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International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment (2017) 6, 191–206

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Gulf Organisation for Research and Development

International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment


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Original Article/Research

Hardened properties of self-compacting concrete with different


crumb rubber size and content
Nahla Naji Hilal
Dams and Water Resources Engineering Department, College of Engineering, University of Anbar, Ramadi, Anbar, Iraq

Received 20 October 2016; accepted 18 March 2017

Abstract

This paper aims at investigating the effect of crumb rubber size and content on hardened characteristics of self-compacting concrete.
To this end, different self-compacting concrete mixtures were designed at constant water-to-binder ratio of 0.35 and 520 kg/m3 of binder
content. The class F fly ash was replaced with cement as 30% by weight. Six designated crumb rubber contents of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%,
and 25% and three different sized crumb rubbers (No. 18, No. 5, and mixed crumb rubber) were considered as experimental parameters.
According to the obtained results, the use of crumb rubber had a negative effect on the hardened properties of self-compacting concretes
and the significant improvement was achieved with addition of all tire wastes types, for ductility.
Ó 2017 The Gulf Organisation for Research and Development. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Crumb rubber content; Crumb rubber size; Hardened property; Self-compacting concrete; Waste tire

1. Introduction geneity during the processes of transportation, placing,


and curing in order to guarantee long term durability
Self-compacting concrete (SCC) is known as a revolu- and adequate structural performance. If SCC is developed
tion in concrete placement. Since SCC flows under its successfully, an appropriate balance between stability and
own weight, there is no need for any external vibration deformability can be ensured. In literature, there are some
to compact concrete. SCC, as a highly workable concrete, guidelines for mixture proportioning of SCC, including (i)
was first introduced in the late 1980s in Japan to reduce volume ratio of aggregate to cementitious mate-
(Nagamoto and Ozawa, 1997). This was capable of flowing rial (Nagamoto and Ozawa, 1997; Khayat and Ghezal,
under its weight through restricted sections with no segre- 1999); (ii) to increase paste volume and water-cement ratio
gation and bleeding. This material needs to have a rela- (w/c); (iii) to control carefully the maximum coarse aggre-
tively low yield value in order to guarantee a high flow gate particle size and total volume; and (iv) to make use of
capability and a moderate viscosity to resist segregation different viscosity enhancing admixtures (VEA)
and bleeding. In addition, SCC should keep up its homo- (Nagamoto and Ozawa, 1997).
The changes of strength, usefulness and vibrant attri-
butes of rubberized concretes with respect to magnitude
E-mail address: nahla_naji2007@yahoo.com and quantity of the rubber types and rubber scraps have
Peer review under responsibility of The Gulf Organisation for Research
been explored by many studies in last two decades
and Development.

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijsbe.2017.03.001
2212-6090/Ó 2017 The Gulf Organisation for Research and Development. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
192 N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206

