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Cake Making

Edmund B. I

M.Sc.Tech.(Vict.), F.R.I

Chief Examiner in Breadma! Director of Studies, Greater Late Head of Food Trades 1 Southampton College of Tech Late Head of the National 1 Borough Polytechnic, London

James Stewar



S. T. Barr

F.lnst. B.B., A.I.F.S.T.

Head of Department of Bald

Borough PolYtechnic, London


!9 66

First Edition 1930 Second Edition 1943 Reprinted 1945 Reprinted 1946 Reprinted 1947 Reprinted 1949 Reprinted 1952 Third Edition 1958 Fourth Edition 1966

© E. B. Bennion, J. Stewart & G. S. T. Bamford 1966

A Leonard Hill Book This new edition first published in Great Britain 1966 by:

The Book Division Grampian Press Ltd., 8-10 King Street, Hammersmith, London, W.6.

Book designed by Keogh, Warren, Gill Set in loon I I pt Baskerville and printed in Great Britain by Richard Clay (The Chaucer Press), Ltd., Bungay, SI{/folk on paper supplied by Frank Grunfeld (Sales) Ltd. Bound by Mansell (Bookbinders) Ltd., London



Page vii

Preface to Second Edition


Preface to Third Edition


Preface to Fourth Edition


List of Illustrations


List of Tables


Chapter I


Introductory and Bakery Hygiene 2/Flour Used in Confectionery


Moistening-Milk Products Eggs an'd Egg Products


5JBaking Fats,


-:/ Chemical Aeration Essences a~dEssential Oils

./ 8

v 9


Spices and Flavourings

Colouring Matter Nuts in Confectionery Fruits Used in Confectionery

Jams and Jellies Gums and Jellying Agents Chocolate

Icings, Fillings, and Glazes Fermented Goods







16 1

\ 17

',.18 Chemically Aerated Goods




4 0







20 7




20 Cake Making Processes

21 Sponge Goods

22 Almond Goods

23 Gateaux and Fancies

24 Baking of Confectionery Goods

25 Refrigeration in the Bakery



Bakehouse Machinery and Plant

Nutritional Value of Flour Confectionery



28 Testing of Raw Materials



21 5




25 6




28 4

29 1

3 1 3

3 2 3


Preface to the First Edition

SEVERAL excellent books have appeared dealing with con- fectionery raw materials; likewise, there are recipe books sufficient to satisfy the requirements of the trade. In pre- senting this book, it has been the aim of the authors to give such data as will enable the reader to obtain a good

working knowledge of the materials and processes they are employing in everyday practice. Emphasis is laid upon the necessity for the production of articles of the highest degree of uniformity and quality; consequently, special attention

is devoted to the methods used for evaluating raw materials

and for the technical control of processes, and, also, it is

shown how the various methods of preparation of the raw materials may influence the finished product. It has not been the intention of the authors to prepare

a recipe book, but rather to deal with fundamentals, so that

with this knowledge recipes can be built up as occasion demands. However, summaries of standard recipes have been introduced, and these will act as a guide to th~student. The book will be found to cover the range of work re- quired for students qualifying for the National Diploma Examination and the City and Guilds of London Examina-

tion in Confectionery, Final Grade. The authors' thanks are due to the following firms who have so kindly provided data and illustrations, rendering it possible to produce some entirely new features: Messrs. Artofex and Co., Ltd., London; Baker Perkins, Ltd., Peter- borough; Wm. Gardner and Sons (Gloucester), Ltd.; J. Harrison Carter, Ltd., Dunstable; The Morton Machine Company, Wishaw; The Peerless Electrical Manufacturing Company, Ltd.; C. O. Ericson Engineering Company. In conclusion, the authors wish to express their gratitude to those who have generously given their assistance, advice and criticism, and especially to Mr. J. T. Parker of the National Bakery Schobl, and to Mr. H. P. Buttrick, A.I.C., for his valuable collaboration in the preparation of the chapter on aeration.




J. S.

Preface to the Second Edition


IN this new edition the authors have included much new matter which has been proved to be of great importance of recent years, and which will prove to be of still greater importance when normal trading conditions can once again be resumed. As a publication being produced in war-time, it would be incomplete without some reference to war-time commodi- ties and alteration of procedure. A war-time recipe book would, no doubt, appeal to many, but as the supplies of commodities and their availability are changing month by month no fixed recipes can be used. Changes in formula must constantly be made to meet the changing conditions, and it is hoped that from this book guidance will be obtained, particularly if it is read in conjunction with trade journals. New chapters on Chocolate,Jam, and Jellies, the develop- ment of High-ratio Cakes and War-time Confectionery Problems have been included. All other sections have been revised and enlarged. Much original research work carried out by the authors and other workers has been included in the text. The authors' thanks are due to the following, who have given so freely of their advice and help in the revision of the script: Mr. A. Hawley; Mr H. P. Buttrick, A.I.C.; Mr. A. S. Houghton, M.Sc.; Mr. J. W. Sawtell; Mr. John Pelkman; Dr. Drake-Law and Messrs. Bush & Co., Ltd. In addition, thanks are due to Messrs. Hedley Co., Ltd., and Messrs. Hobart Manufacturing Co., Ltd.; Pelkman Bros., Ltd.; Messrs. Bellamy & Co., Ltd.; General Electric Co.,

Ltd., for illustrations for this


APRIL 1943



.- 0

E. B. B.

J. S.

This edition has been produced for the benefit of the Services and is substantially a reprint of the second edition. There is, however, one important addition, viz.: a section on the use of the new Sugar Dried Egg which has been produced as a result of collaborative research between the Low Temperature Research Station, Cambridge, with whom the authors have worked in close contact on the practical usage of the product and the Ministry of Food. Those in the Industry who have had an opportunity of using the product have classed it as one of the outstanding advances in food processing for the Bakery Industry of the war. This is the most up-ta-date information available on eggs far use in the bakery and should prove of interest and value to all readers.






Preface to the Third Edition


IN this edition not only has most of the text been completely rewritten but several new chapters have been added. Gums, which now play an important part in so many raw materials, pastes of various types, refrigeration in flour confectionery work, and the nutritional value of flour have all been in- cluded. The author's thanks are due to the following, who have been so helpful by allowing them to use certain material published by them in technical journals and papers, as well as to the many firms who have supplied illustrations, par- ticularly Mr. P. MacNab, editor of Baker; Messrs. Oddy, Ltd.; Baker Perkins, Ltd. i Peerless Ericson, Ltd.; Collins and Co.; Morton Machine Co., Ltd.; Henry Simons, Ltd.; Mr. R. Rock; Messrs. P. Kurt; Southall Smith and Co.; Buckwell Munroe & Rogers, Ltd.; Domex Engineering Co.; Messrs. J. Crollie, Ltd.; and Phillips Electrical Co. All these contributions have helped to increase the compre- hensiveness of the work. Finally, the author's thanks are due to Mr. S. W. Butterworth, B.Sc., F.R.I.C., Mr. C. H. F. Fuller, B.Sc., F.R.I.C., for their help on the classification and nutritional value of flour confectionery; Mr. H. P. Buttrick, A.R.I.C., for his continued assistance in keeping the information on chemical aeration up to date; to Mr. Mason, M.Sc., F.R.I.C., for the information on gums; to Mr. G. R. Short for his advice and assistance on essences and colours. Finally, thanks are due to Mr. L. J. Morse and Mr. D.James for their assistance in proofreading and to his wife and daughter Joan for their assistance in indexing, and to all members of the publishing staff for their care and patience in the production of this volume.





Preface to the Fourth Edition

IN preparing this edition a new partnership has been entered into. Much new material has been included and the whole of the book recast so that the latest aspects of modern cake production are fully considered. The material in the text covers the syllabus for the National Diploma in Baking Examinations as well as the Advanced Craft Certificate Theory and the Technician's Certificate of the City and Guilds of London Institute in Flour Confectionery. It further provides a reference work for those already established in the industry. The Authors are indebted to many people and offer their thanks to the following for their help and advice in the production of this new edition: Mr.J. Robb and Dr. Park- inson of the British Baking Industries Research Association on Eggs; Messrs. R. G. Sanderson and G. R. Short of W. J. Bush Ltd. for the chapters on Spices and Essences; Mr. R. P. Winston for redrafting the chapter on Food Colours; Messrs. Renshaws Ltd., Mitcham, for the chapter on Almonds; Mr. H. Sweeney of Peerless Refining Co. for the one on Fats; Messrs. Tate and Lyle on Sugars; Mr. A. T. Whybrow of British Bakeries Ltd.; Messrs. A. S. West and K. R. Christopher of the Borough Polytechnic for the chapter on Gateaux and Fancies and other members of the staff of the Borough Polytechnic for their helpful comments and advice. Finally, to Mr. J. Price of Craig- miller for permission to use their standard test procedure used for fats in the chapter on Testing of Raw Materials. The authors' thanks are also due to the following firms .~ who have submitted information about their plant and supplied photographs for reproduction: Messrs. Oakes Ltd., Macclesfield; Baker Perkins Ltd., Peterborough; Tweedy Ltd., Burnley, Lanes.; Atlas Equipment Ltd., London; Hoadley and Sons, Birmingham; and to their wives for their assistance in proof reading and indexing.






List of Illustrations

Figures I Sugar refining


Calorific values


Fat-protein-carbohydrate-water content


Calcium-phosphorus content


Iron content


Thiamine-riboflavin-nicotinic acid content


Frame for measuring puff pastry

Plates A new style wedding cake

Ia The effect of varying amounts ofsugar




3 1 7

3 IB

3 IB

3 I 9

33 0


Between pages I2B-g

b The effect of varying amounts of baking powder

c The effect of varying amounts of milk

2a Varying the liquor/sugar ratio using normal fats and patent flour

b The same liquor/sugar ratios using high emulsifying fat and special cake flour


Two examples of flat type cakes using soft icing



Four examples of simple designs suitable for fondant gateaux


Three examples of simple designs gateaux




6 Three typical finishes for Torten 7a Babas au rhum

b A range of othellos

Ba Frangipane fancies

b Fondant dipped fancies-hot fondant method ga Frangipane and Jap slices

b Orange slices


loa Rear stator Oakes mixer b'The Oakes continuous mixer head I Ia Morton Gridlap mixer

b Control panel for metering flour

c Baker cake machine 12a A.M.F. continuous cake mixer




Gas-fired Band oven



Electro-Dahlen infra-red shelf ovens


Reel oven


Baker' Perkins Swiss roll plant


The Oakes continuous mixer

Isa Oakes depositor

b Baker Copeland depositor

16a Atlas tart and pie plant

b Controlled cake oven

17a Florida puff paste plant

b Baked roll coming from oven

c Forgrove 84H cake wrapping machine


List of Tables



I United Kingdom permitted food colours



Other colours


Composition and food value of various nuts

12 3


Minimum fruit content


V Recipes for bun goods



Basic formulae for short pastes


VII Common faults and causes in cakes


VIII Baking times and temperatures



Analysis of nutritional value of confectionery products 321


Specific volume chart






/THE mass production of flour confectionery has developed with such rapidity that it has become increasingly necessary for all those engaged in the industry, in whatever branch, to have a good working knowledge not only of the materials they are using and of all the processes they are employing but of all those details so necessary for the production of a regular article of the highest quality.

~ Science has been a most important factor in bringing about this change, making it possible for large-scale pro- duction of most of the ordinary types of confectionery to be carried out by mechanical means. Further, with the great progress which has been made in the preparation of the raw materials, and especially of the wide range of products which in many cases have replaced the older staple pro- ducts, it is very necessary that those who are called upon to use them should know exactly what they are using, how these products function when used in different ways, and the results which can be obtained. -./ Alongside this development, the craftsman confectioner finds an increasing demand for his hand-made product, but here also a sound knowledge of the raw materials is essential. i For those who are purchasing the raw materials, it is important that they should know first of all of what the real product consists, in order that the value of a substance as a substitute can be truly assessed. / )I There are many substances sold as 'substitutes' which cannot really be given such a name; they are to be con- sidered rather as products of an alternative nature, and by their use more regular effects can be obtained. There are others, the number of which tends to increase, which are really substitutes: some of these are very poor ones indeed. I' When raw materials have to be purchased it is found that there are so many brands of the same type of product and so many varieties with a wide range of prices that too much



knowledge cannot be gained by those who are going to use them to advantage in their manufacture. '1/ .->" To all those who are entering the mass-production con- fectionery industry the best advice that can be given is to gain a knowledge of chemistry and physics, for the funda- mental princip~es _of both have a very wide application to all matters connected with production, since the use of machinery controls the whole working of a bakery. The training of a first-class craftsman confectioner, however, in addition depends on gaining this general knowledge and a sound knowledge of design and modelling, for however gifted a man may be in craftsmanship, that gift will be developed and amplified by proper guidance and study such as a course in these ancillary subjects will provide. /' The generic term 'flour confectionery' is used to include

biscuits, cakes, and pastries


all kinds, as well.as several

baked proaucts, -difficult" to classify precisely, which hover doubtfully in the ill-defined region between 'bread' and 'cake'.

I ~~onfectionery' is a word now usually employed as a col- lective term for sweetmeats of various kinds. These are usually divided, for ease of reference, into two main groups:

'sugar confections', such as sweets, candies, and chocolates; and 'flour confections'. Modern usage has confined the term 'flour confectionery' almost entirely to baked products (a few of which, like meringues, contain no flour), but it is convenient to observe that many types of cakes and boiled or steamed puddings contain similar ingredients in almost identical proportions. >l During the years of Government control in the baking industry the definition of such terms as 'bread', 'cakes', 'pastries', and 'biscuits' assumed a new importance because it was difficult to regulate the- production and/or sale of a product without first more or less clearly defining it. Thus in the Flour Confectionery (Control and Maximum Prices) Order, 1944, 'flour confectionery' was defined as 'cake, ready-made puddings, trifles, pastry (whether cooked or uncooked), fruit loaves, bun loaves, and any other descrip- tion of flour confectionery other than (a) bread, (b) biscuits, (c) any product containing a filling which had as an in- gredient meat or fish of any description, (d) Christmas puddings or uncooked pudding mixtures'. Biscuits were specifically excluded by the Ministry of Food Regulation, and puddings were included. ,J The same order related prices to the chemical composition of the baked products concerned and also made it an offence


to make additions to flour confectionery after baking. Confectionery containing less than 14 per cent of fat and sugar together was placed in a different price category from richer kinds of cakes and pastries. Maximum permitted fat and sugar levels were also fixed at 20 per cent and go per cent respectively (or combined total of 45 per cent fat and

sugar if either figure

., These regulations took into account the fat and sugar contents of all the ingredients used in the manufacture of flour confectionery, and aroused new interest on the part of confectioners in the chemical composition of their raw materials and their products. (The arithmetic involved was not made simpler by the fact that the evaporation losses during baking and cooling (affecting the composition of the baked product) vary from a1;lout 10 to 20 per cent or more with different kinds of good~v In S.R.O. No. 2422, 1947, the Ministry of Food, in regulating the sale of Christmas cakes, required that the combined fat, sugar, and dry-egg solids in such cakes should be not less than 40 per cent; that the cakes should be wholly or partly covered with sugar icing, almond marzipan, or chocolate; and that they should be 'substantially decorated'. It is perhaps fortunate, in more ways than one, that Ministerial definitions of the kind previously referred to were not often the basis of legal proceedings, because they leave many difficulties of interpretation. In order to appreciate more readily the nutritional significance of flour confectionery, an understanding of the wide variations in the composition of the many different varieties is desirable. The following classification was worked out by S. W. Butterworth in collaboration with the late J. J. Devlin. Nearly all flour confections may be conveniently regarded as being derived from one or another of three basic flour and water mixtures;

was exceeded) .

