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D I C T I O N A RY

O F

ENGLISH ETYM O LO GY .

BY

HE NSLEIGH WE D GWO O D , M . A .

LAT E FE L L O W O F C HR C O L L
. . CA M .

VO LUME I . (A — D) .

W IT H N O TES A ND A D D IT I O N S ,

BY

G E O RG E P . M A RS H .

N E W Y O RK :

SHELD O N A ND C O M PA N Y, P U B L I S H E RS .

BO S T O N : G O UL D A N D L IN C O L N .

1 86 2 .
E ntered ac co rdin g to A ct of C on g ress , in th e ye ar 18 6 2, b y

S H ELD ON AND C O M PA N Y ,

erk s
in th e C l

O ffice of th e D i s tric t C o t ur for th e S o th e n
u r D i s tric t of N ew Y o rk .

7 %

M

RI V E RS I D E , C A M BRI D G E:
ST E RE O T Y P E D A ND PR I N T ED BY II. 0 . H O UG H T ON .
PRE FA C E

TO THE

A M E RI C A N E D IT IO N O F T HE FI RS T V O L UM E .

M ‘

T HE v i ew s an d a ims of th e l ea rn e d thor of th e D i cti on ary of En gl ish Ety


au

m ology a r e fully set forth i n th e In tro d u ct i on , an d i t is h er e n e c es sa ry only


to say th a t th e p ri nc ip al o bj ect of th e work is to ill us tra te an d en forc e th e
th eory th at lan guage is i mi ta t i v e in its ori gi n an d p ri m a ry ch ar a ct er For .

th is p u rp o s e, a lar g e n umb er of En glis h word s ar e co mpar ed w i th in terj ec


tion al a rti c ul a ti on s e v i d e ntly im i ta t i v e of n at u ral s o u nd s, an d a r e tra c e d
d i r e ctly, or by th e a n alo gy of corresp ond in g w ord s i n oth er ton gu es, to th es e
in terj e cti on s as th ei r ori gin al so u rc e T h e g en eral p r ep osition h as b e en m ore
.

ably s u s ta i n e d by M r We d g wood th a n by a ny ea rli e r En gl is h or p e rh ap s for


.

eig n p h i l o l o gi s t, an d few p r e v i o u s wr i t e rs h a v e s u gg es te d so m a n y e tym o l o g i es

which ar e b oth p ro b able an d n ew to th e En gl ish l exi co grap h y of th e firs t


,

fo u r l ette rs of t h e al ph ab et
Bu t th e au thor h as not confin ed h im s elf who lly to p ro b abl e an d p r esump
ti v e d er i v a t ion s, an d h e h as introd u c ed many c a r efully tra c ed h is tori c al ety
m ol og ies, whi ch, tho u g h not th e mo s t con sp i c u o u s, ar e by no m eans th e l eas t
v al u able fea tur e of th e work .

In th e p r es ent ed it i on th e ori g i n al t ext is p ri nt e d ent i r e, w i th no ch an g e


,

b u t th e corr e ct i on of p erh ap s h alf a doz en e rrors of th e p r ess an d th e tran s


fer of th e a rti cles co mp o s in g th e A p p end ix to th ei r p r e p er p la c es i n th e
al h ab et M a dd i t i on s c on s is t of not es u on a con s i d erabl e n u mb er of word s,
p .
y p
a l is t of wh i ch is g i v en a t th e en d of th is r efa c e Th ese notes ar e i ncl o s e d
p .

i n b ra ck ets a n d s i gn ed wi th th e in i tial M M y o b s erv a ti on s, as w ill b e s een,


.

a r e confin e d al m o s t who lly to h is to ri c al d e r i v a t i on an d I h a v e a tt emp t e d l i ttl e


,

in th e way of conj ectu ral d ed u ction fro m i mi ta ti v e s o u nd s, fro m th e supp o s ed


n atu ral s i gn ificanc e of p ri mary con s on a ntal comb in ati on s, or fro m th e an al o gi es
of a n ci e nt and r em ot e lan g ua g es not actu ally k nown to h a v e contrib u t e d
d i re ctly to th e co mp o si ti on of th e En gl i sh voc ab ula ry T h is co u rs e h as b een
.

i mp o s ed u p on m e as w ell by n ec ess i ty a s by cho i c e I w ill not i nd ee d affe ct


.


to s ay, w i th C apg rav e, th at “
I wa nt ny al th at s ch ul d l on g e to a s t u d i er,
iv P R E FA C E .

bu t I o s s es s few work s on lin g u i st i c s or co mp a r a t i v e p h il ol o gy, a n d I h a v e


p
con s equ ently b een ob li g ed to r ely on th e sl end er r es o u rc es of a p r i v a te librar y,
coll ect ed w i th no r efer enc e to etym ol o g i c al i nv e sti gati on b u t only for th e p u r
,

o s es of g en eral c ul t u r e B u t tho u gh t h e w a nt of s p e c i al fa c il i t i es h a s m u ch
p .

i ncr eas ed my l ab or, I b y no m ean s s up p o s e th a t th is w a nt h as p rov ed a d is


a dv a nt a g e to my work . It h as dri v en m e to ori gi n al r esea rch, i n st ea d of a
of oth e r m e n s al r ea d y w ell b e a t e n s h ea v es, a n d t h e il lu s tra t i on s

r e th r a sh in g
-

a dd u c e d wh i ch a r e, w i th not m a n y exc ep t i on s, of my own co ll e ct in g, ar e, I


,

th i nk, m or e imp orta nt a s contrib u t i on s to th e c ertai n or p ro b able h istory of


En gli sh word s th an a n yth in g I co ul d h a v e glean ed fro m th e exc erp ts an d
,

r efer enc es whi ch h a v e b een al r eady emp l o y e d by En glish an d C ont i nent al


l exi co g ra p h ers . In s earchin g for au thori ti es, I h a v e g en erally sel ect ed b oo k s
wh i ch h a v e b een l i ttl e or not a t all r es ort e d to by s t u d ents of En gl ish ety
mol ogy, b ec au se I tho u ght th e ch anc es of m eeti n g w i th h i th erto u nnoti c e d
for ms an d co mb i n at i on s of th e word s u nd e r d i s c u s si on wo ul d thu s b e incr ease d,
a n d A m er i c a n s cho l a rs wi ll find, i n th e r a r i ty of m any of th es e b oo k s i n this

co u ntry, a s u ffic i ent ap ol o gy for a ful n ess of qu ota ti on wh i ch mi ght oth erwis e
s eem s u p erflu o u s, not to say o s t ent a t i o us .

A cc ess to a m or e co m pl et e e tym ol o g i c al app ara t u s m i ght h a v e t emp t e d m e


to sp a r e m ys elf t h e to il of m any w eek s of mis c ella n eo us an d s o m etimes
crab b ed r ead in g for th e ch anc e of l i ght in g u p on n ew exemplification s of im
ort ant for ms or u s es of word s b u t i t is my conv i ct i on th a t i n t h e r es e nt
p , p
s tat e of h i l o l o g i c al k now l ed g e i n th i s co u ntry, h i s tor i c al i nv es t i g a ti on of
p
w ord s, ori gin al m at eri als for wh i ch c an b e collect ed in no oth er way, is a
m ethod of i n qu i ry m or e lik ely to b e a cc ep table an d u seful to th e p u bli c for
who m th is ed ition is d es i gn ed th an any conj e ct u ral sp ec ulat i on, how e v er in
e n iou sly cond u ct ed
g .

A noth er con s i d era t i on h as i nflu enc e d my s el ect i on of a u thors to b e r e a d i n


s ea rch of ill u s tra t i on s . It is th e d esi r e to do s om eth in g towa rd s t u rni n g th e
a tt ent i on of A m e ri c a n lin g u i s t i c s t u d ent s to th e or i g i n a n d d e v el o m ent of t h e
p
m od ern E u ro p ean lan g u ag es, as exh ib i t ed, not i n r ec ent b u t i n m ed i aev al, li t er
,

a t u re, for I am p ers ua d e d th a t th e r e is y e t a n a b u nd a nt h a rv es t to b e r ea p e d

i n th at fi eld, a s r esp e cts not only etym ol o gy, b u t als o th e h is tory a n d th e


th eory of th e ori gi n a n d tr u e signific anc e of infiec tion al form s i n all h um an
l an g u a g e .

T h e p ro p ort i on of th e word s d i s c uss ed by M r We d gw ood which I h a v e


.

a nnota t e d is not l a r g e, b e c au s e his concl us i on s a s to t h e m a ori ty of th em


j
a e ar to m e s a t i s fa ctory, a n d i n m an y c as es wh e r e h is v i e w s do not c om
pp
m and my a ssent I am not p r ep a r ed wi th e v i d enc e to s u s t ai n m e i n d i s p u ti n g
th em I c e rt ainly do not b eli e v e th at th e Ic ela nd i c t ar/d, th e thro at, d eri v e d
.
“ ”


fro m a n i mi ta t i on o f th e s o u nd

of bar ki
ng is

, p ro b ab ly th e ori g i n of bar e
g
P R E FA C E .

an d bark, a b o a t,or th a t Made, th e blood, l eaf; of th e C ontin ental lan gu ages h as


,

it s s o u rc e “
i n th e noti on of fo am or a m ass of b u bbl es (s ee D i ction ary v s

, ,
.

Ba rg e an d Bla d e, ) an d m any of M r We d g wood s d er i v a ti on s s eem to m e



.

e q u ally i m p ro b ab l e .I h a v e, how e v e r not tho u ght i t w orth wh il e to exp r ess


,

a n ak e d d i ssent i n s u ch c a s es, a n d h a v e g en e rally r efra in e d fro m an ima d v er

s i o n wh en I h ad noth i n g b u t m er e O p i n i on to o ffe r .

G E O RG E P M A RS H . .

Bu r ling ton , Vermont, O ctob e r 1 5 th, 1 8 6 0


.
W O RD S D I S C US S E D IN E D IT O R S ’
NO TE S .

Ab et . A str a, C a t , . u n d er D i saste r .

Ab i d e Ab ie ,
. At .

Abl e . A tonc .

Abol i s h . Auburn .

Abr i dg e Abb r evi ate ,


. A u mer e, n d er Alms u .

A va m e O r ien t u n d e r Aver ag e
'

Ab u t .
, , .

Abu ye u n d er Ab ie 2 A r a rca or A veria Sp a nd C a t u n d e r Ave ra g e


'

.
, , , .
, .

Acorn . Aver ag e .

Acquain t . A vis A vis er F r u n d e r Ad vice


, , .
, .

Acq uit . A we .

Acton or Haqu eton un d er ,


Awnin g .

Addle ve rb , .

Add le n o u n and a dj
,
. Baggag e .

A dd a L a t u n d er A dd
, , . Ba it, u n d e r Ab et .

Ad m i ral . Bak e .

A doba r Sp ” u n d er D ub, . Bal cony and Bar b ic an .

E gilig r an d E g zshj d lmr Icel n d er A we Ba lise, F r , u n d er Buoy


'

, u
. . .
, .

Bal k .

Ball as t .

Agate Ba n don, (3, Fr , u n d er Ab an don . .

A g ld , C a t , u n d e r Acorn . Ba ni sh .

Ag u e . Ba r a nd a , S p , u n d er Ballu ster . .

Bar n a cl e s .

A ir , E ir . Bar ra ck .

Ai sl e . Barr agan .

Al co ve . Bar row .

Al i ght . Bar te r .

Allo d i al . Ba s ta rd .

All ow . Bu ta nt, 0 Fr , u n d er Ab u t . . .

Al loy . Ba te .

Alw ay s . Ba u n , D an , u n d er Bon fir e .

Amb e r .

Ambe rgri s u n d er Amber , . Be at .

An dir on . Bed r i dd en
-
.

Beer , F r , u n d er Abas h

Anne al . . .

A n tqfn AS u n d e r Anthe m Bell


. .
, , .

Anthem . Be s eem .

Apr i cot . Bet .

Ar q u e b u s s . Bet, go I u n d e r Ab et and Boot .

Ar r an t . Beta n, AS , u n d e r Ab et . .

Ar s en al . Betr ash , u n d e r Abash .

Ar ti ll e r y . Bette r, u n d e r Ab et, Boot .

Assoi l .
Bi g ht or Bo ught .

VO L . I .
W O R DS D I S C USS E D I N E D IT OR S NO T E S ’
. v ii

Bin d . CV
zaloir , F r , n d er Care . u .

Bl es s .
Ch a p u n d er Chubby
, .

Bloo m, u n d er Blow . Ch ar un d e r Chirp


, .

Boot, Bootl e ss . Char co al .

Boot and saddl e, u n d er Ab et


- -
. Chasubl e u n d e r Cloak ,
.

Bo r eas . Chee se .

Borg , O r ient u n d e r Bo ro ugh . . Chives .

Bo rr el . Chur ch .

Bo ss. Clink e r b uilt und er Clin g -


, .

Bosse, F r , u n d e r Bo ss . . C loak .

Bottle . Clover C C u n d er C a rab in e


,
.
, .

Botto m . Coach .

Bou tef eu , F r , u n d e r Ab et
-
. . C ob .

Boute selle, F r , u n d er Ab et
- . .

Bran . Commod or e .

Bra n d ung , G , u n d e r Br ine . . Coo l .

Bran d y . Co u ch .

Bras il , u n d e r Br as e . Co u r ag e or Corag e .

Br i gan d . Co urt .

Br i lli ant . Cow ard .

Br ood . Crab .

Br oth . C ra ck and Cras h Intr od p , . . 8 .

Br uns t, G , u n d er Bri m . . C rane .

Bucca nier . C ra wfish .

Buck . Cr e ak or Cra ck of d ay .

Bu ckram . Cr us t .

Bu lk a nd Bulkhe ad . C ul ve r in u n d e r Cali b re ,
.

Buller n , G , u n d e r Bul l b eggar .


-
. C urd u n d e r Chee se
, .

Bu ll ion . C urr y .

Bulto, S p , u n d er Bul g e . . C ur ta in .

Bul wark . Cus hion .

Bundt , Bum, D an and S w , u n d e r Bin d . . .

Bu oy, Bu oyant . D ag .

Bu que, S p , u n d e r Bulk . . D an ge r .

Bur in , u n d e r Bor e . D ay, year and, u n d e r D ay .

Burn , a b rook . D az z l e , u n d e r D a z e .

Burr .

Bu ss . D e scry .

Bu tcher . D evil u n d e r , eu ce D .

Butt . D ida , C at , u n d e r D a i ry .

Byla w . D o.

Bgl ta , u n d e r Bu tt . D own .

Br akne, D am, u n d er D r nk i .

C ab l e . D ub .

C al i b r e . D u ck .

Calive r u n d e r Cali br e , . D un .

Calk . D u n geon .

C alli p e r u n d e r Cali br e
m
.
,

Camlet . a mF
n d e r Abas h,
r., u .

Canoe . Eba uc /wr Fr u n der Balk ,


.
, .

O a r afle F r u n d e r C arboy En ame l u n d er Anne al


'

. .
, , ,
.

C arb oy .

C ar o u s e . F or maggio, I t , . u n d er Chee s e .

C ar t
.

C arve .
‘’
I ep a vos, n d e r Crane u .

C a ttl e un d er Chattels
, . Get u n d e r Beg in
,
.

Cei lin g . Go usty S e u n d e r Ag has t,


.
, .
V ii W O R DS D I S C USS E D IN E DI TO R S NO TE S
,

.

G usten, D an , u . n der Agh as t . P a ck Pa ckag e u n d e r Baggag e


a nd , .

Parma c ity u n d e r A mb e r , .

d d, H af da , S w , . u n der Behove . P a r a L a t u n d e r App ar el


,
.
, .

Hottento t Intr od p 7 , . . . Pull to t ake a u n d e r Car ous e


, , .

I I ou ille Fr u n d e r Ch ar co al
, .
,
.

E col Co rni s h u n d er Char co al


, ,
.
Qu il t, u n d er Co u nte r p a ne .

Qu ive r u n d er Cha fer


, .

In , u n d e r At .

I teru m, L at , u n d e r Again . S a mo, M in dan aian, u n d er Ass e mbl e .

Seel u n d er Cei l in g
, .

KA en m

-
, u n d er Cl ever . She ave u n d e r Chive s
, .

Spermaceti u n d e r Amb er , .

L eben, Arab
n d er Chee s e .
, u . Sti rr up u n d e r An d ir on
, .

L obber ed milk u n d e r Chees e , . Sweep u n d er Br u sh


, .

Loud u n d er Br i ll i ant
, .

Temmelzg , D n d e r Be seem

an . , u .

M aim u n de r Cabli sh T itio L a t u n d e r Ab et


, .
, .

, .

M almettr e 0 F r u n d er Cabli sh . .
T owe l u n d er D oi l ey
, .

, , .

M i nn owv ia Icel u n d e r Buss , ,


Ugg a an d Uggr , I c el , I n trod p
. .

10
M ot F r M otto I t Int rod p 12
. . . .

Uggt a , I t , In trod p 1 0
. '
, , , .
, . . .

. . . .

Mu tte r Introd p 1 2 ,
Umbr age , Intr od p 1 0
. . .

11M S w u n d er D o
. . .

, .
, .

V e r an d a, u n d er Ballus ter .

N glclce, D an .
, u n d e r Ca pri ce .

Wait u n d er Ab et
, .

O mbr age, Fr Intr od p 1 0 . . .


Wr eck u n d er Br oke r
, .

0st, Sca n d , u n d e r Chee s e . .


Yeas t u n d er Chee s e
, .
I N T RO D U C T I O N .

THE i nquiry mus t sometim% oc c u r eve n to th os e n ot ver y si mil ar n atu e T he firs t germ of sc ie nc e begi n s
r .

s pe c i a lly e n g a ed i n t h e s t u d y of l a n gu ag e
g b y wh at ,
to qui c ke n wh e n t h e q es tio n is s gges ted Wh a t is t he u u ,

s te ps doe s s c h a n d su c h a w or d c om e to h ave t h e me a n
u r e aso n of s om e r e e mb l a n c e or c o n t a t or of s om e
s r s ,

ing i n whi c h it is ac t ally fo n d wh a t is t h e e a lies t


u u ,
r a c tio n O b e ved am on s
g t h e p h e n ome n a of n a tur e
r T he
so urc e t o wh i c h it c an b e t ac ed an d wh a t a e th e c og r ,
r i magi n ation p oposes some ki n d of machin er y adeq ate
r u ,

n a te forms eith er i n our own or i n rela ted languages . ac c or di n


g t o t h e n otio n s of t h e ti m e t o ac c o n t for t h e ,
u

T h e a n swe r to i n quiries of s c h a n a t ure c o n stit tes u u ph e nome n a i n q estio n whi c h i n ve y early ti me is a pt


u ,
r s

wh a t w e look for i n t h e et ymology Of a lang age But u . to tak e t h e form of a n arrative of fac ts i mpli c itly b e
if w e ar e as ked to r e c omme n d a b ook of r efe e n c e i n r lie ed as h i s tor i c al t t h
v In p oc ess of ti me t h e t h eo y
ru . r r

Engli h et ymology w e fi n d it h ar d to poi n t o t a wo k


s ,
u r is fo n d eith e r i n u ffi c ie n t to sa ti fy th e i nq iri es of a
u s s u

to whic h esor t may be h a d w it h a e a o n ab le e x pe c ta


r ,
r s r more c ltiva ted age or ab s ol tely i n c on i te n t wit h n u
u ,
u s s

tio n of meeti n g w it h r eli able i nfo ma tio n on th e s bj ec t r u . de ni ab le e x pe ie nc e Re c o rs e is agai n h ad to t h e O ld


r . u

T he i n c e as e of li n g i s ti c k n owled ge a nd t h e q a n tit y
r u ,
u so rc e of t h e im agi n atio n an d n e w th eo ies ar e i n ve n ted
u ,
r

of ma te r i als plac ed wit h i n r e ac h of t h e s t de n t si nc e u ,


to meet t h e i mp oved c on dition of in tellec t al c ltiva
r u u

t h e Etymologi c m s of S ki nn e an d J n i s w o ld i n evi
u r u u ,
u tio n B t whe n o n c e th e p ri nc iple of te ti ng a th eory
. u s

tab ly h ave r eq i ed a r evie w of th ei r labo rs if t h ey


u r u , b y c omp ari o n w it h ac t al e x pe ie n c e h as b ee n admitted
s u r
,

h ad be e n gu ided by fa m o e c o e c t vie ws of t h e devel


r r rr n o ystem c an lon g b e left s ta n di ng whi c h h as not a b et
s

O p men t of lan g u ag e t h a n th os e of wh i c h th e a th ors


,
u te fo n d a tio n t h a n t h e i n ge n u it y wit h wh i c h it ac c o n ts
r u u

h ave give n proof i n t h e wo ks above c ited ac u te an d r , fo t h e p ar ti c lar gro p of p h e n om e n a for w hi c h it was


r u u

le ar n ed men as t h e y b ot h of t h em w e re . origi n ally i nve n te d A t las t t h e t u e p at h is st uc k A


. r r .

