Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 35

Internship Project Report On Material Handling & Related Machinery

Project Report On Material Handling & Related Machinery AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (May -

AMITY SCHOOL OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (May - June, 2014)

Submitted by:

Akshay Mistri B.Tech MAE (2011-15) Enroll. No: A2305411185 Semester 7

Submitted to:

Mr Vijay Kumar Faculty Guide

Contents

1. Acknowledgement……………………………………………………………………01

2. Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………

02

3. Declaration…………………………………………………………………………

03

4. Company Overview………………………………………………………………….04 – 06

5. Engine Technical Specifications…………………

………………………………

6. Common Rail Direct Injection Technology… …………………………………

06

07

7. OM611 (CRDI Engine) Engine Block Line………….……………………………

08

10

8. OM611 Engine Assembly Line….…………………………………………………

11

12

9. OM616 Head Manufacturing Line…………………………………………….…….13 – 14

10. OM616 Block Manufacturing Line………………………………………………….15 – 16

11. OM616 Engine Crankshaft Assembly Line…………………………….…………

17

19

12. OM616 Engine Assembly Line.……………………………………………………

20

21

13. Engine Testing………….…………………………………………………………

22

23

14. Front Axle Assembly Line…………………………………………………………

24

- 25

15. Dual Mass Flywheel Cell (DMFW) & Transmission Line………………

……… 26

16. E-21 6 Speed Gearbox Assembly.…………………………………………………

27

28

17. Machinery observed…………………………………………………………………29

18. Suggestions for better Material Handling…………………………………………

30

32

19. References……………………………………………………………………………33

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Any project is the fruitful outcome of the hard work of many. Through this document I would like to express my gratitude toward those whose supp ort and co - ordination have been an essential ingredient of this project. Firstly I would like to thank Mr S.K. Dutta, Sr. Div. Manager-Personnel, Force Motors Pithampur, and Mr A. V. Shitole training officer Force Motors Pithampur for giving me a chance t o undergo training at this esteemed organization. I would like to special thanks Mr Pankaj Vyas , GM (Engine Shop) for the sincere guidance in my project. I am thankful to them for their continued guidance and support along with their vast pool of knowledge, which was the essential for completion of this project. Along the way, I was also ably supported and guided by Mr Sanjay Karmakar and Mr Piyush Chaturvedi in the engine shop . And I would like to mention that the help is even more credible, considering that the workload of staffs was immense. I would also like to thank Mr Vijay Kumar for his guidance during my internship. He has always supported and corrected me as and when needed. I also extend my heartfelt thanks to Prof Vijay Kumar, HOD- MAE to encourage us in right direction. Finally I thank all the persons who are directly or indirectly connected to us during the training and supported us throughout to complete the training by constant effort.

ABSTRACT

Material Handling is common problem that many industries are facing today. This report is outcome of a project Material Handling & related Machinery done in Force Motors Ltd. Pithampur, Madhya Pradesh. This project aimed at observing material handling equipments used in the Engine Shop of the industry. Machinery being used such as CNC’s were also being observed on various manufacturing lines. Two engines namely OM611 and OM616 are being produced in the engine shop. There are various manufacturing lines for the parts of two engines in the shop along with their final assembly lines. These manufacturing and assembly lines are discussed one by one with all material handling and machinery being used. Some basic material handling equipments used are conveyor, hoist & tackle, hand pallets trucks, forklifts etc. The basic aim in material handling is to transport material/product to its destina tion with least amount of damage to it and with least amount of inputs. Damage occurs when metal to metal contact exists between machined surface and any other metallic surface during transportation of material. Also during lifting of heavy cylinder blocks it must be lifted from right position to avoid any dents on machined surface. While placing material on pallets it must be noted that material/products do not touch each other. Many things along with described above needs to be taken care of during material handling. Material handling does not add value to the product directly but is an important part of manufacturing industry to improve the quality of the product. Machinery observed include CNC machines with Fanuc and Siemens designed controllers of different levels of accuracy. Fanuc controllers are used for rough machining while Siemens controllers are used for final machining and providing superior surface finish to the product. All these have been briefly described in the report.

Declaration

I undersigned, student of Amity School of Engineering & Technology, Amity University, Noida Hereby declare that study conducted by me at Force Motors Pvt. Ltd. , Pithampur and its effectiveness is a result of my own work and will be pure ly utilized for academic purpose only.

Date

Place

AKSHAY MISTRI

COMPANY OVERVIEW

Force Motors , formerly Bajaj Tempo, is an Indian manufacturer of three - wheelers, multi- utility and cross

country vehicles, light commercial vehicles, tractors, buses and heavy commercial vehicles. It was originally named Firodia Tempo Ltd. and later after partial acquisition by Bajaj Auto as Bajaj Tempo Ltd. The company was founded in 1958 by N. K. Firodia. Bajaj Auto bought a controlling stake in the company,

Tempo". Germany's Daimler - Benz, a long- time collaborator with Firodia because of the ir

