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FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAMME (HK03) GROUP 3 LAB REPORT KC 21001 LABORATORY IV

FACULTY OF ENGINEERING CHEMICAL ENGINEERING PROGRAMME (HK03)

GROUP 3 LAB REPORT KC 21001 LABORATORY IV SEMESTER II, SESSION 2017/2018

EXPERIMENT: TD 1 AIR CONDITIONING UNIT

GROUP MEMBERS:

NO.

NAME

MATRIC NO.

1.

ELYSANDRA PETER

BK16110036

2.

FIFFY FARAYHA BINTI YAKOB

BK16110108

3.

THIVIYA A/P DEVARAJU

BK16110271

4.

VERLON VINCENT LEE

BK16110034

GROUP DATE OF EXPERIMENT NAME OF LECTURER NAME OF LAB ASSISTANT VENUE DATE OF SUBMISSION

: 3 : 27 th MARCH 2018 : MDM HAFEZA BINTI ABU BAKAR : MR. RAYSIUS MODI : MAKMAL KIMIA BUKAN ORGANIK, BLOCK B : 10 th APRIL 2018

TABLE OF CONTENTS

NO

 

CONTENTS

PAGE NO.

 

1 1.0

Abstract

 

3

 

2 2.0

Introduction

4 7

2.1 Objectives

2.2 Introduction

2.3 Theories and Explanation

2.3.1 Equipment Descriptions

 

3 3.0

Experimental Procedure

8 11

3.1 Experimental Equipment

3.2 Methodology

3.3 Process Flow Diagram

 

4 4.0

Results

11

15

4.1 Data Result

 

4.2 Observations

 

5 5.0

Discussion

16

19

 

6 6.0

Questions

20

27

 

7 7.0

Conclusion

 

28

 

8 8.0

References

 

29

 

9 9.0

Appendices

30

32

2

1.0 ABSTRACT

The main objective in conducting this experiment is to gain familiarity and exposure with the air conditioning unit. Besides, through this experiment, the mass flow rate and heat capacity of air can be determined via Air Conditioning Unit A660. Moreover, the air- recirculation and mixing, computer monitoring, dynamic humidity and temperature control and the environmental control of a test chamber also can be investigated.

The procedures of the experiment include eight steps. Through these eight step by step procedure, it helps us to familiarize with all the equipment and component of the air conditioning unit plus enabling us to understand how it works. Apart from that a process flow diagram is constructed and can be seen in the experimental procedure section of this report. The purpose of constructing this process flow diagram is to give a simple and clear insight of how the experiment flows and works at the same time enables us to understand more about the working principle of air-conditioning unit.

In the end, from the experiment, it can be concluded that for the air flow of 4.0 mm H 2 O, the flow rate and the specific capacity is 0.3432 kg/s and 0.3374 kJ/kg.˚C respectively. For 4.3 mmH 2 O, the air mass flow rate is 0.3432 kg/s and the specific heat capacity of air is 0.3377 kJ/kg.˚C. For 4.5 mmH 2 O, the air mass flow rate is 0.3432 kg/s and the specific heat capacity of air is 0.3455 kJ/kg.˚C. The obtained value might deviate from the theoretical value due to certain errors and problems during experiment.

After conducting this experiment, the parts of the air conditioning system were learned. All the team members become familiar with the air recirculation in expansion valve, evaporator, compressor and conductor in the air conditioning unit. We understand in more details about the four processes occur in the refrigeration cycle or also known as vapor compression refrigeration cycle.

3

2.0

INTRODUCTION

2.1 Objectives

The objectives of this air conditioning unit experiment are:

1. To become familiarize with the air conditioning unit.

2. To determine the mass flow rate of air and heat capacity of air.

3. To investigate air re-circulation and mixing, computer monitoring, dynamic humidity and temperature control and the environmental control of a test chamber.

2.2 Introduction

environmental control of a test chamber. 2.2 Introduction Figure 1: A typical home air conditioning window

Figure 1: A typical home air conditioning window unit.

Air conditioning is the process of altering the properties of air primarily the temperature, humidity, air movement, and the quality of air in a conditioned space of building. It can provide widely varying atmosphere conditions ranging from conditions necessary for drying telephone cables to that necessary for cotton spinning. Air conditioning can maintain any atmospheric condition regardless of variations in outdoor weather. For human comfort in public buildings, places of employment and our homes, the ambient air should be between certain limits of both temperature and humidity. Air conditioning plant usually consists of several components such as: fans, filters, heat exchangers, humidifiers, and so on. The intake of air to the plant is from external atmosphere and in some cases air return from building and they are (air from outside + air return) delivered from the plant via ducting to distribution points.