In la te r ti mes t h e subj ec t of E nglis h et ymology h as power i ec ogn is ed i n ac t al O pe r atio n p od uc i ng effec ts


s r u ,
r

fo t h e mos t p ar t b ee n t e a ted as a sub ordin ate dep ar t


r r a n alogo on h o weve i nfe r io
us , a sc ale to t h e ph e n o me n a
r r ,

me n t i n t h e dic tio n ar ies of t h e l ang u ag e and t h e c h oi c e , whi c h form t h e s bj ec t of i nquiry Th us a solid fo n d a


u . u

wo ld n ow lie bet wee n t h e elabo ate wo ks p blis h ed


u r r u tio n is attain ed a nd th e n at u e of t h e ac tio n b ei ng
, ,
r

withi n t h e lim its of t h e pr ese n t g e n eratio n b y T odd , c le a ly u n de rs tood t h o s a n ds of scie n ti fi c lab o r e s are
r ,
u u r

Ric h ar ds o n and Web ster


, Th e lab o r of c ompi li ng a
. u fo n d t o t ac e t h e e s l ts th ro ug h e n d less r ami fi c a tio n s
u r r u .

d i c tio n ar y s ingle h a n ded c an l e ave so littl e leis u e for


-
r G eology afford s an ex ample of a sc ie n c e i n whi c h t h e
ori gin al spec lation th at w e ough t n ot pe h aps to look
u ,
r fi nal stage h as b ee n attai n ed i n t h e mos t r ec e n t pe iod r .

to t h e a t h ors of s c h a w o k for mo e t h a n a j di c ious


u u r r u I t is onl y within our own times t h at geologists have es
s el ec tio n am o n g t h e sugg e stio n s affo ded b y t h e c ent r urr t ab lis h ed a ver a c a u a i n t h e po w ers n o w i n ac tio n on s

philology of t h e pe iod L ittle mo e th a n t hi s is aimed


r . r t h e surfac e of t h e e art h to whic h th ey look fo an , r

a t i n t h e et ymologie s of T odd whos e i nfo m atio n was ,


r a c c o n t of t h e p h e n om e n a falli n g wit h i n t h e dom a i n of
u

b es ides of a some wh a t l imited r a ng e T h e g r e a t v al e . u t h ei r sc ie nc e vi th e i n terior c o nditio n of t h e st ati fi ed


,
z . r

of R i h ar ds o n c ons i s ts i n his s to e of qu ot a tio n s wh i c h


c r , crus t of th e e art h and t h e r emai n s of o gan is ed b ei ngs
,
r

a r e t h os e mai nly em ploy ed in t h e p es e n t wo k In his r r . imb edded i n it .

own et ymol ogie s h e is oft e n l ed ve r y wil d b y his b elief Et ymology is sti ll at t h e s tage wh e e an a bit ar y r r r

i n H orn e T ooke wh os e formul a h e applies at every t n


,
ur , t h eo y is ac c epted as t h e b as i s of sc ie n ti fic ex plan atio n
r .

as t h e gre a t mas t en k ey of t h e la n gu ag e Fe w wo ks . r I t is s ppos ed th at all lang uag e is developed f om r oots


u r

i n deed h ave b ee n so effec tive i n imparti ng i nte est t o or sk el eto n s of ar ti c u l ate s o n d e n do wed wit h di s ti n c t

r u ,

etymol ogi c al disc uss io n as t h e E II p to wh i c h I 7 r£a T e oevTa , and ofte n ve r y ab s t ac t me a ni n g b u t i n c a p ab l e of b ei n


r
, g ,

amo n g ot h ers am i n deb ted for t h e firs t di e c tion of my


,
r ac t ally u ed i n spee c h u n til p rope ly c lot h ed i n
u s
g am ,
r r

own a tte n tion t o t hi s b r a n c h of i n q i y But T ook e s u r .



m at ic al fo ms An d t h i s t h eory of r oots t akes t h e plac e
r .

allur i ng spec l atio ns w ill n ot b e ar t h e ligh t of advanc i ng


u of t h e el eme n t a y po we rs wh i c h form th e b as i s of ot h e
r r

k no wl ed ge an d it is h ar d ly t oo m c h to say t h at t h e e is
,
u r sc ie n c e s Th e etymologi st wh o s c c eed s i n t ac i ng a
.
,
u r

n ot a s o n d et ymolo y i n t h e w o k
u
g r . wor d t o a S ans c rit r oot is as w ell sati sfied with t h e ,

T he aim of t u e sc ie n c e is t h e same i n every b a n c h


r r ac c o n t h e h as r e n der ed of his pr oble m as t h e as tr ono
u ,

of le ar n i n
g and it h as c ommo nly adva n c ed b y s teps of
,
mer wh o t ac es an i r r egu lar ity i n t h e o b it of a comet
r r

VO L . I. 2
x I NT R O D UC TI ON .

to t h e attraction of a plan et within wh os e i nfl uence it ,


time wor n p arti cl e of wh os e ori gi n i n a sen sible image
-
,

h as b ee n b rou gh t i n its las t r evol tio n N ow i n wh a t u . w e c ann ot form a gu ess T o sla m the door is a c oll o .

c o n d itio n is it poss i bl e t h at r oots c o l d h ave e xis t ed u , q uial e xpr essio n i n w hi c h t h e ve b seems as if it mi g h t r

b efor e t h e y w e e ac t u all y us ed i n spee c h If it b e s ug


r h ave b ee n suggested y este d ay b y its appr opri a te n ess to r

g es ted t h a t t h e y w er e im pl a n ted b y N a t re i n t h e mi n d u exp ess t h at ki n d of n oi se b t t h e w o d is sed i n a


r , u r u

of man as some peop le h ave s ppos ed t ha t t h e b o n es of


,
u mu c h wide s e ns e b y t h e L apla n ders wit h a spec i al ap
r ,

mammoths w e e c r e a ted at t h e s ame s troke w it h t h e r ,


pli c ation to this very i n ta n c e of slamm i ng t h e doo ; s r

ot h er materi al s of t h e s tr a ta in which t h ey a e b r ied r u an d wh at c o n tless ag e s mus t h ave e l aps ed si n c e t h eir


u

we c an o n ly s ay t h at it is di r e c tly oppos ed t o a ny th i n g a n c e s to rs an d o rs p ar ted fr om a c omm o n s toc k


u

w e ob ser ve i n i nfa n ts of t h e p ese n t d ay B t if it b e r . u A little e xamin atio n shows t h at t h e pri nc iple of imita
s aid t h a t n o on e su ppos es t h at t h e r oot s as su c h eve r , , tion h as a wider an ge th an w e a e at fi t i n c li n ed to r r rs

h ad i n depe n de n t e xis te n c e ; t h at t h e y ar e m e ely fic tion s r s ppos e


u In some wor ds t h e imita tive c h a ac ter is so
. r

of t h e g ammar i an s to i n dic a te t h e c o e of a gr o p of
r r u s t on ly ma ked
r
g t h at it will be admitted by eve y one
r ,
r

r ela ted wor ds h aving s imi lar s ign ific at ion s i n whi c h s e n e ,
s as s oo n as t h e q es tio n is r ais ed In others t ho gh n ot
u .
,
u

t h e te m will al w ay s b e us ed i n t h e p esen t wo k ; or if
r r r c o n sc io sly e c o n i s ed it h ei h te n s t h e po w e r Of e x p es
u
g r
g , r

t h ey ar e reg ar ded as t h e r emai n s of some fo mer c o n di r s io n an d , give s mu c h of t h at vivid n ess of image y whi c h r

tio n of la ngu ag e t h e n t h ey c eas e to affo d a solid r es t ,


r w e admir e i n th e poetr y of S pe ns e and G awain e D o g r u

ing plac e an d t h e or i gi n of t h e r oots t h em elves b ec om es


-
,
s las . In ot hers agai n t he po wer of d i ec t r ep ese n tatio n
, , r r

as fi t an obj e c t of i n qu i y as of t h e wo ds i n ac t al u se r ,
r u is wh olly gon e a n d t h e i mita tive o i gi n c an o nl y be
, r

a t t h e pr es e n t d ay N or wi ll t h e c riosity of a r atio n al . u sh o wn b y a det ai l ed e x ami n atio n of t h e mode i n whic h

i nqui r er b e sati fied n til h e meets wit h a pri nc ipl e ad e s u th e meaning of t h e wo d h as b een developed r .

q ate to give r i se t o t h e u se of langu age i n a be i n g wit h


u I t will be our aim t o t ac e th e ope ation of th e pri nc i r r ‘

a m e n tal c o n s tit tio n s c h as h e is c o n sc io s of i n h im u ,


u u
p l e t h o gh t h e fo egoi n g c las s es an d to sh o w t h a t it is
r u r ,

s elf or ob ser ves i n th e c ours e of developme n t i n t h e


,
a deq u ate t o t h e e x p ess io n of ide as t h e mos t oppos ed t o r

infa n ts gr owi ng u p a o n d him r u . all app a e n t c o nn exio n w


r i t h so n d of a ny kin d u .

N ow one s c h pri nc iple a t le as t is u nivers all y a dm itted


u I t may be t ho gh t t h a t w e a e so far emoved from u r r

u n de r t h e n am e of O n om atopoei a wh e n a wo d is m ad e ,
r t h e ori gi n of speec h t h at it mu st be as imposs ible to ,

t o imita te o r ep es e n t a o n d c h a a c te r i s ti c of t h e
r r s u r m eet wit h an O pport n ity of ob s er vi ng lang ag e i n t h e u u

obj ec t it i i n te n ded t o desi gn ate as Ba ng C ac k P a rr


s , ,
r , , c o rs e of fo m a tio n as it appe a ed to our a n c es to rs t o
u r , r

W hizz H m In n c ivil is ed la n gu ag es t h e c o n sc io us
,
u . u ob t ain pers on al e xperie nc e of th e po wers by whic h th e
n ess of the imita tive c h a ac ter of c er tai n wo d s is some r r s rfa c e of t h e e ar t h h as be e n r ed c ed t o its p e s e n t
u u r

times demon st ated b y t h ei r c omposition w it h ve bs like r r fo m r B t i n t h e c as e of t h e i nfan t le ar n i ng t o s pe ak


. u

sa
y or d o to s ign ify m aki n g a n oi se lik e t h at r ep es e n ted
, ,
r w e a e able t o stu d y th e pr oc ess by whi c h an u n der
r

b y t h e w or d i n q es tion T h i n G alla f om dj ed a to u . us r , s ta n di ng in t h e fi rs t s tag e of developme n t ac q i es t h e u r

say o , g od a t o m ak e or do ar e fo m ed c ac ak dj ed a ( t o
r , ,
r u s e of n ame s Th e n urs e imit ates t h e lo wi ng of an ox
.
,

say c ac ak) to c r ac k ti o trrr dj ed a t o c hirp


,
d ud a d a ,
rr r -
, , or b l e a ti n g of a s h eep b y t h e syllabl e s moo o baa whic h , r ,

o mak e d a d a d a ) to b e at t o mak e a n oi s e dj a m a e s b s eq e n t ly re c ogn is ed b y t h e infa n t as t h e s ame


g od a
( t , , , r u u

dj a m g od a t o smac k or mak e a so n d wit h t h e lips i n


,
u a ti c l atio n
r u wh e n p onou n c ed i n an ordi n a y to n e of
,
r r

e ati ng as s wi n e t o c hamp T ts c h ek An d t h e same


, ,
.
-
u . voi c e ; an d t h h e r e adil y admits th e c ompo n ds moo
us u

mode of speec h may be ob se ved eve n i n E ngli sh r . c ow o baa la mb as t h e n ame of t h e a nimal wh os e c ry is


r -

I sh ould b e loth to s ee y ou “ i ndic ate d i n t h e forme r syll able The n ame of t h e d og .


,

C om e flu eri g d o n l ik e a tt n
ou g r ook , c r y squa b, w y n i n n urs ery lang ag e bow wow is c omposed of th e sylla u -
,

t t ni t y
A nd ak e y ou u p i h our b rai s b ea e n o ou r b u oc k s tt wt y

n .
b l es us ed i n imit atio n of his b a k wit ho t fur t h er a ddi r ,
u
B an d F W n
ome pl eas ed . . .

tion S wi ss bédggen to ble at ; bdciggeli ( i n n urse y lan


.
,
r

Her e squa b r ep es e n ts t h e sou n d made b y t h e you ng ua e a s h eep A nd so of c o rs e it mus t h ave b ee n


r g g ) ,
.
,
u ,

r ook t hr o wn do wn f o m its n e s t u po n t h e gr ou n d wh e n c e r ,
i n t h e origi n of speec h wit h all an im als n amed on t hi s
a y o u ng roc k is c alled a s q ab u .
pri n c iple In t h e ab senc e of mean s of c ommu ni c atio n
.

B t t h o gh t h e ori g i n of a c er tai n n umb er of wor ds


u u b y a c ommo n la n guag e a perso n des i ous of ais i ng i n ,
r r

i n t h e di ec t imit atio n of sou n ds is a ec og ni sed fac t yet


r r ,
th e mi n d of anoth er t h e th o gh t of an an im al s c h a a u ,
u s

it h as b ee n c onside ed as q ite an e x c eption al c as e an d r u ,


lio n or an ass c h ar ac ter i s ed by a disti n c tive c ry w oul d
, ,

t h e e is a c on ta n t te n de n c y i n t h e p ogr e s of c l tiva
r s r s u » c er t ai nl y r es or t t o a n imita tio n of t h e oar or t h e b ay r r

tion to r egar d t h e wo ds wh os e imita tive c h a ac ter is r ,


r of t h e a ni m al for t h at pu r pose In many ki n ds of wil d .

mos t c le a ly ma ked as a sor t of i llegitimate pr ete n ders


r r ,
a nimals t h e voi c e is almos t t h e o nly way in whic h t h e y

to t h e dig nit y of la n gu ag e We ar e apt to look po n . u offer t h ems elves to our n oti c e He n c e th e des ig n ation .

wo ds lik e fi z whack bump ba ng c le a ly ep e en ti ng


r z , , ,
r r r s of b i r ds e spe c i ally on thi s prin c ipl e is very c ommo n .

diffe e n t ki n ds of sou n d o t h e ac tio ns whic h t h ey ac


r ,
r T he imit atio n of t h e c r y of t h e c uc k oo or t h e c oc ka too
c omp a ny as mak e shift s of mode n i n ve n tio n n ot e n ti
,
-
r ,
is u niversa ll y r e c og nis ed The origi n of th e desig n atio n .

t l ed to t ak e pl ac e i n s st ai n ed c om positio n wit h eleme n ts u is n ear ly as c le ar i n t h e c ase of t h e peewit wh os e mel ,

wh i c h appe ar to deri ve th ei r signific a n c e from t h e mys anc h oly c r y gives r is e t o n ames i n diffe e n t Eu ope a n r r

t e io s so c e of u nivers al s pe ec h
r u ur Th e disc edit how . r ,
di l ec ts i n whi c h we r ec ogn i se a f n d ame n t al ide n tity
a ,
u ,

eve i n to whi c h wo ds of t hi s desc iptio n h ave fallen is


r, r r ,
wit h c onside able v ar iety i n t h e par ti c ular c on so n an ts
r

a p r e u di c e r e ti n
j g on no sol id fo n d a tio n Th er e is no
s u . b y wh i c h t h e sou n d is ep e e n ted ; E p e wit S c p ee r r s . e ,
.

r e aso n for s u ppos i n


g t h em l ess a n c ie n t t h a n t h e mos t weip , tuqub eit, teewhoap Fr d is hu it, D
. u . kievit, G . kiebilz ,
I NT R O D UC TI ON .

S w kovip a . h owl and l la a


. T he L at . a lula r e, to ,
u u ,
titter , hic c up , shriek, sc r ea m, snor e, s neez e, wheez e,
sc r ee c h—
o wl , h ow t h e imit ative c h ac te of t h e n ame s ar r , holla , whoop .

of whi c h w e are h a d ly o n io i n t h e E owl Th e rh ar ac te of th e las t of these ep es e n t


c sc us . . T h e i mit a tive c r ,
r r

L at t t is de ived f om a n imita tio n of t h e


. ur ur ing of ing a h a p sh ill so n d is di ti n c tly fel t i n who p i g
r r c oo s r r u , s o n

n d i n Got h
a dove b y a re petitio n of t h e sy ll b l e t t as in c oug h pj n applied t o t h e owi ng f a a ur , ar, , a . vo a cr o

D t h by t h e eq ival e n t k i n k
u c en to c oo o c oo as c oc k (M a k x iv
u whi le it is a g ood deal obsc u ed i n
or orr ,
r r , r . r

it wa fo me ly w itte n I t will be obs e ved t h at it


s r r t h e sen e of c all i ng i n whi h vopj a n is c ommonl y ed
r . r s , c us .

make little di ffe e n c e i n t h e imita tio n of n at r al so n ds


s Th e o igi nal fo c e of t h e wo d is p es e ved i n A S w p
r u u r r r r r . o ,

wh eth e we mak e se of a p t o k as seen i n t h e dif


r o tc y lame n t ation wh e n c e w p an to w eep p ope ly to
u , , r ,
u r , , e , , r r

f re n t modes of
e pre e n ting t h e c y of t h e p wit above lama t to tte t h e hi g h—
re s pitc h ed to n e of on e i n pai n o r ee i ,
u r s r

c i t ed Fo t his r e aso n it may c ommo nly be tak e n as


. r g ief ul t imately to h ed te rs wit h a los of all c o n io r , s a , s sc us

pr esumptive e ide n c e of a sh o t desc e n t fr om an imita v r efe e n c e to a di bl e ac c omp an i m e n t In Ic el as isr » r u . .