ownership of the original Tempo works in Germany, owned 16% of Bajaj Tempo. They sold their stake back to the Firodia group in 2001, meaning they once again held a controlling interest. It was agreed that the company would gradually phase out the use of the "Tempo" brand name, as it still belonged to Mercedes - Benz. The name of the company was changed to Force Motors in May 2005, over the objections of Bajaj Auto. Force Motors started production of the Hanseat three - wheeler in collaboration with German Vidal & Sohn Tempo Werke and went on to establish a presence in the light commercial vehicles field with the Matador, the proverbial LCV (light commercial vehicle) in India. Bajaj Tempo was associated with Mercedes - Benz since 1976 and in 1982 they began building the Mercedes- Benz OM616 diesel engine. Through the 1980s and 1990s, and especially in the last five years with a major product development effort, Force Motors has introduced new light commercial vehicles, a face lifted series of Tempo Trax utility vehicles, new tractors, and a new range of three - wheelers. The Matador, which defined the light commercial segment in India, saw sales collapsing in the late 1990s and Bajaj Tempo began a substantial program of developing modern vehicles to replace it. Bajaj Tempo also built the diesel engines used in the Mercedes - Benz W124, and later W210, as manufactured in India. This was a small- scale endeavour, but while it did not net BT much profit they benefitted from the connection, both in terms of reputation and technology. The company which mainly operates in commercial vehicle segment, entered into the "personal vehicle" segment in August 2011 with the launch of its first SUV, named Force - One. The company manufactures trucks at Pithampur, the industrial hub of Madhya Pradesh in Indore in a joint venture, Man Force Trucks Pvt. Ltd, with MAN AG of Germany. MAN Force trucks are exported overseas to countries such as Sri Lanka, Indonesia, and certain African nations; markets where a low selling price is essential. The JV was dissolved as on March 2012 with Force Motors having sold and transferred remaining 50% of Man Force shares to MAN AG for Rs 10 per share. Tractors are built under the Balwan and Ox (formerly Tempo Ox) brands. The tractor field was entered by (then) Bajaj Tempo in 1996 - 1997, and were developed indigenously, rather than depending on imported technology.

renaming it "Bajaj

Products

Force Motors manufactures a range of vehicles including Small Commercial Vehicles (SCV), Light Commercial Vehicles (LCV), Multi Utility Vehicles (MUV), Sports Utility Vehicles (SUV), Heavy Commercial Vehicles (HCV) and Agricultural Tractors.

1. Personal vehicles

• Force One (SUV)

• Force SUV Gurkha

2. Commercial vehicles

• Force Trax (SUV- MPV) - Town and Country, Challenger, Pick- up

• Force Traveller (LCV) - A modified Mercedes-Benz T1

• Force Trump 40 (SCV)

3. Agricultural vehicles

• Balwan tractors

• Orchard tractors

Force one FORCE ONE is one of the finest sports utility vehicles made by an Indian OEM. The turbocharged Force One beats faster than any other SUV in its segments. Infused with a new 2.2 litre FMTECH Common Rail engine, its subdued growl is like a beast waiting to be unleashed. It s available in Ex, SX and LX variants. Technologically advanced, great roads presence, excellent ride and handling, immense space creating comfort at a very competit ive price are some of the features of the FORCE ONE. This is an SUV tailor made for the Indian customer.

Trax: MUV (Multi utility vehicle) Trax is the first fully indigenous multi utility vehicle developed in the country. Over the past two decades it has established itself as the preferred people and goods carrier in rural India. The Trax is a rugged, reliable; all- terrain vehicle powered by the legendary Mercedes - OM 616 derived diesel engines. Tough and stylish with durable steel pressed body primed with state-of-the-art CED process,the Trax has unmatched off- road applications for people and goods transport.

Traveller 26

Originally designed and produced by Mercedes Benz AG, Germany as T1 Transporter, it is now manufactured

in India as the “Traveller”. This range of passenger and goods carriers is powered by the fuel efficient TD

2200 Common rail engine available in both BS III and IV versions. So whether it is for personal or business

use, movement of men or material, the Traveller is an id eal choice.

of men or material, the Traveller is an id eal choice. Force Gurkha Rough Cut Line

Force Gurkha

Rough Cut Line FinisCut Line
Rough Cut Line
FinisCut Line

Force One

choice. Force Gurkha Rough Cut Line FinisCut Line Force One Force Traveller Engine Technical Specifications: Two

Force Traveller

Engine Technical Specifications: Two engines are being manufactured in the Engine shop namely OM611 and OM616. These two engines are originally designed by Mercedes. Technical specifications of the two engines are -:

Engine

Displacement

Bore

Stroke

Cylinders

Valves

Power

Torque

OM 611

2148

cc (2.148L)

88mm

88.3mm

Straight-4

16

80 kW at 3800 RPM

270

N-m

 

at 1400-

 

2400

RPM

OM 616

2399

cc (2.399L)

90.9mm

92.4mm

Straight-4

16

43.5 kW at 4000 RPM

130

N-m

 

at 1800-

 

2000

RPM

() []

In common rail systems, a high-pressure pump stores a reservoir of fuel at high pressure up to and above 2,000 bars (200 MPa; 29,000 psi). This technology is used in OM611 engine. The term "common rail" refers to the fact that all of the fuel injectors are supplied by a common fuel rail which is nothing more than a pressure accumulator where the fuel is stored at high pressure. This accumulat or supplies multiple fuel injectors with high- pressure fuel. This simplifies the purpose of the high- pressure pump in that it only needs to maintain a commanded pressure at a target (either mechanically or electronically controlled). The fuel injectors are typically ECU-controlled. When the fuel injectors are electrically activated, a hydraulic valve (consisting of a nozzle and plunger) is mechanically or hydraulically opened and fuel is sprayed into the cylinders at the desired pressure. Since the fuel pre ssure energy is stored remotely and the injectors are electrically actuated, the injection pressure at the start and end of injection is very near the pressure in the accumulator (rail), thus producing a square injection rate. If the accumulator, pump and plumbing are sized properly, the injection pressure and rate will be the same for each of the multiple injection events.

pressure and rate will be the same for each of the multiple injection events. Schematic Diagram

Schematic Diagram of CRDI Technology

Flowchart of CRDI engine (OM 611) Block Line

Store (Casting of engine block is given)