The Air Conditioning Laboratory Unit A660 has been designed to demonstrate and to evaluate the energy transfer occurring in all the processes which are required in an air

4

conditioning plant. The unit is mounted on a mobile frame which houses the refrigeration unit and steam generator.

2.3 Theories and Explanation

The main objective in conducting this experiment is to gain insight and familiarity with the air conditioning unit. Through this experiment, we can determine the mass flow rate and heat capacity of air via Air Conditioning Unit A660. Moreover, we can investigate the air- recirculation and mixing, computer monitoring, dynamic humidity and temperature control and the environmental control of a test chamber.

Several data must be collected through this experiment in order to achieve the above objective, i.e. dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, temperature of working fluid inlet and outlet, pressure and refrigerant mass flow rate. The 4 main components in the A660 unit are as follows: compressor, condenser, evaporator and expansion valve. There are several formulas provided in the laboratory manual that can assist to calculate the mass flow rate and heat capacity of air.

The performance of an air conditioner is measured by Coefficient of Performance (C.O.P.) = Capacity/ Power consumed. When capacity is expressed Btu/h and the power in kW, this ratio is called the Energy Efficiency Ratio (EER).

Refrigeration System

The pressures recorded from the system are in gauge units relative to atmosphere. To convert these to absolute pressure, the local ambient pressure must first be added. The ambient pressure was

This equates to 101 / 2 .

Hence, Evaporator Outlet =

1010

or 0.757

or 29.8”

290 + 101 = 391 / 2

Condenser

Inlet

= 1008

+

101

= 1109 / 2

Condenser

Outlet = 1000

+

101 = 1101 / 2

5

Note that a measurable pressure drop exists in the condenser due to friction effects. The condenser is a commercial unit and as such is designed by manufactures with minimum cost as a prime consideration. The evaporator, however, is purpose designed for the A60 unit and utilizes oversize diameter tube to reduce the pressure drop to a negligible value.

Using the absolute pressures and temperatures recorded around the refrigeration system, a full cycle system diagram may be drawn on a refrigerant R134a pressure enthalpy diagram.

The state points may be determined as follows:

Evaporator Outlet/Compressor Inlet (State Point 1)

Locate of the 390 kN/m -2 horizontal pressure line and its intersection with a superheated temperature of 21.5 0 C (t 13 ). The vertical Enthalpy line h 1 at this point is 314 kJ kg -1 and the specific volume is 0.056 m 3 kg -1 .

Condenser Inlet (State Point 2)

Locate of the 1109 kNm -2 horizontal pressure line and its intersection with a superheated temperature of 81.0 0 C (t 14 ). The vertical Enthalpy line h 2 at this point is 364.4 kJ kg -1 .

Condenser Outlet (State Point 3)

Locate the 1101 kNm -2 horizontal pressure line and its intersection with the vertical sub-cooled liquid line from 430 0 C (t 15 ) saturated liquid condition.

It will be found that the point in this case is on the saturated liquid line. This indicates that the liquid is not sub-cooled and reinforces the fact that the condenser is a commercial design. The Enthalpy h 3 at this point is 163 kJkg -1 .

After leaving the condenser the liquids enter the receiver and passes to the expansion valve where it is assumed to expand adiabatically from 1101 kNm -2 to 391 kNm -2 . Hence a vertical line is drawn from State point 3 to State point 4. The 390 kNm -2 horizontal pressure line also corresponds to a line of constant enthalpy between the saturated liquid and saturated vapour conditions at 390 kNm -2 . The temperature of saturation at 391 kNm -2 is 8 0 C.

From the test results the following conditions may be determined for the refrigeration

system:

H 1

= 314 kJkg -1

6

Applying the Steady Flow Energy Equation between Stations A and B,

̇

+ = ̇ (ℎ − ℎ )

As there is no moisture change between A and B (there is no steam injection),

= ̇ ( )

= ̇ ( 3 1 )

= + ̇

̇

( 3 1 )

From the mains voltage V1, and the Pre-heater resistances,

=

235

2

46.8

+

235 2

46.4

= 2.39

Hence, substituting in the equation for ,

0.100+2.39

=

 

0.110(45.0−20.5)

=

0.924 1 1

This compress with 1.005 kj kg-1 K-1 as the accepted value.

This procedure may alternatively be undertaken across Station C to D using Re-

heating.

2.3.1 Equipment Description

The equipment used for this experiment is the Air Conditioning Laboratory Unit A660.

The main parts and other components of the Air Conditioning Laboratory unit A660 are

indicated in the table 1.0 with the description of the functions of individual components which

can be found in the 6.0 Question section question 1 (Page).

