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Técnico en Producción

ASIGNATURA
INGLÉS V

Módulo II
Tecnología para la conservación y transformación de la leche

Submódulo II
Efectuar análisis fisicoquímicos a la leche y productos lácteos

adeTa Página
Julio 2013
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DIRECTORIO

Lic. Juan Antonio Martínez Martínez

Secretario de Educación del Estado

Lic. Isidoro del Camino Ramos

Director de Educación Media Superior y


Superior

Dra. Norma Delia Jiménez Trápaga

Directora General de CECYTESLP

Mtro. Erik Tigrán Sánchez Melchor

Directora Académica de CECYTESLP.

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CRÉDITOS
Araujo Becerra María Azalea Plantel III
Castillo Rodríguez Yadira Plantel I
Cortés Magaña Vivaldo Plantel V
Hernández Gamboa Javier Plantel IV
Ibarra Ruiz Sonia de Jesús Plantel I
Martínez Hernández Reyno Plantel VII
Martínez Amaya Ma. Del Rosario Plantel V
Reyes Macías José Guadalupe Plantel III
Rodríguez Ángeles Isabel Carmen Plantel I
Saldaña Medrano Claudia Plantel II
Torres Aguilera Josefina Plantel III

SAN LUIS POTOSI

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UNIDAD I Textos descriptivos
Textos informativos

STUDENT IDENTIFICATION
Name _________________________________________________________
First name last name

School ___________________________________Group _______________


Address _______________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
Telephone___________________ Cell phone ________________________
e –mail ______________________________________________________

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PRESENTACIÓN

El Colegio de Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos del Estado de San Luis Potosí, la


Academia de Inglés y su colegiado de profesores quienes comprometidos con la calidad
educativa, han implementado acciones que apoyan el desarrollo académico de sus
estudiantes al elaborar la Guía V de aprendizaje de Inglés, en conformidad con el Programa
Vigente y los lineamientos establecidos por la Reforma Integral de la Educación Media
Superior (RIEMS) y el Marco Curricular Común (MCC).

“Por ello, las nuevas versiones de los programas destacan los aprendizajes que permitan a
los jóvenes articular conceptos, procedimientos y actitudes que favorezcan el desarrollo de
sus capacidades, tanto para continuar en la educación superior y transitarla con éxito, como
para incorporarse al trabajo con una formación que les permita ejercer plenamente su
ciudadanía, tomar decisiones de manera responsable y mejorar su calificación profesional”
“Actualmente el idioma inglés es el que se prefiere en la ciencia en general, y más del 80%
de la información en Internet la encontramos en inglés. El aprendizaje de este idioma debe
contribuir al desarrollo intelectual del alumno, esto es, al conocer una lengua extranjera se le
proporciona al individuo ventajas y herramientas para un eficiente desenvolvimiento personal,
profesional y académico. Se espera que gradualmente se vaya despertando en el alumno el
interés por aprender el idioma, al desarrollar diversas habilidades en cada asignatura, y
mediante este proceso se pueda llegar al objetivo de que el estudiante comprenda y se
comunique en un inglés básico” (Programa de Estudios de Inglés, Bachillerato Tecnológico RIEMS, Págs.
1,4 México, COSDAC, 2009)

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Para lograr lo anterior, esta guía se conforma de tres unidades, descritas a continuación:

UNIDAD I. Textos descriptivos. Textos informativos

UNIDAD II.

UNIDAD III.

Esperando que este material de apoyo sea de gran utilidad en tu proceso de aprendizaje, así
mismo despierte el interés por conocer y aprender más, te deseamos el mayor de los éxitos.

MAPA CURRICULAR

COMPONENTE DE CAMPO DE
FORMACIÓN: CONOCIMIENTO:

Propedéutica Comunicación

ASIGNATURA ASIGNATURA
ANTECEDENTE: CONSECUENTE:

Inglés IV Nivel superior

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ESTRUCTURA GENERAL DE LA ASIGNATURA DE INGLÉS

ANTECEDENTE:

Inglés IV

Inglés V

Avances de la humanidad Conceptos


fundamentales

Campo Campo Campo Campo


Social Económico Científico Tecnológico
Proyecto Proyecto Proyecto Proyecto

Conceptos
subsidiarios

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COMPETENCIA DE LA ASIGNATURA

Al término del curso el alumno reafirma estructuras gramaticales y vocabularios


que le permitan compartir sus saberes y experiencias personales con sus
compañeros, compañeras y profesores, estableciendo clara vinculación entre lo
que aprende y su vida cotidiana, utilizando como medios: hablar, leer, escribir y
comprender información que le proporcionen textos escritos en inglés.

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COMPETENCIAS GENÉRICAS

Describen, fundamentalmente conocimientos, habilidades, actitudes y valores


indispensables en la formación de los alumnos.

Se autodetermina y cuida de sí
1. Se conoce y valora a sí mismo y aborda problemas y retos teniendo en cuenta los
objetivos que persigue.
2. Es sensible al arte y participa en la apreciación e interpretación de sus expresiones en
distintos géneros.
3. Elige y practica estilos de vida saludables.

Se expresa y comunica
4. Escucha, interpreta y emite mensajes pertinentes en distintos contextos mediante la
utilización de medios, códigos y herramientas apropiados.

Piensa crítica y reflexivamente


5. Desarrolla innovaciones y propone soluciones a problemas a partir de métodos
establecidos.
6. Sustenta una postura personal sobre temas de interés y relevancia general, considerando
otros puntos de vista de manera crítica y reflexiva.

Aprende de forma autónoma


7. Aprende por iniciativa e interés propio a lo largo de la vida.

Trabaja en forma colaborativa


8. Participa y colabora de manera efectiva en equipos diversos.

Participa con responsabilidad en la sociedad


9. Participa con una conciencia cívica y ética en la vida de su comunidad, región, México y el
mundo.
10. Mantiene una actitud respetuosa hacia la interculturalidad y la diversidad de creencias,
valores, ideas y prácticas sociales.
11. Contribuye al desarrollo sustentable de manera crítica, con acciones responsables

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COMPETENCIAS PROPUESTAS PARA DESARROLLAR EN EL ESTUDIANTE EN LA
ASIGNATURA DE INGLÉS V, BASADAS EN EL CANADIAN LANGUAGE BENCHMARK
(Pawlikowska- Smith, Grazyna. Canadian Language Benchmarks 2000, English as a Second
Language for Adults. Centre for Canadian Language Benchmarks. Pages194. www.language.ca)

SPEAKING V READING V
El estudiante es competente al: El estudiante es competente al:
-Incorporarse a una conversación con tópicos -Leer textos que contengan de tres a cinco
familiares párrafos de extensión
-Comenzar a utilizar oraciones largas, -Entender las ideas principales, algunos
aunque dude o haga pausas algunas veces detalles e inferir el significado de un texto
-Usar un vocabulario amplio común, además -Leer textos en cualquier campo del saber
de algunos modismos humano
-Sostener conversaciones simples en el -Seguir instrucciones de siete a diez
teléfono, pero aun encontrando dificultades pasos, aun cuando no posea apoyo de
-Utilizar lenguaje formal y casual imágenes
-Solicitar que le clarifiquen la idea o -Entender hechos y hacer algunas
instrucción cuando no la entienda inferencias en textos comunes y
especializados
-Localizar detalles específicos en extensos
directorios, tablas de contenidos, índices y
glosarios
-Entenderla conexión entre párrafos y
poder predecir lo que sigue

LISTENING V WRITTING V
El estudiante es competente al: El estudiantes es competente al:
-Escribir un párrafo siguiendo una idea
-Entender conversaciones, si la gente habla o una opinión, dando detalles
lentamente -Escribir una carta breve. Una nota o e-
-Puede seguir discursos simples, repetitivos y mail, usando el lenguaje apropiado
predecibles -Llenar un formulario simple que
-Entender muchas palabras en una
contenga de 20 a 30 conceptos
conversación informal, a una velocidad
normal, en audio grabadora o radio, y seguir -Tomar un mensaje telefónico que
la idea principal, si le es relevante contenga de cinco a seis detalles
-Entender un rango amplio de vocabulario -Escribir un párrafo con base en una
común, incluso modismos idea principal soportada con detalles
-Solicitar que le repitan algunas ideas, -Elaborar enunciados con buen control
especialmente cuando le hablan con rapidez de estructuras simples, escritura,
-Identificar la situación, el estado emocional y puntuación y vocabulario
la relación entre personas que hablan -Escribir un párrafo, describiendo un
- Entender un mensaje telefónico predecible evento o un incidente
y simple -Seleccionar e leguaje y contenidos
-Obtener un significado inferido desde
anuncios, ofertas y sugerencias
apropiados, de acuerdo con la ocasión

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Esta Guía de Inglés V es la última de una serie de 5, que han sido elaboradas por el
colegiado de la Academia Estatal de Inglés de los CECYTESLP (Colegio de Estudios
Científicos y Tecnológicos del Estado de San Luis Potosí) con la autorización de la Dirección
General del Colegio

Por medio de reuniones colegiadas se establecieron criterios para el análisis, aprobación, y


distribución de los contenidos que se encuentran en el Programa de Estudios de Inglés,
Bachillerato Tecnológico, Reforma Integral de Educación Media Superior 2000 (RIEMS)

En presencia de autoridades académicas del Colegio (CECYTE) en las reuniones se


formaron equipos de trabajo para llevar a cabo la asignación de contenidos por unidades (3),
creación de ejercicios gramaticales, sus respectivas respuestas, fechas de entrega para
realizar la compilación correspondiente y entrega a la Dirección Académica para su
valoración, y posteriormente enviarse a la impresión correspondiente.

Esta Guía de Aprendizaje de inglés V, contiene actividades y ejercicios que son de utilidad
para potenciar las habilidades Reading, Listening, Writing y Speaking; ya que existe
vinculación entre las actividades que se presentan.
La estructura de esta guía tiene la finalidad de que exista un auto-aprendizaje, pues con
buena actitud y dinamismo se puede avanzar de manera rápida.

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RECOMENDACIONES PARA EL ALUMNO

La presente Guía de Aprendizaje representa un importante esfuerzo que el Colegio de


Estudios Científicos y Tecnológicos del Estado de San Luis Potosí y la Academia Estatal de
Inglés han realizado durante cuatro semestres anteriores para darte a conocer los contenidos
que abordarás en la asignatura Inglés V. Si eres un estudiante que ya ha trabajado con las
Guías de Aprendizaje, ya conoces la dinámica del trabajo y será más fácil para ti resolver sus
ejercicios o prácticas.

Los contenidos de Inglés V, se llevarán a cabo a través de textos en inglés, y diversidad de


ejercicios orales y escritos. En este ejemplar como en los anteriores, las actividades están
diseñadas para trabajo individual mientras que en algunas otras, colaborarás con uno de tus
compañeros o bien otros, formando equipos de trabajo bajo la guía de tu profesor, quien con
certeza aclarará tus dudas y te proporcionará información que sea necesaria.

Para lograr un óptimo uso de este módulo de aprendizaje:

Lleva siempre tu diccionario a la clase.


Muestra siempre una actitud constructiva.
Aprovecha las oportunidades de practicar el idioma oralmente con tus compañeros y
maestro.
Mantén limpia tu área de trabajo
Explota todas las opciones dentro y fuera del aula para aprender el idioma.
Considéralo como un documento que presenta información relevante en el área de la
Información y comunicación y puede ser utilizado incluso después de concluir esta
asignatura.
¡Disfruta la materia al máximo! ¡Bienvenido a la experiencia!

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Nombre: Al término de la unidad el alumno conocerá y
aplicará las Estrategias de Comprensión Lectora, las
cuales le dan pauta para comprender el contenido de
1
textos en inglés con diversa finalidad.

1. Estrategias de Lectura

2. Diversos tipos de textos

3. Aplicación de las estrategias de Comprensión Lectora con textos


descriptivos e informativos, los cuales incluyen estructuras
gramaticales vistas en los semestres anteriores.