(I) the fluid batters that result from mixing flour and

water in about equal weights;

(2) the plastic-elastic doughs that result from kneading

flour with half its own weight of water; (g) the stiff plastic pastes formed when flour particles are held together with a minimum of water (in most of the items in this group a considerable proportion of fat is usually incorporated).

From these three basic intermediates (which may con- veniently be referred to as 'batters', 'doughs', and 'pastes' respectively) it is possible to develop in a logical sequence













nearly all the main varieties of products created by the art and craft of the flour confectioner. The table on page 4 shows in a simplified form the rela- tionships of the three main streams of products. It also indicates the main ingredient variations which bring about the changing character of the confection concerned. The

table does not show how processing alterations can give rise to new varieties, nor does it illustrate adequately the very important effects capable of being produced by apparently minor changes of highly active ingredients, such as chemical aerating agents.

A table of this kind can be elaborated very considerably

to show minor ingredient and processing changes. It can also be enlarged to show the importance of composite con- fections in which several basic intermediates are used: cakes with a pastry base and a batter filling, for example. Some confections can be fitted into thJ scheme linking the main streams. Danish pastry made from a fermented dough

(stream 2), and yet resembling puff and three-quarter pastry (stream 3) in fat content and processing, is an example of this kind. Many confections are 'decorated'

after baking with such materials as cream, chocolate, fondant, fruit or nuts, and the like; and these additions substantially affect the composition of the finished cakes.

In this instance the object of the table is not to display fine

technical differences (however fascinating these may be to the

confectioner), but to reveal a pattern in flour confectionery that may help in the subsequent discussion of its food value.




































































- 15·5









- 7·5






- -










- -

- 1·8







- -

- -












The above table shows the raw-materials composition of the main confectionery varieties.





Much flour confectionery was made without egg because

(I) The baking and cooling processes 'concentrate' the


supplies were so limited. Also, some confecti~~s of the best

quality do not require egg, e.g., short pastry. In the leaner varieties of goods less than 9 per cent of fat and 9 per cent of sugar are often used. During the 1939-45 War the con- fectioner was faced_ with a greatly increased demand for his products, and his major raw-material allocations were 50 per cent or less of his 1939 supply. This meant an in- evitable trend towards the fIour-and-water end of the scale in many of his products," which, of course, affected nutritive value. It should be remembered, however, that many of the leaner kinds of confections, such as scones and fermented small goods, are not 'rich' in eggs, sugar, and fat, and are none the less very pleasant to eat when properly made and baked. Indeed, simple varieties are often more attractive than rich, highly decorated types of cakes. In considering the limits indicated above, three main factors affecting them should be borne in mind:

baked products because there is an evaporation loss of 10-20 per cent of the batter, dough, or paste weight, according to the type of confection baked. (2) The addition of dried fruits to any of the simplified recipes concerned substantially alters their percentage ingredient composition. For example, a lightly fruited cake has a dried-fruit proportion of about one-third of its batter weight. (3) As previously mentioned, decoration after baking substantially affects composition and nutritive value.

Hygiene in

Under the Food Hygiene (General) Regulations 1960, the

the Bakery

necessary provisions that must be made in all places handling food are specified. Not only do these provisions apply to equipment and premises but also to those engaged in the handling of food. Every person handling food must:

Personal Hygiene

(a) keep as clean as reasonably practicable all parts of his person liable to come into contact with food; (b) keep as clean as possible all parts of his clothing, overclothing, or overalls likely to come into contact with the food; (c) keep any open cut or abrasion on any exposed part of his person covered with a suitable waterproof dressing; (d) refrain from spitting; (e) refrain from smoking or using snuff. It is important that all persons, before starting work in a bakery, should change into suitable overalls or protective clothing with appropriate cover for the head, and wash



their hands. Ideally, hot and cold showers and towels should be available so that all production staff can take a shower before changing into their working clothing. Pro- vision should also be made for a drying-room in which out- door clothes can be placed during working hours and

~ working garments can be left after work. In the bakeries themselves hand driers or towels must be provided by each sink at which workers are likely to wash their hands. Foot baths should also be provided, and the care of the feet stressed as being a matter of primary importance. Many firms today have either full-time or visiting chiropodists to deal with this side of welfare work. All wall surfaces should be as simple as possible, free Bakery Hygiene from unnecessary projections, and finished with non- absorbent materials such as tiles or hard-gloss paint. They should preferably be light in colour to give the maximum light reflection. Plant and equipment with which the food is likely to come into contact should be constructed of such materials and designed in such a way that they can be easily cleaned. Further, they should be constructed whenever practicable of material of a non-absorbent nature. This particularly applies to tables, containers, and trays. Stainless steel, aluminium alloys, or plastics are now widely used for these. If wooden tables are used, then a hard wood such as beech is best, but such tables must be kept in a sound state of repair to prevent any risk of contamination of the food while being processed. Before work is commenced, tables and machines should be brushed or wiped down, since dust will always settle on them in between working periods. Further, on occasion, scraps of dough are sometimes left by a previous shift, and these will cause trouble if worked into newly made dough. Each person should be responsible for seeing that the table on which he is working and the utensils he is using are kept in a clean and tidy condition as soon as each job is completed. Clean working not only makes for better production but eliminates waste, which means financial loss. Working tables should be kept cleaned down between the production of various items. All waste collected should be removed from the food room and not allowed to accumulate. Floors should also be kept swept during working hours, and in larger bakeries a special staff should be employed for this purpose. Attention to this is essential if clean working conditions are to be maintained. Vacuum installations are necessary to remove dust from less-accessible places. Unless




Storage of Food

these precautions are taken, spoilage of food, trouble with flies and wasps, and outbreaks offood pois66ing can occur. The food hygiene regulations dealing with the storage of food apply to those foods consisting of meat, fish, gravy, or imitation cream or products prepared from or containing any of those substances or any egg or milk. They do not apply to bread: bIscuits, or pastry by reason of the use of egg or milk as an ingredient thereof introduced prior to baking or to butter, margarine, shortening cooking fats, or beef suet. Food coming under the above category must be kept either at a temperature of 145 0 F. or above or below

500 F.

Common Causes of Food Poisoning

Ingredients should not be stored in the bakery, but should be drawn from stores as required, and should be placed, weighed down for each mixing, in suitable clean containers. Perishable ingredients, such as yeast, cream, eggs, and milk, should not be left unduly long in the bakery, yeast should be drawn from the store as required and any surplus re- turned before it has had a chance to dry out. An organized rotation of stocks is essential; routine checks should be made at least weekly. The commonest cause of food poisoning is by bacteria of the Salmonella group. These may be transmitted from the droppings of domestic animals, mice, hens, and ducks and through flies which have been in contact with such excreta; also by the human hands if unwashed after using the toilet, or through the use of certain raw materials, such as un- pasteurized egg products and coconut. The other cause is by Staphylococci, which are carried in the nose and throat, infected cuts or scratches, pimples, or boils. They can be transferred to food by coughing and sneezing or from unprotected wounds. Both of these groups of bacteria are destroyed by heating, so that baked goods are normally rendered safe from such infection, but unbaked products and additions after baking, such as filling creams, are liable to contamination, and can become a means of infection of finished products. Keeping cooked products warm in hot chambers can cause the rapid multiplication of these organisms, which can so easily gain access to prepared foods. It is for this reason that all meat products must be stored at temperatures above 145 0 F. or below 500 F. Occasional outbreaks of paratyphoid have been traced to workers who are typhoid carriers being employed in food- producing establishments, particularly in the handling of goods containing imitation cream or cream fillings.




No person should be allowed to operate any machine until he understands the working of it and is declared to be proficient in handling it by some responsible authority. Where maintenance staff is employed, greasing and care of the plant will be carried out by them. In many bakeries, however, these jobs are done either by the bakery staff or on contract and so may frequently be overlooked. If this occurs depreciation of the machine will take place pre- maturely. Operators should be trained to know the 'sound' of the machine when it is working correctly, so that should any fault develop they can report it at once before any major trouble occurs. A routine cleaning and maintenance chart for the whole bakery, machinery, utensils, and equipment should be worked out and regular inspection carried out to see that it is being adhered to. With the stringent regulations today concerning the purity of food products, every effort has to be made to see that no contamination occurs during manufacture or after baking to the point of sale; further, it is essential to see that all products have a reasonable shelf life. To ensure these conditions, constant supervision of ingredients and working conditions is essential. Contamination may take the form of foreign matter, such as fragments of wood, hairs and fibres, particles of glass, stones, pieces of metallic substances, nails, screws, nuts and bolts, grease pellets, rodent pellets, cigarette ends and ash, fragments of nail varnish, medical dressings, pencils, and foreign taints such as creosote, paint, linseed, mustiness. Wood fragments may come from boxes in which raw materials have been packed. Because of this source of trouble, wooden boxes are not now being used today to any extent; some firms will not accept any wooden containers on their premises. Wooden trays which begin to wear and which soften after washing can also be a source of trouble- hence the use of metal trays for safety. Likewise, wooden tables and equipment can be a source of trouble unless kept in a state of good repair. Hairs and fibres gain access from jute sacks, and so these are being replaced by paper sacks for flour and sugar and polythene liners for many materials. Human hairs still present a problem, but the use of suitable headgear should reduce this to a minimum. Stones in dried fruit always present a problem despite the most efficient system of cleaning and preparation. Rigid standards are now prescribed in some exporting countries

the most efficient system of cleaning and preparation. Rigid standards are now prescribed in some exporting
the most efficient system of cleaning and preparation. Rigid standards are now prescribed in some exporting
the most efficient system of cleaning and preparation. Rigid standards are now prescribed in some exporting

Care if Machines

Avoidance of

Contamination of

Bakery Products




to reduce the risk from this source. The use of electro- magnetic tables reduces the incidence ctf trouble from metallic particles, particularly if this is followed by a 'Cintel' detector unit. In the past nails frequently gained access from boxes used for fats and dried fruits, but with the introduction of hardboard seale'd with adhesives this source of trouble has been largely eliminated. Metallic stapling is not allowed by many firms to be used with packages, since these fine wires can easily get into the finished product and are not easily detected until the food enters the mouth.

Particles of glass

are always a source of trouble, and it is

always difficult to ascertain how they gain access. Today in many bakeries the use of glass utensils is forbidden, all colours and essences being packed in plastic bottles, and plastic vessels being used for measures. Cracked windows should always be replaced before any pieces of glass can fall out, and no drinking glasses should be carried into the bakery. Nuts and bolts are sometimes found in goods after the engineers have been carrying out repairs on plant, so one should always check up after any alterations or adjustments have been carried out. Grease pellets from chains in provers or conveyors some- times gain access to goods and may be mistaken for rodent droppings. Ultra-violet light will always show whether these contain mineral oil, for a fluorescent effect will be obtained. Microscopic examination will show the presence of hairs if rodent pellets are suspected. Under the hygiene regulations the use of water-proof adhesive dressings is required to eliminate the risk of medical dressings dropping into batters or mixings. Despite all normal precautions, accidents do occur, and workers should be instructed to inform the foreman should any dressing get lost during working time so that a complete check can be carried out before the goods leave the bakery. The use of nail varnish by female workers should be for- bidden, since under normal working conditions it can flake off, and particles can gain access to batters. Smoking is for- bidden by law, but despite this, cigarette ends are found in baked products from time to time, and often have dropped from a jacket pocket where they have been placed after a 'break' period. To overcome this possibility, no outside pockets should be allowed in jackets or overalls worn by workers in the production section of the bakery. Buttons from overalls are sometimes found in baked pro-



ducts, and some firms do not allow the use of buttons, but instead have tapes fitted which must be tied to effect a fastening. Pencils, small weights, and scrapers all get lost in a bakery, and care should be taken to see that these are not placed where they are likely to get into mixings. If a st:raper gets misplaced every effort must be made to find it before production proceeds. Foreign taints which have been picked up during transit are sometimes found in raw materials. The storekeeper should be trained to examine all goods for stains and foreign odours before issuing them from stock, since this may eliminate much trouble later. Flour may be musty, and this may not show up until it is sieved for use or even u~il the goods are baked; fats and ingredients containing a con- siderable quantity of natural oils may become rancid; eggs may be musty, and this may not show up until they are whisked, when only an odd egg in a large mixing is re- sponsible for the taint. Moths and maggots are alw!'lYs a potential source of trouble with nuts and dried fruits, and the only way to deal with this is really at the source, by insisting on hygienic methods of preparation and gas treat- ment with methyl bromide, followed by packing in suitable containers and storing under controlled temperature conditions. In the case of walnuts and other nuts, pieces of broken shell can cause trouble, and so a proper inspection of the nuts before use is essential. All staff should be trained to use and develop their sense of smell and powers of observation, so that unconsciously they are carrying out a critical examination of their raw materials, mixings in the course of preparation, and finished products as they come from the oven and finishing room.