7

3.0 EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES 3.1 Experimental Equipment:

1. Air Conditioning Laboratory Unit A660

Equipment: 1. Air Conditioning Laboratory Unit A660 Figure 2: Air Conditioning Laboratory Unit A660 3.2

Figure 2: Air Conditioning Laboratory Unit A660

3.2 Methodology

1. The wet bulb reservoir is filled up to the marked level.

2. The power was switched on and the system was stabilized for 10 minutes.

3. The fan speed was adjusted, starting from 4mm H2O.

4. The compressor and 2 heaters (front) was switched on.

5. The readings of thermometer, evaporator, and condenser inlet and outlet pressure were recorded.

6. The experimental was repeated with 4.3 mm H2O and 4.5 mm H2O. The fan was left to run for 10 minutes before taking each reading.

7. The piping and instrumentation were observed, and the system was drawn.

8

Figure 3: Air Conditioning Laboratory Unit-A660 System 3.3 Process Flow Diagram Figure 4: Process flow

Figure 3: Air Conditioning Laboratory Unit-A660 System 3.3 Process Flow Diagram

Conditioning Laboratory Unit-A660 System 3.3 Process Flow Diagram Figure 4: Process flow diagram for Air conditioner

Figure 4: Process flow diagram for Air conditioner

9

Figure 5: Process flow of air conditioner Based on the process flow diagram in figure

Figure 5: Process flow of air conditioner

Based on the process flow diagram in figure 4, the air from the atmosphere enters a variable speed centrifugal fan before going into the ducting. While the air is entering the fan, steam is injected to increase the moisture contents so that a homogenous mixture of air and steam flows into the duct. Upon leaving the fan the air passes over two externally finned electric elements (pre-heating) which may be individually switched. The warmed air then enters a stabilizing section where its condition is determined by humidity or temperature sensor.

Next the air flows through the evaporator of the refrigeration unit where it may be cooled and will deposit some of its moisture content as liquid. The cool and drier air passes into another stabilizing section with humidity or temperature sensor before passing over two individually switched re-heating elements. The condition of the reheated air is determined, and it then passes back to the atmosphere through an air flow meter. The boiler which supplies the steam for humidification is controlled by a steam generation controller so that the rate of steam production rate may be varied. An electronic level switch is installed in the boiler so that, in conjunction with a solenoid valve, the water level can be maintained.

The refrigeration circuit is charged with refrigerant R134a. During the process vapor formed in the evaporator is drawn into a hermetic compressor which discharges into an air-

10

cooled condenser. The R134a liquid then passes through a flow meter and thermostatically controlled expansion valve to the evaporator. Temperature and pressure measuring points are provided in the refrigeration circuit. The fan speed may be varied by a thyristor mounted on the control panel switches and indicators are mounted on the control panel.

4.0 RESULTS

4.1 Result and Analysis

A. Parameter of 4.0 mmH 2 Oc

Parameter

I

II

Average

Dry bulb temperature of air before fan, t1 (°C)

27.1

28.0

27.55

Wet bulb temperature of air before fan, t2 (°C)

22.2

22.9

22.55

Dry bulb temperature of air before evaporator, t3 (°C)

48.7

50.1

49.40

40Wet bulb temperature of air before evaporator, t4 (°C)

28.9

29.5

29.20

Dry bulb temperature of air after evaporator, t5 (°C)

29.5

30.0

29.75

Wet bulb temperature of air after evaporator, t6 (°C)

25.8

26.9

26.35

Dry bulb temperature of air at outlet, t7 (°C)

31.2

31.6

31.40

Wet bulb temperature of air at outlet, t8 (°C)

23.4

23.8

23.60

Temperature of working fluid at evaporator outlet, t13 (°C)

31.4

31.8

31.60

Temperature of working fluid at condenser inlet, t13 (°C)

79.7

87.7

83.70

Temperature of working fluid at condenser outlet, t13 (°C)

43.7

44.8

44.25

Air flow reading (mmH2O)

4.4

3.8

4.10

Evaporator inlet pressure

245.0

258.0

251.50

Condenser inlet pressure, p2

1160.0

1200.0

1180.00

Condenser outlet pressure, p3

1160.0

1200.0

1180.00

Refrigerant mass flow rate (g/sec)

19.0

19.0

19.00

11

B. Parameter of 4.3 mmH 2 O

Parameter

I

II

Average

Dry bulb temperature of air before fan, t1 (°C)

27.8

28.0

27.90

Wet bulb temperature of air before fan, t2 (°C)

22.7

23.2

22.95

Dry bulb temperature of air before evaporator, t3 (°C)

49.2

50.0

49.60

Wet bulb temperature of air before evaporator, t4 (°C)