(OM 611) Block Line Store (Casting of engine block is given) Spindle drilling SPM ( 3
(OM 611) Block Line Store (Casting of engine block is given) Spindle drilling SPM ( 3
Spindle drilling SPM ( 3 mm drilling on head face profile at 25˚ & 47˚)
Spindle drilling SPM (
3
mm drilling on head
face profile at 25˚ & 47˚)
BFW HMC-2 (Milling, drilling & reaming on sump & head face) Notch milling machine (on

BFW HMC-2 (Milling, drilling &

reaming on sump & head face)

(Milling, drilling & reaming on sump & head face) Notch milling machine (on crankshaft bearing) BFW
(Milling, drilling & reaming on sump & head face) Notch milling machine (on crankshaft bearing) BFW

Notch milling machine (on

crankshaft bearing)

head face) Notch milling machine (on crankshaft bearing) BFW HMC-3 (drilling, tapping & reaming on sump
head face) Notch milling machine (on crankshaft bearing) BFW HMC-3 (drilling, tapping & reaming on sump

BFW HMC-3 (drilling, tapping & reaming on sump & head face)

(drilling, tapping & reaming on sump & head face) BFW HMC-4 (drilling, milling & reaming on
(drilling, tapping & reaming on sump & head face) BFW HMC-4 (drilling, milling & reaming on

BFW HMC-4 (drilling, milling &

reaming on starter & opposite

starter face)

& reaming on starter & opposite starter face) BFW HMC-5 (milling, drilling, tapping, reaming on radiator
& reaming on starter & opposite starter face) BFW HMC-5 (milling, drilling, tapping, reaming on radiator

BFW HMC-5 (milling, drilling,

tapping, reaming on radiator &

flywheel face & hole on head face)

on radiator & flywheel face & hole on head face) BFW HMC-6 (drilling, milling tapping, reaming
on radiator & flywheel face & hole on head face) BFW HMC-6 (drilling, milling tapping, reaming

BFW HMC-6 (drilling, milling tapping,

reaming on radiator & flywheel face

& nozzle hole on sump face)

radiator & flywheel face & nozzle hole on sump face) Spindle drilling SPM ( ø3 mm
radiator & flywheel face & nozzle hole on sump face) Spindle drilling SPM ( ø3 mm

Spindle drilling SPM (ø3 mm

drilling on face profile at 25˚ &

47˚)

Broaching SPM (Surface

broaching on cylinder block & bearing cap)

SPM (Surface broaching on cylinder block & bearing cap) Oil way leak testing machine ( oil

Oil way leak testing machine

( oil leak test at 1 bar pr.)

Oil way leak testing machine ( oil leak test at 1 bar pr.) Nut Runner machine

Nut Runner machine (bearing

cap assembly & torquing)

Nut Runner machine (bearing cap assembly & torquing) Line Boring machine (finish boring of crankbore &

Line Boring machine (finish

boring of crankbore & strong

bore with dowel hole)

boring of crankbore & strong bore with dowel hole) Spindle Line boring machine Piston Boring SPM

Spindle Line boring machine

strong bore with dowel hole) Spindle Line boring machine Piston Boring SPM K & Ray washing

Piston Boring SPM

dowel hole) Spindle Line boring machine Piston Boring SPM K & Ray washing machine (Washing after

K & Ray washing machine (Washing after boring)

SPM K & Ray washing machine (Washing after boring) Piston Bore honning (1 micron accuracy) High

Piston Bore honning (1

micron accuracy)

after boring) Piston Bore honning (1 micron accuracy) High pressure washing machine Final product goes to

High pressure washing

machine

honning (1 micron accuracy) High pressure washing machine Final product goes to final cut line through

Final product goes to final cut line

through roller conveyer

Pre-dispatch Inspection

Rough Cut Line

Finish Cut Line

CRDI Engine (OM 611/TD 2200) Block machining line

Raw material: Block casting (from vendor)

Engine block casting comes as raw material on pallets by the help of forklifts.

Pallets used for raw material are of iron because there is no machined surface produced yet. So, little chance of damage is there by iron pallets.

Fig. 1 Engine Block
Fig. 1 Engine Block

machines.

Block casting is then lifted by hoist and tackle and kept on a conveyor (metallic

roller). The block then moves on the conveyor and gets machined as it passes through different

Loading and unloading of block on machine is also done by the help of hoist and tackle. To turn the block,

conveyor also has Turn over devices (TOD’s).

First rough cuts are made on rough cut line and then block moves to finish cut line for final machining. Machining processes such as drilling, milling, broaching, tapping, reaming etc. are done on BFW HMC (Horizontal machine centre) CNC machine and on notch making machine, spindle drilling machine. While on finish cut line loading, unloading is not required because conveyor moves through the machine or may have an automatic conveyor. Final machining is done on finish cut line and very less amount of metal is removed. After several machining processes like boring, honing, washing etc. At the end pre-dispatch inspection (PDI) is done and finally blocks are kept on wooden pallets and sent for assembly.

Observations from the existing setup

There is metal to metal contact between

Metallic rollers of conveyor and machined surfaces of the engine block.

Machined surfaces of the engine block as they collide while sliding over conveyor

creates minor metal loss from the block.

Improper rubber covering on tackles for lifting the block touches the machined surfaces may damage the surface finish of the block.

Rotary table used for turning consumes time for moving the blocks.

Unevenness in level of conveyor at the joints (point where conveyor of machine vibration or impact in the moving material.

starts) induces sudden

[] may be used since it avoids collisions and provides a better control over the flow. These can be made power driven so that manual push by the worker is required. Also, rubberised rollers will prevent metal to metal contact between the rollers and the block. Accumulation Roller conveyer is explained in the end of the report. Curved conveyors can also be used at curves instead of rotating tables which consume a lot of time in material movement.