Flour Used in Confectionery



do not always give sufficient attention to

the question of choosing the types .of flour best adapted to the various goods to be made; consequently, poor results are frequently obtained by using the wrong type of flour. Flour is the final product of milling a mixture of wheats, or sii\gle wheats, cleaned, conditioned, and mixed to form a grist which will yield flours suitable for the various require- ments of the confectioner. The quality of the flour depends on the quality of the wheat used in the grist, and also on the methods of milling and the length of extraction. There hre usually two grades of flour from each grist, known as patents and bakers' flour. For confectionery purposes four distinct types of flour should be available: first, a strong flour milled from a mixture of wheats in which spring wheats predom~nate, such as is employed for the making of bread; second, a medium flour milled from a mixture of winter wheats, such as American winters and Argentine wheats; third, a soft flour milled from English, French or German, and weak

Australian wheats; fourth, a chlorinated type of flour suitable for high-ratio types of cakes. In addition, there are high-protein flours specially preparfd for making fruit cakes. Flour is a mixture of protein, starch, sugar, fat, and mineral salts, but it is the protein which is significant for its use in confectionery work. It is the quality and quantity of gluten-forming protein which will determine the suit- ability of any flour fOI; any particular process. The protein content may range from 8·0 to I3·0 per cent and the quality from strong to soft.

Properties of


The various properties of flour of importance to the con- fectioner are as follows: I It should possess a good creamy colour, and not a grey shade. The best grades of flour have




the best colours, and the poorer grades the inferior colours.

A flour of good colour is essential for confectionery work.

The ~_PJl_orbing_I1Qwer of the fl?~r d!:pends-,. in J:>~r:.t,

on the q!!ality oft~ glutenjn the flour, and the amount of moisture already present in the flour., but.!!.lso on the -fine:

ness ot milling and degree Qf _c;heinlc~l treatm-ent

carried out '~nmals,ing. the modern

of flour Is dependent on the quality and quantity of the

gluten-forming protein present in it. This, to a great extent,

is a measure of its ability to produce volume in goods.l The

which "is


flo~. Thestr~.!!g!:h

~pucity of flour is its freedom from foreign starches and any

other substance which is not a natural constituent of the wheat from which it is milled.

In the making of(ermglteg 1;>u.ns a stroIl:g fl<;>!!!' will produce the bulkiest buns. Texture and flaYQur should be the first consideration in making· ferme~ted goods; therefore, a flour that is suitable for making good bread is generally suitable for buns. With brioche, however, and other l rich fermented articles, owing to their richness, bulk is not the first consideration, and since they are not fermented to so great an extent, they would be tough if made with a very strong flour. The medium grade would be better for them. In making puff pastry, the character of the flour is of great importance. A top-grade American flour would be of no use for this purpose by itself, nor would a soft English wheat flour for normal working. With the 'Florida' puff pastry machine, softer flours can be used with very good results.- Unless the gluten of the flour is of a suitable extensibility, it will break when the paste is given its various turns. On the other hand, if the gluten is too strong the paste will be tough to handle and the pastries made will have a drawn and contracted appearance when baked. A flour which produces an extensible gluten will give the best results.

A medium

type ofBour is ·best for all ·kinds of scones and

Flour to Use

for Various


aerated buns, since the resulting appearance and texture of the finished products are better than would be obtained by using a strong flour.

Small chemically aerated cakes, such as lunch, madeira, and queen cakes·, also ~reqtiire the uSe:'of a/medium. type of flour in order to obtain satisfactory texture and appearance.

A stronger flour would yield products of a tough and drawn

nature~ In making slab cakes and pound cakes of the best quality, soft flours should be used in order to get the best texture and flavour.)fthe flour is too strong the appearance

is spoiled by toughening and the texture is irregular; the





cakes eat dry and harsh and more eggs•.are required to moisten the batter, thus resulting in a mot~ expensive cake of poorer eating quality. In making cherry and heavy fruit

slab a

m cherries in position and prevent crumbliness in the cake. The cherries will sink to the bottom if the flour is too soft or the mixture too light. \

can be used in order to hold the



In the cheaper class of slab cakes a medium strong flour is used, to counterbalance weakness due to the low egg content.

as wedding, Christmas, birthday,

For all rich cakes,


Simnel, or tennis

should always be used to get the best results. "WIth stronger types of flour the cakes are toughened and come out with a rounded top instead ofa flat top. If the flour is too soft there is a tendency to crumbliness. When making s49rt-paste goo~_sQft flouLshould be employed, because a~eadily toughens when it is handled. It must be remembered that a short paste is to be made, not a tpugh paste. In some recipes a proportion of cornflour is added in order that the paste may eat shorter by decreasing the proportion of gluten in the flour. This is unnecessary if the correct flour is chosen. For sponge goods a soft flour should be used, and here again, in some types of goods a proportion of cornflour is sometimes added to make the flour softer and produce articles of a better texture. This is unnecessary if the correct

type of flour is selected.

special-purpose and

high-ratio cake flours are generally used.

indicate the necessity for

selecting the correct type 'of flour. It should always be remembered that texture and_flavour are mor~ _desirable

than bulk_in~confectionery_:er_qd}1.cts. The various types of

flour available should be carefully studied, and then the particular one chosen should be use_d to the best advantage. It should be ·remembered on all occasions that flour should be sifted before adding to the batch, whether there are any chemicals in it or not, because it is easier to mix the flour with the other ingn!aients when it has been sifted, thus eliminating the danger of spoiling the batters. Sifting also aerates the flour.

cakes, a mixtu.r.e. ofsoft ,!~d medium flour

Where 'all-in'

Sufficient has

methods are used,

been said to


(I) Strong Flours-patents, bakers' grades from wheats

with strong gluten-forming proteins, high-protein flours.





weaker flours, \ English, Australian, American and Canadian winter wheat flours. (3) Soft Flours-English wheat flours, weak Australian and certain winter wheat flours, French and German

flours, special cake flours.

(2) Medium


of strong


Attention to the production o£ special cake flours was first directed in America when the milling industry investigated the various factors in flour quality which contributed to the special qualities required and obtained in flours used for producing the general types of American cakes, notably angel cakes.

low gluten

Winter wheats






content of good quality, since good gas retention is most important if good volume is to be obtained. The quantity of protein should be about 8·2 per cent. The acidity of the flour must be raised to a pH 5"2, and this is accomplished by the use of bleaching beyond that normally carried out with bread-making flours. Further, the ash content should be low, since this indicates a short extraction flour which is of vital importance. This should be 0·3 per cent or even less. The granularity of the flour is also of importance, since ·,t has been found for cake work that a flour with all its granules of the same size will make far better cakes than one with granules of different sizes.1 Another factor which is considered to play an important part in determining the baking quality of a cake flour is the nature of the soil in which the wheat is grown. This has been shown to be the case in America. The viscosity figure obtained with a flour suspension is also used as a factor in determining the standard of cake flour. Such flours are most essential in high-ratio cakes, since they alone can carry the high sugar and moisture content used in such formulae. In this country many millers are producing flours for cake-making, using chlorination as the method of treat- ment for a general-purpose and a high-ratio flour.

More recently a new milling technique has been evolved, by means of which the protein content of a flour can be raised or lowered using a standard grist. During the normal milling process the endosperm of the wheat grain breaks up into a number of fractions or particles. These may be classified as follows: (I) Large particles (above 40 microns in diameter) which consist of 'chunks' of original endosperm

Special Cake






contammg starch granules embedded in protein and of roughly the same composition as the o"figinal endosperm; (2) Medium sized particles (15-40 microns in diameter) which, being about the same size as the starch granules will consist largely of those granules with some adhering protein; am! (3) Small particles (below 15 microns in dia- meter) which are made up of broken starch granules and protein matrix. It can be seen that if these fractions can be separated, then flours can be produced of varying com- position, both low and high protein, from the same grist. Briefly, the system used is to break up the large endo- sperm particles and prevent the small particles from adher- ing to them by passing the flour (or semolina) through arr impact mill. This breaks up and separates the particles by subjecting them to an intense centrifugal force. In this

manner the starch granules are broken out of the protein matrix without being shattered. The result is that the smaller particles contain less broken starch and more pro- tein. It is not possible to separate particles of these sizes by normal sieving procedures. Separation is achieved by Air Classification. The stock from the impact mill is carried in a fast moving air stream into a moving wall Volute Chamber, so that the large particles are subjected to a centrifugal force which pulls them out of the air stream, the smaller, lighter,

high protein fraction being carried op

separation (cuts) takes place is governed by the air velocity,

speed and constriction of the classifier. If cuts are made at

15P. and 40p. on a flour from a grist giving normally 10 per cent protein, the smaller particles may contain 20 per cent protein, the medium size particles only 5 per cent protein. Since the particle size of this high protein flour is very small, it is not entirely satisfactory for bread-making. Nevertheless, it is most suitable for the production of 'high ratio' type fruit and cherry cakes as the binding effect of the protein supports the fruit during the critical stages of baking before the batter sets. Cornflour Cornflour and maize starch are prepared from the cereal Zea Mais, maize or Indian corn. The field maize and the sweet or sugar corn are the two chief species of this plant that are cultivated. There are many varieties of these species grown, but the two chief varieties are known re- spectively as Flint Maize and Dent Maize.

The size at which

When the corn is ripe the colour of


grain "is


reddish-yellow. Cornflour is virtually 100 per cent starch. The corn-'lssubJecteo to a wet milling: process

wllicll first separates the endosperm from the bran and




germ. The starch is then extracted by washing, and dried. Confectioners are familiar with the use of cornflour in

the cornfumrTs mixed with

making custard fillings


water or milk and heated to over 1670 F. it swells and be- comes gelatinized, and if sufficient .comflour has been used it will set as a thick gelatinous mass. If boiled with water a

fairly clearjelly results, which canbe coloured and flavoured to imitate the natural jellies. Cornflour is also used to mix

with-wheaLflour in the maki~f_gooaswlii~lU:_~q~a

v'ery soft flour and fine texturJ! --- Rice -flour, ~ rice, and rice starch are prepared from the cereal Oryza sativa, or ordinary cultivated rice plant, which grows in tropical regions. When the rice grains or berries are ripe they are harvested and allowed to mature. They are washed, dressed, and ground in the same way as maize. Rice floUl:_i~useful to the confectioner for dusting pur-

poses because of its gran?~r_n~t~~L a_n.d ~eca:!:!_s~_C?Cits sp~~i~l}faVour: it is emplgye_d. in, making, c.er:_tain kinds. of confectionery, such as rice cakes and b1!_n~ The rice flour gelatinizes at 1766 F. 'It is also used for macaroon goods, as it helps to produce the requisite open texture. Oat flour has been produced for use in flour confectionery, Oat Flour but it is not extensively employed. It was used mainly during the 1939-45 War, as a means of conserving wheaten flour and using home-grown oats when there was no selection of flours for confectionery purposes.

Rice Flour

There are numerous varieties of potato flour, from the

Potato Flour

high-grade varieties which will reconstitute to give a satis- factory mashed potato, to the cheaper varieties, which are suitable only for use as admixtures in food products. Potato flour can be used to advantage in short pastry goods and sponge goods, where it helps to improve the short- ness of the products and to maintain moistness in the sponges. In the manufacture of slab cakes and sponge goods on ., mass production lines it is very necessary to have a blend of flours, so that a uniform strength can be maintained from month to month. Similarly, in biscuit factories flour blend- ing plays an important part, and it is quite common to find six different varieties of flour being used. In order to bring about a thorough blending, suitable plant is required. These machines can easily be kept clean and are efficient in their working. Similar plants are also invaluable in the preparation of self-raising flour, but in these, modifications must be introduced.

Flour Blending



Scone Flour or Patent Flour

Self-Raising Flour

Other Flours



In some bakeries it is the practice to make up bulk quantities of flour with the added cR~micals correctly blended in them at the rate of! oz. of powder to each lb. of flour. This procedure not only saves much time when weighing down ,each mixing for scones or powder goods, but it also mcaI!s that there is a flour available containing the 'mixed powder in the correct proportions, which can be used in mixings when only fractional amounts of powder. are required. Thus in a mixing where only i oz. of baking powder are required it will be easier and much more accurate to weigh t lb. of scone flour and use it in the mixing than try to weigh that amount of powder accurately with the bakery scales, and make up the remainder of the flour with ordinary cake flour. This is the product which is sold to the housewife and possesses approximately half the raising power of scone flour. In the Food Standards (Self-Raising Flour) Order S.R. & O. 1946, No. 44, are prescribed the standards to which self-raising flour must conform in so far as its raising power is concerned, i.e., the amount of CO 2 it will produce during baking. Bakers who purchase their self-raising flour, either in bulk or prepacked, should be covered by the terms of sale from the blender or supplier. It is only those bakers who are making their own blend of flour and chemicals who will need to adjust their formula to ensure that the quantities of acid and soda used satisfy the requirements of the Order. The main provisions in this order govern the amount of carbon dioxide gas which must be liberated during baking. The minimum amount of carbon dioxide which should be released during baking is 0.40 per cent. This minimum figure assures a standard of aeration in the finished product which under normal home baking conditions should be quite satisfactory. While 'white' flours of various types and grades are those most commonly used in the manufacture of flour con- fectionery products, it is possible to produce most goods using 'brown' flours in direct replacement, except for some adjustment in liquor-content. For the most part, these types of flour are used in rather specialized or proprietary pro- ducts, although some;as for example wheatmeal scones, are standard lines. These flours can be divided into three categories:


(I) Wheatmeals. These are 'built up' flours obtained from




various streams in the roller milling process. They are pro- duced by an admixture of wheat bran to lower-grade white flour in such proportions as to comply with the legal re- quirement of 0·6 per cent fibre based on the dry weight. For flour confectionery purposes the bran should be finely ground to produce a fine wheatmeal. Coarse wheatmeals, except for a few specialized products, are not suitable. (2) Wholemeal. As the name implies, these are flours obtained by grinding the whole of the wheat grain to a fine powder. This, in fact, is the statutory requirement. Much wholemeal flour is roller milled, but there is a specialized market for stoneground flour and cakes made with it. . Again, as is the case with wheatmeal, a finely ground flour is best for use in flour confectionery. (3) Germ Meals. Germ meals are 'built-up' flours contain- ing an admixture of wheat germ to 'white' flour such as to comply with the legal requirement in wheat germ bread of not less than 10 per cent added processed wheat germ (calculated by weight on the dry matter of the bread). These flours are sold under proprietary names, and a whole range of attractive flour confectionery products can be made using them.



Moistening Agents




Water WATER used for all confectionery purposes must be free from suspended matter, colourless, organically pure, and not too hard. Water is used in the manufacture of flour confectionery, for the making of pastes, such as short pastes, puff pastes, bun goods, and in the reconstitution of milk powder and dried-egg products. Water, a natural constituent of all foods used in manufacturing operations, acts simply as a moistening agent, and adds nothing to the food value of the goods.

