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Year : 2010 | Volume : 47 | Issue : 5 | Page : 63-68
Sharma I
Sarma P S
Thankappan K R Awareness, attitude and perceived barriers regarding implementation of the cigarettes and other tobacco products
act in Assam, India
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for I Sharma, PS Sarma, KR Thankappan
Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and
Sharma I Technology, Trivandrum - 695 011, India
Sarma P S
Thankappan K R
Date of Web Publication 9-Jul-2010
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Correspondence Address:
Assam K R Thankappan
attitude Achutha Menon Centre for Health Science Studies, Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and
awareness Technology, Trivandrum - 695 011
barriers India
India
tobacco products Act
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» Abstract
In this article
» Abstract Background : Tobacco use is a major public health problem in India. The Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products
» Introduction Act (COTPA) was developed to curb this epidemic. Because no study has been conducted on the awareness,
attitude and perceived barriers regarding the implementation of COTPA, this study was undertaken. Materials and
» Materials and Me...
Methods : A community-based cross-sectional survey was conducted among 300 adults (mean age 41 years, 52%
» Results men) selected by cluster sampling method from Guwahati Municipal Corporation. Information on awareness,
» Discussion attitude and their predictors and barriers for implementation was collected using a pretested, structured interview
» Acknowledgments schedule. Multivariate analysis was done using SPSS. Results : Adults older than 50 years were 3 times (odds ratio
» References [OR] 3.02, 95% CI 1.44-6.31) and those with more than 10 years of schooling were 4 times (OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.70-
» Article Tables 7.70) more likely to have good awareness of COTPA compared with their counter parts. Those belonging to the
middle socioeconomic status (SES) were 3 times (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.13-10.01), those who reported secondhand
smoking harmful were 3 times (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.45-7.62), and those with more than 10 years of schooling were
Article Access Statistics 3 times (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.01-8.45) more likely to have positive attitude toward COTPA compared with their
Viewed 4166 counterparts. Lack of complete information and awareness of the Act, public opposition, cultural acceptance of
Printed 132 tobacco use, lack of political support, and less priority for tobacco control were reported as barriers for COTPA
Emailed 1 implementation. Conclusion : Efforts should be made to increase the awareness of COTPA focusing on younger
PDF Downloaded 388 population, less educated, and those belonging to the low SES.
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Cited by others 5
Keywords: Assam, attitude, awareness, barriers, India, tobacco products Act

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1/17/2018 Awareness, attitude and perceived barriers regarding implementation of the cigarettes and other tobacco products act in Assam, India Shar…

How to cite this article:


Sharma I, Sarma P S, Thankappan K R. Awareness, attitude and perceived barriers regarding implementation of
the cigarettes and other tobacco products act in Assam, India. Indian J Cancer 2010;47, Suppl S1:63-8

How to cite this URL:


Sharma I, Sarma P S, Thankappan K R. Awareness, attitude and perceived barriers regarding implementation of
the cigarettes and other tobacco products act in Assam, India. Indian J Cancer [serial online] 2010 [cited 2018 Jan
17];47, Suppl S1:63-8. Available from: http://www.indianjcancer.com/text.asp?2010/47/5/63/63874
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1 Individual Health
Publication of the supplement was supported by the funds from the 14th World Conference on Tobacco or Health,
2 13 March 8-12, 2009, Mumbai. The Guest Editors, Editors, Authors and others involved with the journal did not get
any financial or non-financial benefit from the sponsors.

» Introduction

Tobacco use is one of the major public health problems in the world, resulting in 5.4 million deaths every year. [1]
Total tobacco-attributable deaths are projected to rise to 6.4 million in 2015 and 8.3 million in 2030, and 80% of
these deaths will be in the developing countries. [2]

According to the National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), in India, over half of men (57%) and over one tenth
(10.8%) of women in the age group of 15-49 years use tobacco in some form. [3] Tobacco use in any form increased
in India during the 7-year period between the NFHS-2 and NFHS-3, and the greatest increase in tobacco use
occurred in persons between 15 and 24 years of age in the richer classes and in urban areas. [4]