1. Changing roles: stay –at – home dads

2. Find the title

3. What is Mechatronics?

4. Digestive system

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HABILIDADES Y DESTREZAS

 Utilizo adecuadamente las estrategias para comprensión de


lectura

 Leo y comprendo información básica de textos descriptivos


e informativos

 Redacto en inglés información personal y de otras personas


HABILIDADES
 Asigno título en algunos textos cuando el tema es conocido
para mi

 Señalo las ideas principales de los textos

 Me integro en conversaciones sencillas en inglés

 Utilizo mis saberes dentro y fuera del aula

RESULTADO A lo largo de la unidad el estudiante utilizará con desempeño


DE las actividades planteadas, con el objeto de que se conviertan
en herramientas con las cuales incremente los conocimientos y
APRENDIZAJE los proyecte en su vida social y profesional

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Nombre Taxonomía de Estrategias de Lectura No. 1

Instrucciones Mantén la atención a la explicación del profesor (a)


para el Alumno Sigue las indicaciones del profesor (a)
Estrategias de Conferencia
Conocimientos Manera
Comprensión de Trabajo en Binas
a adquirir Didáctica de
textos y su aplicación Trabajo en equipo (4)
Lograrlos
Plenaria

Las Estrategias para la Comprensión de lectura son una herramienta para todo el que desea
obtener información de manera rápida y confiable al consultar textos en otro idioma, no
solamente inglés; el siguiente documento indica de manera sencilla qué hacer cuando se
tiene interés por conocer el contenido de textos diversos.

TAXONOMÍA DE ESTRATEGIAS DE LECTURA


(Donald Schön: 1991
I. Desarrollar sensibilidad hacia el texto.

El lector:

a) Se hace consciente del tipo de texto que intenta comprender, un fragmento o todo.
b) Hacemos referencia a las ilustraciones, diagramas, títulos o tipografía especial del texto.
c) El selecciona el propósito y el tipo de letra.

II. El empleo de conocimientos previos.

El lector:

a) Este formula hipótesis sobre el texto.


b) Realiza predicciones sobre el contenido del texto.
c) Utiliza sus conocimientos previos acerca del tema.
d) Emplea la información de los pasajes anteriores a lo largo de la lectura.

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III. Establecimientos de lazos léxicos.

El lector:

a) Identifica palabras claves del texto.


b) Ignora palabras desconocidas.
c) Tolera, en ciertos casos, la comprensión aproximada de una palabra.
d) Emplea cognados entre L1 (lengua materna) y L2 (lengua adicional inglés, francés,
alemán) para comprender el léxico.
e) Reconoce los cognados falsos.
f) Hace el empleo de la morfología (afijos) de las palabras;
infiere el significado de palabras por el contexto.
g) Utiliza el diccionario con eficiencia para resolver sus problemas de vocabulario clave.
h) Reconoce el valor polisémico de las palabras;
identifica el significado de palabras por el contexto.
i) Identifica expresiones idiomáticas.
j) Identifica las frases nominales, verbales, adverbiales, subordinadas, etc.
k) Examina las palabras técnicas y sus definiciones.

IV. Reconoce cohesión dentro del texto.

El lector:

a) Relee el texto para una mayor comprensión del texto y aclara dudas.
b) Hace paráfrasis del texto para mayor comprensión.
c) Realiza la traducción de una palabra o una frase a L1.
d) Usa el contexto para interpretar una palabra o frase.
e) Percibe la estructura superficial del texto.
f) Encuentra y reconoce los conectores.

V. Reconoce la coherencia del texto

El lector:

a) Se adelanta en el texto para formarse una idea general.


b) Confirma o rechaza las inferencias existentes.
c) Lleva a cabo una lectura general del texto (skimming).
d) Hace una lectura específica de palabras o frases completas (scanning).
e) Realiza una lectura de búsqueda (search reading).
f) Reconoce las relaciones semánticas del vocabulario.

En estas estrategias se exponen algunos modelos básicos del proceso de lectura en L1 y L2.
Hay numerosos modelos de este proceso; los cuales son primordialmente interactivos y de
esquema.

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La construcción de modelos teóricos y de clasificaciones de estrategias está evolucionando y
mientras se investigue, cada vez será de mayor utilidad para dominar el proceso de lectura
de comprensión en Inglés Técnico

Identificación de las estrategias de lectura.

Las estrategias de lectura y los propósitos del lector están estrechamente relacionados. Su
identificación es capital, pues su eficaz aplicación permite al lector ser más eficiente.

IDENTIFICACIÓN DE LAS ESTRATEGIAS DE LECTURA

Las estrategias de lectura y los propósitos del lector, están estrechamente relacionados, su
identificación es muy importante porque su aplicación permite al lector ser más eficiente.

TIPOS DE LECTURA

Mirada superficial. Cuando se hojea una publicación con el fin de determinar si nos interesa
o no. Esta incluye toda la información gráfica y tipográfica- tipo y tamaño de letra, dibujos,
fotos o diagramas, etc. (surveing).

Lectura global. Para obtener una idea general; consiste en un recorrido rápido del texto a fin
de formar una idea de cómo está organizado (la primera plana del periódico, por ejemplo)
(skimming).

Lectura rápida o de exploración. Para encontrar información específica; solo una idea, un
hecho, un detalle específico, una pista para después continuar en velocidad normal. Es
encontrar cierta información entre varios elementos (fechas, datos bibliográficos, etc.)
(scanning).

Lectura detallada. Que se realiza normalmente con propósito de estudio (search reading).

Lectura de anticipación. Que consiste en tratar de adivinar lo que continuará en el texto, es


la síntesis de visión y comprensión, (anticipation).

Inferencia. Cuando se trata de deducir, de sacar una conclusión, de pasar de una hipótesis a
otra, (inference).

Referencia. Consiste en la capacidad de relacionar una palabra con otra, un párrafo con otro
descubriendo así la red de significación de un texto. (reference).

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APLICACIÓN DE LAS ESTRATEGIAS DE LECTURA
I.- Predicción

Apoyo Visual: Distribución del texto, forma en que está presentada la información: títulos,
subtítulos, división en párrafos, en un solo bloque, etc., reconocimiento tipográfico, todos los
elementos gráficos que conforman un texto, tipo y tamaño de letra, dibujos, fotos, etc.

De contenido a partir de: título o subtítulo, la primera línea del texto, una lectura global del
texto, para obtener una idea general. (skimming)

II.- Determinar el valor comunicativo del texto

Propósito del lector: el tipo de lectura está en función de las necesidades del lector.

Función del texto: determinar el valor comunicativo de un texto sin lo cual no es posible su
comprensión cabal. El lector debe determinar si este texto proporciona: información,
instrucción, sugerencia, etc.

Situación de comunicación: permite la ubicación del texto, respondiendo a las preguntas:


¿qué?, ¿quién?, ¿dónde? y ¿cuándo?

Diferenciar entre hecho (objetivo) y opinión (subjetivo): discriminar entre los hechos y las
opiniones.

III.- Estrategias para extraer información

Estrategias de vocabulario: Uso de cognados y falsos cognados, deducción del significado


de palabras desconocidas haciendo uso del:
Contexto: sinonimia, antonimia, hiperordinación, subordinación
Formación de palabras: compuestos y derivados con afijos, sufijos y prefijos.

Palabras que se repiten dentro de un texto

Uso de referentes, tales como pronombres que se refieren a algo ya mencionado o que se
va a mencionar.

Uso de conectores, son palabras que establecen relaciones entre las oraciones
(enunciados) y párrafos que forman el texto.

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Extracción de información específica (scanning), localizar en qué párrafo se encuentra la
información y leerlo con más atención.

Anticipación: El alumno se detiene en un párrafo y anticipa qué dirá el que sigue.

Transcodificar información: Consiste en pasar información esquematizada en diagramas,


tablas o cuadros sinópticos a un texto o viceversa.

Nombre Practicando las estrategias de lectura

Instrucciones Resuelve los ejercicios de las lecturas siguiendo las instrucciones


para el Alumno Pregunta tus dudas al profesor

Manera Lectura individual


Actitudes a Solidaridad
Didáctica de Lectura en binas
formar Responsabilidad
Lograrlas Lectura en equipos (4 integrantes)
4.Escucha, interpreta y emite mensajes pertinentes en distintos
Competencias contextos mediante la utilización de medios, códigos y herramientas
Genéricas y apropiados
atributos a
 Sigue instrucciones y procedimientos de manera reflexiva,
Desarrollar comprendiendo cómo cada uno de sus pasos contribuye al alcance
de un objetivo
Manera
Realizando los ejercicios correspondientes, demostrando disposición
Didáctica de
para integrarse en equipos diversos
Lograrlas

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Text 1

CHANGING ROLES: STAY –AT – HOME DADS

British mechanic Neil Walkingshaw was looking for a way to care for his newborn child when
he approached his boss with a proposal in early 2000. Reluctant to hire a babysitter once his
wife’s maternity leave ended and she returned to work, Walkingshaw asked if he could switch
to part-time hours in order to spend half of each day at home looking after his son. His
employer refused, saying the paperwork would be “too messy” and that it would be difficult to
get anyone to share Walkingshaw’s job. Knowing that the company he worked for had
granted similar requests to female employees, Walkingshaw sued on the grounds of sex
discrimination. On November 20, 2001, an industrial tribunal ruled that Walkingshaw had
been discriminated against and awarded him 3600 pounds. The ruling is believed to be the
first of its kind, and demonstrates just how much views on parental roles have changed over
the years.

Studies have also found that the presence of the father in the home can contribute to lower
juvenile crime rates, a decrease in child poverty, and lower rates of teenage pregnancy.
Differences in parenting styles between men and women are also believed to contribute to
children’s ability to understand and communicate emotions in different ways. The research
supports claims by some groups that the absence of a father in the family is the single biggest
social problem in modern society.

In recent years, organizations like the U.S. –based National Fatherhood Initiative have begun
to argue that the presence of the father is vital to a child’s development. These organizations
aim to encourage fathers to take a more active role in their children’s lives. The movement
also calls for the creation of a new image of fatherhood, one that goes beyond the traditional
view of the father solely as provider, and also includes the equally crucial roles of nurtures,
moral example, disciplinarian and teacher.

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Exercise 1:
Read the text using Skimming. After that, work with a classmate to solve exercise 2

Exercise 2:
Use Scanning to answer the following questions:

a) What was Neil Walkingshaw occupation?

___mec_________________________________________________________

b) How much money did Walkingshaw win?

____________________________________________________________

c) What do some studies found about the presence of the father at homes?

____________________________________________________________

d) Are important the styles between fathers and mothers for children?

____________________________________________________________

e) If you were now father or mother what do act with your children?

_____________________________________________________________

f) In your opinion, which is the main idea of the text?

____________________________________________________________

Exercise 3:
Underline with red color the cognates you find in the text above, and write them in the
space below:

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Text 2

Before you begin – Read these instructions completely and carefully


IMPORTANT – Save these instructions for local inspector’s use
IMPORTANT – OBSERVE ALL GOVERNING CODES AND ORDINANCES
Note to Installer – Be sure to leave these instructions with the consumer
Note to Customer – Keep these instructions with your Owner’s Manual for future reference
…………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
Note: Installation and service of this dryer must be performed by a qualified installer, service
agency, or the gas supplier

WARNING – POTENTIAL FIRE AND SHOCK HAZARD

 Use only rigid or flexible metal 10 cm (4”) diameter ductwork for exhausting to the
outdoors. Never use plastic or other combustible ductwork.
 This appliance must be properly grounded and installed as described in these
instructions
 Do not install or store appliance in an area where it will be exposed to water/ weather
 For installation in garages, refer to local codes

INSTALLATION

Step 1
Remove and save literature from dryer drum.
Step 2
Tilt the dryer and remove the foam shipping pads by pulling at slides breaking away from
dryer legs. Be sure to remove all foam pieces around legs
Step 3
Move dryer to desired operating location
Step 4
Adjust all four leveling legs to match washer height. Dryer must be level and rest firmly on all
four leveling legs
Step 5
Adjust the two stabilizing legs to contact the floor
Step 6
Connect gas supply (see GAS CONNECTION INFORMATION section of this instruction)

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Step 7
Connect to power supply. (See ELECTRICAL CONNECTION INFORMATION section of this
instruction)
Step 8
Connect external exhaust (See EXHAUST INFORMATION section in this instruction)
Check for proper operation (power supply and venting)
Step 9
Place Owner’s Manual and Installation Instructions where they will be accessible to the user

Exercise 1:
Choose one of the three options for the title of the text, then underline it.

a) Fridge Owner Manual Instructions


b) Installation instructions for your new gas dryer
c) Auto stereo instructions

Exercise 2:
Search the meaning of the words in the square according the context of the reading in
your dictionary

English Spanish
Governing
Customer
Qualifier installer
Store appliance
Shipping pads
Away from
Shock hazard
Power supply and venting
Exposed to water

Exercise 3:
Write the communication situation in the text, answer the questions:

What? __________________________________________________

Who? ___________________________________________________

Where? _________________________________________________

When? __________________________________________________

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Text 3
WHAT IS MECHATRONICS?