Milk \ Milk is probably the most important moistening agent (em- ployed in every bakery, both in bread .and confectionery. A knowledge of its composition, food value, and standard of purity should be of value to those who handle this com- modity regularly in baking processes. It is an; emt!lillmj_ designed by nature for the complete sustenance of young animals during the first stages of life, when they are unable to obtain food for themselves. Therefore, milk must of necessity contain all the elements necessary for the nutrition of the body. It consists of fats, carbohydrates, nitrogenous matter of proteins, and mineral salts, all either in solution o~ emulsion with the water. When milk is used in the manufacture of bread or confectionery something is added which must influence the ultimate food value of the goods made with it. Fresh cows' milk, or the products thereof, is the milk used in the bakery. Composition There are considerable variations in the composition of milk fresh from the cow. These variations are due to several causes, such as the time the cow is milked, the food available (for this affects the fat and protein content especially), the breed of t.he cows, period of gestation, and the place where they are reared. All these affect the quality and quantity of milk from each cow. A quart of milk contains about If pints of water. The following analysis of a sample of milk



will give an idea of the amounts of the other constituents present:




Butter fat Proteins{caseinogen



Carbohydrates (milk sugar)


Solids (not fats)


Mineral salts (ash)



Food value in calories

400 per pint

If the solids (not fats) fall below 8'5 per cent and fats below 3 per cent it is considered that the milk has been adulterated or is sub-standard. Milk is also rich in all the known vitamins (particularly A and B), which are essentials in every food. The proteins of milk are casein and album~ Casein is in the milk as very minute partIcles in the form of a colloidal suspension. When treated with rennet, a ferment secreted by the lining membrane of the cow's stomach, it clots or turns into curds, and becomes more digestible. Milk fat, the most important constituent of butter, is present as minute globules emulsified with the other constituents. On standing,

some of the fat settles out, and, as cream, can be skimmed off.

has the same chemical composition

as ordinary cane sugar (C 12 H 22 0 n ), but is not nearly so sweet, nor is it fermentable by yeast; only yeasts conta_ining

the enzyme lactase or certain torula can ferment it to

lactic-acid. bageria.present

i'n milk feed on this sugar of the milk, converting the lactose

into lactic ac;id. When the concentration of the lactic acid reaches a certain point the casein is precipitated as a curd. Other bacteria are also present in the milk, which help to turn it sour, although their effect is very small as compared with lactic acid bacteria. As a result, when milk is soured, acetic, ~utyris_<tnE_2!:lc_cinic acids are also produced in sI!!~llquantities. These bacteria are not active at a low temperature. Below 500 F. they do not multiply rapidly. At ordinary temperatures they double themselves every twenty minutes. The mineral salts in milk are needed by the body for bone formation. They consist of phosphates of lime and potash. The human body requires nitrogenous matters (proteins), fats or oils, carbohydrates (sugars), mineral matters, water, and vitamins to carryon the functions oflife.

produce CO 2 and alcohol. The

Milk Stlgll,f,



when used in cak~s2:.n~ _~~!.<t.!t:d_[?o_ds, gives

excellent results-,- Thefut 91 millLc;Q_I1fers .ric1m~ss ?Il<l bl09.m. The sl,lgar LI1 milk is nQt nearly SQ sweet as cane sugar,., yet




it imparts a certain amount of_sweeJn~and .bloolI!_l~~­

lectlonerY. The protein has some effect 'l:{n keteping~bals~sl

goods IDmsf and meU()w~-l'Ee_mi~eral s~l~.gi'ye1_ldded food

value-an important asset. Milk is used_in many_batter mixi_i!-gsrll1hC1fut.ce_Qf_:eggs. In cheap slabs, when used in

nut oils and glycerine, it gives an even

and assists in keeping the slabs moist.I It is also

employed in egg and cornflour custards, and in the prepara- tion of man.yotlierToodstuffs:- . In the bakery separated or skimmed milk is used and gives satisfactory results, less the richness and bloom pro- duced by the butter fat. When the fat is separated from liquid milk the composition is affected as follows.


conjunction 'Jit!J.











solids not fats

Mineral salts


Food value in calories

200 per pint


Milk Powders

There' are two processes used for reducing milk to the dry

Separated, or

state, but the same principle is adopted in each-viz., the evaporation of the moisture at a temperature below the coagulating point of the protein. Spray-dried powders are always to be recommended, since they reconstitute per- fectly, whereas roller-dried powders do not always re- constitute perfectly, but give a residue. In spray driers the milk is sprayed under pressure into a drying plant, with a temperature of about 115°-120° F. For roller-dried powders hot rollers are used, when the water evaporates off, leaving milk in the form ofa film, which is later milled into powder. This is generally used in flour confectionery. In pro-

Skim, Milk

ducing this type of milk powder, the skim milk left after the


cream has been separated for butter manufacture, is used.

Full-Cream Milk

The separated milk powder so produced is reconstituted by mixing 1 lb. of powder with I gallon of warm water. A paste is made with some of the water, and then the remainder is added and whisked well to mix. It should always be available, since it will keep for quite a considerable period, and in practice gives excellent results. It should be re- constituted some hours before required for use, in order to obtain the best results. This, upon reconstitution with warm water in the pro-


portion of 1 lb. of powder to 8 lb. of water, should yield a fluid with nearly the same composition as fresh milk. It gives practically the same results in use. Full-cream milk powder should only be bought in small quantities and kept



in a cool store, since it has a tendency to go rancid because

of its high fat content. Full-cream and separated milk powders should have the

following approximate composition:


Full cream

I Separated















Mineral salts






Fresh buttermilk is still used in the manufacture of aerated Buttermilk goods in place of reconstituted milk. It is the by-product obtained in churning the butter from ripened cream. Cream

is ripened by means of special bacterial cultures, and when

a suitable acidity has been developed it is transferred to a

churn. The butter separates out, and what is left is known as buttermilk. It contains approximately go per cent water and 10 per cent milk solids-i.e. traces offat, proteins, milk sugar, mineral salts, and lactic acid. The longer it is kept, the more lactic acid it will contain, usually about 0,8-1 per

cent. Owing to the presence of the lactic acid in the milk, it is not necessary to use the same proportion ofcream of tartar in baking, powder as is the case when making aerated goods with fresh or reconstituted milk. The lactic <:Lcid of the bu~termilk has a neutralizing effect on bicarbonate of soda\ The usual proportions when using buttermilk are three parts of cream of tartar to two parts of bicarbonate of soda, instead of four parts of cream of tartar to two parts of bi- carbonate of soda, which are the quantities generally used with fresh or reconstituted milk. ~e lactic acid of the buttermilk_ also has an important physic'!l _Cl,C;tlQU _on the gluten of the flour, a!l-9 ~o ma_tur.es_ it.; The protein also plays an important part in the production of good voiume .and keeping qualities. Thus_ ~hen guttermilk is used, scones and 'aerated goods are obtained with a grc5,l,ter volume and

are softer and moister tb~n,_those ordinary milkl

With a sample of buttermilk possessing an acidity of 0·8- 1 per cent, sufficient aeration, in soda breads, can be obtained by using buttermilk and soda, the latter at the rate of 2t oz. per stone (14 lb.) of flour. Such soda bread will have excellent keeping qualities.




Dried powdered buttermilk is now being produced. The following analyses indicate the compositio\{ ofliquid butter- milk and of dried buttermilk powder.


Whey Powder



Dried (%)

Liquid (%)





















Whey can be dried to produce a powder which can be used in confectionery, and the product obtained from recon- stituting is a water-looking fluid. A modified milk powder derived from whey skim milk and vegetable fats is made today. It reconstitutes easily to produce a liquid resembling milk in appearance. It possesses the property of increasing the volume of goods in which it is used, and preventing rapid staling. In slab cakes it gives increased volume and good cutting qualities. It has no binding action when used either in fermented goods or cakes. It can also be used in bread and rolls, being particularly useful in sliced bread and toast bread.

Eggs and Egg Products


(_ EGGS are one of the ~ostimportant of the raw ingredients used in the manufacture of confectionery, because they are used in the majority of products; in fact, many of the goods could not be made without them. Eggs in themselves are an easily digested foodstuff. ) All varieties of birds' eggs can be used for cooking, as their chemical composition is nearly always alike, although

they differ in flavour, but the chief sources of our supplies are hens, ducks, geese, turkeys, and various water fowls. English new-laid hen eggs are most commonly used in confectionery work, but supplies of shell eggs are also imported from Ireland, Denmark, Poland, Canada, New Zealand, Australia, and South Africa. Frozen eggs are produced in Great Britain today, but some supplies are still obtained from Poland, Australia and the United States. Dried egg is produced in this country both by spray dry- ing and the newer A.F.D. process. (.Eggs when used in confectionery perform many im- portant functions. Firstly, because ofthe amount ofmoisture they contain, they act as'.!llOistening agents. Secondly, by reason of the property they possess of film formation, where- by they can take up large quantities of air when they are whisked, they act as aerating agents Thirdly, their chemical composition is such that they act as enriching agents in the goods made. Fourthly, they are valuable as emulsifying agglts and fifthly they are an important structuraLi.n- g!e_dient. Thus t~_!!ot only i!lcrease .the food value of

Sources oj Supply

Functions oj Eggs

I. fl.()u.rsonfectionery but they <!-.l§q .impart a



fljlvour,. colqUI:" and a eara:qce, a!.V~fl;Yhich qu~lities are of the greatesLimportance. Shell eggs vary in weight from Ii to 21 oz. each, but the average weight of a full-sized hen's egg is 2 oz., or 8 eggs weigh I lb. There are three different parts of the egg to consider: (I) the shell; (2) white or jelly-like albumen;











following proportion to each other:

Shell and membrane Albumen or whites Yolks




12 or in weight









(or 2 oz. approx.)

These are only approximate weights, and may differ slightly according to the size of the eggs. When the eggs are . smaller than this they are dearer to use, owing to the extra weight of the shell compared with the useable ingredients. It may be convenient here also to give the approximate measure of the various portions of the average-sized eggs:

12 eggs equal 1 pint eggs 20 egg whites equal 1 pint whites 32-36 egg yolks equal 1 pint yolks

Shell eggs are purchased by the weight ofa 'long hundred' which is 120 eggs, or by the case, which consists of three 'long hundreds'. The weights may be from 15 to 18 lb. according to size. Sometimes lower weights are marketed, but by these standards competitive buying can be carried out. The following is an average chemical composition of the edible portion of hens' eggs, which shows how the con- stituents are distributed:


Whole egg





minus shell

or whites

Yolks (%)
















Mineral salts




Organic (non-nitrogenous)







Food value in calories per lb.





The following points can be seen from this table:

I. The high moisture content of the whites and whole egg. 2. The relatively high fat content of the yolks. '

3. The high food value of the yolks compared with that

of the whites.



The egg shells consist largely of phosphate and calcium carbonate deposited upon a thin membrane which encloses the liquid portion. It is about II per cent of the whole

Egg Shells

egg. The egg white, or albumen, consists chiefly of a complex Whites rif Eggs mixture of proteins, such as albumen, globulins, etc., and about t per cent of mineral salts. This liquid portion is en- closed in firm fibrous material, which forms membranous cells throughout the mass. The membrane is insoluble in water and in dilute acid and alkali solutions. The albumen . is miscible in water. The firmer or more jelly-like the whites are, the better they are for confectioners' purposes. It is the presence in the whites of this membranous matter which makes them so useful to confectioners. When egg whites are I whisked they give rise to an assemblage of small air cells. . This is because the membranous matter provides a structure on which the protein solution can form thin cells in which air is entangled. Anything that tends to destroy this fibrous structure will render the pr?duction of a stiff foam im- possible. (Traces of egg yolk~, oily substances, or flour, or dilution of any kind break the filmy cells as fast as they are formed when whites are whisked. 'Whites which have been separated from yolks and kept for a few days in a cool place will whisk up more rapidly than whites which have been newly separated. The improvement in whipping power is probably due to a change in pH value, possibly brought about by enzyme action. Such whites may have ~~ of 6. Eresh ~white is alk~line (pH 8·6-g·0), but after standing for a day or two it will'Change in pH, according to tem- perature of storage. A little sugar added during whisking will aid foam formation. This may, in part, be due to the formation of syrup, but it may also more likely be due to the effect of the sugar granules assisting in the subdivision of the air cells before they are dissolved. The stability of sugar-egg-white foam is largely influenced by the pH of the whites. J:he lower the pH, the more stable the foam. Weak and watery whites are deficient in membranous matter, and are difficult to whisk up. They may be toughened slightly during whisking by the addition of a weak acid solution, but care must be taken not to add too much, since whites are coagulated by a slight excess of acid. Acids, such as acetic, lactic, and tartaric, possess the power of coagulating egg whites, so acids should be used sparingly. They are also coagulated under the influence of heat, co- agulation commencing at about 1460 F., and being com- pleted at 160 0 F. When coagulated the albumen is no



longer miscible in water, and so loses its power of holding air and being whisked up to a stiff foam. ~"i I Egg whites are chiefly used as aerating and moisteningJ agents by the confectioner. T~ds made with whites are cold and boiled meringues, macaroons and desert biscuits> rpyal icing, and certain types of cakes. Whites used alone must be whisked, entangling air bubbles until a stiff foam is formed. In the oven the air expands until the sides of the cell walls have been coagulated by the heat. Thus the goods are aerated. This coagulation under heat is a peculiar characteristic of egg albuIIJen. No other foam- producing body possesses this characteristic to the same degree; some foams produced from milk products tend to collapse as the enmeshed gases (air, CO 2 , etc.) expand and distend the cells beyond the breaking point when heated in the oven, although there is one well-known product '

which is very satisfactory. Egg whites from duck, geese, and water-fowl eggs are more difficult to whisk up than whites from hens' eggs. Egg whites with the shells are also used for clarifying or making clear syrups, soups, and jellies, because of their co- agulating properties, whereby the heat of the boiling syrup causes formation of a tough scum in which impurities are satisfactorily entangled. Egg Yolks The chemical composition of the y.olks is more complex than that of the whites. The yolk is the substance pro- vided by nature to feed the chick during its period of development, and so there are more solids present than in

whites. It contains the proteins nuclein and vitellin, and certain phosphorized fatty substances, the main one being lecithin, which is an important eIl,lulsifying agent. There is a white solid alcohol, cholesterol; and. a non-nitrogenous body, cerebrin. These are important food substances for the build- ing up of the nervous tissues of the body. The yolks contain fully 30 per cent of fats, which are identical with those occurring in animal bodies-namely, olein and stearin, with small quantities of palmitin and other fatty glycerides. There is about I per cent of mineral salts in the yolks and another important substance, lutein, a yellow colouring' matter which contains iron in organic combination which is easily assimilated, and thus adds to the food value of the

yolks. It is present to the extent of about! per cent, and

distinctive colour of eggs or goods made with eggs is due to

this. The coagulation of yolks takes place at a higher tem- perature than that of the whites. They commence to co-





agulate at about 160° F., and are completely coagulated at "