Flowchart of CRDI engine (OM 611) Assembly Line

Store (Finished engine block

is given)

611) Assembly Line Store (Finished engine block is given) Nozzles for Oil/Water are attached Crankshaft assembly

Nozzles for Oil/Water are

attached

block is given) Nozzles for Oil/Water are attached Crankshaft assembly Piston & Connecting rod assembly Oil

Crankshaft assembly

Nozzles for Oil/Water are attached Crankshaft assembly Piston & Connecting rod assembly Oil sump assembly

Piston & Connecting rod assembly

Crankshaft assembly Piston & Connecting rod assembly Oil sump assembly Cylinder head assembly Camshaft assembly

Oil sump assembly

Piston & Connecting rod assembly Oil sump assembly Cylinder head assembly Camshaft assembly Fuel Injection pump

Cylinder head assembly

rod assembly Oil sump assembly Cylinder head assembly Camshaft assembly Fuel Injection pump assembly (F.I.P)

Camshaft assembly

Oil sump assembly Cylinder head assembly Camshaft assembly Fuel Injection pump assembly (F.I.P) Tappet cover assembly

Fuel Injection pump assembly

(F.I.P)

Camshaft assembly Fuel Injection pump assembly (F.I.P) Tappet cover assembly Engine Batch & Serial number

Tappet cover assembly

Fuel Injection pump assembly (F.I.P) Tappet cover assembly Engine Batch & Serial number plate attached Alternator

Engine Batch & Serial number

plate attached

assembly Engine Batch & Serial number plate attached Alternator assembly Oil Seperator Turbo Charger (for turbo

Alternator assembly

Engine Batch & Serial number plate attached Alternator assembly Oil Seperator Turbo Charger (for turbo engines)

Oil Seperator

Engine Batch & Serial number plate attached Alternator assembly Oil Seperator Turbo Charger (for turbo engines)

Turbo Charger (for turbo engines)

CRDI engine (OM 611) Assembly Line

Raw material: Engine block (Cast Iron).

Fig. 2 OM 611 Engine
Fig. 2 OM 611 Engine

Finished engine block arrives from store on pallets with the help of forklifts. For assembly operations engine block is mounted on a trolley which is constrained to move on rails made on the floor. Engine is mounted on the trolley with the help of hoist and tackle. While the machines for various operations are mounted on cross rails attached to the ceiling. As the operations are completed the worker pushes the trolley towards

the next station manually. Engine mounted on trolley is free to r otate, providing the worker easy turning of the engine. Various assembly processes can be seen from the flowchart. The engine moves on the assembly line along with the trolley on which it is mounted. Each station has various installations which are arrange d properly in a rack. The machines mounted above on cross rails are manually moved by worker over the trolley for specified operation. After the operation is done machine is moved back from the assembly line manually.

Observation from the existing setup

Trollies used for mounting engine, move on rails which consume a considerable amount of floor space. This floor space can be regained by using other systems for handling (rather than rail trollies) engine block.

Trollies are heavy after engines are mounted, manual pushing may be tedious job and has chances of collision.

Guide rails needs proper maintenance. (dust and obstruction free)

Human machine interface (HMI) which ensures that all operations have been done before engine moves to next station of the assembly line may be used at every station.

Trollies move on rails which consume floor space can be replaced by other methods which consume least floor space. One of such method is discussed in the end of the report.

() [] have created vertical conveyor mini- line supported by incoming materials inspection and line-side delivery of components. Each station is equipped with a sophistica ted MacDonald Humfrey ‘Human Machine Interface’ (HMI) providing guidance to each operator on the precise sequence of operations req uired at each stage of assembly to ensure No Fault Forward’ (NFF) assembly.

Flowchart of OM 616 Head Line

Store (Engine Head is recieved, manufactured

by a vendor)

Store (Engine Head is recieved, manufactured by a vendor) Cam Bracket assembly Burr Line Boring machine

Cam Bracket assembly

recieved, manufactured by a vendor) Cam Bracket assembly Burr Line Boring machine (cam bracket boring) Inspection

Burr Line Boring machine (cam bracket

boring)

assembly Burr Line Boring machine (cam bracket boring) Inspection (By air plug gauges) Robotic washing machine

Inspection (By air plug

gauges)

Boring machine (cam bracket boring) Inspection (By air plug gauges) Robotic washing machine Pre-dispatch Inspection

Robotic washing machine

Boring machine (cam bracket boring) Inspection (By air plug gauges) Robotic washing machine Pre-dispatch Inspection

Pre-dispatch Inspection

OM 616 Head manufacturing line

OM 616 Head manufacturing line Fig. 3 Engine Head Fig. 4 Camshaft bracket Raw material: Engine
Fig. 3 Engine Head Fig. 4 Camshaft bracket
Fig. 3 Engine Head
Fig. 4 Camshaft bracket

Raw material: Engine head (from vendor)

Engine head is received from store on pallets with the help of forklift. Then they are lifted with help of hoist & tackle and kept on a table where camshaft holding brackets are assembled to it by bolts. Camshaft brackets needs finishing on the internal surface of the bore. For internal finishing, engine head is mounted on Burr line boring machine (by hoist & tackle) which provides final finishing of the internal bore of cam brackets. Total three brackets are assembled in which two are of Ø49 + 0.025 mm and one of Ø35 + 0.025 mm.

Then head is kept on inspection table (by hoist & tackle) and bore size is checked by air plug gauges. After inspection head is kept on an automatic conveyor which takes the heads to an automatic robotic washing machine. After washing heads go through a pre - dispatch inspection on the automatic conveyor after the washer. Then finally the head as sembly is stored on pallets and sent for engine assembly.

Observations from the existing setup

A rubber belt is used as a tackle for lifting the heads (raw material), which is not advisable. This may damage the head or cause an injury to the worker.