It is a Japanese word which combines the words: mechanics and electronics. The
mechatronics consists of the following four areas:

Information processing area:


Taking as an example an automatic machine, the area of information relates to a control unit.
Typical control units are personal computers, microcomputers and programmable controllers
and so on. Also the content related to the elements and logic circuits, are used including the
inside of a servo amplifier or D / A converter

Area sensor (s):


The existence of an object, the latest speed detection and visual sensors using cameras are
widely used in several areas. Taking a CNC machine tool as an example, can be cited, a
proximity switch, magnetic scale rotary machine (rotary)

Area of actuators:
When an object moves, actuator must be determined to consider the speed, accuracy and
stability required at the time. Therefore, requires knowledge of the correct actuator. As a
typical actuator various types of electric motors, are cited for example, DC servo motor, servo
AC motor and so on. In the actual plant or machinery, air cylinders and / or water are widely
used

Machine area:
In a production plant, the machine itself is a machine tool or general purpose machine tools.
Since the machine itself is regarded in other words as the mechanism of the interface or
mechanical interface.

Exercise 1:
Read the text to a partner and underline with red color at least 10 unknown words, find
the meaning in Spanish and write them on your notebook.

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Exercise 2:
Search the verbs in the text and write present, past and past participle tenses of each
one, as in the example:

Present Past Past participle


consider considered considered

Exercise 3:
Underline the correct answer: What does this text indicate?

a) information b) instruction c) suggestion

Exercise 4:
Make a diagram with the information of the text above:

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Nombre Textos informativos y descriptivos No. 1

Instrucciones Lee y analiza las características de un texto informativo y un texto


para el Alumno descriptivo
Establece diferencia
Manera
entre los textos Trabajo individual
Conocimientos Didáctica de
a adquirir
Aplica estrategias para Lograrlos
Trabajo en binas
la comprensión de la Trabajo en equipo (4 integrantes)
lectura

Informative texts
They are those texts which reveal the most important events that occur in the different fields
of science and technology, arts, sports, etc.

You can find this type of texts in newspapers and magazines; informative texts allow us to
know important events what happened? who? how? when? where? and why?

Descriptive texts
They are those in which descriptions are used to make the message be understood better.
There are three types of description:

1. Physics: It occurs by means of an illustration with the names of each of the parts that
comprise the described object.

2. Process: Provides the sequence or the phase in which a process or phenomenon occurs,
in some occasions is represented by a diagram and using arrow keys.

3. Function: In this type of description is detailed the function or activity carried out by
different parts of the subject matter; usually includes a process or physical description.

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Nombre Informando y describiendo acciones

Instrucciones Lee cuidadosamente los siguientes textos.


para el Alumno
Sigue las instrucciones que se indican en cada ejercicio
Pregunta tus dudas al profesor (a)
Tolerancia Manera A través del trabajo, individual,
Actitudes a
Respeto Didáctica de en parejas y trabajo
formar
responsabilidad Lograrlas colaborativo.
4. Se expresa y se comunica en una segunda lengua. Sigue
instrucciones y procedimientos de manera reflexiva comprendiendo
Competencias como cada uno de sus pasos contribuyen al alcance de un objetivo
Genéricas a
Desarrollar
 Sigue instrucciones y procedimientos de manera reflexiva,
comprendiendo cómo cada uno de sus pasos contribuye al alcance
de un objetivo

Manera Por medio de la realización de actividades e interacciones con sus


Didáctica de compañeros acordes al tema correspondiente
lograrlas

Text 1
1
2
DIGESTIVE SYSTEM 3
4
The digestive tract is a long tube, with important glands
5
embedded, that transform the complex food molecules into
simple and easily usable substances by the body.

These simple nutritional compounds are absorbed by the


intestinal villi, which cover the small intestine. Thus, they pass 6
12
into the blood and nourish each and every one of the cells of 7
8
13
the organism 14 9
15
From the mouth to the anus, the digestive tract measuring 16 10
about eleven meters long. In the mouth it begins proper 17
18
digestion. The teeth grind food and secretions from the 19 11
salivary glands moisten them and start their chemical 20
21
decomposition. Then, the cud crosses the pharynx, continues
through the esophagus and comes to the stomach, a muscle-

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liter bag and a half capacity, whose secret powerful gastric mucosa, in the stomach; the food
is stirred into a porridge called chyme.
At the exit of the stomach, the digestive tract extends with the small intestine, about seven
meters long, but retreated on him. In its first portion or duodenum it receives intestinal glands
secretions, bile and pancreatic juices. All these secretions contain a large amount of enzymes
that degrade foods and it transforms them into simple soluble substances.
The digestive tract continues along the large intestine, something more than meter and half in
length. Its final portion is the rectum, which ends in the year where evacuate to the outside of
the indigestible remains of food.

Anatomical description

The digestive tube is formed by: mouth, esophagus, and stomach, small intestine that
consists of duodenum, jejunum and ileum. The large intestine is composed of: cecum and
Appendix, colon and rectum.

(With your biliary vesicle) liver and pancreas are part of the digestive system, though not in
the digestive tract.
1. Right nostril 2. Oral cavity 3. Pharynx 4. Esophagus 5. Trachea
6. Diaphragm 7. Spleen 8. Stomach 9. Transverse colon 10.Thin bowel (jejunum)
11. Descending colon 12.Liver 13. Gallbladder 14.Pancreas 15.Duodenum
16. Ascending colon 17.Blind 18. Thin bowel (ileum) 19. Appendix 20.Pelvic colon 21. Rectum

Exercise 1:
Underline the definite articles and circle the undefinite articles of the text.

Exercise 2:
Complete the following information according text 2, writing on the line the correct
number.

1. write the number of trachea _____________


2. write the number of liver ________________
3. write the number of spleen ______________
4. write the number of jejunum _____________
5.write the name of number 1______________
6. write the name of number 3 _____________
7. write the name of number 6 _____________
8. write the name of number 15 ____________

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Exercise 3:
Read the text using scanning and then describe the path of the food in the digestive
system and write their names on the line

Example: 1. mouth
2. ___________________________
3. ___________________________
4. ___________________________
5. ___________________________
6. ___________________________
7. ___________________________
8. ___________________________

Exercise 4:
Write the correct form of the verb to be in simple present

1. The digestive tract ____ a long tube.


2. These simple nutritional compounds _____ absorbed by the intestinal villi.
3. The digestive tube ________ (not) formed by the liver and pancreas.
4. Liver and pancreas _____ parts of the digestive system.
5. The food _____ stirred into porridge called chyme.
6. I ________ human. I have digestive system.

Text 2

THE PROCESS OF MAKING BREAD


1. All the ingredients are weighed and placed in a vertical mixing. Starch and water are added
to produce the mass. This mass is then fermented for a few hours to allow the activation of
starch and the swelling of the mass. This period of fermentation is known as "sleep or rest
time".

2. The mass is returned to the mixer, where the rest of flour and water are added, along with
the fat, margarine, sugar, milk, salt, and/or eggs. The ingredients should be mixed and
scattered evenly in the dough to form gluten (elastic protein product, which is when the starch
has been separated from the mass per wash).

3. Then the mass is divided and rounded, and it is immediately tested. Mass parts pass
through the styler, containing a series of rollers which will remove any excess gas and air to
ground. The dough pieces are formed in a cylindrical mold or bar (bread) and placed in
containers.

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4 Containers are placed in a test temperature and humidity controlled cabin, and are dropped
off by an hour. The containers are brought to an oven so that the dough is baked. This is the
most important part of the production process.
The oven temperature will transform the mass in a light, pleasant and appetizing product.

5. When the bread is removed from the oven, it should be cooled before that they are cut and
packaged.

6. Then, the loaves of bread will be packaged in automatically and taken to a warehouse
where he is kept in shelves to immediately respond to the demands of the market.

Exercise 1:
Read the text to a partner using skimming and answer the next questions

1. What kind of text is it?_________________________________________

2. With what another name is called the period of fermentation in this case?

_________________________________________________________

3. What ingredients are mixed into the mixer?


__________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

4. What is the most important part of the production process?


___________________________________________________________

5. Write processes that are carried out for the elaboration of bread:
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Exercise 2:
Underline prepositions that you find in the text.

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Exercise 3:
Write on the lines the adverbs and their meaning you find in the text

____________________________ ____________________________

____________________________ ____________________________

____________________________ ____________________________

Exercise 4:
Read again the text 3 and then make a diagram with the information. Listen to your
teacher indications.

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Text 3

Look at the title of the reading. Which of the following words do you think
will be in the reading? Why?
Write in Spanish the meaning of each word
competition money organization

clothes sport people

HISTORY OF THE OLYMPICS


Creating the Modern Olympic Games

According to legend, the ancient Olympic Games were founded by Heracles (the Roman
Hercules), a son of Zeus. Yet the first Olympic Games for which we still have written records
were held in 776 BCE (though it is generally believed that the Games had been going on for
many years already). At this Olympic Games, a naked runner, Coroebus (a cook from Elis),
won the sole event at the Olympics, the stage - a run of approximately 192 meters (210
yards). This made Coroebus the very first Olympic champion in history.

The ancient Olympic Games grew and continued to be played every four years for nearly
1200 years. In 393 CE, the Roman emperor Theodosius I, a Christian, abolished the Games
because of their pagan influences.

Approximately 1500 years later, a young Frenchmen named Pierre de Coubertin began their
revival. Coubertin is now known as le Rénovateur. Coubertin was a French aristocrat born on
January 1, 1863. He was only seven years old when France was overrun by the Germans
during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870. Some believe that Coubertin attributed the defeat of
France not to its military skills but rather to the French soldiers' lack of vigor.* After examining
the education of the German, British, and American children, Coubertin decided that it was
exercise, more specifically sports, that made a well-rounded and vigorous person.

Coubertin's attempt to get France interested in sports was not met with enthusiasm. Still,
Coubertin persisted. In 1890, he organized and founded a sports organization, Union des
Sociétés Francaises de Sports Athlétiques (USFSA). Two years later, Coubertin first pitched

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his idea to revive the Olympic Games. At a meeting of the Union des Sports Athlétiques in
Paris on November 25, 1892, Coubertin stated.

Let us export our oarsmen, our runners, our fencers into other lands. That is the true Free
Trade of the future; and the day it is introduced into Europe the cause of Peace will have
received a new and strong ally. It inspires me to touch upon another step I now propose and
in it I shall ask that the help you have given me hitherto you will extend again, so that together
we may attempt to realize [sic], upon a basis suitable to the conditions of our modern life, the
splendid and beneficent task of reviving the Olympic Games.**

His speech did not inspire action. Though Coubertin was not the first to propose the revival of
the Olympic Games, he was certainly the most well-connected and persistent of those to do
so. Two years later, Coubertin organized a meeting with 79 delegates who represented nine
countries. He gathered these delegates in an auditorium that was decorated by neoclassical
murals and similar additional points of ambiance. At this meeting, Coubertin eloquently spoke
of the revival of the Olympic Games. This time, Coubertin aroused interest.

The delegates at the conference voted unanimously for the Olympic Games. The delegates
also decided to have Coubertin construct an international committee to organize the Games.
This committee became the International Olympic Committee (IOC; Comité Internationale
Olympique) and Demetrious Vikelas from Greece was selected to be its first president.
Athens was chosen as the location for the revival of the Olympic Games and the planning
was begun.
* Allen Guttmann, The Olympics: A History of the Modern Games (Chicago: University of Illinois Press, 1992) 8.
** Pierre de Coubertin as quoted in "Olympic Games," Britannica.com (Retrieved August 10, 2000 from the World Wide Web.
http://www.britannica.com/bcom/eb/article/2/0,5716,115022+1+108519,00.html).

Exercise 1:
Read the following statements and check False ( F ) or True ( T ) according with the
lecture, if you think the sentence is false, correct the sentence to make it true.

T F
1. Olympics Games were founded by Zeus
2. In 393 CE, the Roman emperor Theodosius I, a Christian,
abolished the Games because of their pagan influences
3. Athens was chosen as the location for the revival of the Olympic
Games and the planning was begun
4. Coubertin was the first to propose the revival of the Olympic
Games
5 The ancient Olympic Games grew and continued to be played
every four years for nearly 1200 years

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Exercise 2:
Look at the list of words and match with a definition on the right.