The yolk of an egg is more valuable as a foodstuff than the white, not only from an energy standpoint but also in that it contains certain vitamins, but commercially it has not the same value. The latter cOIl}mands a higher value on account of its aerating properties./ Yolks cannot be beaten stiff like the whites, owing to the presence of so much fatty matter. They can, however, be whisked to retain a certain amount of air, because of the presence of small quantities of

albumen'! r Xolks colousJIavour,



and_ shor.ten. th~.g~mds in

whli;h .they -are -used, .and bec:;au_se of their emulsifying properties help to keep cakes moist and mellow. \ Whole eggs are capable of aeratin their own wei ht of ~an on t IS IS ase t e correct aeration of cakes. If a greater weight of flour than eggs is used in a cake batter, then some other form of aeration must be employed to aerate the extra flour.! When breaking shell eggs it is necessary to take care that musty eggs do not gain access. Each egg, when broken, should be smelt, since one musty egg would spoil a whole mixing of cake, and there is no means of hiding or evading the consequences of using such an egg. These eggs must be used within 24 hours of breaking, during which time the liquid egg must be held at a temperature below 50° F. In the making of sponge goods, eggs are, whisked up with sugar until a light foam is obtained. The whisking of the eggs is accomplished easily if no grease or flour is present with the sugar, especially when heated to 75° ·F. over a bain- marie. When warming the eggs, care must be taken to prevent them becoming too hot. They should be heated only until lukewarm. 'In cake making by the suga!"-batter method the eggs should not be added too quickly or in too large quantities after the fat and sugar have been creamed. Every addition of eggs should be thoroughly creamed in, or the cakes will

have a closS texture and will be he~vy~Iftheyare added in large quantities the batter will curdle. Two at a time to each pound of fat are quite sufficient. The eggs should be heated to the same temperature as the batter, 75° F., other- wise curdling may occur.

Use of Eggs

The shell of an egg is porous, and consequently permits


of a passage of air and putrifying organisms. In course of time this brings about evaporation of the moisture in the

of Eggs



egg and permits bacterial decomposition of the protein compounds present. The various methods of preserving eggs in their shells have for their object the closing of the pores, and the prevention ofdecomposition. There are two methods of detecting whether an egg is stale or not. One is to hold the egg up to '!- b_right light. The egg is fresh if it appears perfectly clear and transparent, with only a faint indication of an air chamber at the end. An egg that is beginning to go bad will show a cloudy appearance, and a dark opaque mass is shown in an extremely bad egg. Another method of testing whether an egg is fresh or not is to place it in a 10 per cent salt solution-that is, 4 oz. of salt in a quart of water at 75 0 F. A fresh egg will sink in this solution. The older it is, the lighter it becomes, and consequently it will float. Decomposition is attended by gas production, and this makes a bad egg lighter than one that is good. This is about the best test for fresh eggs. Another test sometimes employed is the old one of holding the larger end of the egg against the tongue, when a good egg will feel warm. Quite a number of processes have been devised for pre- serving eggs either in the shells or without shells. Some im- ported eggs are chilled, the eggs being held at a low tem- perature, just above freezing point. This will keep them fresh for quite a long time; however, owing to the porous nature of the shells, they lose weight as evaporation takes place. This difficulty is overcome by covering them with a protective film, which closes the pores of the shells and keeps the eggs free from the action of air for a time. This process, known as 'oiling', is carried out extensively nowadays. A

10 per cent solution of silicate of soda, commonly known as water glass, is widely used domestically for this purpose. Storage in lime water is nearly as good. The fresh eggs are packed in stonewarejars, and the solution poured over them so as to cover them completely. If water glass is used the eggs will keep satisfactorily for about twelve months. Frozen Eggs One method of preserving eggs by freezing is to remove them from their shells, mix them well together, and preserve them in sealed containers of various sizes by freezing and keeping them frozen until required for use. Such eggs are as good to use when they are thawed out as fresh eggs, provided they were good when originally frozen and that they are defrosted properly. All whole egg used in the food industry is required by law to be pasteurized at not less than 1480 F. for at least 2t minutes. Sodium citrate is added to the pulp in some




countries but not in the U.K., to lower the viscosity and so prevent damage to 'the egg during pasteurization. In tests where commercially citrated pasteurized frozen egg and uncitrated pasteurized egg were compared with untreated frozen egg, the sponges produced from the un- treated egg were of slightly less volume than the citrated and pasteurized egg sponges, and the texture was slightly less fine. Commercially pasteurized samples of eggs, while giving sponges of a fine even texture, were not quite so tender in the crumb as commercially pasteurized and citrated egg sponges, or as untreated egg sponges. From the experience gained with such eggs, it appears that pasteurization alters slightly the baking quality of the egg, but this small change is considered to be more than compensated for by the increased safety in use due to the lower bacterial content and the complete destruction of any Salmonella bacteria which may be present. To defrost these eggs, the containers should be placed Difrosting Eggs under running water, and the cold water should be allowed to circulate around the container until all the frost has been removed. The container should then be opened and the contents placed in a bowl and well stirred together. The eggs should be allowed to stand until they gradually acquire the same temperature as the bakehouse. They are then ready for use, and must be utilized as quickly as is con- venient. These eggs will not keep very long after they are defrosted. Some confectioners who use frozen eggs obtain them on the day previous to that on which they will be required for use and leave them in the bakery until the frost has all gone. This method of defrosting is quite satisfactory, provided no artificial heat is used to take out the frost. Some people make the mistake of applying heat to the containers, and then condemn the eggs, whereas it is their own bad practice that is at fault. If it is not possible to use all the eggs on one day, then the quantity which is left over should be placed in the refrigerator until the following day, or they can be mixed with a definite quantity of sugar, but they should not be kept longer than 2-3 days. At least 4 oz. of sugar should be added to each pound of eggs to keep them sound until the following day. The sugar thus added must be allowed for in the mixings in which they are ultimately used. The whites and yolks are often separated, placed in containers, and frozen separately. The whites command a higher price than the yolks. When defrosted they are handy for use, and will whisk up just as readily as whites freshly

3 1



Dried or

Desiccated Eggs



separated. The yolks are used largely by biscuit manu- facturers and in large slab-cake factories. ~ Liquid egg which has been pasteurized is nowadays sup- plied in bulk, in insulated containers which hold it at a low temperature. From these it is pumped into holding vessels in the bakery. Sugar-preserved eggs when obtainable can be used for almost all kinds of goods. These eggs have usually 25 per cent of their moisture evaporated off and 25 per cent of sugar added to take its place. When using these eggs allow-

ances must be made for the sugar contained in them, and a proportion of water must be added to reconstitute them ready for use as ordinary eggs. Thus, if it is desired to use 4 lb. of these eggs 1 lb. of water must be added to the 4 lb., resulting in 4 lb. of eggs and I lb. of sugar. Another modern method of preserving eggs is to evapor- ate the egg yolks to a thick syrup, adding a proportion of glycerine before concentration. The function ofthe glycerine is to assist uniform drying and to provide mechanical support to the oil globules as their surrounding fluid shrinks under the evaporation process. Thus, no over- desiccated fragments of egg are formed, and the whole mass

is uniformly smooth, while the oil globules are not disrupted.

Without glycerine, shrinkage of the surrounding fluid causes collapse of the oil globules. Certain colloid substances will act in the same manner, and these can certainly not be regarded as 'preservatives' (in the usual sense of the word). To reconstitute such a concentrated yolk, use 2 parts water to every 7 parts of the concentrated yolk. However, the commercial practice is for certain large manufacturers to buy all the concentrated yolk imported and to mix with appropriate quantities of water and of crystal albumen to produce a 'double-strength' egg. Such a double egg requires its own weight of water for reconstitution, and if properly

manufactured will be quite as satisfactory as other forms of eggs for making sponge cakes. The double-strength egg, as described above, will keep in a cool place for several weeks, and does not require actual cold storage. The pH of such egg is usually ~orrected to normal. Desiccated whole eggs, whites, or yolks are also largely in use in the manufacture of confectionery. These are prepared by evaporating the water from the liquid eggs at

a temperature below their coagulation point, temperatures

below 1240 F. usually being employed. Various methods are used to reduce the eggs to a dry state; one method, the spray process, is to force them under pressure in the form

3 2




of a spray into a chamber, the temperature of which is kept below 125° F. This procedure dries the egg quickly, which then falls to the floor as a powder. Another method formerly used, the roller method, is to spread the eggs as a film on a roller, at a temperature of 125°. This gave a rich yellow solid which readily powdered, but which did not re- constitute as well as the spray-dried eggs. Whole egg powder is reconstituted by taking 1 part by weight of the powder and 3 parts of tepid water, and mixing well together with a whisk and stirring occasionally for one to three hours. These eggs are ready for use after about one hour's soaking. Some of these dried-egg powders are satis- factory in the making of cakes, but will not whisk up

sufficiently light to make normal sponge cakes. Other varieties possess little aerating power and can be used only when a modified baking technique is employed. This is a product prepared by evaporating water at very low pressures from pasteurized whole egg which has previously been frozen in thin layers on trays at -35° F. Since the water is removed from the solid phase (ice) at low temperatures, the harmful effects normally associated with dehydration are largely avoided, and by careful control of the process and the use of small quantities of permitted additives it is claimed that the final product when re- constituted is comparable in performance to liquid whole egg.

It is a granular free-flowing powder with an odour less

strong than spray-dried egg, which reconstitutes easily

with water at about 100° F.

A recent development in the production of dried whole

egg and A.F.D. egg is the removal of glucose by the addition of glucose oxidase, catalase, and hydrogen. This extends the shelf life of the product. This is prepared in two ways, one by the so-called fermentation process, the other by the straight drying process at reduced pressure or under vacuum. In the fermentation process the whites are placed in large vessels having a capacity of 4,000 lb. and left for 3-4 days. During this time a scum forms dn the top, which is removed at the end of this period. After the requisite time the whites are placed on trays and dried at a temperature below 125° F., when the product known as crystal albumen is ob- tained. During the fermentation process certain chemical changes occur, including a shift of the pH from the alkaline to the acid region. In natural egg whites some of the protein ions



Freeze-dried egg


Dried Albumen



are negatively charged at the normal pH of the white and form albuminates of the various bases (Ca,:iNa, etc.). When fermentation has proceeded to below their iso-electric points these proteins become positively charged, and act as basic radicals. This materially affects the baking qualities of the finished product, yielding an albumen of much greater strengtli. - In the straight process a dried albumen is produced which can only be kept satisfactorily in cold storage. This does not form such a good foam when reconstituted and whipped, and so possesses inferior baking qualities. J. R. Hawthorn worked out a procedure for preparing straight dried albumen by fermenting the naturally occurring glucose in egg white by means of bakers' com- pressed yeast and subsequently separating the yeast by centrifuging. From tests carried out, it was shown that the samples of albumen obtained were equal in quality to the best samples obtained by natural bacterial fermentation. The quantity of yeast employed was at the rate of I per cent of the egg white, at g8° F. for Il hours followed by drying at 122 0 F. for 5-7 hours and a further 12-15 hours at 86° F. Today dried albumen must be pasteurized before it can be used in products in which it is not subjected to any heat treatment or cooking, i.e. icings and some meringue goods. All dried albumen today is subject to the closest bacterio- logical control before it can be sold for use in any type of confection, even when subsequently baked. The whites, when dried separately from the yolks, are re- constituted by adding 7 parts of water to I part of dried

albumen, i.e. 3 oz. to the pint of water, mixing well, then stirring occasionally for 3 or 4 hours before use. This gives

a product similar to ordinary egg whites, and can be used in the same manner, but requires more whisking to make

a light meringue. It may be left overnight with good re-

sults, and is very good for making royal icing and mac- aroons. A spray-dried yolk powder can be produced having a moisture content of slightly less than 5 per cent. Like the

whole egg powders, such sprayed yolks do not disperse freely in water, and are not suitable for making sponge cakes. They are reconstituted by adding an equal weight of water to them. Dried eggs are not of the same value to the confectioner as frozen or shell eggs.




The following table gives the average chemical com- position of dried eggs products:


I Whole

egg (%)






















Mineral salts













For the reconstitution of dried yolks and albumen to re- place frozen or dried egg in cake making, to 13 lb. of water add I! lb. of crystal albumen and allow to stand overnight. Then whisk in by hand 3 lb. of sifted egg yolks and the mixture is ready for use. This mixture is unsuitable for sponge or choux paste manufacture, using conventional methods. When no type of egg other than dried egg is available for sponge making various methods can be tried to produce satisfactory foams to give light sponge products. To over- come the lack of foaming qualities, the addition of boiling syrups with increased acidity has been used, but these methods, while giving fairly good results, are not practicable for large-scale commercial production, since they require more labour. For cake making, however, most grades of dried egg produce satisfactory results, for it has been shown that solubility is of greater importance than foaming power, since aeration of cakes does not solely depend on the egg.

This was one of the most outstanding developments of the J 939-45 War.

I. This is a product containing approximately 33-34 per cent of sugar incorporated with the egg. It is produced by mixing in the appropriate quantity of sugar with the liquid egg and spray-drying the mixture. It must be stored in air- tight containers, as it is hygroscopic. When such egg is re- constituted it can be treated like frozen or fresh shell egg. It

whips well and possesses good oven spring. To reconstitute, use 33 oz. of water per pound of dried egg. In the use of this egg, better results may be obtained with some formulae using 28-30 oz. of water per pound egg for reconstitution, but this should be determined by individual experience.






2. Use cold or tepid water, since the egg is very soluble.

Sprinkle and stir the egg in the water, wheri" it will readily


3. The temperature employed for whisking should not

exceed 70° F., as the sugar-egg mixture aerates readily and will become oveI-~eaten if higher temperatures are used. Whisking on top speed may produce the maximum volume

in 6-7 minutes, with a second speed 15-20 minutes.