Loading of the head on boring machine is done by the same hoist and tackle, which is a risky job as the heads are heavy.

A part of roller conveyor used between the inspection table and automatic conveyor has metal rollers which is not suitable as there occurs me tal to metal contact which may damaging the head.

Flowchart of OM 616 Block Line

Store (Finished engine block is given)

of OM 616 Block Line Store (Finished engine block is given) Robotic washing machine Flange assembly

Robotic washing

machine

(Finished engine block is given) Robotic washing machine Flange assembly (Flange for flywheel side) HMT Flange

Flange assembly (Flange

for flywheel side)

machine Flange assembly (Flange for flywheel side) HMT Flange boring machine Inspection Automatic Washing

HMT Flange boring

machine

(Flange for flywheel side) HMT Flange boring machine Inspection Automatic Washing Machine Finally on pallets

Inspection

(Flange for flywheel side) HMT Flange boring machine Inspection Automatic Washing Machine Finally on pallets

Automatic Washing

Machine

(Flange for flywheel side) HMT Flange boring machine Inspection Automatic Washing Machine Finally on pallets

Finally on pallets

OM 616 Block manufacturing line

Raw material: Engine block

Fig. 5 Engine Block
Fig. 5 Engine Block

Finished engine block is received (from vendor) on pallets by the help of forklifts. The blocks are then lifted by hoist and tackle and kept on automatic conveyor which takes them to an automatic robotic machine. After washing the blocks are lifted from the

conveyor by hoist and tackle and kept on another conveyor where flange (silver coloured portion, can be seen on leftmost side in the picture) is assembled. Then final boring is done on flange by HMT flange boring machine. Then it is lifted by hoist & tackle and kept on inspection table. Then it is kept on an auto conveyor by the help of hoist & tackle from where it goes for final washing. It is unloaded by the help of hoist & tackle and kept on pallets which are sent to engine assembly lines.

Observations from the existing setup

Roller conveyors used are metallic which created metal to me tal contact and may damage the moving metal blocks.

There is a gap of conveyor between automatic washing machine and area for flange assembly. Hoist and tackle is used between the two which is time consuming and tedious. (Shown in fig. 6)

Fig. 6
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 7

Flowchart of OM 616 Crankshaft assembly Line

Store (Crankshaft

comes on trollies)

assembly Line Store (Crankshaft comes on trollies) Sprockets & disc assembly Crankshaft assembly holding

Sprockets & disc assembly

comes on trollies) Sprockets & disc assembly Crankshaft assembly holding fixture Flywheel with starter

Crankshaft assembly

holding fixture

& disc assembly Crankshaft assembly holding fixture Flywheel with starter ring assembly Crankshaft Balancing

Flywheel with starter

ring assembly

holding fixture Flywheel with starter ring assembly Crankshaft Balancing Machine Manual Washing machine

Crankshaft Balancing

Machine

fixture Flywheel with starter ring assembly Crankshaft Balancing Machine Manual Washing machine Finally on pallets

Manual Washing machine

fixture Flywheel with starter ring assembly Crankshaft Balancing Machine Manual Washing machine Finally on pallets

Finally on pallets

OM 616 Crankshaft assembly line

Fig. 8 Crankshaft
Fig. 8 Crankshaft
Fig. 9 Sprocket
Fig. 9 Sprocket

Crankshaft comes on trollies designed to handle them. Then on the trolley itself sprockets and disc are assembled. Sprockets are first heated to 150 ˚C in a blast heater then are attached on the crankshaft. Sprocket can be seen in Fig.9 with teeths. Then the crankshaft is fixed on crankshaft assembly holding fixture with the help of hoist & tackle. Flywheel with starter ring is attached on the opposite side of the crankshaft on this fixture.Then crankshaft is loaded on a crankshaft balancing machine which uses ABRO and a Seimens software designed for balancing the crankshaft. As crankshaft is made to rotate on the machine, two encoders sense the unevenness in the mass and send it to the ABRO software which provides amount to metal to removed from the flywheel and disc side. An automated vertical drill and a horizontal drill is used to remove metal from disc and flywheel side respectively. Then crankshaft is lifted by hoist and tackle and kept on wooden pallets and sent for washing in a manual washing machine. Finally the crankshafts are kept on pallets and sent for asembly.

Observations from the existing setup

Trollies used for crankshaft are to be pushed manually. This requires effort and turning of it manually is difficult.

Sprockets and discs are aseembled on the trolley itself. This might put pressure on some parts of crankshaft when sprockets and disc are hammered to slide in.

Proper tackle is not used for handling. Crankshaft needs to be turned vert ically to be kept on pallet. This is difficult and dangerous with a normal tackle.

Washing machine used is manual with metal roller conveyors. Also, the machine grabs the crankshaft with metal jaws which may be avoided.

Hand pallet trucks, trollies used can be replaced by motorised [] manufactured by Linde Material Handling company. These pickers have max. load capacity of 1515 kg. Also, as they are powered vehicles turning and moving of load becomes easy. Hydraulic Hand Pallets trucks may also be used.