29.0

29.8

29.40

Dry bulb temperature of air after evaporator, t5 (°C)

29.9

30.4

30.15

Wet bulb temperature of air after evaporator, t6 (°C)

26.9

27.6

27.25

Dry bulb temperature of air at outlet, t7 (°C)

31.9

32.1

32.00

Wet bulb temperature of air at outlet, t8 (°C)

24.3

24.3

24.30

Temperature of working fluid at evaporator outlet, t13 (°C)

32.0

32.3

32.15

Temperature of working fluid at condenser inlet, t13 (°C)

90.1

91.2

90.65

Temperature of working fluid at condenser outlet, t13 (°C)

45.6

45.8

45.70

Air flow reading (mmH2O)

4.6

3.9

4.25

Evaporator inlet pressure

260.0

260.0

260.00

Condenser inlet pressure, p2

1225.0

1245.0

1235.00

Condenser outlet pressure, p3

1225.0

1225.0

1225.00

Refrigerant mass flow rate (g/sec)

19.0

19.0

19.00

12

C.

Parameter of 4.5 mmH 2 O

Parameter

I

II

Average

Dry bulb temperature of air before fan, t1 (°C)

28.0

28.1

28.05

Wet bulb temperature of air before fan, t2 (°C)

22.4

23.1

22.75

Dry bulb temperature of air before evaporator, t3 (°C)

49.0

49.4

49.20

Wet bulb temperature of air before evaporator, t4 (°C)

29.4

29.6

29.50

Dry bulb temperature of air after evaporator, t5 (°C)

30.6

30.2

30.40

Wet bulb temperature of air after evaporator, t6 (°C)

27.3

27.3

27.30

Dry bulb temperature of air at outlet, t7 (°C)

31.9

31.8

31.85

Wet bulb temperature of air at outlet, t8 (°C)

24.5

24.5

24.50

Temperature of working fluid at evaporator outlet, t13 (°C)

31.8

31.9

31.85

Temperature of working fluid at condenser inlet, t13 (°C)

91.1

91.1

91.10

Temperature of working fluid at condenser outlet, t13 (°C)

45.9

45.5

45.70

Air flow reading (mmH2O)

4.9

4.4

4.65

Evaporator inlet pressure

260.0

260.0

260.00

Condenser inlet pressure, p2

1275.0

1245.0

1260.00

Condenser outlet pressure, p3

1225.0

1225.0

1225.00

Refrigerant mass flow rate (g/sec)

20.0

20.0

20.00

13

D.

Without heater (Parameter of 4.0 mmH 2 O)

Parameter

I

Dry bulb temperature of air before fan, t1 (°C)

27.6

Wet bulb temperature of air before fan, t2 (°C)

22.7

Dry bulb temperature of air before evaporator, t3 (°C)

28.7

Wet bulb temperature of air before evaporator, t4 (°C)

23.1

Dry bulb temperature of air after evaporator, t5 (°C)

19.3

Wet bulb temperature of air after evaporator, t6 (°C)

19.2

Dry bulb temperature of air at outlet, t7 (°C)

20.2

Wet bulb temperature of air at outlet, t8 (°C)

19.1

Temperature of working fluid at evaporator outlet, t13 (°C)

18.0

Temperature of working fluid at condenser inlet, t13 (°C)

84.0

Temperature of working fluid at condenser outlet, t13 (°C)

44.1

Air flow reading (mmH2O)

4.3

Evaporator inlet pressure

239.0

Condenser inlet pressure, p2

1180.0

Condenser outlet pressure, p3

1170.0

Refrigerant mass flow rate (g/sec)

19.0

14

4.2 Observations

1) The refrigerant reading is inconsistent due to air bubbles. 2) Air flowing reading is inconsistent. 3) The temperature of working fluid at condenser decreases from inlet to outlet due to the presence of refrigerant. 4) The pressure reading is constant. 5) Without heater the parameter reading lower compare to when pre-heater is switched on. 6) Air flow increases, all the parameter reading is fairly increases. 7) There were some errors occurred to the reading due to air bubbles as the parallax error and the heat transfer that loss to the surroundings.

15

5.0 DISCUSSION

Air conditioning provides control of temperature, relative humidity, air motion, radiant heat, removal of airborne particles and contaminating gases. Unfortunately, the Green House effect is getting serious and the world temperature is increasing. Air-conditioning industries growth rapidly because of the human’s demand, therefore many Research and Development (R&D) were carried out to upgrading the performance of air-conditioning and its safety.