4. In general, all sponge batters with sugar-dried egg

should be slightly underbeaten. Overbeating produces a very light foam, which shows a tendency to run back when the flour is added, while shrinkage will also occur in the


5. Sponge cakes of standard quality can be produced

without the use of baking powder. With machine working, normal formulae and practice will produce very satisfactory

results. Baking powder should be used only in recipes in which it is a usual constituent.

6. Sugar-dried egg can be used with success with the

'all-in' method, but adjustment of baking powder is essential, a reduction of 33 per cent being possible. Beating time also can be reduced to about half.

7. In cake increased volume is obtained and adjustment

of baking powder is necessary.







(I lb. sugar-dried egg-2 lb. water)

Liquid egg re- quired



I Water


Sugar in egg mix to be deducted from recipe

















































The usual method of obtaining the aeration in sponge goods consists in whisking the eggs and sugar together. The temperature of the mixture should be about 75° F. It should be whisked until the batter is light-that is, when the impressions made by the whisk take a few seconds to flow level. Time taken should be about 7 minutes. The flour should be carefully sifted. When baking powder is used it is sifted with the flour. The flour is carefully mixed in by hand when the batter is light, until it is cleared. Where butter or oil are added, they are added in a warm liquid state before


adding the flour; care must be taken when mixing in the flour, otherwise the batter will become heavy owing to the breakage of air cells, and the cakes will bake out leathery. Where milk or water is used, it is mixed in after beating up the eggs and sugar; then the flour is mixed through until clear. Flavours and colours may be added to the batter before adding the flour, in order to produce any desired variety of flavoured and coloured cake. When large-machine whisking is carried out the method of procedure is the same. The Morton Pressure Whisk and Oakes Continuous Mixer have revolutionized the manu- facture of sponges and cakes and have made modifications of method and recipes essential. Fruit juices and jams may also be added to sponges during whisking to obtain very light well-flavoured sponge goods owing to the extra acidity of these products, but allowance must be made for the sugar in these products, as well as acidity, which will speed up the foam formation.

There are many powders on the market sold as substitutes for eggs. These so-called egg powders, or extenders, bear no relation whatever to eggs except in colour. They are com- posed mainly of soya flour and cornflour, or other starches, with an addition of baking powder, colouring matter, and milk powder or some milk product or some other type of albuminous matter. They provide aeration, but do not perform the same functions as eggs. It is interesting, however, to trace the development of these products. Prior to 1939 most of the substitutes were liquid, some consisting of hydrolized starch with the addition of colour and bicarbonate of soda to render them alkaline. Later, soya flour was introduced in some of the liquid mixtures, but with the use of soya flour, dry mixes began to appear. With the outbreak of war and the cessation of supplies of frozen egg, substitutes of all types appeared, and so numer- ous were they, that eventually in 1942 the Ministry of Food had to control them by a system of licensing. These products contained the following range of sub- stances: soya flour, wheaten flour, starch, gum karaya, gum arabic, dextrin, casein, oat flour, rye flour, sodium bi- carbonate, semolina, whey concentrates, dried yeast, gelatine, albumen, etc. Altogether, over forty different products were used in the compounding of the whole range of products which were marketed, many of them completely






valueless. Following on the action of the Ministry of Food, these products were licensed as 'egg extei'rClers', as they could not in any way be regarded as substitutes for egg. Some of them did successfully extend the use of the small quantities of egg available at the time. From 1942 onwards dried egg suppli\;s !Jecame available in greater quantities, and while some egg extenders found a ready sale, the numbers licensed steadily decreased, and only the better types survived. By 1946 the demand for a better product was manifested, and lactalbumen mixed with mineral salts, together with lactic acid and lactose, appeared in some of the products. The following year, Locust Kernel Gum (carob), mixed with sodium alginate and wheaten flour and colour, was introduced, and later, additions of milk powder, blood plasma, and fish albumen were made to various products. When egg substitutes were analysed for what should be their main constituents, water, protein, and fat, they were rarely found to contain any significant quantity of protein or fat, but generally more than their anticipated water content when reconstituted as recommended. When baking tests were carried out using many substi- tutes in a 50 per cent replacement of whole egg the results obtained were rarely better than those which could be obtained by a rebalancing of the recipe by a straight re- placement of the normal ingredients. When eggs are avail- able there is little justification for use of the so-called egg extender in confectionery production.


Prior to the war, there were no egg white substitutes of any


real merit, but gelatine was sometimes used. In 1941 low- grade albumen mixtures with soya, or wheaten flour were introduced, while later, mixtures of gums, soya, dextrins, and wheaten flour were marketed which were, in the main, useless. In 1947 milk products, skim milk and whey powders, and lactalbumen appeared on the market, and while satis- factory foams and meringues could be produced, some of the products would not stand up to baking temperature. Blood plasma has also been used. In 1949 cellulose ether and derivatives of various kinds were introduced, and while these possess no nutritional value, they produce exct;).lent foams from which good meringues and other confectionery products can be obtained. There are today numerous albuminous powders obtain- able as substitutes for whites of eggs. These contain various


proportions of protein matter, such as gelatine, blood albumen, casein, and gums. They are greyish-looking powders sold under various trade names. When dissolved in water and whisked they hold a certain amount of air, but not always to the same extent as egg whites. Some fail to aerate the goods to the same lightness as egg whites, because the cells tend to burst when heated. The result is, the products either fail to rise sufficiently, or if they rise lightly they may collapse again before cooking is finished. Owing to the absence of membranous matter, some of these substitutes are very suitable for the making of royal, or very white, icing. The membranous matter in egg whites tends to make the icing greyish.


Baking Fats


FATS are the primary enriching agents used in flour con- fectionery, and those which are used must be of a digestible

For this reason orily the vegetable and animal fats

----- are suitable, since hydrocarbon oils and fats cannot be digested in the human system. If any such fats were used


violent indigestion would be caused. Oils and fats embrace

a very wide range of substances, and because of the im- portant part they play in bakery operations, it is essential

to know not only their relative digestive properties but also

something of their chemical and physical properties. If a substance of this class is liquid at the ordinary temperature (15 0 C.) it is termed an oil, while if it is solid under the same conditions it is termed a fat. Bakers' oils and fats are generally colourless or pale yellow, and possess one property which is familiar to all, and that is their greasiness, which is somewhat different from the greasiness of other oils in a way which cannot be defined easily. To the majority of people an oil or fat is a substance which, when smeared on paper or any surface, makes a greasy mark difficult to remove. This idea of greasiness does not help at all in differentiating between the different types of oils and fats: In order to do this, it is necessary to turn to the chemical viewpoint, which states that all animal fats and vegetable oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, a glyceride being a substance which breaks down under certain conditions to produce glycerine and a fatty acid. In this the animal and vegetable oils and fats differ from mineral and essential oils. Another difference from mineral oils is saponification on treatment with caustic soda.

Glyceride ~

Glycerine + Fatty acid

This change can be brought about in other ways. Chemic- ally, fats consist of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen.


In order to understand the varying physical properties of fats, especially concerning their solidity or hardness, it is important to know something of the glycerides which are present in fats. Fats are complex mixtures of glycerides, some of which are liquid and some solid at room temperature. To illustrate the properties of glycerides it is interesting to compare the

characteristics of I the five simple triglycerides.



Liquid at ordinary temperatures.




Sohd at ordmary . temperatures.

The first three are liquids, while the fifth is a waxy sub- stance and the fourth is of an intermediate consistency. From this it will be clear that the firmness of a fat depends on the proportion ofstearin present; the greater the amount present, the firmer the fat. This has been taken advantage of in the production of the wide range of hydrogenated fats and cake margarines now produced for the convenience of handling by the confectioner. These five are known as 'fixed fats', because they do not evaporate or lose weight when distilled with water. Animal fats are generally solid; mutton fat contains a high percentage of stearin, so is very firm; beef fat contains considerable quantities of olein and myristin, and so is much less firm and approximates more to the consistency of butter. Butter, margarine, and neutral fats are a mixture of these five glycerides in varying pro- portion. In butter an important glyceride is butyrin. Most of the fats which are obtained from vegetables are fluid and oily at ordinary temperatures, while at lower temperatures they attain a solid consistency. For example, in cold weather cotton-seed oil will solidify, as also will olive oil and many other vegetable oils. Vegetable oils can be classified on their capacity for dry- ing-that is, their capability of producing a hard film when exposed to the air as a thin layer.

(1) Non-drying oils. (2) Semi-drying oils. (3) Drying oils.

The best-known non-drying oil is olive oil, while others which are almost completely in this category, but are generally classed as semi-drying, are cotton-seed oil, sesame

Practical Application of Oils and Fats



oil, arachis oil, soya-bean oil, all of which are good cooking oils and are used in margarine manufacture--:

Drying oils are required by the painter, and linseed oil is the best, this being an oil which dries very rapidly. Such an oil would not be satisfactory as a food. It is obvious th~t for foodstuffs a non-drying oil is the ideal, and only those which approximate to this are suitable, especially from the view-point of digestibility. There are some vegetable fats which find use in con- fectionery either for direct incorporation in products or for manufacturing fats. Such fats are palm-kernel oil, coconut oil, cocoa butter, and shea-nut butter. Now turning to the animal world, it is found that the fats available can be divided into four classes, but here the source of the fat is the consideration, not some physical



(I) Solid body fats. (2) Animal oils.

(3) Milk fats.

(4) Fish and marineianimal oils.



The most important of the first class is lard, while suet or beef fat is equally important for 'certain products. Of the second class there is one oil, lard oil, which is well known. This is the more liquid portion of lard, and is prepared by expressing it out of the lard, when lard stearine is left be- hind. Of the third class, butter is the most important, and it differs from all other fats because of the presence of certain volatile fatty acids to which the flavour is due-a fact of great importance when its identification is in question. In the fourth class there are many fish oils used today in margarine manufacture-salmon oil, herring oil, whale oil, and others which are deodorized. When margarine is made with such oils there is always a danger of a fishy odour being imparted to the finished products unless great care is taken in hydrogenation and refining.

The generally accepted view of the influence of fats and oils in bread and confectionery is that the fat effects a mechanical hindrance on the flour particles, and so prevents their cohesion, and if sufficiently large quantities are used it eventually produces a dough possessing no cohesion. In cake-making it is their emulsifying properties which are all-important as well as their capacity to occlude air during the creaming process. It is not considered that any chemical change takes place, since the fat, being insoluble in water, is



not absorbed by the flour, but is merely mixed among it in such a way that it causes a separation of the flour particles and an emulsion. As a result, the elasticity of the dough produced from the flour in which fat or oil has been mixed is different from that of a dough containing no added fat, and the quality known as shortness is conferred on the pro- ducts. When used in small quantities oils and fats actually seem to cause a modification in the nature of the gluten of the flour through some possible protective colloidal action. When larger quantities are used there results a more complete dispersion of the fats and oils in the mixings and the formation of emulsions.

:Most fats and oils are either colourless or possess a pale yellow tint. They are insoluble in and immiscible with water, but are readily soluble in ea~h other, and so can be mixed in varying proportions, and should be without taste or odour. Any flavour or odour they possess points to im- perfect refining, or partial decomposition due to rancidity setting in. If any flavour is present it is generally an indica- tion of the source of the fat, and today is a sign of inferior quality. Fats are soluble in certain solvents, such as ether and benzene, some of which are used for their extractio.n from the raw materials in their manufacture. All fats have a definite slip point, which differs with each fat, this re- presenting the amount of solid fat in the mixture. The

to 0·97. There are

specific gravity of most fats is from O'gI

many constants which have to be observed by the manu- facturer if he desires to produce a regular product. Ran- cidity has also to be guarded against, and in order to do this the oils and fats must be properly refined and stored afterwards. Rancidity develops in the presence of air, light, and moisture, so that the best place to store fats is a dark room which, however, must be kept scrupulously clean. With rancidity an unpleasant flavour develops, due to decomposition of the glycerides. The cause of rancidity is gradually being solved. There are two main causes, one being that the process is one of oxidation, the other.that it is

caused by bacterial action.


oxidation theory is considered.

A. There




of decomposition


Properties of

Oils and Fats

(I) Hydrolysis of glycerides to form free fatty acids and glycerol. (2) Oxidation of acids and glycerol; this is formed on interaction of the oxidation products, the resulting com-




pounds being responsible for the unpleasant taste and

odour of rancid fat.

Functions and Uses of Fats



(I) Nutritional Value to Provide Energy

(2) To Provide Flavour

(3) Influence on Keeping Qualities

(4) Emulsifying


(5) Shortening


(6) Influence Oil Volume



B. Rancidity is also considered to be produced by the action of zymogen, which in the presence of warmth and moisture produ~esJipases, thus forming fatty acids. Fats used for cooking purposes, such as frying doughnuts, should stand heating to a temperature of at least 4000 F. without undergoing decomposition. Inferior fats will de- compose below this temperature and cause noxious smells.