1. unanimously a. Lively or passionate interest


2. games b. 1. Dating from very long ago 2. Very old
3. oarsmen c. All in complete agreement
4. specifically d. 1. The act of reviving or state of being revived 2. a
5. enthusiasm renewed interest, esp. in old customs and fashion
6. revival e. 1. Of a particular nature; precisely identified 2. precise
7. emperor in meaning, a specific detail
8. ancient f. A man who rows
g. The male ruler of an empire
h. An amusement or pastime 2. A competitive activity
with rulers

Exercise 3:
Look the followings pictures, investigate on the net about Olympics Games in each
year and work in teams writing a small paragraph

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UNIDAD II
Textos Narrativos
Textos Instructivos

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Nombre: El estudiante es capaz de expresar y aplicar
los conocimientos que le permitan comprender, interpretar
y utilizar textos narrativos e instructivos en tiempo pasado.
2

1. The verb to be in past

2. Simple past

3. Use to/used to

4. Quantifiers

5. How much/how many

6. Some/any

7. Countable and uncountable nouns

8. Past progressive

9. Cognates

10. Regular and Irregular verbs

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1. A part of my life

2. Change of life

3. The food

4. My childhood

5. The nutrition

HABILIDADES Y DESTREZAS

 Elaboro enunciados simples usando vocabulario y


estructuras del pasado.
 Respondo preguntas simples con enunciados cortos.
HABILIDADES  Sigo instrucciones simples
 Comprendo textos breves.
 Escribo historias cortas.

RESULTADO DE
A lo largo de la unidad se podrá expresar en inglés, leerá,
APRENDIZAJE comprenderá y seguirá instrucciones con respecto a textos.

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Nombre Textos narrativos e instructivos No. 1
Instrucciones Comprender y usar correctamente las diferentes formas del
para el Alumno Pasado en textos narrativos e instructivos en inglés
Uso y
Manera
aplicación Trabajo Individual
Conocimientos Didáctica de
correcta del Trabajo en binas
a adquirir Lograrlos
tiempo pasado Trabajo en equipo
en textos

Narrative texts
They are related facts that can be developed in one place along a given space and time. This
story includes the participation of various characters, which may be real or imaginary, in that
narration need not be factual and maybe written from the perspective of a character in the
text. The style of a narrative is a choice made by the author based in part on text's genre,
purpose and structure

The purpose of narrative text is generally to entertain, inform or express ideas. Its sub-types
include fables, memoirs and adventure stories. Narrative text most often has a five-part
structure.

Stylistically, narratives can be described in many ways, including comic, tragic, sentimental,
reflective and ironic. Examples include news stories, novels, stories, history books,
biographies, memoirs, etc.

Instructional texts
The instructional text is one that provides a clear sequence of instructions that are intended to
develop an activity to reach a goal or accomplish a goal. The language should be precise and
concrete. Indicate instructions, operations or procedures recommended steps composed to
be met to achieve a result.

They require a special format. Development of procedures consisting of detailed steps that
must be met to achieve a result. Graphic marks are used as numbers, asterisks or dashes to
differentiate the series or sequence of steps.

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The characteristics of an instructional text can be showed with drawings, by type of
instructional text to be developed; applied to children of primary school grades find it
interesting to observe allowing more guidance in the process. Examples include use
instructions, first aid, recipes, safety rules, etc.

Nombre A part of my life

Instrucciones para Contesta correctamente los siguientes ejercicios de acuerdo a


el Alumno la instrucción de cada actividad.
Manera
Responsabilidad.
Didáctica Trabajo individual.
Actitudes a formar Orden.
de Trabajo en equipo.
Honestidad
Lograrlas
4. Escucha, interpreta y emite mensajes pertinentes en distintos
Competencias contextos mediante la utilización de medios, códigos y
Genéricas y herramientas apropiados.
atributos a  Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes
Desarrollar sean sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y
los objetivos que persigue.

Manera Didáctica Con base en un texto realiza las actividades propuestas,


de Lograrlas participando en equipo y de manera individual.

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Text 1

A PART OF MY LIFE
Hello. Today is Monday and the weather is nice but yesterday it was very cold.

My name is Jesus, I was born in San Luis Potosi, I am Mexican, but now I live in California
State, I am 17 years old. When I was much younger I was really naughty and I wasn’t very
friendly, I am the youngest of the family and I was very spoiled. I lived in Mexico and when I
was 7 years old, my father decided move to USA. I have two brothers, their names are Mike
and Tomas and one sister, her name is Isabel.

When we were much younger we had a little cat, his name was Denver, and it was black and
very lovely.

My sister Isabel was a very good student, she is beautiful and intelligent woman, and she is
26 years old. Her favorite actor is Brad Pitt. She was working in a factory but now she doesn’t
work, she is traveling with her friends.

My brothers weren’t good students when they were much younger, but now they are
excellent students and they are studying in the same university, when they were 10 and 12
years old they were very good tennis players. My brother Mike was very shy and Tomas was
very serious. Now they are very funny and very nice.

My father and my mother are very hard workers. They are friends for us. My mother was a
housewife but now she is an excellent nurse and my father was a very grumpy man and he
never was in the house, because he was at the police station all day; however, now he
spends a lot of time with us, he is a good police and he always helps me when I have some
problems.

My house was small and it was red and yellow colors. Now, my house is big and I like it.

Now, I am in high school. I am happy and I like school, Enrique Morales and I are very good
friends, he is my best friend; Yesterday we were at the party for my birthday. Today he is
absent, he is sick because of the cold drinks that he drank.

When I was in the junior high I wasn’t happy. The classes were boring and the teachers
weren’t very friendly. I was a little lazy, but I’m not now. I think I’m really hard working student
and I like the school.

I hope write me about you.

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Exercise 1:
In pairs read the story, using skimming, and then answer the questions below.

1. Who wrote the letter?

2. When did he/ she write the letter?

3. How was the weather yesterday?

4. What was her/his best friend last name?

5. What was her/his mother occupation?

6. What was her/his cat name?

7. How old was he/she?

8. What sport did his/her brothers practice?

9. How were the classes in the junior high school?

10. Where did he/she live?

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Exercise 2:
Complete the table below using scanning

Be in present Be in past Verbs in present Verbs in past Verbs in progressive

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Exercise 3:
Now write your own story using the past of Be in your notebook.

Exercise 4:
In team find present verbs in English in the square below, and then, complete the table
as in the example:

Present Past Past participle Spanish Regular Irregular

eat ate eaten comer irregular

f e a t q w r t y u i u i e v i l j c o o k h g f d s a a z x c b v
n u q g m k j h g s i t d s s a q w e r t y u i o y u b p ñ m n r b
b d r i n k t y q r e r t y r q a z d f g y t u h e k r s k j l e d
b y a a e y h g q w e q c k i m r g o q w o r e r s o e t m u u a ñ
v t t w w t n u o c d a l y d j j n u q c o o c j t o c b j m n k a
c r r w a q h e k r s z o y e u t b d r s i w i t u i i t u p u j q
c e a e l a a s d f g h s o f m h y d j j i a t h d i t s m d f h j
e w v f b e c o m e s f e s s f t h i n k u e c t y u c u f c u t w
t a e h n u q o d f g h e h e k r s m n b v c x z s d a f g h t i h
i l l o b d r o z x c k c v b n e m y d j j z x c k p r s m d f o g
r s s o z d w i q w a h c u m r r p m p e e l s p o d p y t r p i e
w a d i n x e i q h e r t s j j a d j h j z x c k v c u m u w d i s
x s f i n u q u s x z a i s u t s c u b u i l d c b h p j p a c u t
d a r e b d r b m r g n h j m h e h m h e k r s g j y d u d l h p u
q f g h z w s f g j g i k l f c u b f r e b m e m e r c m c k m d d
e h h g x s a y j t y d j j h g f d z x c k s a z z x c f v b n c y
m y j w f e e n e h t u f o l l o w y h e k r s s d e k a t w t h a
o t k e h c u b t z x c k c u b f r e b m u f h c u h j d f o p r w
c r l w y s m d f f r e b m e o w i n y i g l f u s e f x o d d j w
w e k r s l e e p y d j j i u r s m d f t s y h c u h d h d x c t e
e s m d w s m d f a f d o h c u o u j n u q z x c k b s v s z h h g
a r b f f p u s h e k r s l m n b w x b d r y d j j z x w i s h v h

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Present Past Past participle Spanish Regular Irregular

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Nombre Change of life

Instrucciones para Contesta correctamente los siguientes ejercicios de acuerdo a la


el Alumno instrucción de cada actividad.
Manera
Responsabilidad.
Didáctica Trabajo individual.
Actitudes a formar Orden.
de Trabajo en equipo.
Honestidad
Lograrlas
4. Escucha, interpreta y emite mensajes pertinentes en distintos
contextos mediante la utilización de medios, códigos y
herramientas apropiados.
Competencias
 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean
Genéricas y
sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los
atributos a
objetivos que persigue.
Desarrollar
9. Transmite mensajes en una segunda lengua o lengua extranjera
atendiendo las características de contextos socioculturales
diferentes.
Con base en un texto realiza las actividades propuestas,
Manera Didáctica
participando en equipo y de manera individual.
de Lograrlas

Text 2

CHANGE OF LIFE

Maria Gomez was born in Tabasco. She grew up in a small village. She began school when
she was six years old. She went to elementary school, but she didn’t go to high school. Her
family was very poor, and she had to work when she was thirteen years old. She worked on
an assembly line in a shoe factory.

When Maria was seventeen years old, her family moved to the United States. At first, they
lived in Los Angeles, after two years, they moved to San Francisco. When Maria arrived in the
United Sates, she wasn’t very happy. She missed her friends back in Tabasco, and she didn’t
speak any word of English. She began to study English at night, and she worked in a factory
during the day.

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Maria studied very hard. She learned English, and got a good job as a secretary. Maria still
studies at night, but now she studies advertising at a business school. She wants to work for
advertising company some day and write commercials.

Maria still misses her old friends, but she communicates with them very often by the net.
She’s very happy now, and she’s looking forward to an exciting future.

Exercise1:
Read the text using scanning and then answer the questions.

1. Where was Maria born?

2. Did she grow up in a large city?

3. When did she begin the school?

4. What is Maria occupation?

5. What language did Maria learn?

6. What does she want to do in the future?

7. Where did Maria live when she arrived to US?

Exercise 2:
Write a title for the reading and after that, underline the verbs in past to make a list with
them in your notebook.

Exercise 3:
Did you have any change in your life? I’m sure about it; Write how it was, using the
past tense.

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Exercise 4:
Which of the next activities did you do yesterday? Make sentences.
Look at the example: I didn’t watch TV yesterday

watch TV take a shower cook a meal read a newspaper


make a phone call write a letter study practice a sport
listen to music go out visit a museum do the homework

_________________________________ ________________________________
_________________________________ ________________________________
_________________________________ ________________________________
_________________________________ ________________________________
_________________________________ ________________________________

Exercise 5:
Francisco is the manager of an important company. Look his diary of yesterday and
write about the things that he did and he didn’t do. Check the example:

8:30 buy newspaper and magazine for my mother √


9:00 have meeting with a bank manager √
10:00 call to the Sam’s club office √
10:15 write a mail to Henry х
10:30 talk with Tony and Julia about new products√
11:30 send a fax to California about training course х
12:00 write a letter to Directors of Cecyte to confirm meeting √
1:00 visit to David for lunch х
2:00 take a taxi to go home √
2:30 prepare suitcase √
4:00 take the train to London √
6: 00 call home x
8:00 buy a new tie х
10:00 put the alarm clock х

Example: He bought a newspaper and a magazine for his mother


_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________
_______________________________________________

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Exercise 6:
Answer the next questions about you

1. What time did you get up today?_________________________

2. How did you feel when you got up?__________________________

3. What did you eat for breakfast? ____________________________

4. What did you drink for breakfast? ___________________________

5. What time did you leave from your house? ____________________

6. What time did this class begin?______________________________

7. When did you go to the cinema? __________________________

8. What did you read yesterday? ______________________________

9. Where did you go last night? _______________________________

10. What did you wear last Sunday?_________________________

Exercise 7:
Complete the sentences in negative and affirmative forms. Look at the example:
Carla usually Studies English, but She didn’t study English yesterday. She studied
mathematics

1.-Paul usually writes to his friends, but he _________ __________ to his friends yesterday.
He _____________ to his cousins.
2.-I usually drive to the park on Saturday, but I _________ ___________ to the park last
Saturday. I _________ to the mall.
3.-We usually arrive late, but We __________ __________ late today. We ________ on
time.
4.-My husband and my son usually take a shower every morning, but they _____ ______ a
shower in the morning today. They ______ a shower in the afternoon.
5.-Margaret usually reads the newspaper in the morning but, she __________ _________
the newspaper yesterday. She _________ a magazine.

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Exercise 8:
Write the verbs in English in present form.