The major reason of this experiment been carried out is to expose students to the air conditioning unit, to determine the mass flow rate of the air and heat capacity of the air by using the formula given as well as to investigate the air re-circulation and mixing, computer monitoring, dynamic humidity and temperature control and the environmental control of a test chamber. In this experiment, Air conditioning Laboratory Unit A660 was used to run the experiment. Air-conditioning processes including simple heating, simple cooling, humidifying and dehumidifying. The working principles of air conditioner unit with the temperature being recorded from all the thermometers were studied.

The experiment was carried out for three different air flows, which are 4.0, 4.3 and

4.5 mm H 2 O. During in the experiment, all the parameters values stated in results sheet for

the air flow were recorded. The specific humidity and specific enthalpy from the psychometric chart were all determined based on the data collected. Therefore, the enthalpy of water vapors at specific temperature was found from the steam table. With all the calculated data, the air mass flow rate and specific heat capacity of air was calculated.

The experiment was done by following the systematic set up from filling up the wet reservoir to the required amount, switching on the power and allowing the system to stabilize in 10 minutes, the fan was adjusted and the reading was taken for 4.0mmH 2 O, 4.3mmH 2 O and 4.5mmH 2 O then the two compressors were switched on and the fan was left to run for 10 minutes all the readings of condenser, thermometer, evaporator, inlet and outlet pressure were recorded at the interval of 10 minutes all the procedures were followed for both 4.3mm H 2 o and 4.5mm H 2 O.

The reading of the thermometer was taken at the point of meniscus. From the value of enthalpy that have calculated, the values of mass flow rate and the specific heat capacity of air were determined as 0.3432kg/s and 0.3419 kJ/kg C respectively. The theoretical value of specific heat capacity was totally different from the actual specific heat capacity which is 1.005 kJ/kg°C. The parameter readings with heater and without heater was compared and

16

the results show that the parameter readings without heater were lower than the parameter readings with heater. This is because of the heater which release heat until the air that flowing out from air conditioner was warmer and less dynamic humidity. The result obtained was differ from the theoretical value. This may be due to the readings of temperature taken when the system was still not yet stabilized. The wet bulb temperature of air before evaporator, t 4 is lower than the expected value. The temperature at this point should be higher because the evaporator absorbs heat from surroundings and the system heat is expected to increase. Other than that, there was also parallax error which resulted from taking the reading in calibrated apparatus in a wrong way, this kind of error can be eliminated by placing the object on a flat surface and the eyes of the observer should be perpendicular to the calibration system to get the accurate reading. The fan and the air conditioner in the laboratory can be said as distractors which affects the dynamic humidity whereby can affect in taking all readings.

On the other hand, for each air flow, the experiment was repeated twice in order to get the average. The pressure gauge reading was constant at the ranges of 1150 to 1245 mmHg. The temperature of the working fluid at condenser decreases from inlet to outlet. For example, with heater the temperature of working fluid at condenser inlet is 91.1°C whereas the temperature of working fluid at condenser outlet is 45.7°C. There was a quite difference in temperature due to the process of condensation where the vapor was changed to water from. The refrigerant flow rate was constant at the ranges of 19 to 20 g/sec.

Dry bulb temperature is the temperature of air as sensed by a thermometer whereas the wet bulb sensed by a thermometer whose bulb is wrapped with a water-soaked wick in rapidly moving air. These two instruments used to measure the relative humidity of the atmosphere. Relative humidity is the amount of water vapour present in air expressed as a percentage of the amount needed for saturation at the same temperature. The relative humidity is calculated from the difference in readings of thermometers when water evaporates from the wet bulb, the temperature automatically will decrease.

In this experiment, there were 16 readings that need to be recorded at the same time. Since there are only 4 members in a group, it was a bit difficult to read more than 1 reading at a time. Moreover, the reading of the temperature can be taken only once at the same time. As a result of that, it is quite harder to get the reading accurately as the duration of the pressure gauge to reach maximum was very short. Besides that, the air flow reading deviated from the intended value after the A660 air conditioning unit was left for 10 minutes before

17

taking the readings. This factor also could cause the calculations to be inaccurate as the air

flow reading was not stable. The reading taken was no longer be at 4.0 mmH 2 O, 4.3 mmH 2 O

and 4.5 mmH 2 O as intended.

There are some precaution steps that need to be taken in order to increase the accuracy of the results. The cycling fan needs to be switched off during the experiment so that the humidity won’t be affected. In case if the cycling fan is not switched off, the value of the specific humidity will decrease due to the blowing air. Apart from that, the water supply also needs to be making sure that it is well functioned and supply water to the steam generator.