Fats are used in confectionery for a variety of reasons:

As the fat is broken dowIl by metabolic processes within the body during the process of digestion calories are re- leased which are transferred to the body as heat, or as

energy. If a fat possesses flavour, such as butter or margarine, it will impart that flavour to any articles in which it is in- corporated. A flavourless shortening, however, can affect the flavour of a cake. Any off flavours will be imparted to the cake. Fat, by its emulsifying action, holds the aqueous portion

of a cake batter and so prevents the cake from

a certain degree. A cake batter is an emulsion consisting of a fatty phase and a phase composed of the remaining ingredients. The emulsifying power of a fat determines how much liquid can be incorporated in a batter without curdling taking place. The more liquid which can be added to a cake batter, the more sugar·will the batter be able to hold dissolved in the liquid. This is the principle of high-ratio shortenings, which have a high emulsifying power. From the practical point of view, the advantage of emulsifying shortenings is the ease with which the ingredients are incorporated in the mix to give a fine, silky batter, typical of a thoroughly.emulsified


If a cake is examined under the microscope it is seen that the solid materials in the cake do not form a homogeneous mass. It would appear that the gluten from the flour is split up by films of fat. These films of fat weaken the structure sufficiently to make it tender and easily disintegrated by bringing about a mechanical breakdown of the gluten structure. The specific action of fat in raising baked goods has been investigated by microscopic examination of cake batters.

drying out to



I t may be regarded as peculiar because the amount of

'lift' in the oven is out of all proportion to the expansion of air entrapped in the fat when no chemicals are used in the batter; and yet if no air were incorporated there would be no 'lift' in the oven at all. Microscopic examination of a cake batter shows that the fat is dispersed throughout the batter in the form of small, irregularly shaped particles. Within each particle of fat there will be enclosed several small bubbles of air which have been incorporated during the mixing operation. There is no air trapped in the aqueous phase. The exact mechanics of the rising process are not properly understood, and it is largely a matter of conjecture what really happens when a cake 'rises' in the oven. It is apparent, however, that most of the 'rise' in the oven is due to the expansion of water vapour and of carbon dioxide; but the water vapour on its own, that is, without any air present, cannot assist in the rising process. Also, the extent to which it does assist is more or less proportional to the amount of air present. Another important feature about the rising due to water vapour when air is present is that this rising is controlled- the expansion takes place at points which are predeter-

mined by the position of

Hence, if the mixing is carried out in such a way that the fat entraps a lot of air and the air is well dispersed through the batter, rising takes place uniformly throughout the mixture, giving a fine, uniform grain and texture. When chemical agents are used to assist expansion the gas from them is also controlled by the air entrapped by the fat; if too little air is incorporated in a batter and chemicals are used to make up the aeration the cake will be coarse- textured, with large holes due to the action of the gas from the chemicals being uncontrolled by air. Thus, t~e creaming ability of a fat, or its ability to en- trap air, is a very important factor when good-quality cakes are desired. It must also be capable of being evenly dis- persed through the batter. The fats used for any special types of goods should be chosen by their quality, freedom

fat-entrapped air bubbles

from moisture, and according to the purpose for which they are to be used. Butter is the fat that fulfils most of the requirements of the confectioner; there is no other fat which can impart the same flavour and quality to products but its other pro- perties tend to be somewhat variable. 1




It is for this reason that margarines and fats manufactured for specific purposes are so popular today. Hydrocarbon fats and oils should never be used, although in the past fats ofa tal- lowy nature were used in pastry margarines, while hydrocar- bon oils were used in cake making during the war before action was taken to pr:_oh!bit their use. There are many fats sold for the production of puff pastry; the main virtue of such fats is to provide an even lift in the pastry by being able to produce thin films in it. Some fats contain a high stearin content, with the result, that instead of an easily digested product being produced, one very difficult to digest is obtained, because of the layers of fat in the paste. The use of these products is to be deprecated, since, as in so many other branches, the appearance and ease of production by semi-skilled opera- tives are being considered, to the detriment of the eating qualities. Emulsified preparations are now marketed which produce good results in a puff paste and are easy to manipulate.

Butter Butter consists chiefly of the fat of milk, and necessarily must also contain curd, milk sugar, and mineral salts. It is obtained through churning the ripened cream of cows' milk. The churning process causes the fatty globules to coalesce and form granules. When the butter has formed it is well worked together to remove the surplus buttermilk and make it into a homogeneous mass. A little salt and colouring matter may be added to the butter during work- ing in order to preserve it and impart a better appearance. Butters can be classified into various grades. When grading, most points are given to flavour; then come body, texture, and moisture content. Colour is also considered, the percentage of salt, and lastly the general appearance. If the grade of butter is known one can be well assured as to the quality.


























Moisture Curd or casein

















The glycerides in butter are the five already mentioned, and are present in varying proportions, along with nearly


6 per cent volatile fat, such as butyrin and its allied substances. Some butters are defined as weak and others as strong. When using them it is easy to tell the difference. Siberian butter is a tough waxy butter of good flavour, and is excellent for making puff pastry. The strong waxy character confers plastic properties on it and so forms better layering and makes the paste lighter, and both lightness and flavour are retained after baking. With a softer butter this would not be the case; the paste would not rise so well and oil might run out when the pastries are baked. In making cakes butter is generally creamed-that is to say, the butter is usually beaten until it is of the consistency of cream. This act of creaming consists in breaking down the butter into an emulsion of water in oil. I!_creaI_!ls easily owing to the absence of granules,_ and it will retain the air thereby incorporated. The reason why putter is superior in flavour to any other fat is due to the presence of volatile fats which it contains. This has its drawbacks, -however, because when butter is kept under unfavourable conditions it becomes rancid due to a decomposition of the glycerides. If too much salt is present in the butter it is usual to wash it out first in cold water, and then beat the butter well to get rid of excess water. Buttergives to the gpoE_s. ~ better flavour, a~ ~v~ textm:_e,_a _better _bloom, and. produce_La lignl: ca:ke of gO_Qd_~ppearance. It should be employed in the making 01 all high-class cakes where the above qualities are essential. It is also employed in the making of lemon cheese curds, butter creams, and in toffee making. Where- ever quality and good flavour are required as the first con- sideration in any type of confectionery, butter should be used. Butter is clarified by melting. It may then be sieved or skimmed to remove curd or impurities; salt and water can also be removed, and in this unsalted state the butter is used for making artificial creams. Clarified butter is also used to enrich butter sponges and Savarins. In these goods the clarified form only is incorporated.

butter is also used to enrich butter sponges and Savarins. In these goods the clarified form
butter is also used to enrich butter sponges and Savarins. In these goods the clarified form

Butter powder containing 80 per cent butter-fat which is most suitable for cake making, is now being produced in Australia, producing cakes of equal quality compared with those made from fresh butter, with, however, a tendency towards a closer grain and slightly greater volume.

Uses of Butter

Clarified Butter







Lard is also a very important fat used in confectionery. It

may be defined as the fat separated for usli/as food from the fatty tissues of pigs. The lard is rendered by first mincing the tissues or crushing between rollers, and then subjecting to a dry heat until the fat runs out of the cells (in the case of home-rend~rt:d lard). The temperature used is just sufficient to melt the fat (about 110° F.). If too high a tem- perature is used the colour of the fat is spoiled, and a bad flavour is imparted which cannot be remedied by refining. The low temperature at which it is rendered may have a certain enzymic activity, which may acCOunt for the fact that neutral lard will go rancid more readily than lard rendered by steam. The other method of rendering fat is to subject the mass to high-pressure steam to expel the fat from the ruptured fat cells. Classification The great bulk of the lard used in commerce is imported from America, and, according to the Chicago Board of Trade, is classified into the following grades:

(I) Neutral Lard No. I, which consists of leaf fat ren-

dered below I la° F.

(2) Neutral Lard No.2, which consists of fat derived

from the back of the pig. (3) Leaf Lard, obtained by subjecting the residue of No. I to high-pressure steam.

(4) Choice Kettle-rendered Lard, obtained by rendering

the residue of No.2 in high-pressure steam kettles, hence the name. (5) Prime Steam Lard is the portion rendered by steam from the trimmings and other fatty parts of the animals.

Composition and


Greases and inferior fats are obtained from entrails, feet, and scraps. American lard is usually of a softer nature than European lard. This is due to the differences in the animal and to the different type of food consumed. Pure lard has a firm consistency and granular texture, white in colour and should have an agreeable flavour. The lower qualities have a somewhat insipid flavour. Lard is composed chiefly of the three glycerides-olein, palmitin, and stearin, olein being the predominant glyceride. There are also certain unsaturated compounds resembling those of linseed oil, together with nitrogenous compounds, mineral salts, and moisture. It contains 99 per cent fatty glycerides. Fresh lard, especially if it has been rendered from the pigs while stilI warm, should be practically neutral (not more

Fresh lard, especially if it has been rendered from the pigs while stilI warm, should be


than 0·5 per cent free fatty acids), but upon exposure to the air it gradually becomes acid in reaction. When lard has been rendered out it should be run into sterile containers, not touched by hand or exposed to the air, and should be kept in a cold place until ready for use. Lard is a fat possessing a high food value. It is easily ab- sorbed and digested by the human body, and so is an

Food Value and Uses

important heat-producing food. It is used in confectionery as a shortening agent in the making of short pastes for pies, etc., because of its excellent flavour and shortening pro- perties and relatively high melting point. When used in conjunction with butter in the proportion of 75 per cent butter to 25 per cent lard it gives a crispness and shortness to pastries which is not obtainable by using butter alone. It is also employed as a cooking fat for both boiling and frying purposes. It is useful for greasing utensils for cakes which must have an even surface and good appearance. Pure lard will not cream up well by itself because of its crystalline nature; it forms long, coarse crystals with a chisel-shaped edge. These pack together like felt, and so cannot be creamed satisfactorily. Lard can now be processed so as to produce a product

Processed Lard

with creaming properties. This is a catalytic process which results in the re-arrangement of the fatty acid components of the glyceride molecules so that there is a greater variety of different types of molecules.

Lard Oil and

When lard is slightly heated and then subjected to hydraulic pressure it is possible to separate out what is

Beef Fats

known as lard stearine, which is used in the manufacture

Lard Oil

of margarine. The oil, forming about 60 per cent of the whole and consisting mostly of olein, has a soft, pleasant taste, and is a good edible oil; it is sometimes used in place of olive oil. Beef fats are rendered in the same manner as hogs' fat. The first rendering gives hard fat known as premier jus, which was used largely in making margarine. When the premier jus is placed in bags, heated, and subjected to hydraulic pressure the softer fat, or oleo oil, runs out and what is known as stearine remains. The former is a soft fat with a low melting point; the latter is a-hard firm; white fat with a high melting point. Both were used in the manu- facture of various types of margarine. The fatty glycerides in beef fat are mostly stearin, palmitin, and olein. There- fore, in the separation of oleo oil and stearine from the






premier jus, the oleo oil is largely composed of olein and

palmitin, whereas the stearine is largely glyceride stearin.

of the



Lard and lard compounds have been largely displaced in


modern times by compound fats made from refined coconut oil, palm-keniel" oil, cotton-seed oil, and other vegetable oils. There are many good cooking fats sold under a variety of names. It is only during the present century that the problem of converting fluid oils into solid fats has been solved. This has been accomplished by the catalytic hydro- genation process, which consists of treating oils with hydrogen in the presence of finely powdered nickel or platinum as the catalyst at a suitable temperature. The catalyst does not take any part in the chemical reaction of the hydrogen and oil, but it causes the two to unite, so


it is now possible to obtain fats of any desired consis-

tency. For instance, in the case of oleic acid the absorption

of hydrogen may be represented as follows:

C 17 H aa COOH + H2 = C 17 H as COOH

Oleic acid + hydrogen = stearic acid

Other fatty glycerides can be changed in the same way,

the degree of hardening depending on the duration of the hydrogenation process. By this process any liquid can be changed at will to the consistency of butter or lard, or tallow

beef fat. Consequently, oils which formerly had not a wide

application in foods are easily converted into fats, and so their use is extended very considerably. Following the hardening operation, the oils which are required to make up the fat are blended in the correct pro- portions by weighing each one into a tank. The blend of oils is then transferred to a deodorizer, where the odorifer-

ous substances are removed by steam distillation under a vacuum. The deodorizer is a large cylindrical tank completely en-

closed, and after the air is evacuated the oils are dropped

into it and are heated to between 3000 and 4000 F. and

steam is blown in at the bottom of the tank. As the steam passes through the oils it picks up the odoriferous substances and retains them when it leaves the top of the vessel. Com- plete deodorization takes anything up to 4 hours.

To render the product smooth and firm, the fat is chilled rapidly, and it is thoroughly beaten to ensure an intimate

mix of the liquid glycerides. A certain amount of air is

added to the fat at this stage, which improves the appear-



ance, making it whiter and opaque, instead of greasy and translucent. In this country few manufacturers still use the older method of chilling the fat. This consists of passing it over a slowly revolving steel cylinder, which is refrigerated inter- nally with very cold brine. After the fat has been in contact with the chilling roll long enough to cool it-slightly less than one complete revolution-it is scraped off by scraper blades bearing on the roll surface, and it drops into a trough fitted with a screw conveyor and blades which beat the air into the fat. The fat coming from this trough is then forced at high pressure through a constricted line which makes it more homogeneous still, and it is then packed. A more modern method of rapid chilling pioneered in America and now used in this country is by pumping the fat through one or more cylinders which are refrigerated externally. This enables greater control to be maintained over the chilling, as the fat is not exposed to the atmosphere, continuous, all-enclosed units being used. Shortening is normally received by the baker in the solid form in 28-lb. cartons or in large drums, but it is nowadays possible to have it in bulk in road tankers in quantities of 4 tons or more. The advantages of bulk shortening are:

possible to have it in bulk in road tankers in quantities of 4 tons or more.



(I) Economic saving of the cost of the cartons and the

handling of the cartons in the bakery. (2) The bulk system assists in the automation of bakery

mixing operations. (3) It ensures the shortening is of standard consistency throughout the year and does not need the special tempering during cold weather which is often necessary with shortening in cartons.

Pumpable shortening is prepared in the same basic manner as standard shortening, but with special texturizing treatment to maintain its plasticity. The shortening is con- veyed to the bakery in specially designed road tankers, temperature-controlled, to prevent solidification of the shortening during transit and to effect complete discharge of the load at the bakery. Here the shortening is stored in jacketed tanks or silos at constant temperature and is fed by a pump and metering device to the point of usage. The holding temperature is generally about 26 0 C. (79 0 F.), and the fat can be held for up to one month. Although a recent innovation, pumpable shortening is .developing fast in bakeries large enough to take a bulk







of standardizing





Vegetable Oils

Vegetable oils

are obtained by extraction in hydraulic


presses, or by extraction with volatile solvents. When pressure is used there are four distinct operations:

( I) The seed is crushed or ground in special roller- reduction mills, so as to break the oil cells. (2) The ground seed is heated to facilitate the flow of oil and to coagulate the albumen. This is done in what is called a heating kettle. (3) The product is now gently pressed in a moulding machine to prepare it for the hydraulic press. (4) The seed is conveyed to hydraulic presses and the oil is expressed.

Cotton Seed

A further development is the use of continuous expellers in place of hydraulic presses. The different vegetable seeds used for the production of oil require rather different treatments, but only those used in the trade are dealt with here. For edible purposes this is generally prepared by de-

Arachis, or

corticating the cotton seed. The kernel of the seed is sur- rounded by husks, which contain strong, deep brown colouring matter and little or no oil. Thus the following advantages are derived: (I) the oil is of a better colour; (2) the press cake is of a better quality; (3) the material treated being richer in oil than the whole seed, a greater amount of oil can be obtained in a given time. The oil is refined by various processes and marketed in various forms, generally as a colourless oil. Steam is used to deodorize the oils and to coagulate the protein matter, and treatment with fuller's earth, decolorizing carbon, etc., improves the appearance. - This is produced in a similar way to cotton-seed oil, and

Ground-nut Oil

is marketed as high-class vegetable oil. It has a pale yellow

Sesame Oils

colour, and will solidify at temperatures below 40° F. The second grade is largely used in margarine manufacture, the first grade being used as a cheap substitute for olive oil. A colourless variety of the oil is obtainable. This is used for foodstuffs and in margarine manufacture.