(Petersson et al., 1996). The rubberized concrete is found to however, the Crumb Rubber adjusted concrete has an elas-
be a perfect material for the structural members exposed to ticity modulus which is 34% less contrasted with the con-
rapid effects and for which preferred toughness or deforma- trol which additionally holds silica fume that has been
bility holds greater significance than strength, like road indicated to build compressive strength and it likewise
foundations, jersey barriers and bridge barriers. Specifi- builds the modulus of elasticity. By and large, the elasticity
cally, rubberized concrete has dynamic attributes to mini- modulus rises as the strength rises.
mize the vibration and to absorb the impact energy more Najim and Hall (2012) made a study on plain rubberized
helpfully than the conventional concrete. concrete (PRC) and they found that rubber total substitu-
It has been asserted by Guneyisi et al. (2004) that the tion diminished the Crack mouth open uprooting (mm)
rubber content decreases the strength of concretes that (CMOD) at a given stacking level bringing about more
include silica fume, crumb rubber and tire chips. It has excellent flexural durability values, no doubt, because of
been stated by these authors that a 40 MPa concrete can vitality retention by the rubber. Najim and Hall (2013)
be produced by substituting a volume of 15% of aggregates found that, after 0.1 mm avoidance, the specimens with
with rubber waste. (mortar precoated rubber total) (SCRC3) and bond glue
Crumb rubber from scrap tires (2–6 mm) were employed (concrete glue precoated rubber total (SCRC2) P-T/C
by Najim and Hall (2012) as a partial substitute for Fine demonstrated unrivalled execution with relevance to fur-
Aggregate (FA), Coarse Aggregate (CA) and mixed Fine ther diminishing the Crack mouth open dislodging
and Coarse Aggregate (FCA) in self compacting concrete (CMOD) at a given burden. This likewise happened, yet
at weighted proportions of 5%, 10% and 15%. It has been to a lesser degree, with NaOH pre-treatment and water
asserted by these authors that the compressive strength washing. Such conduct could be ascribed to the capacity
decreases in the same manner as that shown for Plain Rub- of the covered rubber to ingest more vitality by holding
berised Concrete (PRC). crack proliferation inside the concrete body, e.g. by length-
To substitute both fine and rough aggregates with exact ening crack ways and anxiety unwinding.
amounts of 10% and 20% according to weight, Seleem et al. (2008) specified that the fracture durability
Sukontasukkul and Chaikaew (2006) use crumb rubber for either self compaction or typical vibrated concrete
concrete in three different categories: (1) No. 6, (2) No. diminished with expanding crack–depth proportion, and
20 and (3) Combined No. 6 + 20. The results obtained the Self compacting concrete recorded higher impervious-
showed that the plain concrete block had greater flexural ness to crack spread contrasted with ordinary vibrated con-
strength compared to crumb rubber concrete blocks. crete independent of the kind of coarse total. Hamid
The tensile strength of concretes with silica fume, crumb Eskandari et al. (2012) report self compacting concrete
rubber and tire chips was examined by Guneyisi et al. (SCC) is more bendable than elite concrete (HPC). Conse-
(2004). In accordance with the rubber content, the tensile quently, it could be utilized in any event for vast size struc-
strength was reduced but the presence of silica fume gives tures. Furthermore the qualities of trademark length of
it a higher filler effect to add to its benefits. The reduction SCC (lch) are to be more when contrasted with the HPC,
in the tensile strength is not affected as much as compressive NC and high strength concrete. It may be presumed that
strength reduction is by the addition of rubber content. Even the SCC is more flexible in contrast to the HPC.
at similar compressive strengths, the NVC has greater tensile The strength of the bond of the self-compacting concrete
strength than the SCC and SCRC Najim and Hall (2012). as reported by Helincks et al. (2013) after studying large
The reason behind this is the dense microstructure in SCC bar diameters is equally high as the bond strength of the
mixes that causes greater brittleness and lesser splitting traditional vibrated concrete. The bond strength of SCC
strength. with smaller bar diameters is somewhat greater and, with
It was obviously seen that the increment in the elastic the smaller diameters takes place the greatest variation.
modulus was more diminutive as contrasted with that in The bond strength is decreased owing to Portland cement
the compressive and splitting tensile strengths Guneyisi substitution with dolomite powder as suggested by
et al. (2004). By and large, the plain and the rubberized Kamal et al. (2012). The mechanical interaction was inter-
concretes displayed an increment in the modulus of up to fered with as the chemical adhesion characteristic was bet-
15% relying upon the measure of silica fume utilized. tered. The bond strength was mainly due to the resistance
Notwithstanding, for the same w/cm proportion and the by friction and silica fume or fly ash addition which effec-
content of rubber, all mixtures accomplished just about tively, with the increase of dolomite powder content, pre-
comparable results. vents extended degradation of the bond strength.
Zheng et al. (2008a,b) specified that the crumb rubber The effect of rubber types and rubber content on
(80% < 262 mm) has a lesser affect in the elasticity modulus mechanical properties of concrete is studied by Aslani
compared to the crushed rubber (15–40 mm). It is indicated (2016) He reports the following conclusions:
by Gideon (2012) that at 15% Crumb Rubber substitution,
the concrete with Crumb Rubber has modulus of elasticity  The proposed compressive stress–strain relationship is
which is 11% higher than that of the control concrete. simple and reliable for modeling the compressive behav-
When contrasting the two concretes and silica smoulder, ior of RC. Moreover, using these relationships in the
N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206 193