The evaporating conditions of refrigerant used, R 134a may fall below 0°C at the low air flow rates and low ambient temperature. If this case happens, ice will form on the air outside of the evaporator tubes, fins and the expansion valve. So, the ice will eventually stop the air flow. However, icing can be avoided by increasing the air flow or switching on the air pre-heaters. The three heater elements which fitted to the steam generator are fitted with automatic reset high temperature cut-out devices. So, if the user forgets to turn on the water supply, the thermostat will turn off the power at the heater and prevent a dangerous situation from developing.

The readings of temperature and pressure also have to be observed carefully. The pressure readings are supposed to be taken when they reach the maximum value. However, the reading could not be that accurate because the indicator of the pressure gauge was always moving and unstable. Moreover, parallax error could occur too when taking the reading of the thermometer.

Besides that, when taking the reading of flow rate of the refrigerant, it was difficult to determine the flow rate as the level of the fluid inside the flow meter will move upward and downward due to its low stability. So, it has to wait until the level of the fluid become stable before taking the reading. Thus, this is time consuming.

In order to achieve more satisfactory results, there are several steps need to be taken. When humidification is required, the rate of steam injection should not exceed that which can be absorbed by the air. If it is found that the mist is at some distance downstream of the steam distributor, it can be either reduces the heat input to the boiler or, increase the air flow rate or, increase the air dry bulb temperature by switching on more pre-heat.

18

The air should be fairly humid when it is intended to demonstrate de-humidification. If necessary, steam may be injected. The cooler has a large surface area on which the condensation takes place. Because of this, an appreciable time elapses before condensate is charged from the drain at the same rate as it is precipitated. The product of the air mass flow rate and the change of specific humidity can be easily determined the change of moisture content of the air. After a sufficient period under steady conditions, agreement between this and the drainage rate will be obtained.

After collected all the data, it shows that the higher the air flow reading, the higher the air mass flow rate. It also shows that the higher the air flow reading, the lower the specific heat capacity of air. The experiment needs to be repeated so that the average reading can be taken and get more accurate results. The refrigerant inside mostly new air conditioning is R134a which is an ozone friendly refrigerant. So, it won’t contribute to the ozone depletion just like R22 refrigerant in the conventional air-conditioning unit. This A660 unit also contains

R134a.

19

6.0 QUESTIONS

1. Give a list of components related to air conditioning plant with a brief description of each component.

Air Conditioning Laboratory Unit A660 the main parts of the Air Conditioning Laboratory Unit A660 are indicated in the table below with the description of the functions of individual components.

Component

Function

Boiler

Used for humidification or for the air heaters.

Filters

1. Coarse Usually wire mesh. To remove insects, leaves and other large

2. airborne particles.

3. Fine Paper or viscous or electrostatic type. To remove most of the airborne dust.

Filter drier

It filters any particles that could restrict the capillary tube and trap moisture.

Compressor

A pump that pressurizes refrigerant.

Condenser

Facilitates heat transfer.

Expansion valve

Regulates refrigerant flow into the evaporator.

Evaporator

Receives the liquid refrigerant

Fan

They are required to cause the air movement and to make good the pressure drop due to the duct and system resistances.

Eliminators

They are specially shaped baffles through which the air flows and also remove entrained water droplets from air stream.

Mixers

They are employed to blend two steams of air to achieve desired condition and economy.

Heat exchangers

1. Usually are finned on the air side, are needed to increase or decrease the air temperature.

2. Heaters may use steam, hot water of electricity as the heating medium.

3. Coolers may be supplied in which liquid refrigerant boils as a low temperature within the heat exchanger.

Humidifiers

1. It is used to increase the moisture content of air. Water may be

20

 

sprayed directly into air, may be evaporated from a moist surface, or alternately, steam may be injected into the air. 2. The latter also results in heating if the air.

Dehumidifier

1. They are used to reduce the moisture content of the air. This is usually achieved by cooling the air below its dew point so that surplus moisture is precipitated. 2. Sometimes hygroscopic materials are used to achieve dehumidification, but of course these require regeneration.

Hygrometer

They are instruments for measuring the moisture content of the atmosphere.

Refrigeration

It is used for the air coolers.

plant

Inclined

It indicates air pressure in very low pressure system.

manometer

Orifice

It is a small opening through which fluid flows.

Stop valve

It prevents refrigerant flow back to liquid receiver.

Sight glass

It is used to determine the condition of the liquid refrigerant in the liquid line.

Solenoid valve

It controls the flow of the refrigerant in a circuit or to isolate components from the rest of the system.

Liquid receiver

It keeps the refrigerant in the liquid form.

Table 1.0: Components and functions of air conditioning unit

21

2.