,

al i n t h t lan
tive o igi n wh e n w e fin d a va iety of eq ivale n t forms
r , g ag e t h e i niti al w i lo t g ivi n g p r u ,
us u a u , s s , o ,

wit h an app a e n t i n terc h ang e of c o n o n a n ts of differe n t


r o tc y herop wa wh oop b ttle c y p a B et hop to s u r , ,
r- , a -
r ,
ce ,
r . a,

org n s as i n cl p c l c k o i n S e t t keek E p e p
a c y to c all wh e n e may b e e x plai n ed t h e G
a a r mt ( p ) . ee , ,
. e . r , , c r. : O s
, , , ,

T h e c o nn exio n of t h e n am e of t h e c ow wit h t h e th e voi c e as L at n f om vo e t h e c o n te pa t of r , . or r car , u r r

cr oaking voi e of t h e b i d is ppare n t i n t h e N E cro k


c Goth pj n with t h e ve y c ommo n i n te h ang e Of t h e
r a . u ,
. vo a , r rc

a ro w ; I el k
c lci a c ro w k alor a ra ve n ; D
c . lc a g n so n ds of p an d k
ra , . S als o t h e H ebre w h ot t h e voi c e
,
r ,
u . r e e ,
u . o , ,

to c aw o ak lora ge a cro w ; L ith k a ukti t o c oak


or c r from a n eq ivale n t of t h e G
,
e ,
h an d E ll . r , r ,
u r . Ica n) , . ca .

k a ld g a cr o w
r u In like ma nn e t h e syll able c ow wit h
s, A ve y n mero s c la of wo d of wh i c h t h e i mit a
. r ,
r u u ss r s,

whi c h we imitate t h e voice of t h e roc k o d w gives tive n at e c an h rdly b e mi tak e n re t h os e employed r a ,


ur a s , a

r is e to th e D k we kae a j ay o j ac k da w Pi c ar d c au . to ep e e n t i n t h e fi rs t i n ta n c e t h e n oi e made b y t h e
au , , r ,
. u r r s s s

( Kil ) A S E c h ugh, . 06 0, c oll i io n o f a c t


. e f b odies of a gr e te o les deg ee
o . s r r ur o a r r s r

Ex mples of n ames given on t h e same p i n c ipl e i n


a of h ar d n ess o r e o n a n c e t h e n t h e c olli io n f ct e r r s , s or ra ur

mode n times are t h e Amer i c a n whip p oor will a pec ies


r it elf t h e i ns t rume n t by whi h t h e n oi e i prod c ed t h e - -
, s s , c s s u ,

c ons eq e n c es of t h e a tio n o
of nigh tj a t o t c o a small r ode n t i n t h e plains of
r, ac a
ge n e lly any p h e nom u c r ra e
-
, ,

B e n o Ay e ( D a w i n) a i—i a spec ies of loth An d


u s r s n on t h at m y be vivid ly a o i a ted in o
r , mi n d w it h t h e
a , s . a ss c ur

p ob ably t h e n ame of t h e Hotte n tot i a n oth e e xample


r n oi e f n d m e n t ally re p e e n ted b
y t h e w o d i n q es s r s u a r s r u

of t h e same c la s The fir t c olo ni ts of t h e C a pe of tion Fo e x ampl e


s . s s . r

G ood H ope o l d n ot fail to be st ck wit h t h e c li k c u cla p fr ac as whi n e ru c -

whi h fo m so m k ed a fe a t e of t h e C aflre to ng es c l as h b mp

ra
c r s
p
ar ur u ,
u

whi h to a t n g e wo ld so n d li k e a c o n sta n t epeti


c s ra ta p r fl a sh u t h mp u r u

tio n of the syll b le h t an d t t He n c e t h e n ative k n ap


a s pl a h o d mp o . s s u

wo ld be n ame d by t h eir D tc h mas ters H tt—


u en tots s n ap p l as h pl mp u o -
. s u

D u en . an d fi" fr a p per lash b oom -


s

Th e im ita tive o i gi n of t h e words design ati ng t h e t p r sw h hum ra as

pec uli ar c ies of di ffe e n t ki n ds of a n imals is till more


r fl p sm as h
r s a

O b vio s t h a n t h e appli a tio n of t h e p i n c ipl e t o t h e a ni


u wh ap d as h
c b r urr

mals t h em elve No one do bt s t h at t h e a lcling of


s s s wa p
. c h whi u c c r as rr

gee e d king of h e n g bbli g f t key q ac ki g of sla p b ang a (Sw


s ,
uc s, s o
) to h m
n o ur s, u n u rr -
. u

d ck twitte ing of wallow hirp i g of sparro ws o


u s, r c l ac k cl ng
s kn en s, to gro wl c n r a u rr -

c i kets
r c i g o i g of doves b mp ing f t h e b it
, c oo n c ac k
r cr oo n , u o r

te n h ting Of t h e owl cr oaki g of th e ave n a wing


r ,
oo k n ac k , fizz n r , c

oc ks c ha tte ing of j a ys o m pie


of r ,g n ei hi
g g o whin r smac k b zz r a s, n r u

ngi g of a h o e b
n ki g y lp ing na ling g wli g of a rs wh ack
, ar din n hi
,
e , s r ,
ro n ss

d g g r nti g of a h og bl a ting of h eep o go a t m wing


o ,
a n t hwac k , e s r s, e

o p rri g
r f a c a t a e i n te n ded i n t h e fi t i n t n c e as
u n o O f t h e me c lass ar e t h e i n terj e c tio n me n tio n ed by
,
r rs s a sa s

i mita tio n of t h e so n ds made by t h e a ni mals in q es G imm


s 3 07 ) a i mi ta ti ng t h e o n d g ive n b y e
u u r s s u c r

ta i n obj ec ts i n f lling wh i li ng sn tc hing b e aki ng a , r , a ,


r , as

In close c onn exio n wit h t h e fo egoi ng are th e n ames p l mp p la t h br a t h p at h klat h wit ch h h kl pp r u ,


sc , sc , sc , sc , s ,
us c ,
a s,

of v a io s i n a ti c l ate
r tte an es f
u wn wh i c h may r ip ap u s hw pp bim b m bu m inlc fit h f a t h
u r c o ou r o r sr s, c a s, u z sc e, sc e
, , , ,

be c omp e d wit h t h e c rie of an imal as b ig h m n


ar
( f b l ows wit h a od ) st ip t ap st ll (fo t h e so n d
s s, so ,
s , oa ,
or r , r , s r , ro r u

g oa n l gh c g h ( o igi n ll y p ro n o n c ed wit h a g t
r , au , of mi lk i ng)
ou &c r a u u , .

t al as D k h c o gh l h n la ha hen to la g h
ur , u . uc A few e xample may b e give n sh owing as well t h e
, u , ac e , c c , u s ,

g e n e l e c og n itio n of t h e imita tive p i n c ipl e i n wo d s ra r r r

of t h e fo egoi n g lass as t h e mode i n w hi c h t h ei mea n r c


D mpie V oy ge I 5 3 6 editio n f 1 7 03 g iv th e , r
a r, a s, o es
ing is e x te n ded to ide as as oc i a ted wit h t h e o igi n al
.
, ,

f llo w i n g o nt f th e o i g i n f th n me H ott n tot s r


o ac c u o r o e a e .

im g e a .

Th n t l inh b it n t
e f th C p
a ur a th H d m d d Th e B emi h W te b ch ex plai n klapp as a di e t
a a s o e a e ar e e o o o s , as r sc or r u s r c
th y e m m ly ll d wh i h i
are c o pti n f th w d on
imit atio n of t h e o n d of a blo w
ca e ,
He k e g e n e n an
c s a c orru o o e or
s u

r e
H tt t t ; f th i i th n m by wh i h th y l l t
.

klapp s g d e d at — H e c a gh t it n t h e e
o en o or s s e a e c e ca o on e an
o th ith i th i d n
er , e
y er i n nif v y
de o
e r
e n a ce s , or on an oc cas o as e er on e
r , ,
e u o ars ,

e got a box on t h e e rs t ha t n ,

f th m h d th i f hi n m T h w d h th p b b ly c lap ! said it H o ded


o e a m s or s a e. e or a ro a so e
. a s u

s ig n ifi t i th i th i l ng g — M
ca on or o ag ai n er K lap p s a n i n te j ec tion t h at i n di c ate t h e s o n d
n e r a ua e. .
.
, r s u
xii I N T R O DUCTI O N .

of a b lo w
Klapps ! d aar kr eeg he e n en
. S mack ! h orse is expr ess ed b y th e Fr hennir I t n itrire S p r in .

.
,
.
,
.

he has c aught it K lapp e is t h e n applied to a flap or l a r r elinch r G wiel e n S W vrena v en ka D


.
,
c i ,
a ,
. i r , .
,
r s ,
u .

a nyt hin g t h a t falls wit h a s dde n b lo w a d a w b rid ge nn il en


g in n iken briesc hen words in wh i c h it is di th
u , r -
. ru c , , ,

E n es klap p s at a b lo w s u dde n ly , T o c lap is u s ed i n c l t to see a glimp se of r es emblan ce al th o g h we c an


,
. u
, u

E ngli sh to exp ess any s dde n ac tion T o c lap on a h a dly do b t t h at t hey all take t hei rise in a n at tempt
r u . r u r

h at c lap on e u p i n pri so n
, G K na ck an i n dec lin able at dir ec t ep esen t tion of t he sa me sou nd The e i o
. .
,
r r a . r s s

wo d t h a t imi tates t h e sou n d t h at a ha d bod y mak es gr eat a di fferenc e between t h e mec h ani sm by wh ic h th e
r r

wh e n it b e aks s dde nly i n whi c h also knuc ks is usual c ri es of animals a e p od c ed and t h e a ti c ulations of
r u , . r r u , r

—Kiittne Kn ac k d a war es ent wey t h er e t is th e hum an voic e as t o al low a wid e c h oi c e of syllables


r.

, z ,

,

, ,

b oke n E th at ei n e n Kn ac k it gave a c ac k N us s e in whi c h th e imit ati on may be mad e wit h n ea ly eq al ” '

r . s , r . r u

kna ken to c ack n t


c , In t h e E knock th e r efe e n c e p op i ety an d s till mo e so in th e c as e of i no gan i c
r u s. . r r r ,
r r

to t h e so u n d of a b lo w is l ess vivid ly felt G kla ts ch a so nds T he r esemblanc e t h e efo e b etween th e word . .


,
u .
,
r r , s

c l ap flap ,
klits c h klats ch p itsc h p a ts ch t hwic k thw ack -
employed in c o n at e l a n gu a es wi ll ofte n b e of a v e y
, g g
-

,
-
. r

Kiitt n e fi" r
g en e al ki n d c on si sti ng in th e syllabi c s t c tu e of t h e r , ru r

G all a bilbila ( n atur al sou n d) b ell c lock ; bilbil g d a wo d th e u se of c onson an ts of li ke c las s & A mo , ,
-
o ,
r , , c .

t o mak e bilbil to so n d to ri n g a b e ll a n d 2 to g litter


, men ta y so n d s c h as t h at p od ced by t h e c lli i on or
u , , .
,
r u ,
u r u o s

b e am gli te n — T u ts c h ek
,
s In t h e las t of th ese e x am f ac t e of h ar d bodi es is ep esen t e d b y mono yll able
.
~
. r ur ,
r r s s

ples we may ob s er ve i n t h e firs t plac e t h e agreeme n t of ending in th e t en u es p t k as r ap c lap c a c k a t t t , , , , , r r -


a

t h e so n d by whic h a lang age so emote f om our own tat fo th e k noc ki ng at a d oor ; a d ead e o h ollowe
u ,
u ,
r r , ,
r r r r

i mitates a clea ri ngi ng so n d with t h e Englis h bell Ic el so n d ari i ng f om bodi es of a softe r n at e by th e me


r u , , . u s r ur ,

bia ll an d wit h p eal whic h is used to ep ese n t a si mila


a, di al s b d g as d a b thud d ag ; r ub a d b—
, d b fo t h e r r r , , , , ,
- -
u a ,
r

so n d ; a pe al of b el ls a pe al of la gh te r
u In t h e sec o n d b eati ng of a dr um r ep esen t ed in F enc h b y th e s lla
,
u .
,
r r y

pl ac e w e h ave a g ood e x ample of t h e way i n wh i c h a bles r a n ta n p la n - -


.

wo d r ep ese n ti ng i n th e fi rs t i n t an c e ( as m st be t h e
r ,
r S o nd s pr olong ed wit h mor e or less r esonanc e ar e s u u

c as e w i th all imit a tive wo d ) a l ively imp ess io n on t h e ep e en te d b y syll abl es te mi n a ti ng in a li q id as c lu ng


r s r r r s r u , ,

org an of h ea i ng is sed t o exp ess a vi s al se n ation of d in boom ba ng kn ll hum Thos e a i i ng f om t h e


r ,
u r u s , , ,
e ,
. r s r

th e lik e vivid c h arac ter A c los ely an alog o s c as e i moti on of th e air o of liquids a e often ep esen ted by. u s ,
r ,
r r r

s ee n i n t h e Fi n kilin a a r i ng i n g so n d a b i lli a n t li g h t ;
. t h e l ett ers , 3 sh z
j ; w as whir r whizz fi z whisp e u , r r, , , , , , ,
z, r,

kilia c le a ou n ding als o glitter i ng


,
r- s T he ar ti c la tio n rus tle Fr s ifil er I t fi s c hiare t o wh i stl e G alla af f a
, . u ,
.
,
.
, ,
u ,

employed i n t h e firs t i n t an c e t o ep ese n t a t em lo s Hung f a ni S c f ufl; t o blow H ng f ola a fife s r r r u u . v- ,


.
,
u . av ,
.

s ou n d i n P o l sz em a c‘ Boh em ssem a ti t o r us tl e m
. M odifi c a tion s in t h e v ol ume or pitc h of th e so n d d e
r ,
. r , ,
ur u ,

mur E s immer t o sou n d li k e wa te ab o t to b oi l is pe n di ng o t h e si e of t he bodi es in c olli ion or v ib a


,
.
,
r u ,
u z s r

tr an sferr ed to th e appe ara n c e of t em lo s ligh t i n G tion a e ep esent ed b y a h ange of v owel ; a so n d of r u u .


,
r r r c u

s c himmer n E s himme O t h e e x ampl e s of t h e same c on ide able v ol me b ei ng i mit a t ed by t h e v owels a o


,
. r. r s r u r 0,

t r an fe e n c e of signifi c atio n fr om p h e n ome n a of so n d t o wh i c h ar e p o no nc e d wit h a mo e Op en mo t h a n d


s r u r u r u

t ho e of sigh t may b e s ee n i n t h e b od y of t h e wo k f ll e voi c e whil e notes of a high pitc h a e sound ed


s r u r , r

u n de Bri g h t I t mu t n ot h o wever b e s pposed t h at wit h t h e t h i n ner vowel i i n to wh i c h t h e hi gh es t n ot es of


r . s , ,
u ,

wo d will always p eser ve any c ogniz able r e emblanc e th e voic e a e n ec ess ari ly mo ld ed We speak of th e
r s r s r u .

c la n king of c h ai n s o
t o e ac h ot h e b ec a e t h ey a e o ig i n ally i mit atio n s of
r us of a m o rus i n
g c linic to ex p ess
r r r ur , r

t h e s ame n at u al so n d Th e explosio n of a gu n whic h t h e sh arp n ot e gi ven by smalle pi ec es of metal as c oi n


r u .
,
r , ,

t h e Engli h boy imit ates i n t h e ex clamatio n Bang fi e bells the blow of a h ammer on a n ail &c
s -
r
,

, , .

is epr es e n ted i n F e nc h b y P o f ! T h e n eigh i ng of a r u


A d I h l l li k y m y b ll
r
n s a c n er: ou so err a e

T h t I h ll w k ll th i m p g i —C h a s a a en a s co a n e . au c er .

3? H oll an d in his tran sl tio n of Pliny



, ttemp t a dis S f th g h th w t a li ki g p t t t e d G y , a s a e rou e e on c n n a e ns r a . ra .

tin c tion b etw een two i mita tive wo d th e e xac t c o e r s, rr


p n v owel in r oar hla r e b ay r ep e en ts t h e
of wh i h di e en ce i ndi ted by his T
s po n d n c t o
ce t h ff c h e o e e r
ol ca , ,
r r s v

o i ginal m y b e do b ted Pliny p e kin g of th e winds ume of so n d in th e c y of lions o b lls whi le i o ee i


r a u .
,
s a ,
u r r u , r s

L I 49 s y s
. .
,
a : u s ed in c hi p ch i p p eep to ex p ess t h e t hi n a c t e r ,
e , ,
r u

n oi es tt e ed b y small bi ds c ri c k et s mi c e an d t h e li ke
N n fit o t m q il i T yph n au e niv li t niv j t
a u on u s o n ee a s au e a c en e
s u r r , , , .

E c ne p h i Q d i im
as l .
p it b m uox it q t ig s T hse s am e
u a d a pt atio
ru
n of t h e v ow nu
,
el to t h e so n d
e
e
p e
,
e ar s u e, e n ein
u r r

h b it
a u p t n on p it f l m n t Dit t
os ea c onc e P t s en t e d is v er y c omm o n in G e m an
u e as r ep ea t d ly ob
es s a a res ere uo r e
, q ,
.
,
,

fl mm b ig n i H i l t f d it fl t il l d gl b t im s e v e d b y K utt n er K n a ck wh i h i mita tes t h e '

a a a . e a e un ur a u, u c on o a ur r . c

p t
e u V t x
. t m m nd d i t t t bin q m d t i so n d whi c h a h ar d bod y yi elds wh en it b eaks s d
or e au e re ea o s a a ur e, uo o o ar
u r u
d f g K n ic k exp esses a fi ne b t K n ck a o gh e
or a ra or e
d en ly
.

. r r, u a r u r,

H ollan d tran sla te s th e p g e th u sou n d of th e same ki n d as sa T h e di ti nc tio n in th e B e s : .



s r

N Typ h n o mm th f m th N th n y to co
y E p hi m
e
i c h W i
i r t e b c h is t h a t kn aks
ro e
ep es en t s a lo d i n
or g e e an cn e as
s r u r r u r

ing oun d ; kn icks th e n oi se of someth i ng b eaki ng t h a t


,

with w wh il n w l i th th g d T hi t mp t
s no , or e s o e on e rou n . s e e s uou s s ,
r

w i d if wh n it b k th l d b n d lig ht with ll h i g is small and h ar d as wh en a g las c ac k ; kn lzs an


n ,
e ra e e c ou ,
ur e a ,
au n ,
s r s uc

fire o f th w b f d
e o t h d it t ft w d it i v i obsc e o smoth e ed so n d ( d mpfig) as wh en a j oi n t
nc e ore, a n ca c e no a er ar , s er c ur r r u u ,
l ig h tn ing ; th f m P t ‘

d d ifi fl m f m ela ti on h old s
th l
s pri n s b ac k i n to its pla c e
an
e sam e
ere ro res e r , as e
g T h a e ro a co e r
of fi Ag i
re. P t p d t b d with fl h d bl t ; ood b tw n knarr en knirren kn en to c eak kn
h
a ne , r es er s r ea e re a a as an as
.

th t g
e oh t h t h er nd with f ibl vi l n T yph m
a ere r oug e ee
orc e o e ce on or e
, ,
urr ,
r , as

E c k e x p ess
.