finite element method (FEM) is more simple and (30% of total binder content by weight) was introduced
suitable. in the mixture. The hardened properties of SCCs were
 The proposed relationships for the compressive, tensile investigated in terms of the compressive strength, splitting
and flexural strengths, elasticity modulus, and peak tensile strength, flexural, modulus of elasticity, fracture
strain of RC with different content of WTR are in good energy and bond strength. Totally 16 self-compacting rub-
reasonable agreement with the experimental results. berized concrete (SCRC) mixtures were designed and tested
Also, the relationships for previously noted mechanical at 90 days.
properties are proposed that can calculate these proper-
ties related to the CR, TC, and CR + CT contents. 2. Experimental study
 The proposed relationships for compressive strength of
RC with CR, TC, and CR + CT contents at 7 and 2.1. Materials
28 days of age and with two different w/c ratio ranges
(0.40–0.50, and 0.50–0.60) are covered. Also, the pro- 2.1.1. Cement and fly ash
posed relationships for modulus of elasticity for three Ordinary Portland cement (CEM I 42.5R) with specific
RC mixtures at 28 days of age and with two different gravity of 3.15 g/cm3 and Blaine fineness of 326 m2/kg
w/c ratio ranges (i.e., 0.40–0.50 and 0.50–0.70) are was utilized in this study. Class F fly ash (FA) according
covered. to ASTM C 618 (ASTM, 2000) with a specific gravity of
 These relationships are proposed for tensile strength, 2.25 g/cm3 and Blaine fineness of 379 m2/kg was utilized
flexural strength, and peak strain of RC with CR, TC, in the manufacturing of the SCCs. Physical properties
and CR + CT contents at 28 days of age. and chemical compositions of the cement and fly ash are
presented in Table 1.
Aslani and Nejadi (2012) studied bond strength model
based on the experimental results from eight recent investi-
gations of SCC and CC. In addition, the proposed model, 2.1.2. Aggregates
code provisions, and empirical equations and experimental The coarse aggregate was river gravel with a nominal
results from recent studies on the bond strength of SCC maximum size of 16 mm and the fine aggregate, a mixture
and CC are compared. The comparison is based on the of natural river sand and crushed limestone, was used with
measured bond between reinforcing steel and concrete uti- a maximum size of 4 mm. River sand, crushed sand, and
lizing the pullout test on the embedded bars at various river gravel had specific gravities of 2.65, 2.43, and 2.71,
heights in the mock-up structural elements to assess the respectively. The particle size gradation obtained through
top bar effect on single bars in small prismatic specimens the sieve analysis of the fine and coarse aggregates is given
by conducting beam tests. The investigated varying param- in Fig. 4.
eters on bond strength are the: steel bar diameter, concrete
compressive strength, concrete type, curing age of the con- 2.1.3. Crumb rubber
crete, and height of the embedded bar along. The experi- The No. 18 crumb rubber (No. 18 CR) and No. 5 crumb
mental results showed the ultimate and mean bond rubber (No. 5 CR) are two different sizes of crumb rubbers.
strengths are greater in SCC than in CC, For the top cast The No. 18 CR is a fine material passing from 1-mm sieve
bars, the local bond strength for SCC is greater than that whereas the No. 5 CR is a material retaining on 1-mm sieve
for CC and the bond strength of SCC is as high as the bond and passing from 4-mm sieve. Moreover, the No. 18 CR
strength for CC when large bar diameters are studied. For and No. 5 CR were mixed to obtain a new fine material
smaller bar diameters, the bond strength of SCC is slightly with a gradation close to that of the sand. A crumb rubber
higher, with the largest difference occurring for the smallest (CR) of which gradation is very close to that of the sand
bar diameters. was achieved by mixing 40% of No. 18 CR and 60% of
This study covers the effect of crumb rubber content and Table 1
size on the hardened properties of SCC. Therefore, three Physical properties and chemical compositions of Portland cement and fly
different sized crumb rubbers (No. 18, No. 5, and mixed ash.
crumb rubbers) and their mixtures were replaced with the Analysis Report (%) Cement Fly ash
natural sand at five different contents of 5%, 10%, 15%, CaO 62.58 4.24
20%, and 25% as a volume. The No. 18 crumb rubber is SiO2 20.25 56.2
a fine material passing from 1-mm sieve whereas the No. Al2O3 5.31 20.17
5 crumb rubber is a fine material retaining on 1-mm sieve Fe2O3 4.04 6.69
MgO 2.82 1.92
and passing from 4-mm sieve. Moreover, No. 18 and No.
SO3 2.73 0.49
5 crumb rubbers are mixed to achieve a new fine material K2O 0.92 1.89
with a gradation close to that of the natural sand. The con- Na2O 0.22 0.58
stant water-to-binder (w/b) ratio of 0.35 and binder con- Loss on ignition 3.02 1.78
tent of 520 kg/m3 were designated to produce SCCs. To Specific gravity 3.15 2.25
Blaine fineness (m2/kg) 326 287
improve the workability of SCCs, the Class F fly ash
194 N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206

No. 5 CR. The specific gravity of No. 18 CR and No. 5 CR 2.1.4. Superplasticizer
is 0.50 and 0.67, respectively. The particle size distribution A Polycarboxylic ether type of superplasticizer (SP),
for the No. 18 CR, No. 5 CR, and Mixed CR is also pre- which acts by steric hindrance effect (Collepardi, 2005),
sented in Fig. 1. Additionally, the photographs of No. 18 with specific gravity of 1.07, was employed to achieve the
CR and No. 5 CR are illustrated in Fig. 2. desired workability in all concrete mixtures.

No.18 Crumb rubber No.5 Crumb rubber Mixed crumb rubber


100

90

80

70
Percent passing

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0.1 1 10
Sieve size, mm

(a)
Mixed crumb rubber Fine aggregate Coarse aggregate
100

90

80

70
Percent passing

60

50

40

30

20

10

0
0.1 1 10 100
Sieve size, mm

(b)
Fig. 1. Sieve analysis of (a) No. 18, No. 5 and mixed crumb rubbers, and (b) mixed crumb rubber, fine and coarse aggregates.
N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206 195

Fig. 2. The photographic views of No. 18 and No. 5 crumb rubbers.