From the psychometric chart, find the following:

Temperature

Parameters

4.0mm H 2 O

4.3mm H 2 O

4.5mm H 2 O

t 1 , t 2

Specific humidity, ω A

0.0159

0.0164

0.0160

(kg of H 2 O / kg of DA)

Specific enthalpy, h A

68.3

69.9

69.0

(kJ / kg DA)

t 3 , t 4

Specific humidity, ω B

0.0188

0.0191

0.0194

(kg of H 2 O / kg of DA)

Specific enthalpy, h B

98.4

99.4

100.0

(kJ / kg DA)

t 5 , t 6

Specific humidity, ω C

0.0215

0.0230

0.0230

(kg of H 2 O / kg of DA)

Specific enthalpy, h C

84.8

89.2

89.4

(kJ / kg DA)

t 7 , t 8

Specific humidity, ω D

0.0160

0.0169

0.0173

(kg of H 2 O / kg of DA)

Specific enthalpy, h D

72.4

75.4

76.3

(kJ / kg DA)

Specific volume, v D (m 3 /kg)

0.890

0.890

0.890

3. From the steam tables: for ambient air the enthalpy of water vapour h g at atmospheric pressure = 2675.6 kJ/kg Boiler feed water, h j at 20 o C (assume) = 2537.4 kJ/kg

22

4. Calculate the mass flow rate, a

0.0517

z V D
z
V
D

kgs

1

I) 4.0mm H 2 O

a

0.0517

(4.0

X 10

3

m H O   1.01325

 

X 10

5

N m

 

/

2

)

2

10.333 m H O

2

  1

kg m s

/

2

1 N

0.890

m

3

/

kg

kg / s

kg s

0.3432

/

II) 4.3mm H 2 O

a

0.0517

(4.0

X

10

m H O   1.01325

3

2

)

X

10

5

N / m kg m s

2

1

 

/

2

10.333 m H O

2

1

N

0.890

m

3

/

kg

kg / s

0.3432 kg / s

III) 4.5mm H 2 O

a

 5 2 2 1.01325 X 10 N m  1 kg  m s
5
2
2
1.01325
X
10
N m  1 kg  m s  
/
/
3
(4.0
X
10
 m H O
)
2
10.333 m H O
1
N
2
  
 0.0517
kg / s
3
0.890
m
/
kg
 kg s
0.3432
/

Average of mass flow rate of air:

a

(0.3432

0.3432 0.3432) kg / s

3

0.3432 kg / s

23

5.

Calculate the specific heat capacity of air,

C P air

FanPower Q

P

m

a

(

t t )

3

1

Where the energy equation for steady flow between A and B.

Q P = 2.38 kW

Fan Power = 0.150 kJ/s

I) 4.0mm H 2 O

a = 0.3432 kg/s

;

t 1 = 27.55

C p air

0.150

2.38

kJ s

/

0.3432

0.3374

kg s

kJ kg C

/

/

49.40

o

27.55

o

C

II) 4.3mm H 2 O

a = 0.3432 kg/s

;

t 1 = 27.90

C p air

0.150 2.38

kJ s

/

kg

0.3397 kJ

0.3432

/

/

s 49.60

kg

o

C

27.90

o

C

III) 4.5mm H 2 O

a = 0.3432 kg/s

;

t 1 = 28.05

24

;

t 3 = 49.40

;

t 3 = 49.60

;

t 3 = 49.20

C p air

0.150

2.38 kJ / s

0.3432

0.3485

kg s

/

49.20

o

kJ kg C

/

28.05

o

C

Average of specific heat capacity of air is:

C p air

0.3374

0.3397

0.3485

o

kJ kg C

/

0.3419

o

kJ kg C

/

3

6. Draw the system featuring the main equipment in the air conditioning unit.

Air conditioners use the vapor compression cycle, a 4-step process as shown in figure 6 and 7:

Process 1-2: Isentropic compression in a compressor. Process 2-3: Heat rejection in a condenser coil, P = constant. Process 3-4: Expansion in the throttling valve. Process 4-1: Heat absorption in an evaporator coil, P = constant.

For an ideal cycle, the refrigerant enters the compressor as a saturated vapor and is compressed isentropically. The compressor in the outside unit pressurize a gaseous refrigerant. The refrigerant heats up during the process and at the same time the temperature increases during the compression. The refrigerant then enters the condenser as a superheated vapor and leaves as a saturated liquid. Fans in the outdoor unit blow air across the heated, pressurize gas in the condensing coil. After that, the refrigerant gas cools and condenses into liquid. The pressurized liquid is then piped inside the air to the air-handling unit and enters throttling valve. The pressure and temperature both drop as it passes through the throttling valve. The cold liquid circulates through the evaporator coils. Inside air is blown across the coils and cooled while the refrigerant warns and evaporates. The cooled air is blown through the ductwork. The refrigerant evaporates completely as it absorbs heat from the surroundings. Then, it returns to the outdoor unit where the process repeats.