Flowchart of OM 616 Engine assembly Line

Store (Finished

engine block is given)

assembly Line Store (Finished engine block is given) Crankshaft assembly Piston Assembly Oil sump assembly Head

Crankshaft assembly

Store (Finished engine block is given) Crankshaft assembly Piston Assembly Oil sump assembly Head assembly Camshaft

Piston Assembly

engine block is given) Crankshaft assembly Piston Assembly Oil sump assembly Head assembly Camshaft assembly Fuel

Oil sump assembly

given) Crankshaft assembly Piston Assembly Oil sump assembly Head assembly Camshaft assembly Fuel Injection Pump Intake

Head assembly

assembly Piston Assembly Oil sump assembly Head assembly Camshaft assembly Fuel Injection Pump Intake & Exhaust

Camshaft assembly

Assembly Oil sump assembly Head assembly Camshaft assembly Fuel Injection Pump Intake & Exhaust assembly

Fuel Injection Pump

assembly Head assembly Camshaft assembly Fuel Injection Pump Intake & Exhaust assembly Turbocharger assembly

Intake & Exhaust

assembly

assembly Fuel Injection Pump Intake & Exhaust assembly Turbocharger assembly Tappet cover Finally on pallet

Turbocharger

assembly

assembly Fuel Injection Pump Intake & Exhaust assembly Turbocharger assembly Tappet cover Finally on pallet

Tappet cover

assembly Fuel Injection Pump Intake & Exhaust assembly Turbocharger assembly Tappet cover Finally on pallet

Finally on pallet

OM 616 Engine assembly line

Raw material: Engine block

Engine Blocks are received on assembly line on wooden pallets. On this assembly line the block moves on roller conveyors. Blocks are lifted by hoist & tackle and kept on roller conveyor. Blocks are turned upside down (by turn over devices) for crankshaft assembly. After this stage the block is mounted on saddle on which it moves throughout the line. Various processes can be seen in the flowchart of the assembly line. Heavy inputs such as cylinder head, intake and exhaust manifolds are lifted by hoist and tackle for their assembly on the block.

After engine assembly is completed, engine is lifted by hoist and tackle and kept on pallets. Then these pallets are sent to testing area for engine testing.

Observations from the existing setup:

for engine testing. Observations from the existing setup: Fig. 11 OM 616 Engine  Roller conveyors

Fig. 11 OM 616 Engine

Roller conveyors used are not properly covered by rubber. This introduces metal to metal contact.

Saddle on which engine is mounted is of metal, may be replaced by other material to avoid any metal to metal contact. (Fig. 12)

Roller conveyor do occupy a considerable amount of floor space and needs lubrication and

maintenance.

Fig. 12 Engine on a Saddle
Fig. 12 Engine on a Saddle

Flowchart of Engine Test Area

Engine from

Assembly lines

Flowchart of Engine Test Area Engine from Assembly lines Test area Test bed Pallets Powerpack assembly

Test area

Flowchart of Engine Test Area Engine from Assembly lines Test area Test bed Pallets Powerpack assembly

Test bed

Flowchart of Engine Test Area Engine from Assembly lines Test area Test bed Pallets Powerpack assembly

Pallets

Flowchart of Engine Test Area Engine from Assembly lines Test area Test bed Pallets Powerpack assembly

Powerpack

assembly

Flowchart of Engine Test Area Engine from Assembly lines Test area Test bed Pallets Powerpack assembly

Pallets

Engine Testing

Engine testing is done on test bed designed for engine testing. Engine first is sent to oil filling station for oil filling. Then it is brought to test bed by a trolley where it is lifted by hoist and tackle to mount it on test bed. On test bed various inputs to the engine like water supply (for radiator), fuel supply, intake and exhaust systems. Flywheel of the engine is coupled to the rotor of an eddy current dynamometer. Different parameters such as torque at various RPM’s, fuel consumption, air fuel ratio for the

intake mixture, concentration of environment pollutants in exhaust gas, temperatures and gas pressures at several locations on the engine body such as engine oil temperature, spark plug temperature, exhaust gas temperature, intake manifold pressure. If the readings are under specified norms then it is passed on with a “Tested OK” sticker. Engine (with Testes OK sticker) is lifted with hoist and tackle from the bed and kept on trolley which takes it to the engine storing area. From this storing ar ea engines are sent to vehicle assembly plant.

Fig. 13 Engine on a Test bed
Fig. 13 Engine on a Test bed

Observations from the existing setup:

Hoist and tackle are used to lift engine, which may not be appropriate for such a heavy and sophisticated product.

Trollies are used to transport the engines to test bed which is of metal, introducing metal to metal contact. This may not be so significant, but still care needs to be taken.

Fig. 14 Engine on pallets
Fig. 14 Engine on pallets

Handling during engine testing seems satisfactory. Engines are kept on trolley and then moved from store to the test bed.

Folding Engine Crane may also be used for easy movement of engine.

Flowchart of Front axle assembly

Store

Flowchart of Front axle assembly Store Beam storing area (on pallets) Shimming stand Assembly line (Station

Beam storing

area (on pallets)

Front axle assembly Store Beam storing area (on pallets) Shimming stand Assembly line (Station 1) Station

Shimming stand

Store Beam storing area (on pallets) Shimming stand Assembly line (Station 1) Station 2 Station 3

Assembly line

(Station 1)

Store Beam storing area (on pallets) Shimming stand Assembly line (Station 1) Station 2 Station 3

Station 2

Store Beam storing area (on pallets) Shimming stand Assembly line (Station 1) Station 2 Station 3

Station 3

Store Beam storing area (on pallets) Shimming stand Assembly line (Station 1) Station 2 Station 3

Station 4

Store Beam storing area (on pallets) Shimming stand Assembly line (Station 1) Station 2 Station 3

Pallets

Front axle assembly

Beam of I-section comes on wooden pallets with the help of forklifts. Beams are of two types T1 and T2, T1 being shorter in length.With the help of hoist and tackle beams are lifted and placed on shimming stand for assembly of stub axle with help of a king pin. A shim is used to adjust the clearance between stub axle and the beam. King pin is first cooled in liq. Nitrogen at - 170 ˚C. Beam is lifted by hoist & tackle

and kept on trolley of the assembly line. The trolley consists of metal vices which hold the beam. End clip (to provide hole for greasing), circlip (to avoid leakage of grease) is att ached at station 1. Brake clip is also attached here which constraints the rotation of the stub axle. Then on station 2 greasing of the stub axle is done. Hub is attached on station 3 and locked by lock nut. Brake callipers are attached at station 4. After the assembly is completed here, it is lifted by hoist & tackle and kept on wooden pallets. From here the pallets are sent for final assembly in the vehicle by the help of forklifts.