2.1.5. Steel bar posed by Khayat et al. (2000) was followed since the mix-
Reinforcing ribbed steel bars having 16 mm diameter ing sequence and duration are very vital in the self-
and minimum yield strength of 420 MPa were utilized for compacting concrete production. According to this mixing
preparing the reinforced concrete specimens to be used procedure, the crumb rubber, fine and coarse aggregates in
for testing the bonding strength. a power-driven revolving pan mixer were mixed homoge-
neously for 30 s, and then about half of the mixing water
2.2. Mixture design was added into the mixer and the mixing was continued
for one more minute. After that, the crumb rubber and
SCRC mixtures were designed having a constant w/b aggregates were left to absorb the water in the mixer for
ratio of 0.35 and a total binder content of 520 kg/m3. 1 min. Thereafter, the cement and fly ash was added to
The class F fly ash was used as 30% of the total binder con- the mixture for mixing another minute. Finally, the SP with
tent as weight in all mixtures. The fine and coarse aggre- remaining water was poured into the mixer, and the con-
gates were replaced with different graded crumb rubbers crete was mixed for 3 min and then left for a 2 min rest.
(No. 18, No. 5, and mixed crumb rubber) respectively, at At the end, to complete the production, the concrete was
five designated contents of 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% mixed for additional 2 min. Three 150-mm cubes were
by volume. Totally 16 different SCRC mixtures were taken to measure the compressive strength, three
designed regarding to above variables. The detailed mix 100  200 mm cylinders were taken to measure the splitting
proportions for SCRCs are presented in Table 2. tensile strength, Three 100  100  500-mm prisms were
taken to measure the net flexural and fracture energy;
3. Concrete casting and two 150  300 mm cylinders were taken to measure
the modulus of elasticity. Moreover three 150-mm cubes
To achieve the same homogeneity and uniformity in all were taken to measure the bond strength of self-
SCRC mixtures, the batching and mixing procedure pro- compacting rubberized concretes. Following the concrete
196 N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206

Table 2
Mix proportions for self-compacting rubberized concrete (kg/m3).
Mix ID Water-to-binder Cement Fly ash Water SP Coarse aggregate Fine aggregate No. 18 Crumb No. 5 Crumb
ratio (w/b) rubber rubber
Natural sand Crushed sand
Control 0.35 364 156 182 3.4 819.4 573.6 245.8 0.0 0.0
5 CR18 0.35 364 156 182 3.6 819.1 544.9 233.5 7.9 0.0
10 CR18 0.35 364 156 182 3.9 818.7 516.2 221.2 15.9 0.0
15 CR18 0.35 364 156 182 4.2 818.4 487.5 208.9 23.8 0.0
20 CR18 0.35 364 156 182 4.4 818.1 458.9 196.7 31.8 0.0
25 CR18 0.35 364 156 182 4.7 817.8 430.2 184.4 39.7 0.0
5 CR5 0.35 364 156 182 3.6 819.1 544.9 233.5 0.0 10.6
10 CR5 0.35 364 156 182 3.9 818.7 516.2 221.2 0.0 21.3
15 CR5 0.35 364 156 182 4.2 818.4 487.5 208.9 0.0 31.9
20 CR5 0.35 364 156 182 4.4 818.1 458.9 196.7 0.0 42.6
25 CR5 0.35 364 156 182 4.7 817.8 430.2 184.4 0.0 53.2
5 MCR 0.35 364 156 182 3.6 819.1 544.9 233.5 3.7 5.6
10 MCR 0.35 364 156 182 3.9 818.7 516.2 221.2 7.5 11.2
15 MCR 0.35 364 156 182 4.2 818.4 487.5 208.9 11.2 16.9
20 MCR 0.35 364 156 182 4.4 818.1 458.9 196.7 15.0 22.5
25 MCR 0.35 364 156 182 4.7 817.8 430.2 184.4 18.7 28.1

casting, specimens were wrapped with plastic sheet and left To determine the fracture energy (Gf), a test was carried
in the casting room for 24 h at 20 ± 2 °C and then they out with considering the recommendations given by the
were demolded and tested after a 90-day water curing RILEM 50-FMC Technical Committee (RILEM, 1985;
period. ASTM, 2010).
For the test of fracture energy, beams with
100  100 mm in cross-section and 500 mm in length were
prepared. The notch to the specimens’ depth ratio (a/D)
3.1. Test procedure was 0.4 and the notch opening was obtained by decreasing
the effective cross section to 60  100 mm through sawing
Compression test of self-compacting rubberized con- to accommodate large aggregates in higher abundance,
crete sample was conducted using ASTM C39 (Khayat and distance between the supports was 400 mm. For each
et al., 2000) and the obtained results were presented as specimen, load versus deflection at the mid-span (d) curve
the average of three samples. was found and the area under the load versus displacement
Using ASTM C496, splitting test of self-compacting at mid-span (Wo) was employed to determine the fracture
rubberized concrete sample was conducted (ASTM, 2012) energy that was computed using Eq. (3) given by RILEM
and the test results were given as the average of three sam- 50-FMC Technical Committee (RILEM, 1985).
ples. And splitting tensile strength of cylindrical concrete
specimens was computed using the following equation. Wo þ Mg us
GF ¼ ds ð3Þ
Bðw  aÞ
2P
f st ¼ ð1Þ where B, W, a, S, U, m, ds, and g are the width, depth,
phU notch depth, span, length, mass, specified deflection of
the beam .
where P, h, and U are the maximum load, length and diam- The brittleness of materials in terms of characteristic
eter of the cylinder specimen, respectively. length (lch) can be determined using the following equation
Static modulus of elasticity (E) was determined through (Hillerborg, 1985).
testing the cylinders with a dimension of U150  300 mm EGF
using ASTM C469/C469M-10, 2010 (ASTM, 2011). The lch ¼ ð4Þ
f st2
results obtained for static modulus of the self-compacting
rubberized concrete were presented as the average of two where E, fst, and GF stand for the static modulus of elas-
samples. ticity, splitting tensile strength, and fracture energy, respec-
The notched beams were applied to the calculation of tively. In the present study, the direct tensile strength was
the net flexural strength (fflex) using Eq. (2) with the replaced with the splitting tensile strength.
assumption that there is not any notch sensitivity, where The concrete’s bonding strength (s), was determined
Pmax signifies the ultimate load. using the RILEM RC6 (RILEM, 1985). The bonding
strength was computed using Eq. (5):
3PmaxS F
f flex ¼ ð2Þ s¼ ð5Þ
2BðW  aÞ2 pLd
N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206 197

