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The settling chamber, shown schematically in Figure 2.E1.

1, is used as a primary
separation device in the removal of dust particles of density 1500 kg/m3 from a gas of
density 0.7 kg/m3 and viscosity 1.90 x 10-5 Pas.

(a) Assuming Stokes Law applies, show that the efficiency of collection of particles of size
x is given by the expression:

x2g(ρp −ρf )L
collection efficiency, ηx = 18μHU

where U is the uniform gas velocity through the parallel-sided section of the chamber. State
any other assumptions made.

(b) What is the upper limit of particle size for which this expression applies.

(c) When the volumetric flow rate of gas is 0.9 m3/s, and the dimensions of the chamber are
those shown in Text-Figure 2.E1.1, determine the collection efficiency for spherical
particles of diameter 30μm.

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 2.1:

(a) Assuming plug flow of the gas and particles then the residence time of the particles in
L
the parallel-sided section of the separator is:
U

There is a critical particle diamter xcrit such that a particle of diameter xcrit falls at a velocity
L
Ucrit covering the height H in time .
U

HU
i.e. Ucrit = L

All particles falling at a velocity greater than or equal to Ucrit will be collected no matter at
which position in the cross section they start.

Assuming particles of all sizes are evenly distributed across the cross section at the inlet to
the parallel-sided section, then particle for which Ufall = 0.5Ucrit will be

collected with an efficiency of 50% (since 50% of these particles will have too far to fall in
L
the time available ( ).
U
SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 2 EXERCISES: SINGLE PARTICLES IN FLUIDS Page 1.1

U
It follows that efficiency, η = fall Ucrit

Assuming that all particles reach their terminal free fall velcocity in very short time and can
be assumed to fall at this velocity, then

U
ηx = T , where UT is the single particle terminal velocity. Ucrit

x g ρp − ρf
2
() Assuming Stokes Law applies, then U T = 18μ

2
(
x g ρ − ρ pf
ηx =

18μ

)L HU
, where η is the efficiency of collection of particles of size x.
(b) The upper limit of particle size for which this expression applies.
The expression is limited to those particles for which Stokes Law applies, i.e. for Rep < 0.3

U ρx
At the limiting Reynolds number, T f = 0.3 μ

(2.1.1)

(2.1.2)

x gρ −ρ
FromStokesLaw,UT= 18μ

2
() pf

Solving Equations 2.1.1 and 2.1.2 simultaneously, x = 57.4 μm (not 50 μm as give in the
book, which is calculated for Rep = 0.2)

(c) Collection efficiency for spherical particles of diameter 30μm when volumetric

flow rate of gas is 0.9 m3/s:

0. 9 0. 9
Superficial gas velocity in parallel-sided section, U = = = 0.15 m / s WH 2×3

( −6)
From the equation derived for efficiency, 2

30×10 ×9.81×(1500−0.7) 18 × 1. 9 × 10− 5


η30 =

10
3 × 0.15

Collection efficiency for 30μm particles is 86%.

=0.86
SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 2 EXERCISES: SINGLE PARTICLES IN FLUIDS

Page 1.2

EXERCISE 2.2:

A particle of equivalent sphere volume diameter 0.2 mm, density 2500 kg/m3 and
sphericity 0.6 falls freely under gravity in a fluid of density 1.0 kg/m3 and viscosity 2 x10-5
Pas. Estimate the terminal velocity reached by the particle. (Answer: 0.6 m/s)

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 2.2:

In this case we know the particle size and are required to determine its terminal

velocity without knowing which regime is appropriate. The first step is, therefore, to
calculate the dimensionless group C D Re2p :

4x ρf(ρp−ρf)g D p 3 μ2
3
2
C Re =

⎡ ⎤
4 (0.2 ×10−3)3 ×1.0 × (2500 −1.0)× 9.81

= ⎢ ⎥
( )
2
3 −5 ⎢ 2×10 ⎥ ⎣⎦

= 653.7

This is the relationship between drag coefficient CD and single particle Reynolds number
Rep for particles of size 0.2 mm and density 2500 kg/m3 falling in a fluid of density 1.0
kg/m3 and viscosity 2 x 10-5 Pas. Since CD Re2p is a constant, this

relationship will give a straight line of slope -2 when plotted on the log-log coordinates of
the standard drag curve.

For plotting the relationship:

These values are plotted on the standard drag curves for particles of different sphericity
(Text- Figure 2.3). The result is shown in Figure 2.2.1.
Where the plotted line intersects the standard drag curve for a sphericity of 0.6 (ψ = 0.6),
Rep = 6.0.

ρx U
The terminal velocity UT may be calculated from: Rep =6= f v T

Hence, terminal velocity, UT = 0.6 m/s

Rep
CD
1 653.7

10
6.537

SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 2 EXERCISES: SINGLE PARTICLES IN FLUIDS

Page 1.3

EXERCISE 2.3:

Spherical particles of density 2500 kg/m3 and in the size range 20 - 100 μm are fed
continuously into a stream of water (density, 1000 kg/m3 and viscosity, 0.001 Pas) flowing
upwards in a vertical, large diameter pipe. What maximum water velocity is required to
ensure that no particles of diameter greater than 60 μm are carried upwards with the water?

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 2.3:

Assume that the upward velocity of the water if effectively uniform across the cross section
of the large pipe and that the pipe walls have no effect [U∞ UD = 1.0].

Assume that the particle accelerate so quickly to their terminal velocity so that the relative
velocity between the particles and the water is equal to the single particle terminal velocity,
UT. Thus, if the upward water velocity is less that UT for the particle, the particle will fall
and if the upward water velocity if greater than UT, the particle will rise. In the limiting
case: water velocity = UT

×9.81×(2500−1000) 18 × 0.001
=2.943×10−3m/s
xgρ−ρ
Assuming Stokes Law applies for the 60μm particles, U T = 18μ

60×10
( ) −6 2 hence,U =
T

2
() pf

ρ x U 2.943×10−3×1000×60×10−6
CheckReynoldsnumber, Rep= f v T = =0.177 μ 0.001

Rep is less than 0.3, and so the assumption of Stokes Law is valid.

Hence, maximum water velocity = 2.94 mm/s

EXERCISE 2.4:

Spherical particles of density 2000 kg/m3 and in the size range 20 - 100 μm are fed
continuously into a stream of water (density, 1000 kg/m3 and viscosity, 0.001 Pas) flowing
upwards in a vertical, large diameter pipe. What maximum water velocity is required to
ensure that no particles of diameter greater than 50 μm are carried upwards with the water?

SOLUTION TO EXERCISE 2.4:


SOLUTIONS TO CHAPTER 2 EXERCISES: SINGLE PARTICLES IN FLUIDS Page 1.4

Assume that the upward velocity of the water if effectively uniform across the cross section
of the large pipe and that the pipe walls have no effect [U∞ UD = 1.0].

Assume that the particle accelerate so quickly to their terminal velocity so that the relative
velocity between the particles and the water is equal to the single particle terminal velocity,
UT. Thus, if the upward water velocity is less that UT for the particle, the particle will fall
and if the upward water velocity if greater than UT, the

particle will rise. In the limiting case: water velocity = UT