V t x d iff th f m T b n i flying b k te n k n is te n t o c a c kl e T h e c l p c l r r r a a r
ouer or or e d ,
.
er e ro ur e n
.
,
, ac e : an as , ,

m h uc h f m
as a cr a s k —M ro th e O pe n s o n d gi ven by st ik i ng tog et h er th e p al ms of
a cr a c e . . u r
INT RO D UC T ION . xiii
th e h and c lip c li k the sh arp snappi ng of a p air of
s, ,
c , (fr om im it ation of smacki ng th e lips ; Z l namb ta
an u u e ,

sc i o s th e f ll of a l tc h o
ss r ,
ligh t sn ap like t h t gi v en
a a ,
r a t o sm ack t h e lips to h av e a t ast e to eli h ) ; I n di an , ,
r s
,

by the sp i ng of a g n loc k T h e c h ange of v owel f om


r u -
. r tom tom a d um
-

,
r .

a to i is t h n d to exp e a lig ht ki n d f a tion


e u se r ss er o c , A mo e a tifi c i al met hod of r ep esen ti ng r epeate d o
r r r r

wi t h t pe i l efe en c e t o an y di ff n c e in m i l
ou s c a r r er e us c a c on ti n u e d ac tion is t o ad d t o t h e syllab le e x p ess i n
g a ,
r

pitc h in t he noi p d ed in th t wo c a e an d fi nal ly se ro uc e s s, s i n le el emen t of t h e ac tio n a se c o n d s yll able c om posed


g ,

t o i n di te a dim i ti n in i e of t h e i nst m t
ca nu o s z ru en or of an ob sc ur e v owel wit h t h e c onson an t s r or Z on wh i c h ,

or
g n of ac ti n
a T he n d of t h e f tf ll i i mit at e d
o . sou oo a s t h e voi c e c an dwell fo a l en gt h of tim e wit h mo e or r r

in G e m an b y t h e re p tition t pp t pp —
r t pp f m e ra ra ra ,
ro less sen sibl e vib a tion in o d er to epr esen t th e effec t on
r ,
r r

wh en D t pp t o t ead I n th e E ngli h t mp a
ce u . ra en , r . s ra th e e a w h en th e apid s c cessi on of b ea t s h as me e d
r,
g r u r

g ea te emp h a i s i gi v n b y th e i n e ti
r r f a n sl in s e s r on o as a , in a c on ti n o s whi I n th e p a ttering of ai n e x p ess
u u rr . r , r

o d to ex p
r er a h a vi e t d in wh i c h eac h fall of
r ess e r r ea , in g th e falli ng of a apid s cc ession of d ops on a so n o r u r

th e f t i di ti n c tl y h ear d
oo T t ip on th oth e h n d
s s . o r ,
e r a , r ou s sur fac e t h e fi s t s yllabl e p a t is an im it ati on of t h e
,
r

wit h th ho t c omp d vowel i to t e d with li gh t


e s r r esse ,
s r a a s o n d mad e b y t h e fall of a si n le d r op w hil e t h e v ib a
u
g , r

an d q i k tep S f m st p
u c th e imitation of t h e
s . o ro a ,
an o r tion of t he in th e sec on d syll able r epr esents th e m
r ur

sam e So n d p e e v ed in t h u D t pp t tep we
r s r e u . s o en , o s , m i n g sou n d of th e sh owe w h en th e a tt en tion is n ot
ur r,

h av in E ngli h t he i ten i t i ve t mp nd in D th e
e s n s s a ,
a u . direc t ed to th e i n di vid al t aps of whi c h t he c omplex u

dimi ti v e tipp n to p i k wh enc e th e E s liml to


nu s e ,
r c ,
. o e,a
/

so n d is mad e u p
u I n lik e man n e t o c la tte is t o d o . r, r

ma k wit h a s cc e i n of dot
r T he e ff c t of th e u ss o s . e a n yt h i n
g acc o m p an i ed b y a s c c e i on of c la s o n oi es
p u ss r s

c h an e f v owel in ex p e i ng di mi n ti n in t h e s iz e f
o r ss u o o th at migh t b e imita te d by th e syllable c lap or c la t ; to
g
th e g n of ac tio n i e n in t p n b k b a n obt e
or a s s e o , a ,
no , us c a kle t o mak e a s cc essi on of c ac k s ; t o r a ttle d a bble
r c ,
u r
, ,

s mmit o p oj ec tion ti
u p n ib n ipp l a t hi n an d poi n t ed
r r , , , e, b bble g ggle t o mak e a su c c essio n of n oi ses t h a t mi h t
u ,
a ,
g
one . b e imit a t ed i n divid u ally b y a t d a b bub g g Aft er r , , , u .

T he hange of vowel whi h marks a ri e in m


sa me c c s u t h e i n v e n tio n of su c h a m od e of r epr es en ti n c o n ti n o s
g u u

i al pitc h di ti ng i h es t h e p e en t f om th e p e f c t
s c , s u s r s r r e
s ou n d it wo ul d s p eedi ly b e tr ansfe
, ed t o ot h e c as es of rr r

er tai n c lass of wh a t are ng v e b


ten e in s a c all d t c e s ro r s, r ep ea t ed o c o n ti n o s ac tio n r
g i vi ng ris e to t h e c omm on
u u ,

a s sa t s it lay li ; A S f d f n d fi d ig fi n d ; n d
, , e . an ,
ou ,
n e, a es t E n li s h fo m of t h e f eq en t a ti ve v e b
g r Thus we r u r .

t ho g h the f ll wi ng expl nation may b e tho gh t f n


u o o a u a h ave d aggle to c onti n e dr aggi ng g app le to mak e a
r ,
u ,
r , .

c if l yet it app e
u , to m t i t ly in ac c o d an e wit h a rs e s r c r c s c c e si on of g ab s o g ip es
u s T h e s ame effec t is oft en
r r r .

ot h i n ti nc ti ve d evi s f ex p e i ng simi l mod ific a


er s ce or r ss ar p od ced by a fi nal I alon e wh ic h as I h e rema ks
r u , , r r

ti ns I t h as b een ob e v ed b y ot h e t h t t h e p f c t
o . s r rs a er e u n d e g n cella h as som et h i n
r
g r i ngi ng ( a liq id tin n ul i) in
, u

t n e wh ic h i n di c at es a c omplet e an d fi i h ed ac t h ld
e s ,
n s , s ou it Thus to s q eak is t o tt er a s h a p c y of momen t a y
. u u r r r

n at all y be ex p
ur ed b y m e igi n al f m of t h r es s a or or or e d ration ; to s q eal to u tte a p olonged c ry of t he same
u u , r r

v e b th n t he p e e t whi c h i n dic at e a c n ti tion of


r a r s n , s o nua n at e ; t o w il
ur to tter c ri es of p ai n su c h as t h ose
a ,
u
,

ac tio n ; n d as al l mod i fi a ti n f t h o gh t m t lti ca o s o u us u r ep ese n t ed b y t h e L a t


r vaa o G webe F mia le . r . r. u r,

m t ely be ex p e ed by ome an al g y in
a nd I w
r ss ld s o s ou , ou to u t te r c i es i mit at ed b y t h e syl lab le mia
r to m e w ; u,

c mp are t h e p e en t wit h a vib


o t y o nd t h e c on ti n
r s r a or s u , an d t he E p le bowl gr owl a e fo m e d on t h e s ame
. u , , , r r

n ous be a ts f w h i h a e le s an d le di t i ng i h able to
o c r s ss s u s p i nc iple He e als o t he d evi c e co ntri ved to ep esen t
r . r r r

t h e ear a th e vib tio n b ec me q i ke


s w h i le t h e p era s o u c r, r t h e c o n ti nu anc e of so n d is ex t en d ed fa b eyon d t he u r

feet m y be ep e en t d b y a i ngl be t in t h e ib t
a r r s e s e a v ra o igi nal purp os e a nd we find a t ermi nati ng l a s well as
r ,

ing bod y on t h e c i c m t an c e ,
f w hi h d ep en d s t h e r u s s o c t h e f ller forms c l a n d er u se d as t h e symbo l of c on
u

g en e al c h arac t e of th e c o nti n o
r nd Th en a
r u us sou . s t in u ed ac ti on wit h t h e i n s t m en t o obj ec t i n di c a t ed in ru r

sou nd a d al ly i rin to n e wit h i n


u a in pidity of
r s es t h e bod y of t h e wo rd Th s to kneel is to r es t on t he
g g c re s ra . u

vib ti n t h c h ang e f m to i whi c h epre en ts a i e


ra o ,
e ro a , r s r s kn ees ; to p r owl f om F r p oie is t o go abo t s eeki n ,
r
g
. r , u

in m i c al pi tc h wo ld o ff
us a n t al t yp of t h e
, t ep u er a ur e s fo p ey r r .

f m t h e ep a a te b ea t of t h e p e f c t to t h e nif m
ro s r r e u or When th e bod y of t he wo d h as al ead y a ve bal sig r r r

h m ep e n ting t h e c on ti n ed ac ti n of t h e p e en t
u r r se u o r s . n ific at ion t h e t e m i n a tio n s el a n d er
, ( s ti ll employed as
r

T h e impl t mod of ex p i ng c onti n anc e of c tion t h e s ymbols of c o nti n ed ac tio n s er v e t o i n di c a t e t h e


s es e r ess u a
) u

wo ld n d bt edly b e by c t al epetitio n f t h yl
u u ou a u r o e s i ns trum en t o ag en t as A S gnel a u nn e bgd l a bid
r , . r ,
r r, e ,

l bl
a p e nti ng a i ngle b e t of t h vib tio o mo
e re r se s a e ra n, r de on e wh o c o n v eys o d ers
r, D kr a wel a c law a r . u . u , ,

men ta y elemen t f t h e ac tion in q


r tion Th we o u es . us s c a tc h er or c l u t c h e
r f om k a wen t o sc a tc h T he r, r r u ,
r .

h v t t t z t b—a d b d b fo c onti n ed n oi of
a e ra -
a- a -
a , ru -
u -
u , r u s es , id entit y of t h e f eq en t ati ve l o r wi t h t h e t ermi nationr u r

wh i h t h e i ndi vid al eleme t a e rep n t ed by t ta t


c u n s r r es e ra -
of t h e ag en t i p ess ed pon our n oti c e by c a es li ke t h e
s r u s

b—
,

ru d b T h e L ti n t t
u . m m tinti ( in l in ti a b
a u r ur, ur ur, n n u E cr a wl wh i c h may eith e be formed di ec t f om a v e b
.
, r r r r

Z n)
u i ep , sen t n oi e t h e m m en t
r re y ffec t f whi h s s o ar e o c eq ui v alen t t o t h e D k a wen abo v e men ti oned as u . r u ,

u p n t h e e i imitat ed by th e yll ble t m tin


o ar s s a s ur , ur , . d agg le f om d ag o t h o g h th e i n t men t al fo m
r r r ,
r r u s ru r

T he ep at ed elemen t i li g h tly
r e t ai led in L at s s cur . s a su r k a w l a c l aw as si g n i fyi n g to c law on eself along
r u e , , .

r us , F h b tt r. c I t bi big li a wh i p e
uc o er , . s o, s r . T h e f eq en t a ti v e t ermi n ation i someti mes form e d on a
r u s

T h e f m ti n of w d or h p i nc iple is p a ti
a o or s on su c a r r e t i n s te a d of an l o as a ket a s u c ces s i on of ap r r,F r c , r s, r.

l ly c o mm n in n i v ili d l ng ag e a n d t h n at
u ar o l
u c se a u s, e ura c li
q eti a c l ash i n g or s c c ess io n of c la cks
u s, Her e th e u .

c ours e see m t o be to g t id of t h e s petiti n in th e e r re o additi on al syllab le et seem s to ep es en t an ec h o of t h e r r

p g e of c l ti vation W e m y it e S
ro r ss u
(W t n . a c usu es er so n d i n di c at e d b y th e
u a di c al syl la bl e an d t h e efo e r , r r

Af ic ) ba ng—
r a ba ng to dr ive a n ail n im n im to t t e
, , ,
-
, as t his mod e of exp essi n g c on tin u anc e woul d in th e firs t r
xiv INT RO D UC T ION .

i ns tance ppli cable onl y wh en th e elemen tary sou n d


be a Then a things O f an ex traordinar y iz e h ave a ten den
,
s s

was of a h ar d c h ar ac t er s c h as we h av e seen ar tic u c y to ex c it e awe an d te u to m ak e g o h g e at rr or , us u r ou


,

lat ed wit h a p t or k But in L atin t h e syll able it is


, ,
t h em th t erm h g is d to i gn i fy th e tm t d eg ee
. ,
e u e u se s u os r

t h e egu lar c o ns tit en t of a fr eq ent ati v e v e b as l or r


r of m ag n it d e
u T o h g i an t h e d eri v ati v e f om th e
u r ,
u . u s o r r

in Eng li sh .
s me f n d am en t al imag e e x p e i ng t h e bodily ac tio n a u ,
r ss

W e h ave n ex t to c o ns id e an i mpor t an t c lass of wo ds i nd ced by g eat c old sh uggi ng p t h e h ld and


r r u r ,
r u s ou ers

fou n d ed on i mit ati on of so n d s b y whi c h ou r bodi ly an d p e in g t h e f lded arms ag ai n t th e b eas t ; t h en with


u r ss o s r a

men tal affec tions as t h ose of p ai n c old t err or di g us t ,


tot l l O f all ef enc e t o th e i nsti nc tive igi n of t h e , , ,
s ,
a oss r er or

&c a e mo e o l ess i n s ti n c ti v ely ex p essed ac tion to p e s anot h e t o o n e b ea t T h e v b to ’


.
,
r r T he c r y
r r .
,
r s r s r s . er

to whi c h we a e imp elled b y a sh a p p ai n is well r ep r e


r h g h as prob bly its o i gi n in t h e ame imag e a r s ru a r s ,
s

s en t ed by t h e G ac h o r a h oh Hence t h e 0 G a chen .
h k i one of t h i nt e j ec tio ns O f c ol d i te d b y G i mm
,
u ,
. .
-
sc uc s e r c r ,

to tte r c ri es of pai n G r x g p ai n gr i ef and t he E


u an d th e i n s
,
tion o mi i n of th e i f little impo
. a o , , ,
. er r o ss o r s o r

a hec A d eeper seat ed groan ar is i ng mo e from men t al


.
t anc e C ompa e F t t G t tz i n te j ec tio ns of c on
,
r . r r . ru ,
. ro ,
r

t h an bod ily sufferi ng is r epr esent ed by th e L at vce vah t empt wit h E t t l h


,
.
, , ,
. u , us .

G wehe A S wa from wh en ce ou woe wa il


.
,
.
,
T h e id ea O f di g s t t ak es its r i e in th e enses f mell r ,
.
s u s s o s

T h e effec ts of c old an d t err or on t h e human fr ame an d ta t e in th e fi t i n tan c e p b ably in smell al n s ,


rs s ro o e .

c l os ely es emble eac h ot h e r They bot h c h eck th e N ow in d fendi g el v e from a b d


r .
mell we e in e n ours s a s ar

a c tio n of t h e h ear t an d d ep ess th e vit al p owers T he s tinc t i ely imp lled t o s ew p


r t h e n e a n d to x pi e .
v e cr u os ,
e r

s h oul d ers a e sh gg e d for w ar d an d th e a ms an d c l ose d


r ru t ongly t h o gh t h e comp s ed and p ot d ed lip gi ,
r s r r u re s r ru s, v

h an ds p essed agai ns t the c h est while th e m scles of t h e


r ing r is e to a s n d p en t d b y t h e i n te j ec ti n
,
u ou re r es e r o s

Lit h ’ G B t h ’
f

’ ! i pf i ! f i l
fac e and j aw a e k ept r i gid T h e d e ep gu ttur al sou n d
r f gh f ’ h fi p .
e au . o . e . u . . u r . az ec .

u t te ed in t hi s c on dition of th e bod il y f ame is i mit ated


r
F gh ! I h v k w h L h m ll w t r
au a e no n a c arn e ou s e s e s ee e r

in E nglis h b y t h e i n terj ec tion ugh ex p es si v e of c ol d o I f mp fl h h v t hi v wh t will m i d ,


r r e erour s

es a e s sa ou r , a ne o

h orr o wh enc e the S c otc h and O E g to feel ab hor


r, Wh I m tt ? B m t d Fl t h . u ,
en a ro en ea u on an e c er .

ren c e at t o n aus ea t e ,
F h ! n m y m ll in
.
h will m t k S h k p o o e a s e su c a os r an . a es ea re .

Th ttli g d m d t mp t t t ’
e ra n ru an ru e s ou
W h i t j tio i ed as b tan ti v e in t h
D lig ht y w h T h l f l
e e n e n s r ec s us a su s e
g ki t t et t ; o un s an es a are s ou

Wh t hi ki d f ight d m th g a s en
s f l athin g w h n c e fi id lo t h om ; fli id d
n r e o er u s se o o ,
e a ,
a s e e ra ,

I m i k t th dg l g s J mi
us c lo at h som ene
o dis d ai n
e so F m fo m li ke th e L ith p i
er s

u s. a eson . ss , . ro r s . u ,

I n a p as ag e of H ar d yng c it ed at t h e ame plac e it G pf i i e th e L at p t


s F p
,
to ti nk L at p w s ,
. u ,
r s . u er e, r. uer , s ,
.

is sa id t h at t he abb ess of C old ingh ame h av i ng t off t ig ti nki ng otten ; I el f iki sti nk fui n p t id , cu r ,
s ,
r c . i , ,
n ,
u r ,

h er own n ose an d lip fo t h e pu po e of st iking th e Go t h f l ti nki ng f o l ( Ulph Joh



s r J h f l it r s r . u s, s ,
u . a u s s ,
. .

D an is h avi h ers wit h h o o r s x i — b y th is time h rr ti nk et h Hen c e Ic el f lls


r, . e s . . u a,

— ll d ll h i t t d th m
c ounse
t o h e
w di g a
s t a t an yt h i n g f ls leg
er s s ers
h at ef l di g
o
ti n
g o e sa e,
s o s u ,
u r, u ,
s us ,

T m k th i f with th ight om
t h g o a e f
e r l oes o ou e so e s .
u s e .

A d th y d id f th n mi m
so e T he ex p es ion is n at ally t ansfe e d f m p hysi c al
,
a ore e en e es c a e r s ur r rr ro

E h th i d v c l ip f ll ig ht
e- ou t o mo al aversion in I el fi a G ot h fij n to h at e wh enc e
e r n os e a n o er -
u r r c .

,
. a , ,

C t ff n whi h w u k g ly ig h t
o a
G f ind an en emy E fi nd f f d
on , c as an on s .

. e , ,
. e ,
oe, eu .