28

14

16

17 1

5 18

19 20 23

4 3 7

15

21

6 24

* 11

27 22 26 25

8 9 12

10

13

ACROSS DOWN
1.Contestar 8.-Ganar 14. Colocar, poner
2.-Construir 9.-Leer 15.-Empezar 22.-Bailar
3.-Perder 10.-Parar 16.-Escribir 23.-Hacer
4.-Mostrar 11.-Lavar 17.-Extrañar 24.-Robar
5.-Conocer (gente) 12.-Barrer 18.-Entregar 25.-Señalar
6.-Recordar 13.-Gozar 19.Despertar 26.-Estudiar
7.-Prestar 20.-Vivir 27.-Esperar(lugar)
21.-Cabalgar 28.-Dar

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Exercise 9:

Write the verbs in English in past form

9
17

2 6 1 8 10 16 17
8
15
3 9
1
4 * 16
2 * 15 20
11
10 7 13 14
3 12 13 19
5 12 22
4 18
11 14
21
7
5 20
21
6 19

18

ACROSS DOWN
1.listen 12. read 1. wake up 11. dare
2. grow up 13. drive 2. build 12. do
3. stop 14. dance 3. dream 13. go
4. teach 15. drink 4. repeat 14. sell
5. give 16. resist 5. Think 15. dress
6. turn 17. live 6. lend 16. finish
7. break 18. belong 7. point 17. play
8. write 19. let 8. erase 18. expect
9. accept 20. meet 9. visit 19. name
10. see 21. send 10.sit 20. pay
11. hear 22. open 21. run

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Exercise 10:
Identifies the mistakes in the next sentences and write it correctly, using inference.

1.- Carolina haven’t lived here.

2.- The boys danced under the party yesterday

3.- We didn’t ate Italian food.

4.- Sara and I was working yesterday.

5.- I need any oranges for the juice.

6.- You need many money for buy it.

7.- We didn’t drink some beer.

8.- They haven’t work here.

9.- Raul was sleep when I arrived.

10.- I swim in the ocean yesterday.

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Nombre The food

Instrucciones para Contesta correctamente los siguientes ejercicios de acuerdo a la


el Alumno instrucción de cada actividad.
Manera
Responsabilidad.
Didáctica Trabajo individual.
Actitudes a formar Orden.
de Trabajo en equipo.
Honestidad
Lograrlas
4. Escucha, interpreta y emite mensajes pertinentes en distintos
contextos mediante la utilización de medios, códigos y
herramientas apropiados.
Competencias
 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean
Genéricas y
sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los
atributos a
objetivos que persigue.
Desarrollar
9. Transmite mensajes en una segunda lengua o lengua extranjera
atendiendo las características de contextos socioculturales
diferentes.

Manera Didáctica Con base en un texto realiza las actividades propuestas,


de Lograrlas participando en equipo y de manera individual.

Text 3

THE FOOD
Exercise 1:
Read the following text and answer the questions with Search Reading Strategy.

Recipe:

Tuna fish salad

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Very easy
4 people Soon (0-20') Cheap

This delicious salad is from Ecuador and is made with tuna or shredded chicken. It’s ideal for
a summer day. Serve alone or accompanied with crackers.

Ingredients:

• 1 large or 2 medium cans of tuna (preferably olive oil)


• 1/2 onion, sliced very thin
• 2 lemons
• 2 red peppers
• 1 tomato, chopped
• 1 potato, cut into cubes
• salt and pepper to taste
• 1 little spoon chopped parsley and crackers (optional)

Preparation:

• Turn to cook the potatoes in salted water without peel and cut in half for 15-20 minutes or
until tender.
• Meanwhile, in a bowl put onion with lemon and salt and set aside.
• When the potatoes are cooked and cooled, peel and cut into small cubes.
• The container is ready to serve, drain the tuna oil (though not completely) and separated
with a fork.
• Once done, add: potatoes, onions, peppers and tomatoes. Mix everything and test for
seasoning.
• This is the time to add more salt, pepper or lemon. If it is too dry you can add a little olive oil.

A tip…

To get an excellent sliced onion it is necessary to cut it finely and put enough lemon with salt
and let stand for about 15-20 minutes.

Useful information:

Country: Ecuador
Season: Spring-Summer
Age: All family
Hot: Nothing spicy
Vegetarian: No
Temperature: Cold

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Questions:
1. What is the name of the dish?

2. Approximately how much time do you need to prepare the recipe?

3. How many ingredients do you need for the recipe preparation?

4. Is it a spicy recipe?

5. Where is from the recipe?

6. What is the result of cooking potatoes in salted water?

7. Why the parsley and crackers are not indicated in the preparation of the recipe?

8. Explain why the dish is not vegetarian.

Exercise 2:
Make a list in your notebook, with the unknown words and search the meaning in your
dictionary.

Exercise 3:
According to the text separates and lists the countable nouns and uncountable nouns.

Countable nouns uncountable nouns

Exercise 4:
Write your favorite recipe that contains the ingredients and preparation.

Recipe’s name: __________________________________________________

Ingredients:

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Preparation:

Exercise 5:
According to your recipe, draw the ingredients, write their names in English and
separate the countable nouns and uncountable nouns.

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Exercise 6:
Interchange your recipe with 2 classmates and write 20 sentences using (many, much,
lot of, few, little, some and any) as in the example.

Example: To prepare tuna salad, I need little salt.

1. _________________________________________________________.
2. _________________________________________________________.
3. _________________________________________________________.
4. _________________________________________________________.
5. _________________________________________________________.
6. _________________________________________________________.
7. _________________________________________________________.
8. _________________________________________________________.
9. _________________________________________________________.
10. _________________________________________________________.
11. _________________________________________________________.
12. _________________________________________________________.
13. _________________________________________________________.
14. _________________________________________________________.
15. _________________________________________________________.
16. _________________________________________________________.
17. _________________________________________________________.
18. _________________________________________________________.
19. _________________________________________________________.
20. _________________________________________________________.

Exercise 7:
With the following images that illustrate the recipe development, write the ingredients
and its preparation.

Recipe’s name: _________________________________________________

Ingredients:

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Preparation:

Exercise 7:
Based on the previous exercise elaborate10 questions using (How much / How many)
and answer them. Check the example.

Example:
Question.- How much salt does the cake need?
Answer.- The cake doesn’t need any salt.

1. _________________________________________________________.
2. _________________________________________________________.
3. _________________________________________________________.
4. _________________________________________________________.
5. _________________________________________________________.
6. _________________________________________________________.
7. _________________________________________________________.
8. _________________________________________________________.
9. _________________________________________________________.
10. _________________________________________________________.

Exercise 8:
Complete the dialogue using the words in the box

bread apple pie any some likes


freezer meat potato lemonade strawberries
salad
fruit shopping barbecue dessert Book
list
mangoes teacher soda sausages Ice cream

Hi! My friends and I will do a barbecue in the park, Charles and Anne talked about it and said
the next:

Charles: What do we need for the________?

Anne: Well, we need hamburger ______ and _______________.

Charles: We have _______ hamburger in the _______, but we don't have ____ sausages.

Anne: Right, and there aren't any __________.

Charles: Do we need any __________?

Anne: Yes, we do. Let's buy some soda and some____________, too.

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Charles: All right. And how about some _______________?

Anne: Great idea! Everyone ____________ potato salad.

Charles: Don’t forget ____________.

Anne: Yeah. How about some fruit? Maybe __________ and ____________.

Charles: Hm. I don't really like ____________.

Anne: I know. Your favorite dessert is _______________.

Charles: Yes. Apple pie with________________!!

Anne: OK. So let's put apple pie and ice cream on the _______________.

Nombre My childhood

Instrucciones para Contesta correctamente los siguientes ejercicios de acuerdo a la


el Alumno instrucción de cada actividad.
Manera
Responsabilidad.
Didáctica Trabajo individual.
Actitudes a formar Orden.
de Trabajo en equipo.
Honestidad
Lograrlas
4. Escucha, interpreta y emite mensajes pertinentes en distintos
contextos mediante la utilización de medios, códigos y
herramientas apropiados.
Competencias
 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean
Genéricas y
sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los
atributos a
objetivos que persigue.
Desarrollar
9. Transmite mensajes en una segunda lengua o lengua extranjera
atendiendo las características de contextos socioculturales
diferentes.
Con base en un texto realiza las actividades propuestas,
Manera Didáctica
participando en equipo y de manera individual.
de Lograrlas

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Text 4

MY CHILDHOOD
Hello, my name is Ruben and I am going to share you about my childhood.

When I was a baby I used to sleep all the time and I used to drink my milk each three hours.
My mother didn’t use to work; she used to be at home with me, and my brothers. She used to
clean the house in the morning and after that, she prepared the food for us. My brothers and I
used to hate the vegetables and didn’t use to eat them. My mother didn’t use to drink much
coffee. But now she has become addicted to it.

My father used to work in a bank and he didn’t use to do exercise because he didn’t use to
have enough time. He used to wear a shirt and a tie, and he used to help me with my
homework. He used to be fat but now he is thin.

My brothers Luis and Carlos used to wake up at seven o’clock because their classes started
at eight o’clock, and when they arrived to the house, they did the homework and after used to
play videogames after that, we used to watch cartoons on TV.

We used to live in an apartment, and the sofa used to be in the living room, but now it's in my
bedroom, and I used to share my bedroom with my brother, but now I have my own room.

In Christmas we didn’t use to be at home, we used to visit my grandmother who lives in


Tampico, and I enjoyed it a lot. My brothers and I used to swim in the sea and my mother
used to sunbathe and my father used to play volleyball in the beach.

And we used to travel every summer to Mexico City and we visited museums, and
amusement parks.

I enjoyed a lot my childhood, what did you use to do in your childhood? Write me about it.

Exercise 1:
Write about your childhood using use to and used to.

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Exercise 2:
Make sentences using the images with use to and used to.

My sister used to play in the park when she was a child.

Carlos and Maria________________________________________

Manuel___________________________________________________

They ________________________________________________________

My brothers_______________________________________________

The dog _____________________________________________

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My little sister ________________________________________

Mauricio____________________________________________

I___________________________________________________

Sara ______________________________________________

My grandfather __________________________________________

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Nombre The Nutrition

Instrucciones para Contesta correctamente los siguientes ejercicios de acuerdo a la


el Alumno instrucción de cada actividad.
Manera
Responsabilidad.
Didáctica Trabajo individual.
Actitudes a formar Orden.
de Trabajo en equipo.
Honestidad
Lograrlas
4. Escucha, interpreta y emite mensajes pertinentes en distintos
contextos mediante la utilización de medios, códigos y
herramientas apropiados.
Competencias
 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean
Genéricas y
sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los
atributos a
objetivos que persigue.
Desarrollar
9. Transmite mensajes en una segunda lengua o lengua extranjera
atendiendo las características de contextos socioculturales
diferentes.
Con base en un texto realiza las actividades propuestas,
Manera Didáctica
participando en equipo y de manera individual.
de Lograrlas

Text 5

THE NUTRITION
Nutrition is the study of the food eaten, and the use of this food in the body. It is relatively new
science, which developed from physiologist and biochemistry. Indeed, it is so new and so little
accepted than even today many doctors do not recognized its importance in preventing and
combating disease. The latter is especially true: while many doctors understand the
importance of an appropriate diet in preventing illness, relatively few of them believe that
large quantities of certain nutrients can be major factors in curing certain problems.

There are six main classes of nutrients: water, proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins and
minerals. All are essential to the body in different ways, though some may be dangerous if

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they are taken in excess. Water is the most important, and 70% of the body consists of water.
All cells contain water, and water is involved in almost every bodily process. A person will die
sooner without water that without food.

Probably the second most important nutrients are proteins, especially how these can
compensate for shortages of carbohydrates or fats in the body when necessary. There are
many different types of protein and they perform several functions: they provide a source of
energy, although not as immediate one as carbohydrates, and they are particularly important
when the body is growing, recovering from damage, or suffering stress.

Carbohydrates are important as the primary source of energy, especially in poorer countries.
In rich countries, about 40% of the diet consists of carbohydrates, but in some poor countries
this proportion is as high as 90%. The main reason is that carbohydrates are relatively cheap
and readily available (in bread, potatoes, sugar, rice, etc.) While proteins (especially from
meat and dairy products) are much more expensive and difficult to produce. In fact, certain
plants, such as peas and beans, are rich sources of protein. Today, not only vegetarians, but
also many economists and politicians suggest that we should take our proteins from plants
and animals.

Fats should provide about 20% of the body’s energy. However, excessive amounts of fats are
consumed by many people, average diets in some countries consisting of as much as 40%
fats. As a result, it is sometimes believed that fats are bad for you. This is untrue: an excess
of fats is bad for you. It should be noted that people who lived sedentary lives, working in
such places as offices or universities, need less fat than people who do heavy physical work.