In Assam, 72.4% men and 23.2% women in the age group of 15-49 years used some form of tobacco and 36.4%
Click on image for details.
men and 0.6% women smoked cigarette or bidi. [3] According to the Global Youth Tobacco Survey-2006, 36% of
students in Assam reported current use of some form of tobacco; 10% currently smoke cigarettes, and 26%
currently use some other form of tobacco. [5] Scientific evidence from the past few decades has clearly established
1 the harmful effects of passive smoking. The World Health Organization (WHO), International Agency for Research
on Cancer (IARC), and the US Surgeon General have concluded that secondhand smoking is responsible for ill
Download this health in humans exposed to it. [6],[7],[8] After several rounds of negotiations, the World Health Assembly in May
2003 finally adopted the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC), which the member states of WHO
to PDF - PDF
have to adopt. [9]
Download
India was one of the first few countries that ratified the FCTC. In addition to ratifying the FCTC, the Indian
To View PDF,
Parliament enacted the Cigarettes and Other Tobacco Products (Prohibition of Advertisement and Regulation of
Download Here
Trade and Commerce, Production, Supply, and Distribution) Act (COTPA) on May 18, 2003. In 2004, the rules
were notified for the COTPA provisions on the ban of smoking in public places, ban on advertisements of tobacco
products, and prohibition of sale of tobacco products to minors and within 100 yards of educational institutions. [10]
Specific pictorial warnings were notified in 2009.
free.propdfconverter.com
No study has been conducted so far on the awareness, attitude, and perceived barriers regarding the implementation
of the Act. Therefore, this study was undertaken.

2 » Materials and Methods

Free This study was approved by the Institutional Ethics Committee of the Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical
Download Sciences and Technology, Trivandrum. Written informed consent was taken from all the participants and they were
free to opt out of the study at any stage of the study.
Instant Free Download
This study was a community-based cross-sectional survey among 300 adults (men 52.3%) 18 years and older. The
sample size of 300 was estimated based on an anticipated awareness level of 24% with a margin of error of 6%. [11]
Because it was a cluster sampling, we also used a design effect of 1.5 in the calculation of the sample size. Twenty
wards (clusters) were identified from the entire 60 wards under the jurisdiction of Guwahati Municipal Corporation
mergedocsonline.com in Assam, using the technique of probability proportional to size. From each of the selected wards, a cluster of 15
adults were selected.

Data were collected using a structured interview schedule. Information regarding age, sex, highest level of
education, occupation, and marital status was obtained through self-reports. Total monthly household expenditure
tertiles have been used as proxy for the socioeconomic status (SES). Individuals whose total household expenditure
was Rs 6221 or less were grouped as "low SES," Rs. 6222-19,465 as "middle SES," and more than Rs. 19,465 as
"high SES."

Awareness of tobacco-related health problems, perception that secondhand smoke is harmful, awareness about any
tobacco control law in India, awareness of the 4 major provisions of the Act, and related information was collected.

Information regarding the barriers in the implementation of the Act, such as lack of awareness of the law, lack of
administrative support, cultural acceptance of tobacco use, and measures for effective implementation of the Act
was collected.
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1/17/2018 Awareness, attitude and perceived barriers regarding implementation of the cigarettes and other tobacco products act in Assam, India Shar…

Ever use of tobacco (used tobacco anytime in the past), current tobacco use (any use of tobacco in the past 30 days),
current smoking (use of any smoking tobacco in the past 30 days), current smokeless tobacco use (any form of
smokeless tobacco use in the past 30 days), and anyone in the family using any kind of tobacco product (current
tobacco use of any family member) was also collected.

There were 8 questions to assess the awareness level of adults toward COTPA. The questions were (1) Have you
heard of any tobacco control laws in India? (2) Is there a ban on smoking in India? (3) Is there some penalty if
someone violates the law? (4) Is there any age limit for prohibition of buying tobacco products in India? (5) Is there
any age limit for prohibition of selling tobacco products to anyone in India? (6) Is there a ban on advertisement of
tobacco products in India? (7) Is there a ban on selling tobacco products near educational institutions in India? and
(8) Have you noticed health warnings on tobacco products? For every "yes" response, a score of one was allotted
and the rest of the responses ("no" and "don't know") were scored zero. Thus, a minimum score of zero and a
maximum score of 8 were obtained. The score was divided into 2 categories based on the median value (3.0). Score
less than or equal to 3 was graded as "poor awareness" and score more than 3 was graded as " good awareness."

