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Chapter 4 (Q#2, MID, FIN)

 Democritus
o teacher 4th BC century Greece
o proposed the existence of the atom—smallest piece of matter
o He said it was indivisible and indestructible
o Was not accepted because there was no scientific testing and no data to back his
idea
 Aristotle
o 100 years after Democritus
o Aristotle said all matter is made up of a combination of 4 elements:
 Fire, air, water, earth
 DALTON ATOMIC THEORY
o Accepted because it was based on experimental evidence
 Published in 1803
1. All elements are made of tiny indivisible particles called atoms
2. Atoms of the same element are identical to each other but different from those of
other elements
3. Atoms of different elements can physically mix or chemically combine to form
compounds
4. Chemical reactions can occur when atoms are separated, joined, or rearranged.
Atoms can never turn into another type of atom
 JJ Thomson
o Discovered electrons in 1897
o Used cathode ray tube
o Noticed cathode ray was attracted to the metal plates (positive) and concluded that
the ray must be composted of tiny negatively charged particles
o PLUMB PUDDING MODEL
 Negatively charged electrons stuck into a lump of positive charge material
o RUTHERFORD’S MODEL
 Conducted gold foil experiment in 1911
 Proposed that the atom is mostly made of empty space with dense positively
charged nucleus in the center
CLASSIFYING ELEMENTS
 Metals –left and center of periodic table
o Good conductors of heat
o Good conductors of electricity
o Malleable (pounded into flat sheets)
o Ductile (made into wires)
o Shiny
o Tend to lose electrons
o Ex: gold, silver, lead, sodium, etc
 Nonmetals- right of periodic table
o Can be solid, liquid, or gas
o Poor conductors of heat
o Poor conductors of electricity
o Tend to gain electrons
o Ex: oxygen, carbon, iodine, etc
 Metalloids- between metal and nonmetal on periodic table
o Semiconductors
o Electrically conductive
o Usually shiny
o Used in electronic chips
o Ex: silicon, arsenic

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 Practice page 125 51-66

ATOMS
 Smallest particle of an element that still retains the properties of that elements
 Elements are the simplest form of matter that can exist under normal lab setting
 THE NUCLEUS
o Center of the atom
o Contains protons (+) and neutrons (0)
o 99.9% of mass
o postiviely charged
o tiny compared to the atom as a whole
 COMPOSITION
o Subatomic particles
 Protons ( p+)
 Positive charge
 Located in the nucleus
 All protons are identical
 Mass: 1 amu [atomic mass unit]
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 Neutrons ( no )
 Neutral charge
 Located in nucleus
 Has about the same mass as the proton
 Electrons ( e- )
 Negative charge
 Moves around the nucleus
 1/1836 amu
o THE ATOMIC NUMBER
 Number of protons in the nucleus of the atom
 Is shown with the letter Z
 Atomic # determines the identity of the element
 Ex: Carbon-6 ( 6 protons in nucleus)
o MASS NUMBER
 Shown with the letter A
 Number of protons + neutrons In the nucleus of an atom
 SHORT HAND
o Mass number is written as a superscript on the left
o Atomic number is written as a subscript on the left
 Page 128 #91-94, #87-96
 ISOTOPES
o Atoms that have the same number of protons but different number of neutrons---
different mass number
o EXAMPLE:
U-235 U-238
# p: 92 # p: 92
# n: 235-92= 143 # n: 238-92= 146

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