Minerals are presents in the body in very small amounts, but they perform vital functions.
They have to basic roles: building and regulation. They are essential for building teeth and
bones especially, but they are also needed for muscle and nerves. In addition, they regulate
the balance of water in the body and the PH level of the stomach. Though the body contains
six major minerals and 10 minor ones, altogether they account for only about 4% of the body.

The final groups of nutrients, vitamins, do not provide energy, but they are used by the body
to help other processes. For example, the body needs phosphorous and calcium to make
bones but it cannot make bone unless vitamin D is present. Vitamins are divided into groups:
fat-soluble and water-soluble vitamins

Vocabulary

Source- Fuente de Available. – Obtener Disease/illness enfermedad

Sooner- rápido, pronto Shortages- falta Readily- con facilidad

Amount- cantidad Average- promedio

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Exercise 1:
Underline all the cognates and in your notebook write them with their meaning

Exercise 2:
Answer the next questions

1.- What is nutrition?

2.- How many are the main nutrients?

3. - Which is the most important?

4. -Why are proteins important?

5.-What are the roles to the minerals?

6.-Why are vitamins important?

7.-How vitamins are divided?

8.-Which plants are rich in protein?

9.-What do you think is another good title for the reading?

10.-Write the main idea of the reading

Exercise 3:
Complete with the missing words, using the information in the text

1.-Fats should _________________ about _______% of the body__________.

2.-Probably the __________ most important are___________ especially as these


can___________ for shortages of___________or __________ in the body.

3.- ___________ is the most important, and ________ of the body consists of __________.
All ________ contain water

4.- There are ________ main classes of nutrients: water, ___________, carbohydrates,
__________, vitamins and _____________. All are ________________l to the __________
in different ways.

5.- ________________ are presents in the body in very small ____________, but they
______________ vital ____________. They have to basic roles: _____________ and
____________.

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6.- __________________are important as the primary source of ___________, especially in
poorer countries. In rich countries, about _______% of the diet consists of ______________,
but in some ________ countries this proportion is as high as ______%.

7.- The final groups of nutrients, _____________, do not provide _________, but they are
used by ___________ to help other _________.

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UNIDAD III
Textos Científicos

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Nombre: El estudiante habrá aplicado las estrategias
convenientes, utilizado la gramática e identificado el de
significado de palabras para demostrar sus saberes acerca
3
de la comprensión de lectura de textos científicos.

1. Future Will

2. Future be going to

3. Tag questions

4. First Conditional

5. Present Perfect

6. Second Conditional

7. Past Perfect

8. Third Conditional

9. Adjectival Clauses

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1. Presenting the Future!!!

2. It´s a great place to live, isn´t it?

3. What’s in it for me?

4. Caves

5. A news article

6. It´s a Wonderful Life (1976)

7. Rita’s replay

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HABILIDADES Y DESTREZAS

 Leo y comprendo textos de una extensión de 3 a 5


párrafos.

 Entiendo las ideas principales, algunos detalles e inferir el


significado del texto.
HABILIDADES
 Leo textos en cualquier campo del saber humano.

 Entiendo hechos y hacer algunas inferencias en textos


comunes y especializados.

RESULTADO DE
Mejor comprensión de textos, habilidad necesaria para su
APRENDIZAJE desempeño en el nivel superior.

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Nombre Textos Científicos No. 1

Cada uno de los textos que se presentan tiene una serie de


Instrucciones ejercicios que te permitirán desarrollar habilidades para la
para el Alumno comprensión de lectura. Sigue atentamente las instrucciones del
maestro, utiliza tu diccionario y pregunta cualquier duda.

Identificar textos
Lectura individual en voz
científicos, aplicar
alta, Trabajo individual de
adecuadamente las Manera
Conocimientos estrategias de investigación, inferir,
Didáctica de
a adquirir trabajo en clase individual,
skimming, scanning, Lograrlos
en pareja y colaborativo en
inferencias,
equipo
homónimos.

Scientific texts
Scientific texts (papers): they are those occurring in the context of the scientific community,
with intent to display or demonstrate the progress made by research. Genres are typical of
this type of thesis, Bachelor Memory, Article scientist or scientific monograph. They are also
scientific texts, although oral transmission; the Conference, Paper or Communication.
It is a text with clear and precise language. It highlights the facts about the views.
Aims at universality through its specific terminology, which allows precise and accurate
translations into other languages with no room for misinterpretation.

The scientific papers present statements that may be subject to verifiability, (it means that
they can be checked). Typically they are produced within the framework of a scientific
community to communicate and demonstrate the progress made in research
(http://definicion.de/texto-cientifico/ (August 3, 2012).

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Nombre Presenting the future!!!

Instrucciones para Contesta correctamente los siguientes ejercicios de acuerdo a la


el Alumno instrucción de cada actividad.
Manera
Responsabilidad.
Didáctica Trabajo individual.
Actitudes a formar Orden.
de Trabajo en equipo.
Honestidad
Lograrlas
4. Escucha, interpreta y emite mensajes pertinentes en distintos
contextos mediante la utilización de medios, códigos y
herramientas apropiados.
Competencias
 Aplica distintas estrategias comunicativas según quienes sean
Genéricas y
sus interlocutores, el contexto en el que se encuentra y los
atributos a
objetivos que persigue.
Desarrollar
9. Transmite mensajes en una segunda lengua o lengua extranjera
atendiendo las características de contextos socioculturales
diferentes.

Manera Didáctica Con base en un texto realiza las actividades propuestas,


de Lograrlas participando en equipo y de manera individual.

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Exercise1:
A - Read this article about the future. Follow the instructions of your teacher.

Text 1
PRESENTING THE FUTURE

by Will Hapin

A new millennium has begun as well as a new century, and it’s bringing new
developments in all areas of our lives. Where will we work in this new era? What we
will wear? How will we travel, study and relate to our families? Let’s follow Dr. Nouvella
Eon a typical day in 2115.

Dr. Eon’s day begins at 7:00 am when her bedroom lights turn themselves on. Her son
will weak up, too. She usually works from her home office. But today she is going to
teach. She doesn’t bother to check the weather report her high-tech material of her
clothing will keep her comfortable warm or cool.

! Hi mom¡ her son greets her over the home communications system. She goes to his
room to say good morning. While she is helping Ricky get ready for his day, the
household robot will prepare breakfast.

When will Dad be home? Ricky wants to know. Mr. Eon is a captain of the Mars
shuttle. “The shuttle leaves Mars at 6:00 pm today and it arrives tomorrow afternoon.
He’ll be here by the time you get home from school tomorrow”

“Don’t forget your backpack” Nouvella tells Ricky as they leave. “You’ll need it to send
me pictures of the zoo.” Ricky’s class is going on a field trip today, and he’ll carry a
backpack with a built-in computer, camera, and cell phone. She won’t worry about his
getting lost. All the children’s jackets have GPDs (Global Positioning Devices), so
she’ll be able to see where he is at any time on her wristwatch computer.

Nouvella is going to drive Ricky to school and then drive to the freeway. There, she’ll
connect with a freeway guidance system, so she won’t actually drive her car most of
the way to the university. Instead, she is going to listen to music and prepare to teach
her class.

Many of these changes have already begun, and we’ll see others very soon. The future
is arriving any minute now. Are you ready for it?

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Exercise 2:
Read the text using Scanning in order to find the answers. Write T (true) or F (false)

1. _____The robot will prepare breakfast after Nouvella helps Ricky?


2. _____The Mars shuttle will leave Mars in the evening?
3. _____Nouvella will drive all the way to the university?

Exercise 3:
Underline in the text all the sentences that contain will or be going to, then write down
them and translate to Spanish. Follow the example.

English Spanish
 Where will we work? ¿Dónde trabajaremos ?




Exercise 4:
Answer the following personal questions, on your notebook and then, ask them to
your partner.

1. What are you going to do tonight?

2. What will you do next Sunday?

3. What are you going to study at college?

4. Where will you live in 5 years?

5. How many children will you have?

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Text 2

IT’S A GREAT PLACE TO LIVE, ISN’T IT?

Our reporters around the world interviewed people working or studying in foreign
countries. Our questions, like this: How do you like living here? Here is what we
learn from Anton Freeman, and Tessa Wiley.

Reporter You’re a student, aren’t you?

Anton Yes, I am. I’m studying architecture at


the Kaywon School of Art and Design.

Reporter That’s not in Seoul, Is it?

Anton No, it’s not. But it’s not far


First interview
Reporter So, how do you like living here?
Doesn’t the cold weather bother you?

Anton No, I’m from Berlin, so I am used to


cold winters. I love this city. You can
find modern skyscrapers right next to
the ancient structures.

Reporter That’s true. That’s the old city gate over


there, isn’t it?

Anton Yes. And there are several beautiful


palaces nearby.

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Second interview
Reporter You’re from England, aren’t you?

Tessa Yes. I moved to Toronto 10 years ago.

Reporter Was it a difficult adjustment?

Tessa No, not really. First of all, having the


same language makes the things
easy, doesn´t it? And people here are
very friendly.

Reporter Why Canada?

Tessa England’s a small country. I was


Attracted by Canada’s wide-open
spaces. It seems to offer endless
possibilities

Reporter Don’t you miss your family back


home?

Tessa Sometimes, but the internet keeps us


connected. And they visit me every
year.

Reporter It doesn’t’ take long to cross the


Atlantic, does it?
Tessa No, that’s why they call “The pond.” It
really is a small world now, isn’t it?
Reporter It sure is.

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Exercise 1:
Translate to the Spanish the first interview.

Exercise 2:
Work in teams of 5 members.

We are reporters, aren’t we? Write an interview to your team members using tag
questions in order to check, confirm or comment on a situation. Practice it and then,
each team has to talk in front of the group.

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Exercise 1:
Before you read:
Work in pairs: Look at the pictures which are in the next page, and say the names of
these plants, talk with your classmate about that.
Then answer the questions below.

a) How much do you know about herbal remedies?_____________________


b) Have you ever heard the name of the plants in the picture?_____________
c) Have you or has anyone used plants as remedy to cure illnesses?.
____________________________________________________________

Exercise 2:
Look at the title of the reading, mark the words which you think will be in the reading?
What do you think is going to be the topic?
a) medicine b) people a) birthday e) years d)plants

Exercise 3:
Look the words you underlined in exercise 2, read carefully the text, to see if your
prediction was correct.

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Text 3
WHAT’S IN IT FOR ME?
By Murray Young.

Plants have been used for thousands of years to treat, and sometimes to cure, minor and
major illnesses. The rise of “rational” medicine led to a brie decline in herbal remedies. In the
early part of this century; but recently, they have been rediscovered. Research laboratories
have been set up to investigate the remedial properties of tree bark, flower petals and fungus.
The results have been spectacular.
Substances which have been extracted from plants are now from the basis of some of the
most important pain-killing and even life-saving drugs.

Among the most popular pain-killers, aspirin and codeine both come from flowers- the
meadowsweet and the poppy. People have used Cocaine as a local anesthetic for much
longer that it has been taken by drug addicts, comes from the coca plant. Penicillin, the
universal antibiotic, is a fungus which was discovered by accident when it grew naturally in a
Petri dish in Alexander Fleming´s laboratory and killed the bacteria that were in the dish.

Quinine, which has prevented and treated malaria for many years, is distilled from the bark of
the yellow chinchona tree.
Whether you suffer from migraine or high blood pressure, you should be grateful to nature or
providing a cure (ergonovine from ergot and reserpine from Indian snakeroot, respectively).

The drug companies are certainly grateful. For instance, vinblastine, which occurs naturally in
the rosy periwinkle of Madagascar, cures most people of two different types of cancer and in
the income from the manufacture and sale of the substance exceeds $180 million per year.

Exercise 4:
Reading comprehension:
Complete the information; try not to look back at the reading for it.

1- People have used plants for thousands of years to treat…

________________________________________________________________

2.-Doctors who believe in “rational” medicine..

________________________________________________________________

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3.-Recently scientists have extracted important substances from… mention three of them.

__________________________________________________________

4.-How was discovered the universal antibiotic?

5.-The drug companies have been getting a large amount from the manufacture and sale of…
vinblastine.

__________________________________________________________________

6. – If you were ill, you would use … (herbal plants/ medicine)

Exercise 5:
Read the text again, underline the unknown words and make a list, then find out in
your dictionary for the right definition, ask your teacher for the herbal names.