The "Fishbein model" was used to measure attitude toward the Act. [12] It is a compensatory multiattribute model of
attitude. According to the model, a person's attitude toward any object is a function of his/her beliefs about the
object and the implicit evaluative responses associated with those beliefs. In this study to measure the attitude
toward COTPA, 2 questions were framed-one on belief strength measurement (Bi ) and the other on evaluative
strength measurement (Ei ). Each question had 4 parts for the 4 provisions of the Act. Each individual provision
was measured on a scale. A scale marked from 1 to 10 was used and the respondent was asked to tick any point on
the scale, which he/she thought was appropriate. For belief strength, the scale ranged from strongly disbelieve to
strongly believe and for evaluative strength measurement, it ranged from very ineffective to very effective.
Individual attitude (A) for each Act was measured as A = Bi Χ Ei and overall AL = [SUM] Bi Χ Ei , where AL = the
overall attitude toward the Act, Bi = the strength of the belief that the government should implement each provision
of the Act, Ei = the evaluation of the effectiveness or ineffectiveness of each provision if it is implemented. The
conceptual midpoint for the individual attitude is 30.25. So negative attitude was scored as less than 30.25 and
positive attitude was 30.25 or more. Similarly, for the overall attitude the conceptual midpoint was 121, so negative
attitude was scored as less than 121 and positive attitude was 121 or more.

Analysis was done using SPSS version 15.0 (SPSS Inc., IBM Company, Chicago, Illinois, USA). Variables
significantly associated with the outcome variables in the bivariate analysis were used for multiple logistic
regression analysis. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.

In addition to the quantitative survey mentioned above, 15 indepth interviews of the implementers of the Act were
also done. The implementers included police officers, teachers, gazetted officers, restaurant/hotel managers, and
petty shop owners selling tobacco. Information was collected on the practical challenges of implementation of the
law, such as selling tobacco products to minors, banning advertisement of tobacco products, banning selling
tobacco products within 100 yards of educational institutions, and so on. The 15 indepth interviews were read and
coded by two independent coders. The codes were then collapsed into themes that were explicit as part of the
analysis. The associations between the various themes were identified.

» Results

The sample characteristics are given in [Table 1]. The mean age of the sample population was 41.07 years (range
18-80 years). The mean household expenditure was Rs 11,102.

Information on the awareness about tobacco-related health problems is given in [Table 2]. The mean score of
awareness about COTPA was 3.35 out of 8 with a range of minimum 0 and maximum 8. A vast majority of the
participants (97%) were aware of some tobacco-related health problems. With regard to the awareness of individual
diseases associated with tobacco use, more than half of the participants were aware of tobacco-related cancer and
more than a third were aware of tobacco-related respiratory disease. Only a quarter of the participants were aware
of the relationship between tobacco and heart problems. More than half of the participants had a poor awareness on
COTPA.

Attitude toward COTPA is given in [Table 3]. The mean score of attitude toward COTPA based on the Fishbein
model was 184.83 out of 400 with a range of 7-400. The largest proportion of the participants with a positive
attitude toward COTPA was on the prohibition on sale to minors and within 100 yards of educational institutions.

Tobacco use practices of the study participants are given in [Table 4]. Forty percent females and 63% males were
currently using some form of tobacco. More than 50% of males were currently smoking, whereas only 9% of
females were currently smoking. Among females, 36% were using smokeless variety of tobacco compared with
23% males.

Results of multiple logistic regression analysis for awareness of COTPA is given in [Table 5]. Adults older than 50
years were 3 times (odds ratio [OR] 3.02, 95% CI 1.44-6.31) and those with more than 10 years of schooling were 4
times (OR 3.60, 95% CI 1.70-7.70) likely to have good awareness compared with their counterparts. Marital status,
SES, awareness of the harmful effects of secondhand smoke, ever use of tobacco, current use of tobacco, and
anyone in the family using tobacco, which were significant in bivariate analysis lost their significance in
multivariate analysis.

Results of multiple logistic regression analysis for positive attitude toward COTPA are given in [Table 6]. Those
with more than 10 years of schooling were 3 times (OR 2.92, 95% CI 1.01-8.45), those belonging to middle SES
were 3 times (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.13-10.01), and those who reported secondhand smoking harmful were 3 times
(OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.45-7.62) more likely to have a positive attitude toward COTPA compared with their

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1/17/2018 Awareness, attitude and perceived barriers regarding implementation of the cigarettes and other tobacco products act in Assam, India Shar…
counterparts. Age, current tobacco use, ever use of tobacco, anyone in the family using tobacco, awareness of
COTPA, which were significant in bivariate analysis lost their significance in multivariate analysis.

Overall 78.3% of the participants reported that there are barriers for the implementation of the Act. The most
common barrier reported was the lack of awareness of the Act (34.0%). Other barriers reported were cultural
acceptance of tobacco use (20.3%), tobacco issues given less priority (14.0%), fear of public opposition (12.0%),
lack of administrative support (11.3%), not familiar with the provisions of the Act (8.3%), lack of awareness of the
ill effects of tobacco (7.3%), lack of complete information (5.7%), lack of financial and human resources (4.0%),
definitions are not clear (4.0%), and difficulty in paying fine by poor people (3.0%).