Here as Jamieson righ tly b ves the p a age cle ly


, T h e g atifi ation f th e app etit e f food i th e e a
o ser , ss ar r c o or s r

poi nts t t h e ori gin of t h e E ug ly as sign ifyi ng wh at li e t occ asion on whi c h th e i nf n t h as to x erc i e th e
ou .
, s a e s

ca e ab h o
us s enc e an d h e mi g h t h a v e c arr i ed t h e d e i Opt ion O f cc eptan c e o ej ec tion ; nd th g t e b y
,
rr r a r r a e es u r s

v ati n to its o igi n al s c e if h e h ad added wh at impels whi h h e i n di at es his i n c li n ation on thi oc c ion a e
o r our , c c s as r

on e t o u t t e t h e ex c lamation ug h r t ak en in afte life as th e t ype f acc pta n c e o ef sal in r- O e r r u

g e n l W h n t h e i nfan t is i n li n e d t a c ept t h e er a e c o c
Ug h ! th di g ly f ll w !
p ff
e o
e e d food h e b en d his h ead eage ly fo war d to
ou s u e o
.

r r
C t f S t Alb ou n ess o ans
ro r ,
s

s iz e t h e b eas t an d w h en h e is s ti fi d h e mo v es h i
. .

e r a s e s
,

I n th e S c g ome f ig h tf l t er ibl e th e o i g i n l fo c e h ea d f om id e to sid e in o d e to wit h d aw hi m t h


. u s ,
r u , r , r a r r s ,
r r r s ou

of t h e r oot is p ese v ed w h i c h is m c h soft en e d down in r f m t h e n ipple


r , Hen e n oddi ng o ben di ng t h e h d u ro . c r ea

u
g ly .
fo w a d i ni v e ally d as th e ymbol of ac c eptan e r r s u rs u se s c ,

g m an d h aki n g t h h ad f n g tion o ef al
Th d il f t h ny h t
e u so en ess an s en c e o e c
s e e o e a r r us .
,
In v y pl my p t m d h T h e n egati v e fo c e O f th e p a ti c le n e may p ob ably b e
e er t * D V ac e s re e a e sar e a as
g . . .
r r r

*6 T he I
h it t d bt o
c elan dic ve b r ugg a , t o fear , es a e, ou ,
r as s had e, an d t hu s th e I tali an a ver e ugg ia may p oss i bly by ,

s p c t and th n n gg f
us e ,
d btl f imil e ou u r, ear , ar e ou es s o s ar t an l tion h ve g iven rise to th e Fr en c h n d
r s a ,
a a E n g li h s

or ig in I t i i g l th t th e xp iv w d d th i
. s s n u ar a es e r ess e or s an e r ph d m o p nd
ras es, d l mb ag t g ior t k
er m r re re e

o r e, o ve or a e u

n m u o d iv tiv nd mp o nd ho ld h v d i p
er u s er a es a co u s s u a e sa b g
ra B t w h tev e m y be th e etym l g y f ggi w h en
e . u a r a o o o u a

pe d f m th D ni h n d S w di h tho g h till p
er e ro e a s a e s ,
u s re u ed in th e s en se O f s h ad e I
s m t ong ly in clin ed to beli v e ,
a s r e

s erv d in me of th S di vi n p vi i l d i l t nd
e so e ca n na a ro nc a a ec s , a th at in th e exp e sion gg i its o ig in i t h e am r s a ver e u a, r s s e as

a pp tly v in th m d n I t li n in a lig h tl y m di
ar en e en e o er a a , s o t h t O f th
a wo d efe ed t in th e tex t W e m y p
e r s r rr o . a er

fi d e n A n I t l i n t v ll
se s e y . a a ra e er s a s h p c onsid r shad as a s c ondary me nin g O f gg i f r
a s e e e a u a, o

L I ng l es e ha
w h n in h ot climate we p f om th e s n t th h de
e s, as s r u o e s a
ggia c ol su o c l i m a , ed am a
’ ,
lot tare
of tr es we exp i n c a hiv r p ly ex
u c on ess o :
e n d th e te m p er e e s e ,
a r ro er
,

T he E hm n d t
n g lis a e es ts
( h dd
s u er s a t ) hi s own c lima e , etc t .
p iv e f th e effec t may h ave been transfe r ed to th e
r es s O r

T he p ima y m i
r r ean n g of ugg ia is gi ve n in th e ic iona ries d t ca u s e . M .
INT RO D UCT ION .
XV

e xp lai ned on t he same p i nciple from ep esenti ng the r ,


r r th e sa puff of air thr ough th e n ose and lips w hi c h ex
me
s o nd mad e t h ro gh th e c lenc h ed t eet h in sign O f a
u u , press es dissatis fac tion is prod u c ed ia sneezi ng th e ac t of ,

resol ti n n ot to Op en t h e m
u o t h f th e rec epti n of ou or o s nee i ng is sometimes t ak en as a t y pe of c o n tempt and
z
,

Off red food T he ac t of ej ec tion is ex p essed in a


e . r r we sp eak O f a t hi ng as n ot to b e sneez ed a t n ot wort hy ,

more li v ely m nne b y an imi ta tion of spitti ng a if in a r ,


s O f c o n te mpt Henc e may be explai ne d t he agreemen t
.

t he eff r t t o rid o neself of s omet h i ng dis ag eeabl ta ken of man y word s s i nifyin
o r e
g g s neez e wit h th e fo egoi ng in r

in to t h e mo t h wh ile t he Opposite feeling are i nd ic at ed


u , s terj ec tions We may c omp a e p sha w wit h kis hoo t he
. r ,

b y smacki ng wit h t he lips as if in th e end eavour to ,


ar ti c ul a tio n b y wh i c h a sn eez e is c ommonl y imita te d in

mak e t h e mos t of an agr eable t as te e . E ngli s h ; tus h wit h W tis ic t o sneez e ; G ael trus Fr .
,
.
, .

I n L e ich ard t s A t ali a we a e f ni sh ed wit h e x am tr u t wit h L ap tr us s et Fr t uc heter t o sn eez e p t ot and



us r r ur .
,
. r , r ,

ples of bot h t he e mod es of exp ession among t ib es in s r r p ru t wit h H un g p trils z trils z p r zl sz sneez e S w p rus ta
.
, ,

, ,
.
,

t h e lowes t s tag e of c ivil is ation


giv en as a si mple st a t e ,
to sn or t spu r t s n eez e
, , .

ment of fac t wit h o t any t h eoris i ng n th e pri nc iple on


, u o T h e Manu el d es Pec ch é s wh en t reati ng Of pr id e , ,

whi h t h e meani ng f t h e n ti ves was u n d e tood


c O a rs . t ak es as fir s t ex ample him
T he men c mmen ed talkin g to t h em b t oc c asion o c , u —th t i nb x m a1 a s u u o

a lly i n te pt d t h eir peec hes by pit ti ng a nd tt ri ng


rru e s s , u e A n hy f d p i it l
ye s s a er s r a

a n i e lik e poo h ! poo h ! a pp ar en t ly


os xp essive of t h eir e r
A nd yth p t ! f thy yn g p e t l 3 016
sc ru or curs ,
r s .
” - . .

dis g t — p 1 8 9 T h e tte anc e was in fac t id enti c al


us .

. . u r T he au t h or th en pr oc eeds t o d enou nc e him wh o uses
wit h o own in terj ec tion p o h ! whi c h is me ely a ep
ur o r r prou t word ys to his sovereign .

re se nta tion O f t h e ac t of spitti n


g in i gn of c on temp t s u A s fr om G tr otz / or ig i n ally an i nt e j ec tion of con
. r

o us ej ec tionr P h l p h ! fi l fi ! i nte j ection of one


.

u u r t empt O r d efianc e ( Gr i mm) is formed t otzig arr ogant , r , ,

w ho is sen sible O f somethi ng disgus ting (c osa stomac he so fro m p r u t ar i s es p r ou t or as we n ow wr it e it


p r oud , , ,
— P t ri arc hi D i c t Ven et a , . . a nd t h e abs t r ac t p r id e .

Th ey v ery m c h admired O h orses and b ll oc ks u ur u ,


T h e effec t of c ompl ete absor p tion in an Obj ec t w h et her ,

an d pa ti c larly o kanga oo d og They expre d


r u ur r -
. sse from s dd en asto nishmm t or i n ten t O bse rvation is
u ,

t h i dmir ti n by a pec l ia mac ki ng


e r a a oc lac kin
g u r s or ma k ed b y i nv ol n tar y Op en i ng of th e mou t h ar is ing
r u ,

wi th t h eir mo t h o lip — Leic ha dt p 3 3 6 u r s .



r , . . f om t h e r el a x ation of all t h e musc les of th e fac e n ot
r

T h e p od c tion O f t h e so n d h e e ep esen t ed b y
r u u r r r ex er ted in effec ti ng a s te ad y g a z e .

sma ck o l k ari es f m t h e fac t t h a t t h e o an of


r c ac s ro r I w mith t n d with hi h mm — th
g , sa a s s a s a er us

ta te is di t ib t ed o ve th e tongu e a nd p al te and
s s r u r a T h whil t h i ie d id n h i s vil l s ron o s an c oo

n ws —
, ,

t h e sen a tion is o n l y app c i ate d in f ll i n ten it y at t h e With w m th w l l wing t il K J hn



s re u s en ou s a o a a or s e . . o .

momen t w h en t h e two b anc h e O f th e o an a e b ro h t r s r T h e i n t erj ec tion O f won d er t h en is formed from a ep e


g g r u r

i n to c on tac t and agai n pa at ed Henc e A S sm ec , se r . . a , tition of t he syllable ba ba mech an ic ally u tt er e d


G g s hm k P l ma k t t e vo ; D m kli k
. e c ac , o . s , as , sa ur u. s a ec c , t h ough t h e par ti ng lips ; G r B fl ! L at ba boe ! p ap az l
r . a ai .

s w eet palatable ag eeable to t he tas te In t he Fi nni h


, , r
'
.
s Hen c e th e us e O f t he r oot ba in t h e exp ession of a ton r s
lang u g t h e i n iti al 3 is lost ishm en t in la ngu ag es t h e mos t dis ta n tly r emo v e d from
a es
g ivi ng r i e t o E th on m g , s s . a

g o, makk tas te ; g us makke Fin mak ia sw eet


o,
, , .
, , ea c h ot h er Z ul u ba baza Fr e—
. ba hir a ba u bir ( Roq u e ,
.
-
,
- -

w ell tasti ng ma iskia to smack the lips ; ma i ki a mac k


-

, , s s, s , fort) to c aus e t o c ry b a l to set agap e to as to n i sh


, , .

ki s d eli ac i ; ma is to tas te
s , c I n li ke manne t h e G
es , .
r r . H é c ar t in his Ro c hi D i c tio nar y ( t h e dialec t of Li lle)
u

yl x g L at d l is (fo d l i ) sw eet may b e x pl i n ed


v v , . u c r uc s , , e a ex pl ains Ba an i n t e j ec ti on ex p essi ng dou bt a nd add s r r ,
fr om t h e sec on d O f t he f rms a bove men tioned l k O o c ac r his beli ef th at t h e wo d is pre tt y gen er ally us ed wit h r
, ,

lic k h ow n also in W we ex pr ess as to nis h men t


g f g l c a mac k of t h e lips s om e modi fi c a tio ns t o I n the
c , s . us - e s
, .

-
S p ell and with li gh t modific ation in E li k A
urr , s . c . s am e di al ec t ba ba ie c el u i q u i regard e la bouc he bea nte ,

,
swee t tas t e is on e w h i h mak es on e l i c k o n e c h ops a s t ar i ng booby

c s . .

T h e n at al ex press io n of di pleas e as mi n t he
ur s ur su T h e ori gi n al forc e O f t he syll able is s een in th e 0 Fr
g , . .

s h ape n de di ffe en t i rc m ta n es f ange d fi an ce ba e ba ier mod er n beer to Op en th e m ou t h to gap e t h en



u r r c u s c O r, e r,
, , , , ,

o c o n te mpt is a w hiff f b ea t h t hro g h t h e n os t i l o to b e i n t en t po n any t h i ng ; aboyer atten d r e q u elqu un



r , o r u r s, r u ,

prot d ed lips Henc e to ni ff o n uff at to t e t wit h


ru . s r s , r a av ec empress emen t inhia e l oq u en ti — L ac omb e ,
Henc e r . .

c o n tempt ; to tak e a t h i n
g in s n u ff to rec ive it wit h , e t h e O E a beya n c e ex pec ta tio n a by t o ex p ec t e n d
.
,
e , , ,
ur ,

di pl s re easu .
remai n T h e i n ser tion of a d to a void t h e h i a tus g i ves
.

S h p b th f g p ff d ar rea s o an er u e th e Pr o v ba d a r to ga pe t o Open ; g ola ba d a d o as Fr ,


.

f iy y
.
, ,
H t il T
u e l e bee wit h O pe n mou t h I
t er a r n os r s ou . enn s on .
g u
'

,
t b a d a e t o b e i n t en t . . r ,

To h fl whic h i gni fie in the firs t i nsta n ce to blow is


u , s s
, u pon to wait c o es po nding to t h e E bid e abid e ( as
, ,
rr .
,

c ommonl y se d in t h f h owing on di pl a s h own in t h e bod y of t h e wo k) as 0 F ba er to E



sen e u e s O s e s s e su re , r . r. .
,

g ivi ng on e a h a p a n w e T h e en d a v s t o epre e n t r s r . e our r s a bie or aby T h e s am e c h ange of vowel tak es plac e in


.

t h e so n d O f a sni ff o blur t of c o n t empt o an e h as


u
g r r r t h e L at hi0 as c omp ar ed wit h t h e G r x m to g ap e
. . a , .

gi v en i e to s ev eral i n t e j c tio n ex p ess ive of


r s ch r e s, r su T he i n t e j ec tions c omman di ng sil en c e s t his t whis t
r , , , ,

f l i n gs pi h p h aw t t t h O E p t t ( c o nf l wor d
ee , s , s , u , us ,
. ro s r u hu h st an d s on a somew h a t diffe en t foo t i ng
s Th ey ar e r .

—P Pm ) p t F t t ( n i n t e j c tion im porti ng
,

r .
, ru ,
r. ru a r e n ot t h e i n sti nc ti v e ex pr essio ns O f bodil y or men tal affec

i ndi gnatio t h t t fy man C t ) G t tz n, us ,


u ,
o ,
. ro . tions in th e s pe ake b t ar e to be u n d ers tood b y th e r, u

B id e b i ng es ed as t h e i n t j c t io n t t t h e W twt
s e us er e u , . ellips e of a n eg ati v e .

s i gn ifi a p fl o b eath — L wi S c t t to blow a
es u

r r . e s . . oo , T he sli g h t i n ar ti c la t e sou n ds t h at esc ape inv ol n u u

ho n to exp s d issati fac tion o c on tempt J m A s


r , r es s r .
-
a . tarily from a perso n or lowes t wh is p er are r epr esen t ed , ,
xvi I NT RO D U CTION .

by t he s yll able
his t wh i t whi h c h t c h m s s st, ,
s ,
s ,
u , us , u , v h h
fou n d a a ilabl e, w et er it t en d ed to ill u s tr at e th e for
m t m k m &c an d t h e f c t f tot l il en e is ex
u ,
u ,
u, .
, a o a s c mati on of a wor d , or th e appli c ation O f a s ensibl e i mage
pr es s e d by yi ng t h at n ot even a sa n d of s c h a n a s ou u x
t o th e e pr ess ion O f a mo r al c on c eptio n .

t ure was h ear d S p n d c i c h s i mus n i his za i . I h v as a l e omitt d wo d O f c la i cal d i vation


. o e r u a c r n a e ru e r s ss er ,

mis t I t n n f n i mott ni totto G p g w p id yp


ar . o whet h i mm edi at e o t hro gh t h e F n h nl s fh
ar o r . v e
'

r e v er r u re c , u ess u

{ ; L at n e m tir e q id m t o be totally il en t
an} . D an a ien tly di g i ed in f m t o eq i
u e ,
xpl n ati n in s . . c s u s or r u re e a o , or

m le o g ny
a r G yp ) t h e lig h t es t so n d ; h n g c as r wh e e t h e meani ng of t he w d h b een g e tly
. v , s u a av es r or as r a

ikke en m k n t th e ligh te t so n d e c ap d him


u ,
o F modifi ed d ur i ng its e id n c e in
s s fo ig n oi l o w h e
u s e . er r s e a re s , r er

rall T h a th o O f P i ers Pl wm an spe aki n g O f t h


. e u it eemed d es i able t poi n t t elati n n ot c omm nly
r o ,
e s r o ou r o s o

avari c e O f t h e monk y t h at yo may sooner e


gn i d b y O
s , sa c l ass i c al
s h la It is diffi lt to u r co se ur sc o rs . cu

d w c h a li ne v e y ac c ately and do btl w d f ra su r ur u ess or s o


m t th m i t M lv n hill e e
c l a i c ori i n wi ll
e on
c c asion all y h a ve
s
lipp d in wh e e it
a er s
,

Th g t m m f th i m th till m y b th m h w d g ss o s e r
an e a o o er ou s on e e e s e e
mi gh t n t b e ve y eas y to ex pl ai n th e g
.

nd f th e o r r ou s O

M m is t h en se d as an i nt e j e tion c omm an di n g i
u uex c eption r c s .

l enc e fo a ta te of ilen c e
, or In l ik e man n e I t c iti
r s I t h as b een s al in th e i n t od c tion to wo ks of th e
s . r . r e, u u r u r

to whi pe ftl y an d sc arc e t m ve th e lip ; non f a e


s r so p esent d escripti n t o gi v e a t able of t h e c n n ant al o o s r r o o so

zitt n on nti i n zitto n on fiata e n on alit a e n ot to


o, se rs a h ang es met wit h in t ac i ng a oot th o g h th l te d
,
r ,
r , c r r r u e re a

l et a b eat h be h ear d to b e p e fec tl y sti ll


r Th en wit h l ang age B t it seem to me t h t t h e e i n t n d e
,
r .
u s . u s a r s o a a ‘

t h e ell ip f t h n eg ti v e zitt h h ed il en t ; iti e t o


se o e q ate ad vant age in a h a p o vi i n If it b e c onfi n d
, o, us , s c r , u suc r s o . e

s il en c e wh i t till — Fl S c whi h a whi p a


, s , s h t o a t at emen t of t h e c on n an ts wh i c h m y oc a io al
. . s ,
s er , r us s so a c s n

ing o wh izzi n g so n d ; to whis h to h us h


r J am 1y u place eac h oth e in eq i valen t f m it mi gh t j ,
. . re r u or s, us

t ify t h e h n g e O f an y lett e i n to alm t a n y t h an d c a r os o er ,


L t h y lp b y lma m er e on , e ou as ca

s a ou se,
if it took i n to acc o n t th e n diti ns n d e wh i h ta i n
l ty whi ht b h d i t th h
u co o u r c c er
N or a our s e ear n o e ou s e .

h ng a f n d it w ld d aw to too g eat a lengt h c a es re ou , ou r r .

Again th e o nd O f b eat hi ng is ep esented by th e E ty m l gy i lik e ot h sc i en e Y o c an ot t n e


, s u r r r o o s er c s . u n a o c

Sc . h swo c h swo gh an d t h en c e b y t h
souc , same
u c a y c o n v i c tio n in a gi v en d e iva tio n to one wh o h as
,
u , e rr r

ellip e O f t h e n e ative
s
g h si len t t an q il xplai n n eve atten ded t o th e bj e t an d th e ki n d O f c h ange
, s oa c , , r u , e r su c ,

i g th e A S
n wug n wig an s wi n G . s
y to b e c om ap a tib l,e wit h id en tit y in th e
s , t of a wo d m t b e
u a ,
r . at av, r oo r us

sil ent fi" p a ti ll y lea n d in t h e o rs O f ex p i n e T he r c ca r e c u e er e c .

