applied by both pumps.
To better understand this effect, the pump
characteristic of pump P2 is added to the
standalone pump characteristic of pump P1.

78 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

The calculation is as follows:

 p P2 = p 3 – p 2 (6.11)

 pP2 = Pressure differential across pump P2 in Pa


p3 = Pressure downstream of pump P2 in Pa
p2 = Pressure downstream of pump P1 in Pa

There is a difference between the identical


pumps, which represents the additional pressure
drop through the connecting section:
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Supply pressure in bar

Pump 2

Connecting section

Head in m
Pump 1

Volume flow in L/min

Fig. 6.11 Pumps characteristic curves in series operation

At maximum volume flow, pump P2 cannot quite


fully compensate for this additional pressure drop.
This results in the slightly negative supply
pressure.

6 Experiments 79
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.4.5 Evaluation

The resulting curve is an addition of the two


pressures of pump P1 and pump P2. By
connecting the pumps in series operation, the
pressure can be raised to roughly double.

80 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.5 Experiment 5: Pumps in parallel operation

6.5.1 Objectives of the experiment

In this experiment, the pumps are operated in


parallel. The previously acquired knowledge is
applied to this case in a practical-oriented
manner.

6.5.2 Conducting the experiment


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To record the measurements in this operating


mode, we shall proceed according to the following
points:
1. Bleed the experimental unit.
2. Set up the experimental unit for parallel
operation. See Fig. 6.12 in Chapter 3.7.3,
Page 21.
3. Open valve V3 fully.
Fig. 6.12 Circuit for parallel operation
4. Use the Tare button to calibrate to zero.
5. Leave pump P1 to run to reference speed (see:
Chapter 6.2).
(Pumps P1 and P2 have the same delivery
properties).
6. Switch to pump P2.
7. Measurements for the pump inlet pressure p1,
the pump outlet pressure p2 and p3 and the
·
volume flow V should now be recorded.
8. Reduce the volume flow a bit by gradually
closing valve V3 and take the measurements
according to point 7.
9. Repeat steps 7 and 8 until the volume flow is
completely throttled.

6 Experiments 81
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.5.3 Measured values

·
Speed of Volume flow V Pressure p1 Pressure p2 Pressure p3
pump 1 & 2 in L/min in bar in bar in bar
n in 1/min

2760 68,5 -0,14 0,36 0,35

2760 64 -0,12 0,44 0,42

2760 60,2 -0,11 0,50 0,49

2760 52,9 -0,08 0,61 0,60

2760 45,6 -0,06 0,72 0,71

2760 37,7 -0,04 0,81 0,81

2760 30,0 -0,03 0,88 0,87

2760 23,8 -0,01 0,92 0,92

2760 17,6 -0,01 0,97 0,97

2760 11,0 0,00 1,01 1,00

2760 5,2 0,00 1,08 1,07

2760 0,0 0,00 1,10 1,10

Tab. 6.4 Volume flows and pressures during parallel connection and at different throttling

6.5.4 Analysis

A comparison of the pump output pressures


shows almost the same values. By operating at
the reference speed, we should expect the same
pressure differential and the same volume flow
across the two pumps.
In experiment 1 we showed that the system
characteristic is composed of the suction part
upstream of the pump and the pressure part
downstream of the pump.
Since the two pumps produce the same pressure
differential, this means that the suction pressures
of the two pumps are equal.

82 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

For the analysis the differential pressure (supply


pressure) that results across the pumps is
calculated with the values of pump P1 (cf. formula
(6.7))

 p P1 = p 2 – p 1 =  p P2

and plotted against the volume flow. This results


in the following diagram:
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Parallel
Standalone
Supply pressure in bar

Head in m

Volume flow in L/min

Fig. 6.13 Pumps in parallel operation, head over volume flow

As we have already seen, the system


characteristic curve with the lowest pressure loss
can be found mathematically from the operating
point with maximum volume flow. The
corresponding parabolas are inserted into the
chart as dotted lines.

6 Experiments 83
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.5.5 Evaluation

A higher supply volume is achieved with the


pumps connected in parallel.
The new fluid flow results in a new system
characteristic curve. This must be re-evaluated in
comparison to the previous operating modes.
In the representation of the system characteristics
in Fig. 6.13 we can see that this new system
characteristic is flatter than the system
characteristic in standalone operation.
By doubling the suction cross-section, the flow
velocity is halved and the pressure loss during
intake is reduced to a quarter of the characteristic
(cf. Chapter 6.1.4, Page 61).