Most of the implementers who reported that they were aware of the Act did not have knowledge of the standard
specifications. Most of them reported that they do not know who to complain to if someone violated the Act and
they were even unaware of the legal penalty if someone violates the Act. The implementers of the Act were
themselves not aware of their responsibilities. Most of the implementers did not receive the official notification of
the Act without which they think that they are not empowered to take any action. Most of the barriers reported by
the study participants were also reported by the implementers. In addition, the implementers also reported public
opposition for implementation, lack of interest of the implementers, lack of proper training of the implementers,
difficulty in interpreting the graphical images on the tobacco packets, and the arbitrariness of the distance
mentioned in the Act as other barriers.

» Discussion

This is the first study in India on awareness, attitude, and barriers regarding the implementation of COTPA. In this
study, almost every participant (97%) was aware that tobacco causes at least some health problem unlike the study
in Kolkata where 20% of the participants had no idea about the adverse effects of tobacco use. [13] Peoples'
awareness of tobacco causing cancer, heart problem, and respiratory disease was similar to some previous studies.
[14],[15] Another interesting finding in the present study was that only 1% of the population knew that tobacco
causes diabetes, which is similar to the results of a previous study in Kerala among the members of the local self-
government bodies. [15] There is a need to increase the awareness level regarding the links between tobacco use and
diabetes and related complications, particularly when India is projected to have the maximum number of diabetes
patients in the world. [16] Several prospective studies have reported that cigarette smoking is an independent and
modifiable risk factor for diabetes. [17],[18],[19] Awareness on the links between tobacco use and hypertension was
only 11%, which was similar to a study reported from Delhi. [20] The awareness of the harmful effects of
secondhand smoke was quite high, which was contrary to the studies from Wellington and Sydney. [21],[22] Nearly
half of the study population had good awareness of COTPA compared with a very low level of awareness about the
existing national tobacco control laws and the FCTC in Azerbaijan. [23]

The overall attitude of the population toward COTPA was high. This implies that with a little more effort to
implement the Act, we can expect the population to accept the Act and support it. A vast majority of the
participants had a positive attitude toward prohibition on sale to minors and within 100 yards of educational
institutions, which is similar to other studies done previously. [24],[25],[26],[27],[28]

As age increases, awareness of COTPA increases significantly. Most of the older people in this study were retired,
so they stay at home and they might have more opportunities to watch television or listen to the radio, which
broadcast antitobacco messages. Because the awareness level is less among less educated people, efforts should be
made to increase awareness among them.

As age increases the attitude toward COTPA increases significantly. Elderly people must have seen and experienced
the harmful effects of tobacco and thus they don't want the younger generation to suffer. As SES improves, the
attitude toward COTPA also improves similar to the study in China. [29] Nonusers of tobacco (both ever and
current) had significantly higher positive attitude toward COTPA compared with their counterparts as reported in
many previous studies. [24],[29],[30] However, this significance observed in the bivariate analysis was lost in the
multivariate analysis probably due to small sample size. The barriers reported in our study were similar to a few
other previous studies. [31],[32]

In conclusion, nearly half of our participants had good awareness of COTPA and more than three-fourths of them
had an overall positive attitude toward COTPA. However, the participants reported several barriers for effective
implementation of the Act, which should be addressed at various levels. Awareness of COTPA significantly
increased with age and education, and positive attitude toward COTPA was significantly associated with better
education, higher SES, and better awareness of the harmful effects of secondhand smoking. Efforts should be made
to increase the awareness of the Act focusing on younger population, less educated people, and people belonging to
the low SES. Training of implementers on COTPA will also be useful for proper implementation of the Act.

One of the major strengths of this study was that a single investigator (IS) conducted all interviews, including the
qualitative interviews. The other strength was the use of a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods for
data collection.

This study had all the limitations of a cross-sectional study. Because of the urban-focused study areas, the findings
may not be generalizable to rural populations.

» Acknowledgments

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1/17/2018 Awareness, attitude and perceived barriers regarding implementation of the cigarettes and other tobacco products act in Assam, India Shar…
The authors express their thanks to the participants of this study for their cooperation in completing the study. The
authors also thank Dr Mala Ramanathan, Additional Professor, Achutha Menon Centre For Health Science Studies,
Sree Chitra Tirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Thiruvananthapuram, for her contribution in the
qualitative data collection and analysis.

» References

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Tables

[Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]

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http://www.indianjcancer.com/article.asp?issn=0019-509X;year=2010;volume=47;issue=5;spage=63;epage=68;aulast=Sharma 7/7