Fig. 15 Front Axle
Fig. 15 Front Axle

Observations from the existing setup:

Hoist- tackle is used for lifting the beam. There are chances of slipping of beam from the tackle.

Shimming stand (Fig.15) is of metal. Care needs to be taken to avoid metal to metal contact.

On trollies of the assembly line, beam is gripped by vices. If vices are tightened too much, it may damage the beam shape.

Fig. 16 Shimming Stand
Fig. 16 Shimming Stand
Fig. 17 Front Axle stored on pallets
Fig. 17 Front Axle stored on pallets

DUAL MASS FLYWHEEL CELL (DMFW) & TRANSMISSION LINE

A flywheel is a rotating mechanical device that is used to store

rotational energy. Flywheels have a significant moment of inertia and thus resist changes in rotational speed. The amount of energy stored in a flywheel is proportional to the square of its rotational speed. Energy is transferred to a flywheel by applying torque to it, thereby increasing its rotational speed, and hence its stored energy.

Fig. 17 Flywheel
Fig. 17 Flywheel

Conversely, a flywheel releases stored energy by applying torque to a mechanical load, thereby decreasing its rotational speed. Firstly flywheel parts such as sealing cover, hub plate, retaining plate ,disc plate ,hub, timing plate, ring gear ,bow spring inner, bow spring outer are brought to the DMFW cell units with the help of trolley. Then manually, the parts are lifted and kept on the various machine such as electron beam welding, induction heater, torque tester, grease stabilising unit for various operations for the assembly of flywheel. After the assembly, flywheel is taken for the final assembly of engine with the help of trolley.

A

machine consists of a power source and a power transmission system, which provides controlled application

of

power. Often transmission refers simply to the gearbox that uses gears and gear trains to provide speed

and torque conversions from a rotating power source to another device.

Observations from the existing setup:

The input/primary discs come on trolley stacked together on rods. Although not significant but there is partial metal to metal contact between the discs. This can be observed in fig. 18.

Since the parts are light, can be handled safely by worker. Material handling on this assembly line is safe and statisfactory.

Fig. 19 Flywheel parts on trolley
Fig. 19 Flywheel parts on trolley
Fig. 20 Flywheel discs on trolley
Fig. 20 Flywheel discs on trolley

Flowchart of E21 6-Speed Gearbox assembly

Store

Flowchart of E21 6-Speed Gearbox assembly Store Main Housing in pallets Assembly line (Station 1) Station

Main Housing

in pallets

E21 6-Speed Gearbox assembly Store Main Housing in pallets Assembly line (Station 1) Station 2 Station

Assembly line (Station 1)

6-Speed Gearbox assembly Store Main Housing in pallets Assembly line (Station 1) Station 2 Station 3

Station 2

6-Speed Gearbox assembly Store Main Housing in pallets Assembly line (Station 1) Station 2 Station 3

Station 3

6-Speed Gearbox assembly Store Main Housing in pallets Assembly line (Station 1) Station 2 Station 3

Station 4

6-Speed Gearbox assembly Store Main Housing in pallets Assembly line (Station 1) Station 2 Station 3

Station 5

E21 6-Speed Gearbox assembly

Main housing comes in pallets from the store. The housing is mounted on trolley which moves on the assembly line. The trolley moves on rails made on the floor.

At station 1, lay shaft is meshed with the main shaft of the gearbox in the housing. Lay shaft is the shaft which contains gears but does not transmit the primary drive of the gearbox, in or out of it. These two shafts are lifted by hoist and tackle

Fig. 20 Front Axle stored on pallets
Fig. 20 Front Axle stored on pallets

designed for them. An input shaft is then lifted by hoist a nd tackle and meshed with the main shaft of the gearbox. The input shaft can be seen in left hand side of fig. 16

At station 2, Oil pump for oil circulation and a connection plate to hold the input shaft on the housing is attached. Shimming is also done he re. In shimming, a shim as shown in fig.17 is used to reduce clearance between shaft and bearing races. Input shaft is heated for attaching races on the input shaft. At station 3, rear cover with range group (Planetary gear system) with 4 planet gears is a ttached.

Gear shifting mechanism is attached on station 4. Then final oil testing is done on station 5. The gear box assembly moves on trolley throughout the assembly line.

Observations from the existing setup

Fig. 21 A Shim Fig. 23 Planetary gear system
Fig. 21 A Shim
Fig. 23 Planetary gear system

The trolley moves on rails which consume floor space. This space can be regained and used in other ways.

Lay shaft, main shaft are lifted by hoist and tackle. This may introduce metal to metal contact with gears of the shaft.

The assembly line seems to be good in terms of material handling with minimum amount of metal to metal contact.