1.-_______________________ ______________________________________

2.-_______________________ ______________________________________

3.-_______________________ _______________________________________

4.-_______________________ _______________________________________

5.-_______________________ _______________________________________

6.-_______________________ _______________________________________

7.-_______________________ _______________________________________

Exercise 6:
Follow the next instructions:

Was interesting the reading… Have you heard about the topic?
Write a short paragraph on your notebook, giving your opinion. Use present perfect tense and
present perfect progressive at least one in your writing.

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Text 4
CAVES
The majority of the world’s most spectacular caves, including the Cacahuamilpa Caves, are
located in areas of limestone rock. This is because limestone is a soft kind of rock that is
easily eroded by water. Some caves are formed when rainwater is made more acidic as it
passes through dead plants in the soil. The rock is dissolved by the acidic water and solution
caves are formed. Other caves, like Cacahuamilpa Caves, are made by underground rivers.
Caves like these are called erosional Caves.

When an empty space is created in the limestone, stalactites and stalagmites start to form.
Stalactites’ hang from the roof of the Cave and stalagmites grow up from the floor. They are
made by the constant dripping of water that contains calcium carbonate. The calcium
carbonate is deposited in tiny quantities over hundreds of years. Stalactite and stalagmites
only grow about 0.1 mm a year. The longest stalactite in the world is found in Minas Gerais,
in Brazil, and is more than 20 meters long. How long did it take to form?

Exercise 1:
After you read the text to a partner using skimming, use scanning to answer the
questions.

1. - Where are the majority of the world´s most spectacular caves located?

__________________________________________________________________

2. - How are formed the Cacahuamilpa Caves?

__________________________________________________________________

3. - Which caves are called erosional caves?

__________________________________________________________________

4. - Where is the longest stalactite in the world?

__________________________________________________________________

5. - How long is it?

__________________________________________________________________

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Exercise 2:
Read the text again using scanning and answer true or false.

1. - Stalagmites hang from the roof of the caves. ________________

2. - The rock is dissolved by the acidic water


and solution caves are formed ________________

3. - Stalactites grow up from the floor. ________________

4. - Limestone is dissolved by rainwater. ________________

5. - Some caves are called underground caves. ________________

Exercise 3:
Rewrite the sentences using passive voice.
Example: Water pollution kills marine life. (Active voice)
Marine life is killed by water pollution. (Passive voice).

1. - The boy does the pictures.


_____________________________________________________________

2. - The maid cleans the house.


_____________________________________________________________

3. - I wash my dog every month.


_____________________________________________________________

4. - The girls plant some roses in the garden.


_____________________________________________________________

5. – My neighbor sings in the morning a wonderful song.

_____________________________________________________________

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Text 5

Read Paula’s letter to Rita. Then complete Rita’s reply with if or would plus the phrases in
the box.

Dear Rita,
I’m sorry I haven’t written, but I’ve been worried about a problem we have. Because we live in
the country, my husband’s sister and his family come here every two weeks and act like they
are in a hotel. They never bring any food and they eat and drink everything in the refrigerator.
The children run around the house, making messes and breaking things. Laura my sister in
law makes long distance phone calls and never pays for them. I’ll go crazy unless I can solve
this problem soon! What would you do, if you were in my place?

Love
Paula.
Rita’s Reply.

Dear Mary.

What horrible situation! Next weekend, ________________________________


___________________________! First,_________________________________
so they would find an empty refrigerator. I ____________________disconnect the telephone
_________________________________________________________
________________________________________________.

If I _________________you, I would tell them not to visit ____________________


If they _____________again I __________________do the same thing again.
Good luck!

Love
Mary.

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Text 6

IT’S A WONDERFUL LIFE (1976)


Exercise 1:
Read the text, following the teacher’s instructions.

What would have happened if you had never been born? Peter Stalleto learns the answer in
Frank Capra’s great movie classic, It’s a wonderful life.

When the movie opens, Peter is standing on bridge thinking about suicide. Throughout his
life, he has sacrificed his dreams in order to help other people. He could have gone to college
if the family business hadn’t needed him. He would have traveled around the world instead of
remaining in his hometown of Bedford Falls. Now faced a failed business and a possible jail
sentence, Peter decides to end his life by jumping into the river. Enter Gabriel, an angel sent
to help him. Gabriel jumps into the water first; certain that, as always, Peter put aside his own
problems in order to rescue someone else.

Safely back on land. Peter wishes he had never been born. “I suppose it would have been
better if I had never been born at all.” He tells Gabriel. “You got your wish: you never been
born” responds his guardian angel.

Gabriel then teaches Peter a hard lesson. In a series of painful episodes, he shows him what
life would have been like in Bedford Falls without Peter Stalleto. Peter goes back to the site of
his mother’s home. He finds, instead, an old, depressing boardinghouse. If Peter had not
supported his mother, she would have become a miserable, overworked boardinghouse
owner. Peter’s own home is a ruin, and his wife Meredith, is living a sad and lonely life. Each
scene is more disturbing than the last, until finally we end in a graveyard. We see the grave
of Peter’s little brother, Joe. If Peter hadn’t been alive, he couldn’t have saved Joe’s life. Joe
would have never grown up to be a war hero, saving the lives of hundreds of soldiers. “Joe
wasn’t there to save them because you weren’t there to save Joe,” explains Gabriel. “You see
Peter, you really had a wonderful life.”

The ending of the movie delivers a heartwarming holiday message. It’s a Wonderful Life
shows us the importance of each person’s life and how each of our lives touch those of
others. We see through Peter’s eyes how the lives of those around him would have been
different if he hadn’t known them.

This movie is highly recommended for the whole family.

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Exercise 2:
Underline the sentences that contain the third conditional and then, translate them o
Spanish. Follow the example.

 What would you have happened if you had never been born?
Qué hubiera pasado si no hubieras nacido?

1. - Angie would have watched the movie last night if she hadn’t seen it before.

a) ________ She watched the movie last night.


b) ________ She saw the movie before.

2. - I would have recorder the movie if my DVD recorder had not stopped working.

a) _________ I recorder the movie.


b) _________My DVD recorder broke.

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3. - If I had had time, I would have watched “Back to the Future” movie.

a) _________I didn’t have time to watch “Back to the Future” movie.


b) _________ I watched “Back to the Future” movie.

Text 7
THE FUTURE OF MEDICINE

Exercise 1:
Ask the following questions to your partner

1. Look at the photo above. What and where is it happening?

2. What is a robot? How many ways a robot could be used in a hospital?

3. Tell your partner three ways in what the field of medicine and medical
technology has changed in the last 10 years?

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Exercise 2:
Read the following sentences.

a) Surgeons make long incisions.


b) Surgeons make long incisions in a patient’s chest.
c) Surgeons make long incisions in a patient’s chest to reach the heart.

Which sentence best helped you to understand the meaning of the word incision? Explain
your answer to a partner.

Exercise 3:
Scanning in the text below the sentence in which the word italicized appears. Then
choose the best definition.

1. In line 4, the phrase make-believe means


a) realistic b) imaginary c) uncertain
2. In line 8, the word trauma means a
a) difficult work b) great sadness c) physical injury or wound
3. In line 17, the word inserted means
a) put in b) removed c) cut
4. In line 20, the word relays means
a) creates b) lights up c) sends

Exercise 4:
Read this scientist article, follow the teacher’s instructions.

TITLE:

Images of robotic equipment being used in operating rooms were once seen only in
science-fiction movies. Today, the use of robotic equipment for certain types of surgery
is no longer make-believe ―it’s real!

Traditional surgical procedure require surgeons to make large incisions in patient’s


body in order to gain access to the internal organs(1) It was once common for heart
surgeons, who perform highly specialized and complex procedures(2), to make long
incisions in a patient’s chest and then split the breastbone to reach the heart. The
patient then had to recover from the trauma of the surgical treatment, the split bone,
and the large wound created by the incision. Patients who undergo surgery requiring

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this kind of invasive procedure are often prone (3) to infection (4), as bacteria can
infect the cut in the skin. In addition, there is often a lengthy recovery period.

A surgical technique known as “Keyhole surgery” has become more common in recent
years. This technique eliminates the need for surgeons to make large incisions.
Instead, a couple of small incisions, each measuring about one centimeter, are made
around the area to be operated on. Long instruments, which look a bit like chopsticks,
are inserted through the tiny incision and into the patient’s body. At the end of this
instruments are small tools that resemble standard surgical tools. A tiny camera, called
endoscope, is also inserted into the body through one of the incisions. The camera
relays an image of what is happening inside the patient’s body to a large computer
monitor, so doctors are able to see what is going on, and where to place the tools. The
awkward part of keyhole surgery is that it is counterintuitive; if a surgeon wants to
move the tool to the left, he or she must push it to the right, and vice versa.

Other advancements in technology are also being used today in the OR (5). A new
machine called the da Vinci™ Surgical System has been tested in hospitals in the U.S.
This robotic apparatus (6) requires that surgeons make three small incisions in the
body. Two of the slits are for instruments; the third is for the endoscope. Unlike keyhole
surgery, the da Vinci™ robots moving parts are designed to mimic the natural hand
and wrist movements of a surgeon, thus providing better control and sensitivity. Sitting
at a console a few feet from a patient, the surgeon can perform an operation by holding
and moving highly sensitive pads that enable him or her to control the instruments. The
area of the body on which the surgeon is working is magnified (7) on a screen, which is
attached to the console. This gives surgeons a realistic three-dimensional view of the
area―similar to what they would see during a traditional surgical procedure.

Although the da Vinci™ Surgical System is undergoing trials from some procedures, it
has been hailed as revolutionary by many surgeons. Patients with serious illnesses
must still undergo major surgery, but the smaller incisions and less invasive (8)
procedures typically mean that there in less physical trauma to the body, so a shorter
recovery time is needed. In some cases, the patients stay in the hospital has been cut
in half when the da Vinci™ Surgical System was used. On the downside (9), some
operations have taken up to fifty minutes longer because surgeons are inexperienced
at using the new technology. As surgeons become more familiar with the machines,
the time needed for surgical procedures is likely to decrease.

As technologies continue to develop in the medical field, we may find that robots
become a permanent feature of the OR.

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Exercise 5:
Follow the instructions.

What do you think is the best title for the text? Find it using skimming and scanning. Check
your answer with the teacher. Write it in the empty upper square.

a) Robotic Equipment
b) Robotic Technology
c) Robotic Surgeons

Exercise 6:
Find out in your dictionary the definition of the words that have numeral from 1 to 9.

1. internal organs_______________________________________________

2. procedure __________________________________________________

3. prone(to) ____________________________________________________

4. infection ____________________________________________________

5. OR ________________________________________________________

6. apparatus ___________________________________________________

7. magnified ___________________________________________________

8. invasive ____________________________________________________

9. downside __________________________________________________

Exercise 7:
Find out the definition of the following homonyms. They could be verbs, nouns or
adjectives.
close

close

command

command

flavor

flavor

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Most common prefixes

Prefix Meaning Examples in English

A, ab away from absence, abstain, averse


Ad to adopt, adorn
Ambi both ambiguous, ambivalent
Ante before antecedent, anticipate
Bi two bicycle, bifocal
Co, col, com, con cor with, together cooperate, coeducation,
collaborate, collate,
compare, combine, consent
concentrate, correspond,
correlate
contra against contradict, contrary
de down, out descend, deduct
dec ten decade, decimal
dis bad, wrong disorder, disability
em,en to make embitter, enjoy
ex out, from export, except
extra beyond, outside extraordinary, extraneous
ill, im,in not illegal, illiterate, impossible,
immovable, incapable,
insignificant
inter between, among international, intermediate
mono/uni one monopoly, monogamy,
unicorn
ob in the way of object, observe
poly many polyglot, polygon
post after postpone, postscript
pre before preview, predict
pro forward provoke, procession
re again return, rebuild
semi/hemi/demi half semiannual, hemisphere,
demigod
sub under submarine, substitute
tri three triple, tripped

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Most common suffixes
SUFIXES WITH NOUNS SUFIXES WITH ADJECTIVES

People who do things: Having the quality of:


Suffix Examples Suffix Examples
-ee employee, referee -able, -ible eatable, responsible
-eer engineer, racketeer -ant, -ent hesitant, prudent
-er teacher, worker -ary sanitary, complementary
-or senator, visitor -ory satisfactory, sensory
-ish girlish, oldish
People associated with things and places -like Godlike, ladylike
Suffix Examples -some tiresome, lonesome
-an Mexican, Roman -ous dangerous, courageous
-ian musician, magician -worthy trustworthy, praiseworthy
-ist motorist, artist -ly fatherly, lively
-y sandy, salty
Feminine forms
Suffix Examples -full and –less
-ess hostess, waitress Suffix Examples
-ine/trix heroine / aviatrix -full (= with) faithful, harmful
-less (= without) careless, painless
Note: if you wish to indicate the feminine form of some
words where –ess cannot be added, simply use the word _________________________________________
“woman”, “lady”, or “female” before the noun SUFIXES WITH ADVERBS_________