where F denotes the tensile load at failure (N), L and d sig- resulted in the highest splitting tensile strength, and the
nify the embedment length (mm) and the diameter (mm) of increase of rubber content led to a systematic reduction
the reinforcing steel bar, respectively. In this study, 150- of splitting tensile strength. The splitting tensile strength
mm cubic specimen and 16-mm steel bar were used; there- decreased by 18.47%, 23.86%, and 21.44% for the concretes
fore, L and d were set to 150 and 16 mm, (see Fig. 3) that were produced with No. 18, No. 5, and mixed crumb
respectively. For the purpose of loading, universal testing rubber, respectively, at proportions of 5%, whereas the
machine with the capacity of 600 KN was employed decrease in the splitting tensile strength at proportions of
through installing specially-modified test apparatus to it 25% was 80%, 94.64% and 92.92%. As shown by the
(see Fig. 4). obtained results, SCC produced by No. 18 crumb rubber
resulted in the highest splitting tensile strength; while those
4. Results and discussion produced by No. 5 crumb rubber resulted in the lowest
splitting tensile strength. Additionally, it was found that
4.1. Compressive strength the negative impacts of the coarse rubber particles on the
properties were more than that of the fine particles (Eldin
The strength refers to a measure of the stress that is and Senouci, 1993; Segre and Joekes, 2000). Generally,
needed for fracturing a material and determined by the cal- the whole concretes have low tensile strength (10% of
culation of the maximum stress (fc0 ) that the specimen car- compressive strength) and strain capacity (Neville, 1995).
ries after being subjected to uni-axial compressive force The tensile strength, however, is of a great importance to
(RILEM, 1996). airfield slabs, highway design, as well as in cases where
Fig. 5 presents the 90-day compressive strength of the crack resistance and shear strength are priority. These
mixtures. In this study, the compressive strength values shortcomings are exacerbated by the addition of the crumb
obtained during 90 days ranging from 39.28 MPa to rubber to SCC (see Fig. 6) where a general tendency exists
72.44 MPa were achieved. The control mixture showed toward the reduction of the tensile strength, which may be
the highest compressive strength result; and as the rubber attributed to the same reasons that affect the compressive
content increased, the compressive strength systematically
decreased. Compared to the natural aggregate, the crumb
rubber is a soft material. If crumb rubber is used in con-
crete production, the compressive strength and the adhe-
sion between rubber particles and surrounding cement
paste are decreased .As a result, in the literature, there
are some recommendations for applying surface treatment
of rubber particles in order to enhance its adhesion to the
cement paste (Eldin and Senouci, 1993). The lowest com-
pressive strength resulted from the self-compacting con-
cretes produced with No. 5 crumb rubber; whereas, the
highest strength resulted from those produced with No.
18 crumb rubber. It has been shown that the coarse rubber
particles have more negative effects on the properties com-
pared to fine particles (Eldin and Senouci, 1993; Dong
et al., 2013). The strength decrease with an increasing rub-
ber content is attributable to two reasons: (1) cracks started
rapidly near the rubber particles in the mix, which quicken
the failure of the rubber–cement matrix as the rubber par-
ticles are much softer than the adjacent cement paste on
loading; and (2) rubber particles function as voids in the
concrete matrix because of the absence of adhesion
between the rubber particles and the paste (Aslani, 2016).