Afte t h s t ac i ng th e exp e ion f id ea lik e en d


r u r b e t p epa ation will b e f n d in an ac c at an aly isr ss o s ur s r r ou ur e s

a nce or c o n tin ance an d ev en f i len c e i ts el f to an im


u of t h e , g a i c el ations f th e elemen t a y so nd o s , or n r O r u s .

itati e oot we n eed n ot d bt t h e po ibil it y of ex p e


v r , T he l l ific ti n O f th e on n an ts a ang s
ou ss r ss us u a c ass a o c so rr e

ing a n y t h e id ea on t h e s ame p i ipl


o r A d e ivati n t h m n a do ble p i n c iple viz fi t ac c di ng t t h e r nc e . r o e o u r ,
. rs , or o

t h en in th e followi ng pag e wi ll nly b e c n id er ed as p a t of t h e voc al g a b y the ac tion of wh i h the mod s o o s r or ns c

h avi ng eac hed it tm t limit wh en it is t ac ed to n ific ti n is p od c ed as l bi als p b j , m ; d en t al t d


r s u os r a a o r u , a , , ,
s, , ,

i mitati ve r oot I n th e g eat m j ity of i n t n es we th ; and g tt l k g G e m h ; n d ec ndly ao


. r a or s a c ,
n u ur a s , , , r . c a s o ,

a e f c ed t o top far h r t O f t hi s an d m
r or st b e sati fi d c o di ng to t h e n t e O f th e o gani c ac tion mployed in
s o , us s e r a ur r e

if we a e abl e t b i ng to li gh t ome po ti n O f t h e p o
r o p on n i ation as t en es p t k ; m di als b d g ; pi
r s r o r r u c ,
u , , , e , , , as

ce b y wh i h th e fo m of the wo d an d th e ac t al ig ni
ss c t f o p h th ch liq id l m n ; bre at hings s h
r r u s r a es , r , ,
u s, , , ,
r , , ,

ficat ion h av e b een a tta i n ed nd emi vowel y an d w . v a s s, .

O ne impo t n t c on eq enc e O f th e f egoi ng t h eo y


r a O in a t ab l a view s u or r r u r .

of t h e fo m atio n O f lang ag e m r t n ot b e ov e l k d ; T
u
M di l A pi t
us r oo e
en u es e a s s ra es

t h at it ac o n ts f t hos st iki ng c i nc idences whi c h a e


. .

c u or e r o r

o cc as ion ally f n d in t h e m t mote l ng ag e i e ou os re a u s, rr

spec ti e f t h q e tio n wh t he t h e
v O mm n f ms O f
e u s e r co o or

s peec h a e t h e li nge i ng emnan ts of a c mm n an c e


r r r o o s

t y r T h e m t b a b a ous n ti n a e Oft e n ex t emely


. os r r a o s r r

g ood mi mi cs a nd it w ld n ot be s p i i ng if t h e ir imi
, ou ur r s

tati n of n at al o n d s Often ag eed wit h o


o s ur own I s u r ur .

have ac c dingly mad e u se of eve y so c e whi h I h av e


or r ur c

B t thi as h as f eq en tly been Ob e ved omits man y u s, r u s r ,

n l i es O f th v e y kin d w hi h c o n tit tes t h p i nci a a o e r c s u e r


g
3“ T h llip i f th e n g tiv in ph
e e xp iv f l of t he an em n t I t i pl i n t h t has t an d
s s O e a e, rases e r ess e O
s il n e ce, e en s
p
x t d to w d wh imit tiv ty m l gy i n t z to s th e me el ti n t hat t h e medial has t o the
or
g
s os e
f a e e o o
e a rr e . s a a v o ,
s o
sa r a o
so Obvi nd f milia ous Th P l Lo is C i
a ys a r u s, au u our er s a
,

t en is ; t h at is r el a te d to b as f to p an d t h a t h
.
,

x An on ym
u v s
in Répo n N
se a u2 es , O . :
,

tand in th e ame elation to s s p h t p o th to t as s s s r a o , r ,

L i d ij l i d A im q is sh own by th e mod e of p elli ng w h t a e in t t h im



u t g pr eng an é
r ec ou r rec , s e accu sa s

n s e, ue r s a r ru s

p d it il ? M t
on ra Il it é t é o .

l e s o nd
sera onn .

u s
p .

T h e wh ol e O f t h e o g n i c l ti ns of t h e c n on an t l
T h Fr n h m t I t li n m tt i d iv d f om th M L
r a re a o o s a
e e c o a a o o, s er e r e
,
I xh
.

m tt m
u nd
u whi p (f m L t m ti ) to w hi h
, a sou or s o n ds i b el
s
i ev e e
er ,
ibit d in t h e f llowi ng tab l
ro
i n
a a re, c ou r
u s, ,
e o e,

h h
.

m tt i
u er l tiv S D
s a c orr e a
g n d m tt m M y w i c e t h e.
n am es f eep i a t nd
u can
a nt a ad pt d in
e u er u u . a O s r n a s on re o e

n t th
o L ti m t nd it d iv tiv b th adj ctiv l te d f t nnis and m d i l as exp es i ng mo c l a ly
e a n u us a s er a es e e e a s a o e e a ,
r s re e r

f rm f th
o m w d w ith th l
O e sa of p iv tiv e — M e t h e n at e of t h e v oc al modific a tio n
or , e os s a r a . ur .
INT RO D UCT ION .
xvii
plos ion prod uc ti v e of th e c orrespon ding sonant or sp i
S pi ra n t . Sonan t . Liq uid .
r an t T h e voc al o g an s d ur i ng t h e p on n c i ation of th e
. r r u

lett er M a e in t h e pos ition oc c pi ed at th e moment im


r u

medi at ely pr ec edi ng th e ex ertion b y whic h B is p ro


PH or F n ou nc ed an d so wit h r esp ec t t o N an d D N G an d G
, , ,

an d t h e same is I beli ev e tr u e of L a nd TH H and


, , ,

G er m CH
. G ael . GH H C H Hen c e may b e explai ned th e c omm on ph enome
.

n on kn own as t h e n asalisa tion of a c ons on an t w h en t h e ,

c orr esp onding liquid is i n ser ted in a wor d b efor e a adi r


T H in thic k D H , T B in this L
c al s pi an t or so n an t as in G
r M pfi w fr om a r oot Z a p
, r. a , ,

L at t nd o fr om a r oot tud &c


. u , O n th e ot h er h and a ,
.
,

z n , Fr . J Y, G er m . J liq u id is frequ en tl y st rengt h ened by th e a dditi on O f t he


c o respon di ng son an t as t h e vu l ar
r
g g own d for gown E
, , .

T he ord er O f th e vowels pronou nc ed as in I tal


n at ural s wamp , G . sch wamm, &c .

ian is i e a a (in c all) 0 u of whi c h i a t on e en d a n d


, , , , , , ,
I h ave not been able to c ome to a clear nd e tan ding u rs

u at t h e ot h er p ass in to t h e semi vow els y an d w as to th e n at e of t h e an i c ac tion wh i c h p od ces


ur or
.
g r u

T he diffe enc e b etween th e spir an ts an d t h e so n an ts


r ,
wh at I h ave c alled th e c lear o t hi k classes O f c on o r c s

as i n ti ma ted b y t h e n ames is t h a t t h e l att er a e p ro


,
r n an t b t th e gene al c onvi c tion t h at t he c h ang f om
s, u r , e r

n ou nc ed b y th e f ll to ne O f t h e voi c e while in th e for c lear t o t h i k i effec t e d b y a d efinit e o


c s a n i c modifi a r
u , g c

mer th e same ar ti c ul ation is use d wit h a b e at h in g o nly r . tion is witn essed b y th e fac t th a t the t h ic k c n onan t is
, , o s

Bot h of t h e e c olumns ha v e be en c ompri e d u n d er th e


s s w itt en by th e addition of an H to t he c orrespondi ng
r

n ame of ex los ives


p as formed b y t h e v oi c e or b eat h
,
r c lear on e .

bei ng forc ed thr oug h a p as s age su dd enly Opened in some With resp ec t to th e probable lengt h to w hi c h th e
part of th e voc al o gans at the momen t O f arti cul ation
r . presen t wo k may be ex pec t ed to ru n many c ir cum
r
,

T he pec ul i arit y O f th e liquids is t h at th e c onfigur ation s t an c es ten d to h elp us mo e qui c kl y over th e ou n d as r r


g
O f t h e voc al o
gans wit h whic h t h ey a e pro nou nc ed is
r r we ad v an ce an d f om su c h an esti ma te as I am able to
, r

th e same wit h t h at wh i c h immed ia tely pr eced es th e ex make I h op e to c omplete it in two more volumes
2%
.

VO L I . .
T A BLE

O F

C O N T RA C T I O N S A ND PRI N C I PA L RE FE RE N C E S .

AS . An glo S axon .

Bav . Bava ian r .

S ch m S chmeller Bay er i sch es WO rt erb u ch


'

. . . 18 2 7 .

Boh em . Boh emian .

Palk ovitsch BO hm D eu t sc h L at WO rt erbu eh 18 20


- -
. . . . .

Br et . Br eton .

Legon . L egonid ec . D i et C eltO Br etonne


.
-
. 18 2 1 .

C at . C at al an .

Es teve . C at D iet . . 1 8 03 .

D an . D ani sh .

M olbe ch . D an sk O r db og 18 3 3 . .

Ferr all an d Repp . D an E ng D iet . . . 1 84 5 .

Pr ovi nci al D an ish .

M olbech . D a nsk D i alekt Lexi c on . 184 1 .

Du . D th
u c .

Kil . Kil i an . y
E t mologi c um T eu t onic ae L in gu se . 1 6 05 .

Biglotton seu D ic t ion arium Te t u . L at . 1 654 .

Halma D i et Flaman d F anc . . r . 1 7 29 .

Per e Mari n D i et H ell Fr anc . . . . 17 30 .

E . En gli sh .

OE . O ld E ngli sh .

Prov . E .

B . Bai ley s E ng D iet ’


. . 17 3 7 .

F .
Q . Fair y Q u een .

H al . Halliwell s D iet of A rc h ai c and provi nc i al wor d s 1 8 5 2



. . .

P P . . Pi er s Plowman .

Pr Pm . . Pr omptor i um Par vul or um b y A lber t Way C amden S oc i ety ,


. .

R . Ri c h ar ds on s Engli sh D iet ’
.

R R . . Roman d e la Ro se .

E sth on . Esth oni an .

H iip el s E sthnisc h e S pr ac hl ehr e



1 8 18 . .

Fin . Finni sh .

Renv al Fi nn i sh Lexi c on 1 8 2 6. . .

Fr . Fr en c h .

C ot . C otgrave Frenc h E ng D iet 1 6 5 0 .


-
. . .

Be onie D i et d u Bas L imou sin


r . .
-
.

D iet C astr . . C ou inié z D i et d e la l angu e Rom an o C ast r aise


. 18 5 0 .
-
. .

L a ng . Langu edoc i an .

D iet L an g F anc p ar M r L D S
. 1 7 85 . r . . . . . .

Voc abul air e d e Berr i 1 8 4 2 . .

Pat d e Br a i . D iet d Patoi s d u p ays d e Br ai


. u 185 2 . .

Fr i s . Fr isi an .

G . G e ma n
r .

O HG .
O ld Hig h G erman .

Kiit t n .
Kiitt ner ’
s Ge m r . E ng D iet . . 1 8 05 .

S a nd e W O rterb d er d eu tsc hen S p he


u rs . . r ac . 18 5 9 .
T A BLE OF CONT RA CT IONS . xix
G ael G aeli c .

Macleod G ael . . E ng D iet . . 18 3 9 .

Ar mstrong . I3 O . 18 25 .

Gris .

C ar iseh . W O r te r b . d er Rh aeto—
Romani sc h en S prac h e .

Hu ng . Hu ngari an .

F arkas H . un
g er m D iet
. 18 54 G . . .

D ank ov sky . M agyaric se Linguae Lexi c on . 18 3 3 .

Ic el . Ic elan di c o O ld N orse r .

An d ers . or G u dm . Lexic on Islandic um a G dmun d o A n dreas ( G An d erson) u . . 16 83 .

Hal d . Bior n H al d or sen I c el L ex 1 8 1 4 . . . .

It .

Fl . Florio I t D i et 1 6 8 0 . . . .

A lti eri It E ng D iet 1 7 2 6 . . . . .

Langu edoc S ee Fr . .

L ap . Laplan d .

Li ndahl and O hrling L ex Lapponi cum 1 7 8 0 . . . .

Lati n .

Mid . L at . Lati n O f the Middl e Ages .

D ue . D u c a ng e Glossari um M edias et I nfim ae Lati nitati s 1 6 8 1


. . .

C agp . C ar p en ti er S upplemen t to D c ange 1 7 6 6 . u . .

D ief S up . D i efenb ac h S upplemen t to D u e ( L at 18 5 7 . . . .

Lit h .

N esselma n L ith au isc h es WO rte rb 185 1


' '

. . .

Piedm . Pi edmon tese .

Z alle D i et Pied m

, 18 15 . . .

Pl D . . Platt D eu tsc h L ow G e man of th e sh ores of . r the


Brem B emi sc h N ied ersac h sisc h es Wdrte b
r 1 7 68 -
r . .

Pol . Polis h Behr Poli sh Engli sh D i c t 1 8 4 9


. .
-
. .

Port . or Ptg . Port gu ese


u .

Roq ete Port F D iet 1 8 4 5


u . . r. . .

Vi eyr a Port E ng D i et . . . .

Pr ov . P ov encal
r .

Ba rn Raynou ard . D iet Pr ev . . 18 3 6 .

Rou c hi . Patoi s O f th e Hai naul t .

H écart . D iet Ro uc hi Fr ane .


-
. 185 2 .

Ru ss Ru ssian .

Sc . Lowlan d S c otc h .

J am . Jamieson , D iet . O f S cottish L ang . 1 8 08 .

D V D ougl as

.

Sp . S pani h s .

N ewmann an d Barr etti, Sp E . . D iet . 18 3 1 .

Tabo a da S p ,
. Fr D . i et . 1 8 28 .

S er v . S e vi an
r .

S te ph an son . L ex S erbic o G erm L at .


-
.
-
. 18 1 8 .

Sw . S wedish .

W id egr en . S w ed . E ng D iet . . 1 7 88 .

N or dforss . S wed . Fr D iet . . 1 8 05 .

S wab . S wabi an .

S hmid S chwabi h e WO te b 1 8 3 1
c .
'

se s
'

r r . .

S wiss . S tal d S h w it e i c h e I dioti on


er . 1 8 05 c e z r s s c . .

S w Rom
. . S wi Romanc e T he F e c h p toi of S witze lan d
ss . r n a s r .

Humbert Voc ab l i e G enev is 1 8 5 2 . u a r o . .

Vau d . Rec il d Pato i d es D i alec tes d e la S i e F ancai se Lau sanne


ue u s u ss r . . 184 2 .

Venet . Veneti an .

P atri arc h i Voc abolario Venezi an o e Pad ovano . 18 2 1 .

W . Welsh .

Walac h . Walac hian or D ac e Roman -


.

l s ser Walac h i sc h D e ts c h es WO rt erb 1 8 5 0


.
-
u . .

L ex W alaehieO L at H ng G erm 1 8 2 5
.
-
.
-
u .
-
. .

Wal .
Walloo n .

G r an d g . G an d gagnag e
r D iet d e la Langu e Wall onn e . . . 1845 .

S . S S ame sen s e .
D I C T I O N A RY OF E N GL I SH E TYMO L O GY .

A, as apr efix to n o uns is co mmo nly th e r emnan t ,


th e olu te co mmand O r enti r e c ontr ol of
ab s an
y one,

of t h e A S on in on amo n to sub d u e ru le h a v e en ti r e d o mi n io n ov er
g a s a ba ck A S ou b aec ;
-
. .
, , , , , , , .

a wa
y A S on w aeg a like A S ou lic
-

th t th ryll (th o ht hi
-
.
, , . .

A nd he a r all ) is is n c s,
I n th e O b so lete a d own it r ep r es en ts th e A S of .
; A ll th at h e h as mb d wnyt i e an o s
of or fr o m ; A S o d u ne l it era lly
f fr o m a h ei gh t
.
-
, , , Unto h is Lo d wh tever h be Bru ce i 244 r , a e . . .

d own w ar ds .
T h e h ar d y B c e a ne o t b d w yt ru s a an o n

A s a p r efix to v er b s it corr es ponds to th e Goth .


Twenty th u nd h e rewlly t be f ce and wit
o sa or

u s out of
, C H G u r a r er ir G er i mp lyi ng a
.
, , , .
,
Upon th e S c ottis h is men fo to r k ew r es .

c o mpl etio n of t h e a c tio n .


W llace x 3 17 a . .

T hus G er wac hen to a w ake is to w ak e u p fr o m


.
T h e k ing ry ch t w eill re au y t h e s ,
, ,
A wn d ret u k h is man to b e ,
nd
a s t a t e of sl eep ; to a bide is to w a it u n ti l th e e v en t

l ook ed for tak es p la c e ; to a r is e to g et u p fr o m a


,
A nd h im an d h is on m on w y y ss
, He a ba nd o wnyt ill h is t s er vis e . Br u ce in . 13 0.

r ec u mb e n t po s t u r e S ee G r i mm ii 8 1 8
th a t
. . .
,

A S wfla n be cefla n bcefla n after b e


He d red eth G od wol d o d iligence to ple e G od by s
A b aft
h with all h i mig h t well f r
-
. .
, , , ,
h is we k es r a nd a ba ndon imsel f s o
hi n d Hence on bcefla n ab aft T h e wo rd s eems
.
-
,
.
to d o .
— Parson s Tale ’
.

,
v er y ea rly to h av e ac q u ir ed th e na u ti cal u se in whi c h
T h u s we th at th e ellipti cal expression of an
see “
al o ne it s u r vi v es a t th e p r e sen t d a
y .

a b a n d o n ed c h a r a c t er to whi c h th e a cc i d en t of l an ,
Eve y man r sh ewid hi s c onny ng tof e th e sh ip nd b fi
or a a .

g ua g e h a s a tta c h ed th e n otio n O f on e en slav ed to


Chau c B ry u 843 er , e .
,
.

vi c e mi ght in i tself with equ al pr op r i ety h av e been


,

u sed to s i n ify d e votio n to


A ban d on I mmed i at ely from Fr aba nd on ner
. .
, g g oo d .

an d th a t fro m th e n o u n ba n d on
(a ls o ad op ted in A ga i n as tha t whi c h is p lac ed a t th e ab so lu te
,

E ngli s h b u t now ob s o lete) c omma nd o rd ers d o


, , , ,
c o mman d of on e p ar ty mu st by th e s am e a ct b e en

min io n T h e wo r d Ba n is c o mmo n to all th e l an


. ti r ely g iv en u p by th e o ri gin al po ssesso r it was an ,

s of th e T eu to n i c s to ck in th e s en s e O f p r oc e as y s te p fro m th e s en se of c o nferr in
u
g ga e g th e com
lama tion an no un c emen t r ema i n i ng with u s in th e
, ,
ma nd O f a t h i ng u po n s o me p ar ti c u lar p er son to ,

r es t r i c ted a pp l i ca tio n to Bann s of Mar r i a e


g P as s . t h a t of r eno unc i ng al l cla i m to a u tho rity ov er th e
ing i nto th e Ro manc e tongu es thi s wo r d b eca me su bj e c t ma tt er witho u t p arti c u la r r efer en c e to th e
,
,

ba n do in Ita li an and Sp an i sh a n ed i c t or p rocla ,


party i nto who se h an ds it m i ght come ; and thus in
ma tio n ba n don in F r en c h in th e sa me sen se a nd
, , ,
mod ern ti mes th e wo r d h as c o me to b e u sed a lm o s t
s econ dar i ly in t h a t of c o mmand o r d ers d o mi n io n e x c lus iv ely in th e s en se of r enu nc i a tio n or d e s e r
, , ,

power : tion . D edic iO“ — a ba u n d u nement



th e s u rr end er ,

of a ca s t le N eeeh a m .

d O f Ro ss h e roars
.