25

Figure 6: Air conditioning vapor compression cycle Figure 7: the main equipment of the air

Figure 6: Air conditioning vapor compression cycle

Figure 6: Air conditioning vapor compression cycle Figure 7: the main equipment of the air conditioning

Figure 7: the main equipment of the air conditioning unit

26

7.

Discuss and conclude your findings.

The average specific heat capacity of air is shown as below:

= (0.3374

+ 0.3397 + 0.3485)/ ∙ ℃

3

= 0.3419 / ∙ ℃

From the data analysis, for 4.0 mmH2O, the air mass flow rate is 0.3432 kg/s

and the specific heat capacity of air is 0.3374 kJ/kg.K. For 4.3 mmH2O, the air mass

flow rate is 0.3432 kg/s and the specific heat capacity of air is 0.3397 kJ/kg.K. For 4.5

mmH2O, the air mass flow rate is 0.3432 kg/s and the specific heat capacity of air is

0.3485 kJ/kg.K. The average specific heat capacity calculated is 0.3419 kJ/kg.K.

However, the theoretical value of specific heat capacity of air is approximately 1.005

kJ/kg.K. This may be due to the readings of temperature taken when the system was

still not yet stabilized. Through this experiment, it shows that the higher the air flow

reading, the higher the air mass flow rate. Other than that, it also shows that the

higher the air flow reading, the lower the specific heat capacity of air.

27

7.0 CONCLUSION

Based on this experiment, air conditioning provides control of temperature, relative humidity, air motion, radiant heat, removal of airborne particles and contaminating gases. From the result obtained, the air flow of 4.0 mm H2O, the mass flow rate and the specific capacity is 0.3432 kg/s and 0.3374 kJ/kg.°C respectively. For 4.3 mmH2O, the air mass flow rate is 0.3432 kg/s and the specific heat capacity of air is 0.3377 kJ/kg.°C. For 4.5 mmH2O, the air mass flow rate is 0.3432 kg/s and the specific heat capacity of air is 0.3455 kJ/kg.°C. The average specific heat capacity of air is 0.3419 kJ/kg.°C. The obtained value might deviate from the theoretical value due to certain errors and problems during the experiment that have mentioned in the discussion part. Thus, precaution steps must be taken to obtain more accurate data.

After conducting this experiment, the parts of the air conditioning system are learned. It has become familiar with the air re-circulation in expansion valve, evaporator, compressor and conductor in the air conditioning unit. The four processes occur in the refrigeration cycle (vapor compression refrigeration cycle) are learned and understood in more details. Furthermore, air re-circulation and mixing, computer monitoring, dynamic humidity and temperature control and the environmental control of a test chamber are learned. Hence, the objectives of the experiment are achieved.

28

REFERENCES

Air conditioning Laboratory Unit A660 operation manual, P. A. Hilton Ltd, United Kingdom.

Air conditioning (n.d.) Retrieved from: http://home.howstuffworks.com/ac1.htm (Retrieved on 7 th April 2018.)

Air Conditioning Unit (n.d.), Retrieved from: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_conditioning (Retrieved on 7 th April 2018)

Compression refrigeration system (n.d.) Retrieved from:

http://web.mit.edu/2.972/www/reports/compression_refrigeration_system/compressi

on_refrigeration_system.html. retrieved on 7 th April 2018

Chapter

7:

Heating,

ventilation,

air

conditioning

(HVAC),

(n.d.).

Retrieved

from:

Lab manual KC21001 Laboratory IV semester 2 2017/2018.

Moran, M.J. & Shapiro, H.N. (2008). Fundamentals of Engineering Thermodynamics. United

States of America: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

Relative Humidity, (n.d.). Retrieved from:

https://graphical.weather.gov/definitions/defineRH.html (Retrieved on 9 th April 2018)

29

9.0 APPENDICES

9.0 APPENDICES Figure 6: Air conditioning Laboratory Unit A660 Figure 7: Schematic Diagram of the air

Figure 6: Air conditioning Laboratory Unit A660

9.0 APPENDICES Figure 6: Air conditioning Laboratory Unit A660 Figure 7: Schematic Diagram of the air

Figure 7: Schematic Diagram of the air conditioner

30

Figure 8: Reference schematic diagram of the air conditioner Figure 9: Air flow meter 31

Figure 8: Reference schematic diagram of the air conditioner

Figure 8: Reference schematic diagram of the air conditioner Figure 9: Air flow meter 31

Figure 9: Air flow meter

31

Figure 10: Temperature regulator and 15 Way Selection Switch 32

Figure 10: Temperature regulator and 15 Way Selection Switch

32