4.2. Splitting tensile strength

Splitting tensile strength values that are calculated from


cylindrical specimens by means of Eq. (1) are displayed in
Table 3. The variation in splitting tensile strength noted
during 90 days for all SCRC associated with the content
and size of crumb rubber is presented in Fig. 6. In this
study, the splitting tensile strength values were obtained,
ranging from 2.24 MPa to 4.36 MPa. The control mixture Fig. 3. Details of the bond strength test specimen.
198 N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206

strength. Many factors are effective on the relationship decrease. The second reason is that waste tire rubber aggre-
between splitting and compressive tensile strength, includ- gate acts as weak inclusions in the hardened cement mass,
ing aggregate type and particle size distribution, and curing hence producing high internal stress perpendicular to the
age (Mehta and Monteiro, 2006) and powder and admix- direction of the applied load. The third reason is that the
ture content and type. Aslani (2016) shows that the strength of the Portland cement concrete depends mainly
decrease in the tensile strength with the rubber content on the coarse aggregate, size, hardness, and density. The
was lower than that in the compressive strength. aggregates are replaced partially with rubber; for this rea-
son, the decrease in strength is only natural. The last reason
is that the failure of the sample is also due to the waste tire
4.3. Static modulus of elasticity that is more elastically-deformable compared to the matrix.
After loading the samples, the cracks form first at the soft-
The test results of static modulus of elasticity are dis- est areas. The rubber’s inclusion site is where these sites
played in Fig. 7 as a function of rubber and tire chip size emerge (Mehta and Monteiro, 2006). As shown by the
and contents in the present study the Moduli of elasticity graphs presented in Fig. 7, the static elastic modulus was
values, ranging from 30.98 GPa to 50.71 GPa, were reduced when rubber size and content increased in a fash-
obtained. The highest modulus of elasticity was obtained ion comparable to that observed in both splitting and com-
from the control mixture, and the increase of rubber con- pressive tensile strengths. The results showed that SCC
tent led to systematical reduction of modulus of elasticity. produced with No. 18 crumb rubber resulted in the highest
The decrease in the modulus of elasticity of rubberized con- static elastic modulus.
crete occurred for a number of reasons, including the inclu- According to Rocha-Rangel (2011), the modulus of elas-
sion of the waste tire rubber aggregate, acted similar to ticity of SCC was expanded with rubber (4–10 mm) waste
voids in the matrix, which was due to a weak bond between substance. In addition, they warned the risk of serious iso-
the concrete matrix and waste tire rubber aggregate. If the lation with a high elastic waste concentration at the highest
void content of concrete increases, the strength will point of the samples, which could lead to a need for a fit-
ting blend between a consistency executor and air-
entraining operator in order to keep up a strategic distance
from isolation. The modulus of elasticity was also affected
by the particle size and amount of rubber as compressive
strength according to Aslani (2016).

4.4. Net flexural strength

The net flexural strength values, which were evaluated


using Eq. (2) from the notched prismatic specimens (see
Fig. 8a) subjected to the three-point bending test (see
Fig. 8b), are displayed in Table 3. The variation in the
net flexural strength of SCRC associated with crumb rub-
ber content and size is displayed in Fig. 9. The highest
value was the net flexural strength of control mix
5.6 MPa. The SCC produced with No. 5 crumb rubber
resulted in the lowest net flexural strength, whereas those
produced with No. 18 crumb rubber resulted in the highest
net flexural strength. As shown by the obtained results, the
control mix had greater net flexural strength in comparison
with other mixture containing No. 5, No. 18, and mixed
crumb rubber. Table 3 clearly shows that the increase of
the No. 18 crumb rubber from 5% to 25% resulted in reduc-
ing the flexural strength up to 70% and, simultaneously, the
mixture containing No. 5 crumb rubber from 5% to 25%
resulted in the reduction of the flexural strength up to
80%, whereas the decreasing the flexural strength with
mixed crumb rubber (MCR) up to 78%. The decrease of
fflex can be related to the same failure mechanism for split-
ting tensile strength, since this is a ‘theoretical’ measure for
the highest tensile stress reached on the bottom fiber of a
Fig. 4. Photographic view of the pullout test set up during testing the test beam. It is assumed that fflex is a ‘theoretical’ measure-
specimen. ment since this is computed according to the elastic beam
N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206 199

No. 18 crumb rubber No.5 crumb rubber Mixed crumb rubber


75

70

Compressive strength, fc (MPa)


65

60

55

50

45

40

35
0 5 10 15 20 25
Rubber content (%)

Fig. 5. Variation of 90-day compressive strength with respect to crumb rubber size and content.

Table 3
Results of hardened properties for SCRC.
Mix ID fc MPa fst MPa EGPa fflex MPa GF N/m lch N/m s MPa
Control 72.44 4.36 50.71 5.6 155.8 415.612 14.6
No. 18 CR5 67.95 3.68 48.68 4.92 143.5 515.830 13.61
No. 18 R10 64.09 3.51 46.34 4.63 140.7 529.219 12.85
No. 18 CR15 60.62 3.32 44.51 4.47 135.1 545.552 10.62
No. 18 R20 57.51 3.12 40.27 3.57 121.5 502.630 9.18
No. 18 R25 49.82 2.42 34.14 3.25 115.2 671.560 8.55
No. 5 CR5 44.88 3.52 45.76 4.76 137.6 508.181 11.22
No. 5 CR10 59.49 3.34 41.43 4.42 133.9 497.281 10.25
No. 5 CR15 53.96 3.17 37.61 4.22 125.8 470.831 9.43
No. 5 CR20 45.62 2.81 35.83 3.34 117.6 533.631 8.37
No. 5 CR25 39.28 2.24 30.98 3.06 110.2 680.404 7.8
MCR5 72.44 3.59 46.52 4.83 138.8 501.009 11.66
MCR10 65.14 3.47 43.25 4.52 135.5 486.705 10.99
MCR15 61.51 3.22 42.13 4.31 126.9 515.633 10.1
MCR20 56.93 2.86 37.92 3.46 118.4 548.893 8.61
MCR25 49.12 2.26 32.71 3.13 112.1 717.908 7.97