Cocoa Butter

This is the fat obtained from the cocoa bean, and is used

Coconut and

in the manufacture of chocolate. It melts at about goO F. These are also used in the manufacture of edible oils.

Palm-kernel Oils

Coconut oil solidifies at 69° F. It is a soft, white, butter- like mass at ordinary temperatures, with an agreeable odour and flavour. The chemical constants of this oil are



closer in relation to butter than any other fat, and it is very difficult to detect when used to adulterate butter. It is much used in the manufacture of margarine. This is extensively used in the manufacture of baking Shea Butter and pastry fats because of its emulsive and plasticizing pro- perties. This is also used in making margarine and vegetable Palm-kernel Oil butters, and sometimes as a cocoa-butter substitute. Coconut oil and palm-kernel oil can be subjected to hydraulic pressure to separate the stearin from the olein. The longer the fats remain under pressure, the higher will be the melting point of the residue. There are many other oils which can be obtained from vegetable sources, and after refining and hardening are suitable for cake making. These hydrogenated fats are 100 per cent fats. They possess excellent creaming qualities, being easier to cream up than butter. If compound fat is used to replace part, or all, of the butter in a mixing, then it must be remembered that compound is 100 per cent fat, whereas butter is only 84 per cent fat; therefore, in order to maintain the balance in the mixture, only 14 oz. of compound should be used to replace I lb. butter. Compound fat cannot be expected to give the flavour of butter. When that is wanted it is advisable to use a proportion of butter in the cakes. Compound fat, when used in small proportions along with butter in cakes, helps to impart an excellent texture and better keeping qualities.

Margarine has taken the place of butter in most bakeries today. The oils or fats used in the making of margarine are obtained from either animal, vegetable, or marine sources. The various fats that may be used are neutral lard, premier jus, oleo oil, ground-nut oils, coconut oil, palm-kernel oil, fish, hydrogenated whale, and other oils. The fats must first be thoroughly refined; if not, the margarine would soon become rancid and would not be good to eat. Fish oils, in addition to being deodorized, must be hydrogenated to make them suitable for the manufacture of margarine. After refining, the oils are blended so that the finished margarine will have a definite melting point and creaming quality. When cake margarine is being made, the melting point will approximate to that of good butter; if pastry margarine, the melting point will be considerably higher, and fats containing more stearin with a higher melting point will be used. Many of the pastry margarines are far





too tough. This has resulted from a desire on the manu-


irrespective of the craftsmanship of the operative. The oils are blended at a suitable temperature with separated milk-generally 1 ton to 30 gallons of milk- which has been ripened, and the mixture is transferred to a churn, where an intimate admixture or emulsification of fats and milk takes place. Lecithin or some other stabilizer is used to complete the emulsion and colour is added. Water emulsions are used today, and special stabilizers are used for the production of stable emulsions. When churning is completed the mixture is ice-cooled, and with the con- tinuous machines is plasticized and packed at once. Where butter is mixed in the margarine, no more than 10 per cent butter fat must be added. The finished margarine has a satisfactory taste and odour, and a texture like fresh butter, and is practically free from fatty acids. It shows little tendency to become rancid unless kept under un- suitable conditions. It is now possible (using any types of oils) to get the proper consistency of the fat by hydrogenating the oil to the desired extent. The composition ofmargarine, when packed, approximates to that of butter. %

part to guarantee an even 'fift'





e oven,






1·5- 1·7

Salt, etc.

1·5- 2·5

It can be readily seen that there is practically no differ- ence in the chemical composition of margarine and butter, but it should be remembered that margarine lacks the flavour of butter, and contains no vitamins. There is usually no more than 0'3 per cent of volatile acids present in margarine. ~arin_«-cil_I!. be. used in confectionery to re- place butter. It creams up well and .g!y~_t1.l_e .cak~a good

the: .fla~our keeping

appearance and texture, :but



M onostearates

qualities are absent. Vitamins A and D are only added to those varieties of margarine sold for domestic consumption. . There are many varieties of this product with varying percentages of monoglyceride. The higher the mono- glyceride content, however, the better the improving effect, but the difference in the results obtained from the various products are slight, and as long as the monoglyceride content does not fall below 25 per cent it will be satisfactory. Self-emulsifying G.M.S. containing a small amount of soap has a greater improving effect than non-emulsifying G.M.S. While G.M.S. can be used alone to improve the crumb

of soap has a greater improving effect than non-emulsifying G.M.S. While G.M.S. can be used alone



softness of bread, it is considered advisable to use it in conjunction with fat. Commercial glycerol monostearates contain from 25"7 to 50 per cent of the monostearate; the other constituents being mainly glyceryl distearate, unchanged fat (tristearate) glycerol, stearic acid and glyceryl esters, and other fatty acids, depending on the method of manufacture employed and quality of the stearic acid used. The normal method of preparation is by the interaction of glycerol and stearic acid for G.M.S. preparations, but in the case of the super-glycerinated fats, the fats are reacted with glycerol. For commercial use, the monostearate is added to hot water and well beaten in, using I lb. to 5 lb. water. This emulsion sets to a jelly and is easily handled for use in doughs, generally at the rate of I lb. per sack, preferably in conjunction with I t lb. fat. Emulsions of the water-in-oil type are now marketed both for use in cake bread, fermented goods, and for tin-greasing purposes. The proportion of oil to water varies, and the quality of oil largely determines the suitability for any specific purpose. Emulsions may contain from 34 to 60 per cent oil, the average containing about 40 per cent. Stabilizers are used in some emulsions, but not in all types; yet, even without stabilizers emulsions can be re- markably stable. For bread-making purposes, weight for weight, compared with oils and some fats, a greater im- provement is obtained with emulsion than with the vegetable oils as marketed today, even though the fat content is much less. Lecithin has been known for nearly a hundred years as a major constituent of egg yolk. An egg weighing 60 gm. contains approximately 20 gm. of yolk ofwhich about 4 gm. is neutral fat (triglyceride) and 2 gm. lecithin and allied substances. Lecithin has been found associated with glycerides in all plants and animals and in micro-organisms, and appears to play an important part in the structure of living cells as well as in their physico-chemical and bio- chemical activities. The triglycerides are soluble in acetone, in contrast to the phosphorus-containing fats, which are insoluble in this solvent, and which can therefore be prepared in the laboratory by treatment of the ethereal extract of a tissue with excess of acetone. Lecithin may be regarded as a complex triglyceride in which one of the fatty acids has been replaced by a phos-




phoric acid and choline compound. The relationship may

be summarized as follows:



/Fatty Acid

/Fatty Acid

G-Fatty Acid

G-Fatty Acid

"'Fatty l\cid

"'OR group


/Fatty Acid G-Fatty Acid ,,"Phosphoric Acid

Phosphatidic Acid


/Fatty Acid G-Fatty Acid ,,"Phosphoric Acid -Choline

Lecithin or Phospha- ti4Jl Choline

The Phosphatides Associated with lecithin in soya bean, egg yolk, and plant and animal tissues are many allied substances (grouped with lecithin under the general term phosphatides) in which the choline is replaced by other nitrogenous bases or by amino acids. There may be present also other complex fats of somewhat different structures but all containing nitrogen and phosphorus. These, with the phosphatides, may be described as lipins (or phospho-lipids). The pro- perties of the individual lipins are by no means identical with those of lecithin, thus the properties of a commercial lecithin will vary somewhat on its source and on the per- centage of true lecithin present. Chemical The chemical properties of lecithin are to some extent a Properties reflection of the properties of the components of the molecule. Thus hydrolytic agents (acids, alkalis, and enzymes) attack lecithin, and after varying periods of time yield either a mixture of glycerol, fatty acids, phosphoric acid, choline, or alternatively, intermediate products such as glycero-phosphoric acid or phosphoryl-choline. The fatty acids present in lecithin from different sources have been examined in detail, and a range of higher fatty acids, saturated and unsaturated, containing 16 or more carbon atoms have been isolated. Because of the presence of unsaturated acids, the lecithins can take part in addition reactions: (i) they can be hydrogenated by standard methods to give hydro-lecithins of various degrees of un- saturation; (ii) they readily absorb iodine and the iodine value can be determined in the usual way and used as an index of unsaturation; and (iii) they absorb oxygen. Purified lecithins change rapidly when exposed to air, no doubt by a combination of oxidative and hydrolytic processes comparable to, but probably even more compli-


cated than, those responsible for the onset of rancidity in ordinary fats. Iron salts and other reagents catalyse the oxidation processes. These changes do not occur so rapidly with crude lecithin preparations, especially those from vegetable sources, be- cause of the presence of natural antioxidants, which are associated with the phosphatides, and which plan an im- portant protective role in stabilizing both the lecithins and the triglycerides. Thus we have the paradoxical situation that in spite of the instability of pure lecithin, commercial lecithin can often be recommended for its antioxidant properties. Lecithin does not give a true melting point but is de- composed by heat from 1I0 o C. onwards; crude mixtures containing triglycerides may be more stable. Lecithin, when freshly prepared, is an almost colourless

Colloidal and

waxy solid, but on exposure to air it rapidly becomes dark

Physical ProperticJ

brown in colour, following the absorption of oxygen. To obtain pure samples oflecithin, many precautions have to be taken at all stages and, in particular, low temperatures must be used and air and light excluded. The behaviour of lecithin with water has been extensively studied, especially in relation to its surface-active properties. Different stages can be distinguished, depending on the relative quantities of phosphatide and water present. Lecithin is hygroscopic and rapidly absorbs water vapour from the air. When a small amount of water is placed in contact with lecithin the solid appears to bud, giving irregular outgrowths-the so- called myelin forms. In the presence of more water the imbibition process continues and the mass swells, until (if sufficient fluid is available) a colloidal solution results. These, and related phenomena, have been studied by the usual technique of colloid chemistry, and it has been , shown, for example, that lecithin, like fatty acids, will form molecular films on water. Lecithin will lower the surface tension of water and aqueous solutions, and will lower the interfacial tension between water and insoluble substances such as fats or benzene. Lecithin may form loose combinations with sodium chloride, the resulting product being soluble in ether and other fat solvents. Complexes of lecithin with sugars and proteins have also been examined and these-like the salt combinations-may be of importance in physiology, and may help to explain certain results obtained in connection with the food uses of lecithin.


Lecithin is a hydrophilic colloid and, because of its effect







in lowering the interfacial tension between water and other substances, serves as a wetting agent atffi will promote emulsions of the"bil-in-water type. Lecithin will not only stabilize oil-water emulsions but will also act as a protective colloid in delaying or preventing the precipitation _by salts of hydrophobic colloids (e.g., metallic particles) dispersed in water. This observation forms the basis of some of the non-food uses oflecithin. It would appear that lecithin may have one of three distinct but allied functions in the animal body; it may be part of the actual structure of the living cell; it may playa part in cell membrane structure and permeability, or in other physico-chemical processes; it may be actively con- cerned in the metabolism of fats. There is considerable evidence in favour of all these hypotheses, but whatever the exact function may be, it is clear that lecithin is a naturally occurring substance of great importance, and that its use as a food adjunct can in no way be harmful. Considered from the nutritional viewpoint, it can contri- bute to the body the same components as the triglycerides, namely glycerol and fatty acids; it contributes also phos- phoric acid (important in mineral metabolism) and the base choline, which has certain properties which entitle it to a place among the water-soluble vitamins. The nutritional role of lecithin can well be illustrated by reference to the egg of the hen or any other bird. The egg contains all the nutrients necessary for the initial growth of the embryo, and during the incubation process the lecithin of the yolk is utilized partly to supply energy for growth and partly to supply materials required for the formation of body tissues. Thus phosphorus originally in the lecithin becomes part of the bone structure of the chicken. Considered in terms of calories, the fatty acids of lecithin will, on combustion, make the same energy contribution to the body as will the fatty acids from triglycerides or any other source. The total energy contribution of lecithin will be high, but somewhat lower than that of the triglycerides because of the presence of the phosphoric acid and choline. In Germany lecithin from rape-seed oil has been exten- sively used, and in Britain lecithin is being produced both from groundnut and soya oil. The amounts available at any time will be roughly proportional to the total quantities of oil extracted, and will therefore fluctuate with the supplies of edible oil from these sources.

to the total quantities of oil extracted, and will therefore fluctuate with the supplies of edible



A NUMBER of sweetening agents are used in the manufacture of confectionery. Most of them are natural substances belonging to a group of chemical compounds known as carbohydrates. The name carbohydrate is given to a large number of neutral bodies that are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the latter two being in the same proportion as in the molecule of water. There are two groups of these carbohydrates used as sweetening agents:

(I) The sucroses or disaccharides, the formula for which is written C12H220n' The principal members of this group are cane sugar, beet sugar, maple sugar, and palm sugar. (2) The simple sugars or monosaccharides, the formula for which is written C 6 H l2 0 6 The chief members of this group are dextrose or grape sugar, laevulose or fruit sugar, and invert sugar, which is a mixture of dextrose and laevulose. They are found naturally in honey. Commercial dextrose is known as glucose. These two groups of sugars are intimately related, because by a chemical reaction a molecule ofwater can join up with the sucrose, Cl2.HzzOn, with the breaking down of the molecule to produce one molecule each of dextrose and laevulose as shown in the following equation:

C12H220n + H 20

Cane sugar

= CSH120S + CSH12 0 S



Invert sugar

This reaction is brought about either by pr.o_longed boiling of the sugar with water or quickly by means of a very dilute acid, such as in fondant making. It is produced naturally by certain enzymes or ferments. Thus by enzymic action the invertase of the yeast breaks up sugar into invert sugar before the zymase of the yeast can produce carbon dioxide gas. Sugars are found naturally in nearly every plant structure-fruits, stems, leaves, and trunks of trees. These sugars are contained in the juices of the plants, and are usually mixed with invert sugars, dextrines, proteins, and




















boiled in a VACUUM PAN, and


Centrifugal Machines to recover








cattle food











Liquor is boiled in a VACUUM}

PAN: the resultant MASSE is cast into SLABS and the Syrup


1vIAcHINEs: the final wet slabs

are DRIED and then CUT into


out in













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