84 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

6.6 Final analysis of the experiments and proposal for further experiments

The HM284 experimental unit makes it possible


to learn in a practical manner how pumps behave
in standalone operation, and when connected in
series and in parallel.
The following diagram shows the curves already
discussed in the individual experiments:
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Series
Parallel
Supply pressure in bar

Standalone

Head in m
Volume flow in L/min

Fig. 6.14 Pressure difference over volume flow of pumps


in standalone, series and parallel operation

6 Experiments 85
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

The main findings of the experiments:


• The system characteristic curve indicates the
amount of pressure required to flow through
the system at a certain volume flow.
• The system characteristic is composed of the
pressure side and suction side of the system.
• The pump characteristic curve indicates how
much pressure the pump can deliver at a
certain volume flow.
• System curve and pump curve intersect at the
operating point.
• Valve 3 can be used to influence the system
characteristic curve.
• In series operation, the pressures of the pumps
are added together.
• In parallel operation, the volume flows of the
pumps are added together.
• Flow control has an impact on the system
characteristic curve.
These conditions are due to physical factors.

86 6 Experiments
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

7 Appendix

7.1 Technical data

Dimensions
Length x Width x Height: 67 x 60 x 67 cm
Weight: 62 kg

Connections
Electric power supply: 230 V, 50 Hz
Phases: 1
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Rated input (power): 650 W


Microfuse 6,3 A delayed-action at 230 V
Alternatives optional, see rating plate.

Pumps in 50 Hz version
Speed range pump P1: 0...3300 1/min
Speed of pump P2: approx. 2800 1/min*
Impeller:
Diameter: 98 mm**
Diameter at blade inlet: 48 mm
Blade depth: 5 mm

Variant at 60 Hz
*Speed of pump P2: approx. 3300 1/min
**Diameter of pump P2: 80 mm

Water tank
Filling volume: approx. 15 L

7 Appendix 87
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

Sensors
Suction side pressure range: -1...1 bar
Pressure side pressure range: -5...5 bar
Volume flow sensor: 10...140 L/min

Measurement data acquisition


Program environment:
LabVIEW Runtime
System requirements:
PC with Pentium IV processor, 1 GHz
Minimum 1024 MB RAM
Minimum 1 GB free hard disk space
1 CD-ROM drive
1 USB port
Graphic card resolution min. 1024 x 768 pixels, True Color
Windows XP / Windows Vista / Windows 7

Accessories supplied
Power connector cable
USB connection cable
Software CD

To be provided by customer
PC with Windows operating system, USB port
Filling with water

88 7 Appendix
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

7.2 List of formula symbols and units

Formula Mathematical/physical value Unit


symbols

A Area (flowed through) m²

c Flow velocity m/s

g Gravitational acceleration m/s²

h Height (of the liquid column) m

n Rotational speed 1/min

p General pressure Pa
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p1 Pressure upstream of pump P1 Pa

p2 Pressure downstream of pump P1 Pa

p3 Pressure downstream of pump P2 Pa

pP1 Pressure across pump 1 (differential pressure, Pa


supply pressure)

pP2 Pressure across pump 2 (differential pressure, Pa


supply pressure)

pP1-2 Pressure across pump 1 and 2 Pa

P General power W

Pel Electrical power W

Phyd Hydraulic power W

V· Volume flow m³/s

 Difference

 Efficiency

 Density kg/m³

7 Appendix 89
HM 284 SERIES AND PARALLEL CONNECTED PUMPS

7.3 Tables and graphs

Unit L/s L/min L/h m3/min m3/h

1L/s 1 60 3600 0,06 3,6

1L/min 0,01667 1 60 0,001 0,06

1L/h 0,000278 0,01667 1 0,00001667 0,001

1m3/min 16,667 1000 0,0006 1 60

1m3/h 0,278 16,667 1000 0,01667 1

Tab. 7.1 Conversion table for units of volume flow

Unit bar mbar Pa kPa

1bar 1 1000 100000 100

1mbar 0,001 1 100 0,1

1Pa 0,00001 0,01 1 0,001

1kPa 0,01 10 1000 1

Tab. 7.2 Conversion table for units of pressure

90 7 Appendix