theory that assumes the stress–strain relationship is linear, to 60% occurs for a replacement level of 5–10%, as for
thus the tensile stress in the beam is supposed to be propor- the latter case, the reduction is 15–30%. This behavior
tional to the distance from the neutral axes (Najim and might be related to the low adhesion between the cement
Hall, 2012). In addition crack may initiate before the appli- and the chipped rubber.
cation of the maximum load. It is because micro cracks are Previous study (Aslani, 2016) shows that the flexural
formed once the pre-peak zone is reached, and they are strength decreased with the increase of the rubber content
propagated after this stage (Huang et al., 2004). In other in a fashion similar to that observed in the compressive
words, the crumb rubber aggregate might work to delay strength. However, it was observed that the initial rate of
the micro crack formation because of a kind of stress relax- strength reduction was steeper than that of the compressive
ation. As a result, the incorporation of crumb rubber par- strength. This is because of the weak bond between cement
ticles can lead to measurable improvements to pre-micro paste and rubber particles.
crack strain capacity (Toutanji, 1996).
The literature (Toutanji, 1996) shows that the tensile 4.5. Fracture energy
strength of concrete with chipped rubber replacement for
aggregates is significantly lower than that of concrete that Fracture energy (GF) values evaluated with Eq. (3) from
contains powdered rubber. First, a reduction from 30% notched beams (Fig. 8a), which are subjected to three-point
200 N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206

No. 18 crumb rubber No.5 crumb rubber Mixed crumb rubber


5.0

4.5
Splitting tensile strength, fst (MPa)

4.0

3.5

3.0

2.5

2.0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Rubber content (%)

Fig. 6. Variation of 90-day splitting tensile strength with respect to crumb rubber size and content.

No. 18 crumb rubber No.5 crumb rubber Mixed crumb rubber


55

50
Modulus of elasticity, E (GPa)

45

40

35

30

25
0 5 10 15 20 25
Rubber content (%)

Fig. 7. Variation of 90-day Modulus of elasticity with respect to crumb rubber size and content.

bending test (see Fig. 8b), are shown in Table 3. The vari- GF values at 5% of No. 18CR, No. 5CR, and MCR; there-
ations of fracture energy associated with crumb rubber size fore, in both ultimate load and GF, the best improvement
and content are presented in Fig. 9. In the present study, was obtained from No. 18 crumb rubber.
GF values ranging from 110.21 N/m to 155.8 N/m were As shown in Figs. 11–13, the maximum displacement is
obtained. The control mixture resulted in the highest GF, corresponding to the maximum load for the control mix
and it was observed that with an increase in the rubber con- and this gradually decreases based on the size and amount
tent, the GF systematically decreased. Additionally, the of tire chip and crumb rubber, respectively.
highest was obtained by replacing fine aggregate with 5% Fig. 11 shows that the concrete with 15% No. 18 CR has
No. 18CR replacement, whereas the lowest was obtained higher area under the load versus displacements curve;
by replacing fine aggregate with 25% No. 5CR replace- whereas the concrete with 25% No. 18 CR has lower area
ment. As shown in Fig. 10, a reduction occurred in all under the load.
N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206 201

Fig. 8. Photographic view of: (a) notched beam and (b) subjected to three-point bending test.

As can be seen in Fig. 12, the concrete with 5% No. 5 4.6. Characteristic length
CR has higher area under the load versus displacements
curve, whereas the concrete with 15% No. 5 CR has lower Using Eq. (4), the concretes’ characteristic length, which
area under the load. As shown in Fig. 13, the concrete with is the measure of brittleness, was evaluated (the results are
20% Mixed CR has higher area under the load versus dis- presented in Table 3). Normally, in a typical concrete, (lch)
placement curve, on the other hand, the concrete with 25% is about 200–500 mm (Karihaloo, 1995; Petersson, 1980)
Mixed CR has lower area under the load. and for SCC, (lch) it is 580–740 mm for notched beams
202 N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206

No. 18 crumb rubber No.5 crumb rubber Mixed crumb rubber


6.0

5.5
Net flexural strength, fflex (MPa)

5.0

4.5

4.0

3.5

3.0
0 5 10 15 20 25
Rubber content (%)

Fig. 9. Net flexural tensile strength with respect to crumb rubber size and content.