Machinery Observed

CNC Machines: BFW HMC (Bharat Fritz Werner, Horizontal Machine Centre) 650HE Series [5]

This CNC machine is a two axis machine with an ATC (Aut omatic Tool Changer) capable of holding 40 tools at a time. It has two worktables which increases the productivity. While the worker loads the component on one worktable, the component on other table gets machined. There is an automatic chip conveyor which collects chips from the machining zone. It has 40 m/min of rapid traverse rate and feed rate varying between 1-20 m/min.

traverse rate and feed rate varying between 1-20 m/min. Crankshaft balancing machine : This machine is
traverse rate and feed rate varying between 1-20 m/min. Crankshaft balancing machine : This machine is

Crankshaft balancing machine : This machine is used to balance rotating mass of the crankshaft to reduce its vibrations. The worker loads the crankshaft on the machine. Then it is made to rotate at a particular RPM. Two encoders measure the unbalanced weights on disc side and the flywheel side of the crankshaft. Two drills remove material automatically from the two sides using information received by encoders. This

encoders are designed by company named ABRO, a world leader in dynamic balancing. After material removal again the crankshaft is made to rotate and same procedure is followed until the crankshaft is balanced to required precis ion.

the crankshaft is made to rotate and same procedure is followed until the crankshaft is balanced

Suggestions for better material handling

Accumulation Roller Conveyor : The accumulation roller conveyor is used as a zero - pressure conveyor for transport units. Rollers are stopped specifically to avoid collision when one transport unit comes to a standstill. Accumulation roller conveyors are ideally used in areas where there are risks of jams and in buffer zones. Accumulation roller conveyors may be driven by a powered belt or by motor rollers. Single conveyor se gments are disconnected if the next segment is occupied by a transport unit. Rollers are rubberised avoiding metal to metal contact between the rollers and moving product.

to metal contact between the rollers and moving product.   Curved Conveyors Rubberised Rollers  Curves
to metal contact between the rollers and moving product.   Curved Conveyors Rubberised Rollers  Curves
 

Curved Conveyors

Rubberised Rollers

Curves: Within

live

or accumulation

roller

conveyors,

curves are used for turning

totes while

guaranteeing a continuous flow. SCHAEFER Motor Rollers (SMRs) has also made possible to create an accumulation area in the curves. Based on three basic curve segments, it is possible to build eleven

different curves within

a range of 30° to 180°. By combining different

curve segments,

it

is

also

possible to build S - curves. Turning is easy with these curves and less time consuming than rotating

tables.

Macdonald Humfrey & Exmac

Automation Ltd. created assembly line for engines:

MacDonald Humfrey Automation (MHA) and sister company Exmac Automation have joined forces to help automotive engineering specialist Ricardo create a state-of-the-art 600 square metre assembly facility to build its first ever high- performance engine at Ricardo’s Technical Centre in West Sussex. Providing a near cleanroom production environment the facility has the capacity to produce 4000 engines annually across two daily shifts. o Its core is a ten- station vertical conveyor mini-line supported by incoming materials inspection and line- side delivery of components. Each station is equipped with a sophisticated MacDonald Humfrey ‘Human Machine Interface ’ (HMI) providing guidance to each operator on the precise sequence of operations required at each stage of assembly to ensure No Fault Forward’ (NFF) assembly. Tools at each station are instrumented to provide data

directly into a central warranty database for each engine, providing complete finished product traceability.

o

Each line station is interlocked via its HMI to ensure that all operations and checks have been successfully completed and recorded before the line can be indexed and the engine moved forward to the next station.

o

To meet the specificatio n within the space available Exmac designed a compact 10 -station back- to- back manual line that takes up very little floor space in the new building. The system allows Ricardo to load engine blocks onto the line and rotate them at any of the stations, and indexes manually to allow greater control over the assembly process.

o

Engine blocks are fixed to lightweight trolleys using a vertically mounted slew ring and quick release plate, that allows it to be rotated through 360 degrees whilst is locked in place to allow complete access for operators. Engines start their build sequence at station 1 and when all assembly functions are completed the control system allows a stop to retract for the operator to push the trolley (running in a steel track) to a holding pos ition until station 2 is clear. The

track) to a holding pos ition until station 2 is clear. The trolley is then pushed

trolley is then pushed to station 2 where it is again held in place for that station’s assembly functions to be carried out …….and so on to station 10.

o

A latched turn-post at each end of the line (providing a swing-gate effect) allows trolleys be re-directed to the opposite side of the line after assembly operations at station 5 are completed. When a trolley reaches station 10 the engine block has been transformed into a fully assembled, complete engine.

o

The Exmac-designed mechanical locking systems locate and secure trolleys at each station until the MacDonald Humfrey HMI system confirms that operators have completed all required tasks at each station, and assembly can continue on a no - faults- forward basis.

o

If an engine needs to be reworked, trolley and engine can be moved to a holding position at the end of the line. When work is completed, both are returned to station 1 (via the turntable if necessary) and then moved to the appropriate station to allow the engine to continue its build programme.

o

The bespoke MHA Human Machine Interface’ provides Ricardo production engineers with a list of operations that they can vary and configure themselves. For example, not only are they able to set task-by-task instructions showing assembly operators how to build the engine, they also include time allocated to each task, DC tooling operations, air tests, and gasket glue plotting. In addition, the HMI integrates all operations and confirms with a time and date stamp that all tasks have been completed. Effectively this means that every single operation including every bolt to be tightened has its own programme! Detailed on-screen information and visual aids are shown at each of the ten stations and data is fed to an MHA pick - to- lig ht system to ensure efficient error-proof component picking.

Observations from this assembly line:

Floor space is regained.

Better and easy handling.

All processes to be done on a station are ensured by HMI.

Fixed process time at each station.

No fault basis.

This technique may be used in OM611 Engine assembly line where trollies run on rails mounted on floor. It will recover the floor space and provide better handling.

References

1. Common rail, Wikipedia.org from < http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Common_rail >

2. Cisco-eagle, cisco-eagle.com , 888-877-3861 from < http://www.cisco-eagle.com/catalog/c- 3206-accumulation-conveyor.aspx >

3. Exmac Automation, exmacautomation.co.uk from <

4. Linde Material Handling (UK) Ltd., www.linde- mh.co.uk from < http://www.linde-

5. Bharat Fritz Werner Ltd. (Kothari Group), www.bfwindia.com from < http://www.bfwindia.com/BBB/products/pdf/unicorn.pdf >