A la ng st th e lan
T h e ad v er bi al exp r es s io n s a t a ba nd on ba n donly
,

b y d at h is b nd wn
A nd all o e e a o , ,

W al
,

E ven frae th e north t o s th en shores u r .
a ba n d on l
y s o c o mm o n in th e
,
Bru c e a nd

Bat tle f H law in Jamieson o ar . lace like th e 0 Fr a s on ba n don, a ba n d on , may . .

be e xp la i n ed , a t his own wi ll an d p l easu r e, a t h is


Th an W llace said Thou spekis of my ch ty thing
a , ,

Fra worthi B h ad r a it h is cr wn ruce es v o ,


own i mp u l s e ,
u nc o n trolledly i mp etu o usly , , d et er
I th o eh t h ve m id I ngland t hi b nd wn
u a a a s a o ,
min edly . A insi s a v an c er en t

d e g r a n d volon té
S wttrely it s ld b yn t hi will
o u e a s , to u s h ev al i er s et ec uyers
C et p ii r ent t err e

.

Wh t p le y t h im to sanif th e k ing or pill


a s , s .

F r oiss v ol iv e 1 1 8
W ll ce
. . . . .

a a
[ T h er e is a goo d exam pl e of th e u se of ba ndon
.

H enc e to emba n d on or a ba n d on is to br i ng u n d er in th e s ens e O f c o n tr ol or po ss ess io n in th e C h r o ,

VO L. I . 3
18 A BA SH . A BBO T .

niqu e d u Roi G ui llaume d A nglete rr c p ubl i sh ed ’


, by c y of whi ch is to man ifes t it self by an in volun tar y
Mi ch el C hr A nglo No rman des III 1 2 3
,
.
-
, . op enin g of th e mo u th .

E t s erj n t en lor m i on p isen t a a s r In h im s elf was all his s ta te


Ab q u a n q u il i t roveren t ,
a nd on

M ore sol e th n th e tedio s mn h h a u pomp w ic waits
T res tou te la sal e r eub erc n t — M ] O n p inc e w h en t h ei ric h etin
i
. .
r s, l ng r r ue o

Of h es l ed an d g r om s be me
ors ed w ith g old o s ar
T O A b ash O r i g i nally to p u t to co nfusio n fr o m
. ,
D azzles t h e c owd nd t th m ll g p — M ilton
,

r a se s e a a a e.
,

w h et h er of fear of wo nd er
.
,
a ny s t r o ng emotio n , , ,

s h ame or a d mi r a tio n b u t r es t r i c t ed in m o d er n ti me s Wall to l ook at with op en mou t h es ba wz


ba wz,
’ '

.
, , ,

to th e effec t of s h a me A bash is an ad option of th e . to ab a w or as to n i s h G r an d g S ee A bi d e . . .

[ T h e c o n nec tion in sen s e be t ween beer an d es ba hzr


'

F r es ba hzr a s s o u n d ed in t h e great er nu mb er of
'

.
,

th e i nfl ec tio n s es baln ssons es ba ln s sa n t is w ell s h ow n by a p as s ag e in the D it d e G u i llau me


' '

.
, ,

I n o r d er to c on v er t th e wor d t h u s i n fl ec t ed in to d A ngleterr e Mic h el Ch r o niq u es A N III 1 9 1



-
. . .
, ,

E ngl i sh it was n a tu r al to c urta il mer ely th e t erm i Lo vint c ell e par te rs e

n a tio n s on s a is a mt by w hi c h t h e i nfl ec tio n s d if
, , , O h 1a bouree au march n t f pen d n t deme ée ea u a ur ,

x x at at
fer ed fr om eac h oth er a n d th e v er b was w r itt en in
=< a:

E ngl i s h to a ba isse or a ba zslz as r a msh p olish q


,
' ’ 1e roi a h t l ve
au e

e
, , ,
L a main, q u

il 1a vo t p n r en d r e ; m es i1 fu fols et bee,

m sh fr o m r a v ir p okr f ou r m r
’ ' ’

, , ,
.

Q ue li do us de nd e
Jh esu C itfi
-
r s s t u n e a ig le sce r ,

Many E ngl i sh v erb s of a s imi lar d er iva tion w er e Q u i aube c t a s o n g l ala la bour ee p
e nd e u es re r .

form erly w r itten ind iffer en tly with or with o u t a II cuida c c f t c har Lors 1s roy an s tend reus .
,
s a ,

E u si fort b h
'

et c
fi nal sh wh er e c u sto m h as r en d er ed one or ot h er of
,
es a zs , .

th e two mod es of s p elling ob s ol et e T hu s obey was . Betr as h or betr aysh oft en o ccurs in th e sen se of
w ritt en obezsse or obeys/ w betr ay betr a slz betr ay bu t P al sgr av e q uotes Ly d g a te as au thor ity
'

.
, ,

Sp eaki ng of Na rc i ssu s stoopi ng to d r i nk Chau , for a n ot h er mean in g p 45 3 , .

cer w r it es I BE T RA Y S S (Lydgate ) I g o abo ts th e s tretes of a


II E . u

I n th e w ter anon was s ene a town o eytie


s r J t prim c onj This ve be is n t
. e ra ca s se, . . r a

H is n o e h i mo th h is y en sh on e s ,
s u ,
e , y et tak n in c om en u se
e M ] . .

A nd h e th e eof w s all b / d r a a as ze ,
T O A bate Fr a bba ttr e to b ea t d ow n to r uin
H i owne s h ad ow h ad h im b l m / d
. .
, , ,
s a s ze

F or w ell h e wen ed t h e fo me to e r se
ov er thr ow c a st to th e gr o un d Cotgr Wall a ba te
, ,
. .
,

O f a c h ilde of ful l g e te be t i — R R 15 2 0 r au . . . .
fa i r e to mb er G randg It a bba tter e to ov er thr ow
,
. .
, ,

to p u ll d own t o mak e l ow er d ep r ess w eaken t o ,


In th e o r i gi n al
, , ,
0

d i mi n i s h th e fo r ce of a n ythi n g ; a bba tter e la vela ,


E t i1 main t enan t éb l t
’ '

s a u
to s t r i k e s ail ; a bba tter e d a l p r ezz o to h at e so me
C a son u mb e s i 1 t b l
'
,
r r e ra a
thi ng of th e p r i ce ; a bba tter sz to li ght u po n to hit
'

C ar il c uid v i la fi g u e a o r r , , ,

to happ en to meet wit h ; a bba tter sz in u n a terr a to


'

D u ng enf n t be l d mes e

a a e ur .
, ,

O n th e o th er h an d bu r ny was fo rmerl y in u se as ,
take po ss ess io n of an est ate H en c e th e OE la w . .

w ell a s bu r nish ; a bay or a ba w as well a s a ba zss e or


'
term a batement wh i ch is th e ac t of on e wh o in ,

a ba is/z
t r ud es i n to th e pos sess io n of lan d s voi d by th e
I saw th
wh en I w s nigh e ros e a ,
d ea th of th e fo r m er po ss esso r an d n ot yet t aken ,

I t was th
ereo n a g ood ly s ig h t up b
y t h e l a wfu l h e i r ; a n d t h e p ar ty who thu s
o suc h
a noth er as I g esse
F r
po u nc es u po n th e i n her ita nc e is call ed an a ba tor .

A fo ne n e wa s n e mo v ermeil le
r re
S ee Bea t Bat e
, ,

I was b w d fo me veille — R R 3 6 45 a a
'

z r r . . . .
,
.

A bb ot, A bbey, A bbess Mor e c or r ec tly wr i t .

In th e o r i gin al
t en a bba t fr o m L at a bba s a bba t zs an d t h a t fr o m
'

.
, , ,
Moult m b h d e la me veille ’
es a
'

zs r .
Syr i an a bba fa t h er T h e wor d was oc cas ion all y
,
.

Yield y ou m dame en h ic ht can S ch ir L t say a us , wr itt en a bba in L ati n I t was a tit le of r esp ec t .

A word s ch o co ul d n ot s peik c h o was s b id s o a a .


for mer ly g iv en to mo nks in gen er al an d it mu s t ,
K Har t in J mi on . a es .

hav e b een d ur i ng th e ti me that it h ad thi s e xt en d


C u stom whi c h h as r ender ed ob sol et e betr a sh a nd
, ed s i gn ifi c atio n t a t it g a v e r i se to t h e L a t a bba tt a
h .
'

obezsh h as e x er c i s ed h er au thor ity in l i k e man n er an a bb ey or s o c i ety of a bbots or mo n k s


'

, , E p ip h a .

over a bay or a ba w bu m y as tony , , . n i u s s p eak i n g of th e Ho ly p l ac es say s


, x d mm; , , e et e

T h e o r i gi n of es ba hzr i ts elf is to b e fo u n d in t h e W n tain s a t h o u s an d


'

a fi d g
a aX O UQ x h ’
M‘
m it c o
It al. t a “ ,

0 Fr baer béer to ga p e an on oma top aeia fr o m


. .
, , , mo nk s a n d a tho u san d c ells — D u c an ge In pr o .

th e s o u n d Ba mo st n a t u ral ly u tt er ed in th e op en
, ces s of t ime we m eet with p r ot e s t atio n s fr o m St .

in g of th e l ip s H en c e L at Ba lm? ! Mod Pr ov. . . . Jer ome an d ot h er s aga i n s t th e ar r ogan c e of a ssum


Ba h ! th e in t erj ec tio n of wo n d er ; a n d a ba u bir es , in g th e title of F a th er a n d e it h er fr o m feel i n gs of ,

ba hir in th e ac tiv e fo r m to s e t a ga p e c o n fo u n d
, , , , s u c h a n a t u r e or po s s ib ly fr o m t h e a n al o g y be
,

as to n i s h to s t r i ke with feel i n s t h e n a t ur al t en d en
, g ~ tw een a commu n ity of monks and a p r ivat e fami ly .
A BELE . A BE T . 19

th e n ame of A bbot or F a th er was u lti ma t ely con i n st ead of th e thi n ner ha v e th e vow el sound of on

fi n ed to th e h ead of th e hou se whi le th e mo nk s nu e as in th e c r


y of en c o u r a gem en t to d o gs a bouto I , , ,

d er his c o n t r o l w er e c alled Br oth er s u s ed in t h e Sou th of F ian c e . .

A bel e T h e whit e pop lar P ol bia lo d r z ew lit


.
T he sen se s of k i n dlin g m ak i n g u p an d men d i n g . .
-
, , ,

er al ly w h it e t r ee fr o m bia lo w h it e a fir e su pp lyi n g it with fu el


,
a r e c l o s ely all i ed ,
. , ,
.

T O A bet, Bait, B8 136 D i r ec tly fr o m 0 F r a bet A n d fr o m men di n g a fir e th e s i gn ifi c a tion is e x


. . .

ter to i n c it e an i ma t e an d tha t fr o m th e c r y bet !


, ,
t en d ed t o emb r a c e th e s en se of r ep a i r i n g men d i ng
, , , ,

g d ogs on t h e i r p r ey

u s ed in s etti n in gen er a l Se T o beit a mi s te r to su ppl y a .
. .

,

T o beit on e s b a le to r emed y o n e s mis



H ba d e me w h t time a h ar t I met
e
w an t a
.

,


Th t I h ld let lip d s y Go be tt !
a s oufor tu n e D a i ly w ea r i n g n eed s y ear l y beiting
s an a ,
. .

With H y g o b tt ! H ay go b tt ! H ay g o bett !
a F r o m th e u se of a d og in dr ivi n g cattle th e t erm
e e ,

N ow h ll we ha v e g ame n d sport n ow
s a was S p ec i al ly a pp lied to th e d r ivi n g of c a ttl e to a e .

C ommon plac e Book of Ric h d H ill Fras er s p ast u r e Ic el a t beita p astu m ager e p ec u s wh en ce
-
ar cs .

. .
, ,
M a g A u g 1 8 58 . . .

beit S W bete a p as t u r e gr a zin g ; g et i bete to gra z e ; ,


.
, , ,
T h e h erd of har te s f nd en is an n beta boskap to gr a z e ca tt le to feed c a tt leou
I n l i ke o ,

With h ey go bet ! p ick e th e let g n let gon , .


,
r er o
mann er th e H u n g ba ita n i to d r iv e w h en a ppl i ed
.
, ,

Cha c e L gen d of D ido D y c es S k elton I 1 6 9


u r, e .
, . .
.
, ,

to ca tt le s i gn ifi e s to d r iv e th em t o p as t u r e ,
.

I n th e So u th of F r an ce th e e x cl am a tio n takes th e I n th e n e xt s tag e ba it c o mes to s i gn ify th e a c t of


for m of A bou to / a cry mad e to d ogs c la ppi n g th e feed i n g witho u t r efer en c e to th e qu estion wh ether , ,

ha nd s to e x c it e t h em a ga i n s t eac h ot h er w h en ce th e an i mal is dr iv en to th e p a s tur e or th e food


, ,

a bou ta to se t d o gs on an d fi gu r a tiv el y to e x c ite to


, b ro ught to i t , .

a n ger D iet C as tr a is e
. .
S W beta p a vcig en to giv e you r ca ttl e food to .
.
, ,

Th i s ex clamatio n s eems to h av e b een of v ery ba it on the way I cel fia beit br ossa beit c a ttle . .
-
,
-
,

g en er al u se a s it h as g iv en r i s e a l s o to I cel beita
, foo d ho r s e foo d I n E n gl i sh th e s en se wa s for .
, ,
-
.

G ba tzen E ba it to h un t with ha w k or d og
.
, mer ly ext en d ed to t h e t akin g of foo d in g en er al
.
, , .

p r op er ly to s et on th e a n i mal to a tt a ck an ot h er
O n man y a sorry m eal n ow may sh e ba it Ch
.
,
au c er
Icel beiti ba a/ct bu n d um falc on em v c l can es in
.
, , ,
. .

c i to , e mit to . H al d S can d i na vi an langu a ge s th e n otion of


.
I n th e
dr ivi n g is m ad e to c o m p r e h en d th e a c t of u r g i ng
T h e h e d h ad w ith him a h o n d h i h ert to lig h t
r u s
fo r w a r d s an i n an i m a t e obj e c t or on e w h i c h is n ot
,

For to b i on h i bes ti w h n th i to b d e w nt
'
,
az e s s e a ro e .

William and th W ewolf r e g ar d ed as a n a g en t in th e m a tt er S W a t beta


f or
e er .
.

bes ta r n a to p u t th e ho r s e s to I cel at beita sver di , . .


,

i e to s et on h is d og to dr iv e in h is b eas t s wh en to b r an d i sh a s wo rd
. . .

t h ey w an d er ed too far I n th e sen s e of ba iting a hook th e ac c i d en t a l r e


.

T o ba it a b ull t o s et d o gs on a b ull s emb la n c e of ba it an d bite h a s l ed ety mo lo g i s t s on


,
.
,

a wr o n g s c en t T h e obj ec t for w h i c h a b a it is
E t i d ef n t it tro v e en lo p in d l pest ou d e la c ite s a
.

s a so a c r

p im f ith e s it tr aie s n cla i d c l G y h ll j e q e u sed is to i n d uce th e a n i mal to t ake th e hoo k an d


r er o o ur u e e a u a e s u s ,

a o n h
s ti lle par my l
u g a n tz
os e il p on t p l is t h u s th e thi n g is n at u r ally e xp r essed by a wo r d
es r u rues ou u rr u

d e g n t e tre b t e (w he e th ey ca n best be b it d b y th e s i gn ifyi n g i n c it emen t i n sti gatio n


z s a o eez r
So fr o m G r eit a e
, . .

peopl ) et parmy l pl g a nt o d e es o e le fa x z en to sti r u i r r it at e p r ovoke is fo rmed r eitz an


e es us r u z r s ru ,
v u

pain a1 s on c o l Libe Al b s 2 6 5 o
p r u
, , , , ,

i r r it atio n i n c it emen t ba it ( K utt n er ) ; an d th e E


. . .

.
, ,

So in D an In ds e to set on i n c ite bids e en ba r e en tic e to allu r e is a mer e ad e ption of th e Fr at


'

. .
, , , , ,

to c o u r se a h ar e tiser to i n c it e s ti r u p k i n dl e
.
, , ,
.

T h e wo r d is n ot fo u n d in A S in th e p r i m itiv e [ T h e d er iva tio n of so la r ge a nu mb er of wo r d s .


,

s en se of s e tti n g on do g s b u t th e c o m po u n d eb tan v y l t d i m n in fr o m so i mp r ob a b le a
g e e r u n r e a e n e a g , ,

is u sed in th e app li ed sen se of i n c iti n g H e is to so ur c e is on e of th e l eas t sa ti sfa c to r y of Wedg woo d s



.
,

on b aer n an n e a n d to g ebeta nn e m id t h in r e b r oth er lic c o nj e c t u r al etymo l o g i es I am n ot a w ar e of any .

H e is to b e k i n d led a nd i n cit ed by evi d en ce t h a t bet ! or r a t h er g o bet wa s e v er u s ed



n es s e lu fan .

th e z eal of yo ur b r oth er h oo d — Bed e in J u n i u s a s a t er m of th e c h a s e in t h e Co n ti n en t al l an g u age s .


,

A n d beta n it s elf is u s ed in t h e c lo s el y an al o g o u s an d it s p r ec i s e i m po r t in th e e x ampl es c it ed in t h e


s en se of k in d l i ng a fir e b
y b lowi ng it u p P r ov t ext a n d by D y ce S kelto n II 1 69 to w h i c h m ay . .
, ,
.
,

an d OE to bete or beet th e fir e to keep u th e fi r e b dd d tho se r e fer r e d to by H al l iw ell a n d a n oth er


.
p e a e ,

by s u pp lyi ng it with fu el 0 S w bceta fyr ac c en on p 5 8 of th e biogr ap h i cal an d bibl io gr ap h i cal . . .