Diminutives Son similares a los sufijos con adjetivos


Suffix Examples Suffix Examples
-et, -let pocket, booklet -er (comparative) harder, faster
-ling, -ule duckling, molecule -est longest, youngest
-en chicken, maiden
double consonant + y Bobby, Johnny
_________________________________________
The state of being SUFIXES WITH VERBS ____________
Suffix Examples
-age marriage, storage To make
-al approval, recital Suffix Examples
-ance, -ence acceptance, occurrence -ate speculate, circulate
-ary functionary, customary -en soften, sharpen
-dom kingdom, freedom -fy, -ify purify, simply
-hood womanhood, fatherhood -ize tranquilize, immunize
-ion, -sion, -tion selection, division, intervention
-ism realism, Buddhism
-ity hostility, calamity
-ment development, punishment
-ness greatness, humbleness
-ship relationship, dictatorship

Contain or hold a quantity


Suffix Examples
-ful mouthful, handful

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IRREGULAR VERBS LIST

PRESENT PAST PAST SPANISH


PARTICIPLE
arise arose arisen elevarse, surgir, originarse.
awake awoke awoken despertar, mover, excitar.
bear bore born soportar, sostener, tolerar.
beat beat beaten batir, revolver, golpear, vencer.
become became become hacerse, convertirse en
begin began begun empezar, iniciar.
bend bent bent doblar, inclinar, torcer.
bet bet bet apostar
bind bound bound atar, unir, enlazar.
bite bit bitten morder.
blow blew blown soplar
break broke broken quebrar, partir, romper.
bring brought brought traer, llevar, conducir.
build built built construir, edificar.
burn burnt burnt quemar, incendiar.
burst burst burst romper, reventar.
buy bought bought comprar
catch caught caught coger, asir, atrapar.
choose chose chosen escoger, elegir.
come came come venir
cost cost cost costar
cut cut cut cortar, dividir.
deal dealt dealt tratar, tener que referirse.
dig dug dug cavar, ahondar.
do did done hacer, ejecutar.
draw drew drawn tirar, arrastrarse, atraer, dibujar.
drink drank drunk beber
drive drove driven impulsar, conducir, llevar
fall fell fallen caer, disminuir.
feed fed fed alimentar, nutrir.
feel felt felt sentir, percibir, tocar.
fight fought fought pelear, combatir.
find found found encontrar, descubrir.
find out found out found out averiguar, investigar.

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flee fled fled escapar, huir, evitar.
fly flew flown volar
forbid forbade forbidden prohibir.
foresee foresaw foreseen prever, prevenir
forget forgot forgotten olvidar (se)
forgive forgave forgiven perdonar
freeze froze frozen congelar
get got got (ten) lograr, obtener, conseguir.
give gave given dar, conceder.
go went gone ir (se), funcionar, resultar.
grind ground ground moler, triturar.
grow grew grown crecer, cultivar.
hang hung hung colgar, suspender.
have had had tener, haber.
hear heard heard oír, escuchar.
hide hid hid (den) ocultar, encubrir.
hit hit hit pegar, golpear, acertar.
hold held held sostener, mantener, contener.
hurt hurt hurt herir, dañar, lastimar.
keep kept kept mantener, guardar, conservar.
know knew known conocer, saber.
lay laid laid poner, colocar.
lead led led guiar, llevar, conducir.
learn learnt learnt aprender, saber.
leave left left partir, irse, abandonar.
lend lent lent prestar
let let let permitir, conceder.
lie lay lain tenderse, descansar,
light lit lit alumbrar, iluminar, encender
lose lost lost perder, malgastar.
make made made hacer, confeccionar, producir.
meet met met encontrarse, satisfacer.
melt melted molten (old) derretir (se), fundir (se)
mistake mistook mistaken equivocarse, errar
pay paid paid pagar, recompensar.
put put put poner, colocar, exponer.
read read read leer, descifrar, marcar.
rebuild rebuilt rebuilt reconstruir
rid rid rid librarse, zafarse.

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ride rode ridden rodar, tener juego, funcionar.
ring rang rung tocar, sonar.
rise rose risen ascender, elevarse, levantarse
run ran run correr, funcionar.
say said said decir, afirmar.
see saw seen ver, observar.
sell sold sold vender
send sent sent enviar
set set set instalar, establecer, colocar
shake shook shaken sacudir, lanzar, agitar.
shed shed shed derramar, esparcir, dejar caer.
shine shone shone brillar, relumbrar, sobresalir.
shoot shot shot disparar, emitir, lanzar.
show showed shown mostrar, exhibir, probar
shut shut shut cerrar, impedir, excluir.
sing sang sung cantar
sit sat sat sentarse, reunirse.
sleep slept slept dormir
slide slid slid(den) resbalar, deslizarse,
smell smelt smelt oler, percibir.
speak spoke spoken hablar, decir.
speed sped sped acelerar, apresurarse.
spend spent spent gastar, consumir, emplear (tiempo).
split split split partir, dividir, separar, reventar.
spoil spoilt spoilt deteriorar, dañar, inutilizar.
spread spread spread extender, esparcir, propagar.
spring sprang sprung saltar, soltar, brotar, surgir.
stand stood stood pararse, tolerar, estar (de pie).
steal stole stolen robar, escabullirse.
stick stuck stuck pegar, adherirse, prender, fijar.
stink stank stunk oler mal, apestar.
strike struck struck golpear, pegar, estallar.
swell swelled swollen hinchar, inflamar, engrosar.
swim swam swum nadar, flotar.
swing swung swung balancear(se), hacer girar.
take took taken tomar, llevar.
teach taught taught enseñar
tell told told decir, contar, narrar.
think thought thought pensar, creer.

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throw threw thrown lanzar, tirar, , arrojar.
understand understood understood comprender.
wake woke woke (n) despertar, excitar.
wear wore worn gastar(se), consumirse, usar.
win won won ganar, conquistar.
write wrote written escribir.

REGULAR VERBS LIST


Recuerda que los verbos regulares forman su tiempo pasado y pasado participio
agregando letra ed al infinitivo.

PRESENT PAST PAST PARTICIPLE SPANISH


act acted acted actuar
add added added sumar, añadir
arrest arrested arrested arrestar
assist assisted assisted ayudar
attend attended attended asistir, ir
advertise advertised advertised anunciar
amuse amused amused entretener
approach approached approached acercarse
ask asked asked preguntar, pedir
accompany accompanied accompanied acompañar
accustom accustomed accustomed acostumbrar
agree agreed agreed concordar
answer answered answered responder
arrange arranged arranged arreglar, ordenar
arrive arrived arrived arribar, llegar
accustom accustomed accustomed acostumbrar
annoy annoyed annoyed molestar
appeal applealed applealed atraer
appear appeared appeared aparecer
board boarded boarded abordar
bark barked barked ladrar
bless blessed blessed bendecir
brush brushed brushed cepillar
belong belonged belonged pertenecer
beg begged begged suplicar, mendigar

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believe believed believed creer
boil boiled boiled hervir
breathe breathed breathed respirar
complete completed completed completar
count counted counted contar
close closed closed cerrar
cook cooked cooked cocinar
crash crashed crashed chocar
cross crosssed crosssed cruzar
call called called llamar
care cared cared cuidar
carry carried carried llevar
change changed changed cambiar
check checked checked chequear
charge charged charged cargar, cobrar
clean cleaned cleaned limpiar
climb climbed climbed escalar, subir
comb combed combed peinar
cover covered covered cubrir
cry cried cried llorar
crawl crawled crawled gatear, arrastrarse
dance danced danced bailar
dress dressed dressed vestir
die died died morir
declare declared declared declarar
delay delayed delayed demorar
deliver delivered delivered entregar
deny denied denied negar
dine dined dined cenar
dry dried dried secar
enjoy enjoyed enjoyed disfrutar
engage engaged engaged comprometer
envy envied envied envidiar
express expressed expressed expresar
exclaim exclaimed exclaimed exclamar
explain explained explained explicar

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fail failed failed fracasar, fallar
file filed filed archivar
fill filled filled llenar
fire fired fired despedir del trabajo, disparar

follow followed followed seguir


frighten frightened frightened espantar
fry fried fried freir
finish finished finished terminar
fish fished fished pescar
fix fixed fixed arreglar
gain gained gained ganar
guess guessed guessed adivinar
help helped helped ayudar
hope hoped hoped esperar, desear
happen happened happened suceder
hurry hurried hurried apurar (se)
imagine imagined imagined imaginar
iron ironed ironed planchar
judge judged judged juzgar
kiss kissed kissed besar
kill killed killed matar
laugh laughged laughged reir
leak leaked leaked gotear
like liked liked gustar
look looked looked mirar
miss missed missed extrañar
marry married married casar (se)
measure measured measured medir
move moved moved mover
observe observed observed observar
offer offered offered ofrecer
open opened opened abrir
order ordered ordered ordenar
perform performed performed ejecutar, llevar a cabo
plan planned planned planear
play played played jugar, tocar

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pray prayed prayed orar
prefer prefered prefered preferir
prepare prepared prepared preparar
pull pulled pulled tirar, jalar
park parked parked estacionar
pass passed passed pasar
pick picked picked recoger
please pleased pleased complacer, favorecer
polish polished polished pulir
practise practised practised practicar
promise promised promised prometer
pronounce pronounced pronounced pronunciar
punish punished punished castigar
push pushed pushed empujar
repeat repeated repeated repetir
report reported reported reportar, informar
request requested requested solicitar, pedir
rest rested rested descansar
reach reached reached alcanzar
refuse refused refused rehusar, rechazar
raise raised raised levantar
rain rained rained llover
receive received received recibir
remain remained remained quedar, sobrar
remember remembered remembered recordar
repair pepaired pepaired reparar
require required required requerir
reserve reserved reserved reservar, guardar
row rowed rowed remar
resolve resolved resolved resolver
return returned returned retornar, volver
search searched searched buscar, registrar
save saved saved salvar
serve served served servir
sign signed signed firmar
smile smiled smiled sonreír

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snow snowed snowed nevar
stay stayed stayed permanecer, quedarse
study studied studied estudiar
suffer suffered suffered sufrir
swallow swallowed swallowed tragar
slip slipped slipped resbalar
smoke smoked smoked fumar
stop stopped stopped detener, parar
switch switched switched conectar, accionar
stretch stretched stretched estirar
talk talked talked conversar
thank thanked thanked agradecer
touch touched touched tocar, palpar
trap trapped trapped atrapar
tire tired tired cansar, fatigar
train trained trained entrenar
travel traveled traveled viajar
trouble troubled troubled molestar
try tried tried tratar, intentar
turn turned turned girar, voltear
use used used usar
visit visited visited visitar
wait waited waited esperar
want wanted wanted querer, requerir
walk walked walked caminar
wash washed washed lavar
watch watched watched observar, mirar
wish wished wished desear, anhelar
work worked worked trabajar
wrap up wrapped up wrapped up envolver
wreck wrecked wrecked naufragar
warm warmed warmed calentar
warn warned warned advertir
water watered watered regar
weigh weighed weighed pesar

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BASIC BIBLIOGRAPHY

1. http://www.mansioningles.com/gram40.htm
2. http://www.vetement-sportif.com/

3. english.people.com.cn/.../94629/6450537.html

4. www.curso-ingles.com/gramatica-inglesa/few.php

5. www.aulafacil.com/Ingejerc/Lecciones/Lecc13.htm

6. esl.about.com/od/.../a/cm_lot.htm.

7. H.Q Mitchell, Traveler American Edition, Mm publications

8. Barbara H. Foley/ Elizabeth R. NELBLETE. English in Action 2 Edit. Thompson

9. Steven J. Molinsky Bill Blis, Side by Side.

10. H. Q. Mitchell, Let’s Speed Up 2 Student’s book, Mm publications


11. H. Q. Mitchell, Let’s Speed Up 2 Teacher’s book. Mm publications.
12. John Shepherd, R. Rossner, James Taylor, Ways to Grammar –A modern English
Practice Book, Macmillan.
13. Virginia Evans / Jenny Dooley US2, Upload Student Book and Workbook, Express
Publishing.
14. Grammar Practice Activities. A practical guide for teachers Penny Ur
15. Cambridge Handbooks for language teachers, pp.213 – 214.
16. Virginia Evans & Jenny Dooley, Click on America Student Book and Workbook,
Express Publishing.

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