Fig. 10. Fracture energy with respect to crumb rubber size and content.

and it ranges from 540 to 640 mm for un-notched beams. with an increase in the crumb volume fraction. With the
Additionally, it can be observed that (lch) decreases when increase of the No. 18 crumb rubber volume fraction from
the compressive strength and notch depth ratio increase. 5% to 25%, the characteristic length increased by 24%,
The variations occurring in the characteristic length of 27%, 31%, 21%, and 61%, respectively. As shown by the
SCRCS associated with crumb rubber size and content obtained results, the improvement of characteristic length
are presented in Fig. 14. As shown in Table 3, the control of the concrete with 25% mixed crumb rubber was more
mix has a lower characteristic length compared to other than that of the concrete with crumb rubber (No. 18, No.
mixtures; this is because of possessing higher compressive 5). This is due to better grading of the combined rubber.
strength, which makes the concrete more brittle. The mixed
crumb rubber (MCR) at 25% replacement enhances the 4.7. Bond strength
characteristic length (lch) by 72%, as compared to the con-
trol mix. The use of crumb rubber enhanced the character- The axial force was transferred from reinforcing steel
istic length of concrete. The characteristic length increased bar to the surrounding concrete by the development of tan-
N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206 203

Fig. 11. Typical loads displacement curves of No. 18 CR with respect to control mix.

Fig. 12. Typical load displacement curves of No. 5 CR with respect to control mix.

gential stress components along the contact surface. The This was because there was a low adhesion between rub-
stress that acts parallel to the bar along the interface is ber particles and surrounding cement paste. The 90-day
known as bond stress (Hadi, 2008). bond strength of the mixtures presented in Fig. 15 indi-
Eq. (5) was used to evaluate the bond strength values cates that the bond strength decreases with an increase
from cubic specimen, including the U16-reinforcement bar in the crumb rubber size and content. The increase of
that was subjected to tensile load. The obtained results No. 18 crumb rubber from 5% to 25% led to the decrease
are displayed in Table 3. The control mixture resulted of the bond strength by 7%, 13%, 37%, 48%, and 70%,
in the highest bond strength, and with the increase of respectively. On the other hand, these rates for the No.
the rubber content, the bond strength was systematically 5 crumb rubber from 5% to 25% showed the decrease
decreased, whereas, the lowest bond strength values were of the bond strength by 30%, 42%, 54%, 74%, and
measured on the 25% No. 5 CR mixture on the 90th day. 87%, respectively.
204 N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206

Fig. 13. Typical load displacement curves of MCR with respect to control mix.

Fig. 14. Characteristic length with respect to crumb rubber size and content.

According to Emiroğlu et al. (2008). The decrease in the 5. Conclusions


bond strength is due to poor bonding characteristic around
cement paste and rubber tires. Many micro-cracks exist Based on the results obtained from the experimental
close to the ITZ in the rubberized concrete. Therefore, sev- program presented above, the following conclusions can
eral studies have suggested the treatment for rubber in be drawn:
order to improve the bonding between the rubber and the
cement paste. As shown by the obtained results, the bond  In total 16 SCRC mixtures were designed and produced
strength of concrete with mixed crumb rubber MCR is by the replacing natural aggregate with rubber at six dif-
developed more than the concrete with crumb rubber ferent replacement levels of 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%,
(No. 18, No. 5). and 25%.
N.N. Hilal / International Journal of Sustainable Built Environment 6 (2017) 191–206 205

Fig. 15. Bond strength with respect to crumb rubber size and content.

 The compressive strength of self-compacting rubberized with 5% No. 18 crumb rubber, while the lowest value
concrete having more than 30 MPa could be produced was achieved when the natural fine aggregate was
easily. The strength results indicated that the utilization replaced with 25% No. 5 crumb rubber. The most effi-
of crumb rubber in self-compacting concrete manufac- cient results for utilization of crumb rubber were
turing resulted in systematical decreasing of the com- obtained in the fracture energy.
pressive strength. Moreover, the coarse crumb rubber  The characteristic length, which is a measure of ductility
utilization decreased the compressive strength of self- of the concrete, was increased significantly by increasing
compacting concrete more than the using of fine crumb the crumb rubber volume fraction. While the significant
rubber. It was found that the best replacement type was improvement was achieved with addition of all tire
the MCR, which offered the best results as it was a com- wastes types, the best value for ductility was obtained
patible replacement for sand and gravel. with 25% mixed crumb rubber.
 The highest splitting tensile strength result was obtained  The maximum displacement corresponds to the maxi-
from control mixture, and the systematical decreasing of mum load, the highest maximum load for the control
splitting tensile strength was observed as rubber content mix and decreases gradually according to the amount
increased. The results indicated that the self-compacting and size of crumb rubber respectively.
concretes produced with No. 18 crumb rubber gave the  Decreasing of bond strength was observed with increas-
highest splitting tensile strength, those produced with ing the crumb rubber size and content. Moreover the
No. 5 crumb rubber gave the lowest splitting tensile development of bond strength of concrete with mixed
strength. crumb rubber (MCR) is more than development in con-
 The static elastic modulus decreased with the increasing crete with crumb rubber (No. 18, and No. 5).
rubber size and content in a fashion similar to that
observed in both compressive and splitting tensile
strengths. References
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