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Wikepedia sourceIn radio, an antenna is the interface between radio waves propagating

through space and electric currents moving in metal conductors, used with
a transmitter or receiver.[1] In transmission, a radio transmitter supplies an electric current to the
antenna's terminals, and the antenna radiates the energy from the current as electromagnetic
waves (radio waves). In reception, an antenna intercepts some of the power of an
electromagnetic wave in order to produce an electric current at its terminals, that is applied to a
receiver to be amplified. Antennas are essential components of all radio equipment, and are
used in radio broadcasting, broadcast television, two-way radio, communications
receivers, radar, cell phones, satellite communications and other devices.
An antenna is an array of conductors (elements), electrically connected to the receiver or
transmitter. During transmission, the oscillating current applied to the antenna by a transmitter
creates an oscillating electric field and magnetic field around the antenna elements. These time-
varying fields radiate energy away from the antenna into space as a
moving transverse electromagnetic field wave. Conversely, during reception, the oscillating
electric and magnetic fields of an incoming radio wave exert force on the electrons in the
antenna elements, causing them to move back and forth, creating oscillating currents in the
Antennas can be designed to transmit and receive radio waves in all horizontal directions
equally (omnidirectional antennas), or preferentially in a particular direction (directional or high
gain antennas). An antenna may include parasitic elements, parabolic reflectors or horns, which
serve to direct the radio waves into a beam or other desired radiation pattern.
The first antennas were built in 1888 by German physicist Heinrich Hertz in his pioneering
experiments to prove the existence of electromagnetic waves predicted by the theory of James
Clerk Maxwell. Hertz placed dipole antennas at the focal point of parabolic reflectors for both
transmitting and receiving. He published his work in Annalen der Physik und Chemie (vol. 36,

Animation of a half-wave dipole antenna transmitting radio waves, showing the electric field lines. The antenna
in the center is two vertical metal rods, with an alternating current applied at its center from a radio
transmitter (not shown). The voltage charges the two sides of the antenna alternately positive (+) and
negative (−). Loops of electric field (black lines) leave the antenna and travel away at the speed of light; these
are the radio waves.
Animated diagram of a half-wave dipole antenna receiving energy from a radio wave. The antenna consists of
two metal rods connected to a receiver R. The electric field (E, green arrows) of the incoming wave pushes
the electrons in the rods back and forth, charging the ends alternately positive (+) and negative (−). Since the
length of the antenna is one half the wavelength of the wave, the oscillating field induces standing waves of
voltage (V, represented by red band) and current in the rods. The oscillating currents (black arrows) flow down
the transmission line and through the receiver (represented by the resistance R).


 1Terminology
 2Overview
 3Reciprocity
 4Characteristics
o 4.1Resonant antennas
 4.1.1Current and voltage distribution
 4.1.2Electrically short antennas
 4.1.3Arrays and reflectors
o 4.2Bandwidth