,
.

d e r e foc u m —Ih r e D u boeten bet mer s tr u er e n oti c es p r efix ed to th e r ep r i n t of th e Book of S t


. . .
,
.

ign em a dm ov er e tition es — K il v uu r a mbu ten to A lb an s is by n o m ean s c lea r


, . .
, ,
.

s et fir e to —Ov er y ssel A lmanac h Fr boutefeu


. It is n ot fou n d am on g th e c r i es to th e hou nd s . .

an i n c en d i ar y wh er e it wi ll b e ob s er v ed t h a t we i v e n in fo l io d iii of t h e l as t men tio n ed wo r k


g
-
, , , ,
20 A BE T .

whi c h ar e in F r en ch n or in th e Vén er i e of Jac qu es ,


to “
bl owi ng th en to kin dl i ng maki ng u p
u
p, an d , ,

an d m en d in g a fir e su ppl yi n g it wit h fu el

d u Fo u il lo u x a n d t h er efo r e n otwith s t an di n g t h e
, ,
&c , ,
.
,

0 F r a better a wo r d c er t a i n ly of c omp a r a tively


. .
,
th emsel v es d er iv ed fr o m a n ej aculatio n of u n c er tain
r a r e o c c u r r en c e it may b e p r esumed n ot to h a v e ,
mea ni n g is an in v er s io n of th e gen eti c h i sto r y of
,

be en c o mmo nl y en ou g h emp l oy ed in e it h er F r an c e them all .

or E n gl a n d to h a v e g iv en r i se to s o man y wo r d s a s T h e F r en c h boute feu is g en er all y an d I h a v e n o ,

ar e h er e r efer r ed to it . d o ub t r i g ht ly r egar d ed as a c o m pou n d of th e v er b


,

T h e A n gl o S axo n beta n to r ep air g en er ally to


-
, ,
banter an d flu Boa ter is employ ed in a v ar i ety of
.

s u ppl y men d or r ek i n d le th e fi r e to r ep l en i s h with


, , ,
sen s es an d am o n g oth er s as th e popu lar e qu iv al en t
,

fuel is I t h i nk u n qu estionab ly c onn ect ed with th e


, , ,
of our p u t th e D an i s h p u tte to whi c h al s o t h e Ita l
, ,

ian bu tta r e fr equ en tly c o rr es po n d s I n C ar p en ti er s



a dv er b bet b ett er or t h e n o u n bot r e p ar a tio n
,
or , , ,
.

r a t h er with both T h e Sw ed i s h beta to men d or .


,
ad d itio n s to D uc a n ge u n d er C A RP E N T A RI I RUB E I , ,

r e p air fo r merly al so to feed or kindle th e fir e


, ,
we fi nd t h i s c it a tio n :
b ear s p r ec i sely th e sam e r elation to th e c ogna t e
Ci n d m e e oura p a s p ui d emi an ch e 1e fit tu boutes d e

r oot s in th e S c an d i n a vi an la n g u ag es as d o es a l s o
,
,
d en c h ll g
s e e ran c h e .

th e D an i sh v er b bb d e an d th e D u t c h boeten s t an d s
'

in a similar ca tego r y T h e I cel an d i c beeta to m en d .


,
Hun dr ed s of la t er examples to th e same pur po se
or r ep a i r is evi d en t ly th e v er b al fo r m c o r r es po n d
,
m i gh t b e c ited Ban ter is u sed in oth er c ompo u n d s .
,

in g to th e n o u n bot r e p ar a tio n a n d th e a d v er b betr , , ,


wh er e t h e etym ol ogy p r opo sed in th e t ext is w h o lly
b ett er ; and th e Sw ed i sh an d D an i s h beta an d M ale in a dmi ss ible as in th e trump et s i gnal bou teselle p ut
,
-
, ,

ar e r egu lar l y d er iv ed fr om baata I n th e O F r is ic . .


,
s a d dle or s i mpl y s a d dle w hic h by ac co mmo da , ,

th e v er b c o r r e spo n d i ng t o baeta a pp r oxi ma t es v er y tio n h as in m o d er n E ngl i sh b een c o rr u pted i nto


,

n ea r l y to th e E n l i sh better
g T h u s A s ega Bu c h .
,
-

,
boot a n d sa d dle
-
War d in his A n i ma d v er s io n s of
-
.
,

I 1 1 : S a beter e h i n i m ith twifald er e bote : H e


.

War r e w r it es it p rop er ly bou te s elle an d says this
,
-
,

s h al l better or r e a ir
p [ t
,h e w r on
g] to him with d o u b l e

poin t of w ar r e mean s to clapp e on th e sad “


r e a r a tion
p . dles .

T he o
tion b etw een beter b ett er an d ba te
c nn ec T h e v er b I am n ow c on s i d er in g is v er y wi del y , , ,

ba et beet r ep ar atio n r el i ef is e q u all y obvio u s in d i ffu sed thr o u gh th e langu age s of E ur op e


, , , ,
We .

D ut c h T h u s in Rein aer t d e V os W illems s edi c an h ar dly d o u b t t h a t th e D an i s h p n tte th e E n g



.
, , ,

tio n 1 8 3 6 v 5 8 62 7 :
, , . lish p ut th e F r en c h bou ter th e Sp an i sh bota r an d
-
, , ,

th e T u s can bu tta r e ar e i den ti c al an d th e v ery fr e


T en l e ten d oe hi o veral s ,
,

S oc h te e n d e ge n b t e n e n am ,
q u en t o cc u r r en ce of thi s wo r d in th e p r ovi n c i al
e ae v r ,

A n c n n c en da t hi d oe q m
e e d i al ec t s of Ital y su gges t s th e p r ob ability t h a t it o r i g i
c ra ua ,

D i en en l n g en h ls h ad
e nd e bee n ated in tha t c o u n t r y tho u g h I am n ot a wa r e t h a t
a a ,
e
,
D i n b t hi d t hi ij n g eb ec
an y p l au s ible lo cal etymol o gy for it h a s b een poi n t ed
e a a s r

B t d h i so t h m wel lon en etc


e er e, u e
I ts mor e c o mmo n s i gnifi ca tio n in Sp an i s h
.
,
ou t .

So in P la tt D eu t s c h in r efer en ce to legal p enal an d Itali an is to t h r o w or thr ow down with vio


-
, , ,

ti es : l en ce an d t h u s it wo u ld seem to c or r espo nd to butt , ,

q v os t B u t in E ngl i s h an d in D an i s h it r a t h er
O dd er s in h e e b e c ul d eg d e mi u mm e d e wu n den d e ic p . . .
rr s e

im g b t t h bb e etc
e e er e e ,
i mpl i es m o d er ate actio n as it d o es also in Pi ed
. ,

m o n t es e Z allé D is ion ar i Piemon té is g iv es as .


, , ,
A n d in a n ot h er t ext : it s gen eral F r en c h equ iv al en t s mettr e p la c er p os er , , , ,

A dir sy n h e e b h ldig ete mic h y mme dy w n den dy a r r a ng er situer p oster r a ng er an d h e c it es more


rr esc u u
, , , ,
ic h y m g b s i t h abe et e e s r
t h an ei ghty phr as eolo gi cal expr ess io n s c on t a in i ng
,
c .

Homey Ric h tsteig Land ec h t c 4 1 2 er ,


this v er b in almo st all of whi c h th e sen se of th e
r s, .
, .

A n d in th e P D t ext of t h e S ee R ec h t of Ki n g ph r as e ex clu d es th e n otion of vio len t or s u dd en


. .
-

F r ed er i c II 1 5 6 1 in We s tp h alen IV 1 8 3 2 3 0 ac tion T h e r esemblan ce of th e Pr ov D an a t


.
, ,
.
, . . .

bou te I c el a t bu ta n idr to th row d o wn to th es e


S o d ar wol d em K ock n iidig en will F il e th o b6 ten u nd
.
, , ,
r

th sp y en b t n
o s ec h ter T id t d e b t e da vor 10 Ma rek
u e r
wo r d s is p r ob a b ly acc i d en ta l as tho s e S ca n d v er b s
,

e er
,
, , .

d m K d nige etc a r e n o d o u b t c o n n ec t ed with th e r oot a t bn a to


e , . g ,

b en d ov er whi c h c an h ardly b e th e so u r c e of th e ,

S ee al so Ri c hthofen u n d er beta an d beter ia Roman ce wo r d s , . .

A ll th es e wo r d s th en a r e almo s t c er ta i n ly r ad i Beita in th e sen se of food and of ba it is a v er y


, , , ,

ca ll y c o n n ec t ed with ou r a dj ec tiv e an d a d v er b better ol d a n d by n o mean s u n c ommo n I c el an d i c wo r d , ,

a n d p r op er l y r efer ab l e to th e sa me p r im itiv e s o u r c e and it is po s s ibl e th a t th e v er b a t beita to e x c it e to .


, ,

H en c e to d er iv e a cl as s of wo r d s s i gnifyi ng to r e sti mu la t e to aim at to br an d i s h to beat aga i n s t th e


, , , ,

p a ir gen er ally fr om oth er s sp ec i ally l imit ed fir s t w ind in n avi gatio n & c & c is an alli ed wo rd
, , , ,
.
, .
, ,
A BE T . A BI D E . 21

tho ugh it is diflicult to r eco n c i le ev en th e half of So e r s *9

its v ery n u mer ou s significa tion s with t h a t su ppo s i


Ibid xxix C mm t tote n i t l
o en u

a waitie . . .

fion .
I n sho rt th e whole of this s p e c u l a tio n is b i s to r i ,

I see n o gr o u n d for su ppo s i ng th at th e r esem c ally and l i ngu i s ti c ally as i mprobable as woul d be
blan c e b etw een ba it a n d bite is an a c c i d en ta on e th e d eri v a tio n of th e E ngl i sh v erb hea r th e D ani s h .
,

T h e I celan d i c bita to bit e m ak es beit as its p r et er bor e th e I c elan dic begr a th e Ge r man b d r en a nd
, , , , ,

ite an d th e c o rr es po n d i n g S wed i s h bita h a s bet in th e Sp an i s h and 0 F r en c h air fr o m bea r ! hea r !


,
.
,

th e imp er fec t T h e vow el c h an ge is in n e it h er cas e an ej ac ul a tion mu c h u sed in th e Br i ti s h P arliam en t


.
-
,

a n o m al o u s an d our ba it o r tho epi call y r ep r es en t s


,
to d r a w th e a tte n tio n of th eau d i en c e and en c o u r age
th e p as t t en s e of th es e v erb s a s p eaker . .

T h e o r i gi n an d a s I h a v e al r ead y r emar k ed th e
, ,
It is wort h notic mg th a t titio a fir eb ran d whi c h , , ,

pr ec i se mean in g of bet in th e ej ac ulatio n g 0 bet ! s ta nd s al on e in th e L a tin langua ge and is gen er ally


, ,

ar e wholl y u n cert a i n It is l i ke th e oth er c r i es of su pposed to b e th e r oot of th e F r en c h a ttiser c ited


.
,

th e c hase mu c h mor e p r ob ab ly d er iv a tiv e t h an r ad


,
a t th e c o n cl u s io n of thi s titl e h as an o b vio u s re s em ,

i cal It may b e a h as ty an d th erefo re s h o r t en ed bla nc e to th e A r abi c a n d T urk i sh d tesb fir e and


.
, , , ,

p r o nu nc i a tio n of bite b u t as th e t ec hn i c aliti es of th e A S g etilzta n to set d ogs on th e gam e u sed in


, ,
.
, ,

t h e E n glis h vo ca b u l ar y of h u n ti n g w er e c hi efly A lfr i c s Co lloq u y N a t A n t I p 4 m ay b e a r e



. . . .
, ,

bo rrow ed fro m th e F r en c h it is n ot i mpr ob ably an la ted wo r d S ee Boot —M ] , , , . . .

ell ip tical e xp r es s io n for so m e F r en c h ph r ase con A b eyanc e S ee A b i d e . .

t a in in g th e wor d bite an d in fac t th e old v erb T O A bid e , A bie A bide and A bie (li ke g u ide
, , .
-
.

a bbeter as is hin te d by C ar p en ti e r
,
D u ca n ge v oc an d a
g y P r ov g u ida r an d
g u ia r It g r i d a e an d , ,
.
, .
,
. r ,

a bettu m is mo s t likel y ,
th e Ro man ce fo rm of a d
,
Fr cr ier ) a r e e ss en ti a lly th e same v er b u n d er d if
,
.

bes tia s in cita r e I n s o me of th e ph r ases c it ed by fer en t fo r ms of whi c h a bide h as d es c en d ed to u s


.
,

H all iw ell and D y ce g 0 bet d o es n ot app ear to b e fr o m ou r S a xon an c esto r s while a bie h a s c ome to
, ,

u sed in a s en s e an alo go u s to t h a t o f i n c it em en t an d u s thr o u h th e m ed i u m of t h e F r en c h


g , .

in tho s e wh er e it h as tha t for c e bet is n ot t h e em T o b egi n with a bie we h a v e seen u n d er A ba s h , ,


.

p h a ti c wor d if we may j udge by c omp a ri ng it with tha t th e so u n d mad e by th e i n volun t ar y op en i ng of


,

t h e F r en c h c o rr espo nd ing c ry whi c h is 22a a va n t ! t h e mo u th u n d er th e i n fl u en c e of as to n i s h men t or


,

D u Fo u i ll ou x 3 7 4 0 H en c e it would seem t h a t s i m i lar affec tion wa s i mit a ted b y th e syllable Ba


, ,
.
,

g o is th e wor d of i n c it em en t a n d bet a m er e ad v erb wh en ce in 0 Fr baer mod Fr beer to O p en th e


, , . .
, . .

possibly th e S cot c h bu t or th e like mo u th to gap e ,


.
, .

If Wedg woo d s etymology is so u n d i t mi ght b e ’

Q nt v oit 1e serpen t q i b ill , ua u ad a

ca rr i ed mu c h fur th e r F or e x amp le : w h en we C o nt ous l i g e le b Raynouard



. ra s u , u a ee . .

ba it ou rsel v e s or our ho r ses we n ec essa r i ly wa it T h e v er b s baer ba ier beer w er e t h en a pp l i ed fig


,

, ,

u n ti l t h e feed is ov er B a n d w ar e c o n v er tib le u rat iv el in th e sen se of lis t en i n a tt en tiv el y ga z


y g ,
.
,

a n d n ot to s p eak of th e c o rr es po n d en ce of b to t h e
ing with O p en mo u th ha vi ng th e a tt en tio n fixed ,

Ge rman w in th e Ci mbri c of th e S ette Co mu n i upon anyt hing b e i ng ab sorb ed in an obj ec t ,


,
.

man y old G erman d i al ec ts h a v e beiten an d th e


To b i i t a l e vir ,
us a o en a s r

e vir — R R 10
A u g sbu r g ed itio n of T auler of 1 5 08 h as ba iten P l m d e 1i d , 43 , or

a or es s r . . . .

p r ec i sely in th e sen se of wa it Beiten h as th e sam e T ranslat ed by C h a u c er .

s i gnifi c a tio n in t h e Ba v a r i an d i al ec t of th e p r e s en t

da y . Hen ce wa it is d er iv ed fro m g o bet ! F ur A ll b y w in h t v us or er o ser e

F t h a t t h ey wo ld h e l v d e v or u r o e es r e
th er languages w hi c h h a v e not th e tr u e sem i c o n so
,
-
.

n an tal w oft en su b stit u t e th e h ar d


g for it or emp l oy Po l t mp q be nt

, , ur o e s u e ser as e

a n in ter med i a t e s o u n d for both T h u s th e I r i s h E n t pe n e d l ctabl — R R 246 9


. a se e e e . . . .

Gen eral Wa ll b ecame in Span i sh A mer i ca Gen eral


I n C h au cer
Gu a l ; huev o (n evo) is n ot u n fr e qu en tly p r i n t ed
g a ce o by i n o r an t p r i n ter s in Sp a n i s h boo k s an d
g W h ils t t h l mb i t in t ha t t h
, g h t ,
ou so s o r s ou ,

on th e oth er ha n d G u ayaq u il is p r o no u n ced by th e ,


Th t i w te nd d lita b le a s so s e a e .

C hilia n s al mo st Waga gu il T h e F r en c h g uerr e T h e a d ditio n of an in iti al a m ak es n o al t er atio n


.
,

g a d e ar e th e s ame wo r d s as th e E n gl i s h wa r wa r d
r , in th e s en se and a bag er is expl a i n ed by L a c o mb e ,
.

, ,

Co n sequ en tly g uetter to lie in wa it is th e sam e é cou t er a v ec é to n n emen t bo u c he b é an t e inh iar e


x , ,

, ,

word as wa it and both ar e d er iv ed fr om g 0 bet ! loqu enti


, .

In d eed in N F r en c h th e v erb g u etter is sp elled


I mith t n d w ith h i h mm t h
.
,
w s a s a er u s,
with w and t h u s i d en tifi ed with wa it
sa a s

T h w h il t h i i n di d n v il
.
,
th l e s s ro on e a c oo ,

C il t i fi l w iti nt le n it d N l le c n te a l Haie
ro s a er e With pen m th w ll wing t il n w
u c oe o e o ou s a o a a or s

e s .

Reni Ch A ng N m III x v K J hn
'

er . . .
-
or . . .
. o s
22 A BI D E .

T he ad option of iv es u s th e v er b to
Fr T h us in many p as sages of th e S c r ipt ur es th e wo r d
a bager
g .

l ess c h ang e O f fo r m th e l e a bide in W ic kliif s v er s io n is r e p l a c e d b



a bie a n d ,
with sti ll y look f or
l t m be a nce su sp en s e or e xp ec t atio n T h e in O u r p r es en t tr an sla tio n L u ke ii 3 8 A n d sh e “
g a er a y
. .
.
,
,

Smit h s wo rk r e ma i n ed in a beya n c e whi le h e wa s



s p ak e of him to all th a t l ook ed for r ed emptio n in
,

n W icklifi s v er s io n h

J r u sal em I to t t "
pi n a t t h e t a i l o r s n e w s T h e ac tio n of ’
a p e r e a l l a

ga g
.
.


son th u s a b s o r b ed in e xt er n al ob se r v a tio n b ei n g so a bid en th e r e d em ptio n of Is r ael 2 Pet i ii 1 1 . . .
,

h h Wh t m n er of p er s o n s O u ht
ye to b e in all

su s p e n d e d t h e v e r b a bi
,
e w i c e xp r e s se s h is a tti a a n g
t u d e is applied to sirn pl e c o n ti nu an ce in i n ac tion to holy c on v er sation l ook i ng for and h asti ng to th e , ,

I n W ic klifi

c o m i ng of G od Wh a t man n er


p ass iv e en d u r an ce or po s itiv e s uffer i n g of p a i n ,
. .
,

men b eh ov eth you to b e in holi l ivi n gs a bi ding a n d


A t sigh t of h er th ey s dd ine all ar os e hi h i n
u a
u n to th e c o mi n of t h e d a of our Lo r d

I n g r t am z e me w i t wh t w y to c h us e
ea a g g
s g a ya
.


,

r o m th e n otio n of w a iti n g ti l l s om et h i n g h a
,

J v
Bu t o e a e ll f are l ess fo r ce d t h em to by F Q F p
a . . .

pen s th e next s t ep was to tha t O f end ur i ng or suf


i e to r ema i n or ab i d e
. .
fer in g th e ev en t exp ec te d th en to simp l e en d ur
.

B t pa tien ce p rfo ce h e m t bi
u e r an ce c o n ti n u an ce
, d wellin g r es t
us a e
, , , .

What fortune nd his fa te will on h im lay — F Q a


A t his wr a th th e ear th s h all t r emble a n d th e . . .


C ertes (q oth sh e ) that is th at th e wick ed shr we b e nations sh al l n ot b e able to a bide h is in d i gna tion
u es e s .

mo e bli fu l th t bi n th e to m n ts th at th ey ha v e d e
r ss a a e Jer emi a h x 1 0 r e . .

e v ed t h n if no pain of J us tic e n e c h as tis ed th em


T his E ol s n o w h er e abod
s r a .

u e
Ch a cer Boethiu s
u . .

Till h e was c ome to Fam e f et s e .

T h e c o u rs e of d e v elop men t in fo r m an d s ign i fi Ch a c er H ous e of F ame u ,


.

ca tio n in th e ca s e of A bide is e x ac tl y p ar all el


[ T h e e tymology of th e Roman c e wo r d s d i scu ssed .

I n o r d er to a voi d th e h i at u s b etw een t h e r oot ba in thi s a r ticl