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Student Data & Background

Name of Student: Makena

Date of Birth: 12/12/2005
Age: 11
Gender: Female
Grade: 6th

Student's Current Placement:

In her first month of 6th grade at Mill Middle School in Williamsville, NY. There are
students, ages 10-11, in the 6th grade. There are typically 20-24 students in each of her
classes, with students of mixed ability levels. There are AIS services and push in services
for students at Mill Middle. Below are Makana’s classroom placement for ELA, Math and
her Resource Room. Makana is on one of three, sixth grade teams which consists of 3
general education teachers. In her Math and ELA classes there is a special education
teacher and sometimes a teacher assistant or aide. The co-taught classes are generally
led by the general education teacher to present the content and then reinforced by
the special education teacher the following day, or in groups.

● Integrated Co-teaching 1x daily 1hr 15 min - ELA

● Integrated Co-teaching 1x daily 1hr 15 min - Math
● Resource Room 5:1 1x daily 42 min - Special Education Setting

Type of Exceptionality: Learning Disability

Reason for Referral:

The student has difficulties with reading and writing and needs support in maintaining
good grades and building understanding as concepts become more difficult. The
student also need support on her ability to build on skills. Particularly, the area of focus is
to create a plan to support the student in the new school year providing strategies to
help her study, understand material and access support.

● Check for understanding of written directions- as appropriate/daily
● Special seating in a location where teacher can check in
● Additional time to complete assignments - for longer written assignments greater
than 1 paragraph
● Use of calculator
● Reteaching of materials - when necessary (resource room)

Background Information
Family History: Makana lives at home with her siblings and her mother and stepfather in
Williamsville, New York. She has 5 siblings, one at Mill Middle - grade 8, three at
Williamsville South High School - grade 9 & 11, one at Maple West Elementary - grade 2.
Some of her siblings are from her step-father’s previous marriages. Her brother who also
attends Mill is her biological brother. She does not have any contact with her biological
father. Both Makana’s Mom and Stepfather work full time jobs.

Cultural & Linguistic Background: Makana is Caucasian and her primary language is
English. She was born in Buffalo, New York. At this time there are no present
speech/language issues.

Medical History: Makana is allowed unlimited bathroom privileges and has a gluten
allergy. The student also wears prescription lenses.

Peer Relationships: Makana is very sweet and gets along well with peers and adults. She
is always willing to assist peers and adults and works well in group settings. She is a
member of the Mindfulness Club at school. She also participates in Community Service

Educational History: Makana is a hard worker, and puts a lot of time and effort into her
work. She enjoys her classes and teachers. Makana is also in band, and enjoys playing
an instrument. She is also involved in Mindfulness club and takes part in school and
community activities.

Attendance Record: The student currently holds two absences. She holds a
strong attendance record.

Achievement: Makana struggles with reading. This affects her grades in other
classes that are reading intensive. She is a hands on and visual learner and does best
when given explicit instruction. She also struggles with retention of concepts, specifically
in math. In fifth grades her scores varied. In ELA her final exam score was an 80, Math
was a 73, Science was a 77, and Social Studies was a 66.

Disciplinary: Nothing noted. Makana comes to class prepared and ready to

work. She is respectful and kind.

Student Observations

Student Observations: During multiple informal observations conducted in Math class,

Makana sat close to the front of the room, was attentive and participating throughout
the course of the class. She did however, move at more laxed pace when taking notes
and solving problems on her own. Makana interacted with peers and teachers. When
she needed assistance she would ask a teacher or a peer. When completing
independent assignments Makana was given a calculator to assist with computations.

Test Date Student Test Results


Wechsler Individual 5/26/17 11 - Math Problem Solving 100 (Standard Score), 50

Achievement Test- (Percentile Rank)
III - Numerical Operations 96 (Standard Score), 39
(Percentile Rank)
- Pseudoword Decoding 76 (Standard Score), 5
(Percentile Rank)
- Reading Comprehension 91 (Standard Score),
27 (Percentile Rank)
- Spelling 79 (Standard Score), 8 (Percentile Rank)
- Word Reading 75 (Standard Score), 5
(Percentile Rank)

Test of Auditory 06/03/15 11 - Cohesion Index 103 (Index Score): Average

Processing Skills - 3 Performance
- Memory Index 90 (Index Score): Average
- Overall Index 93 (Index Score): Average
- Phonological Index 92 (Index Score): Average

Beery-Visual Motor 05/20/15 10 - Visual Motor Integration 113 (Standard Score)


Jordan Left-Right 05/20/15 10 Total 22nd (Percentile)

Reversal Test

Test of Visual 5/20/15 10 Overall 100 (Standard Score)

Perceptual Skills

Grade 5 6/30/17 11 Refusal


● The WIAT, tests various areas of intelligences and is broken into sub-tests. The
average score is 100, and then 90-109 is average intelligence. For math problem
solving, she scored the highest score. This was shocking, knowing that Makana
struggles with math, but helped clarify that she may know how to solve the
problems, just struggles with certain types of problems. For numerical operations
and reading comprehension she scored within the range of average
intelligence. For pseudo decoding, word reading and spelling she scored within
the borderline range. This aligned with what was observed in Makana’s student
work and observations. She struggles with spelling and reading and needs further
assistance with decoding skills. Test-retest stability coefficients used and all
subtest reliability fell between .83 and .97 except for Alphabet Writing Fluency at
.69 due to restricted range of scored. Composite scores reliability read .90-.98.
Content validity aligns with the theoretical framework for the domains.
● The Test of Auditory Processing Skills - 3, tests auditory processing skills and is used
mostly by speech-language pathologists. Makana’s results display that she has
no need for speech services at this time. She scored within average range for the
subtests given.
● The Beery-Visual Motor Integration assessment tests the integration of visual skills
and motor skills. This can be a good determining factor for those students who
may need occupational therapy. This allows for implementation of handwriting
interventions. This test is standardized based on a natuional sample of people
from ages 2-18 in 2010, with proven reliability and valididty.
● The Jordan Left-Right Reversal Test, can be used for early detection of learning
disabilities through the assessment of letter, number and word reversals. The test
is scored based on the correct responses and errors. National norms for ages 5-0
through 18-11, five subtests
● The Test of Visual Perceptual Skills explores visual analysis and processing skills.
Specifically, how to notice similarities and differences, the ability to remember
things and how they are remembered.

Present Levels of Performance

Subject Meeting Strengths Needs Interests/Preferences
Area Grade-Level

ELA No Reading Makana needs a Makana enjoys reading,

comprehension, variety of and prefers to read text
engaged, supporting instructional supports that aligns to her interests.
comprehension and strategies that She also finds it helpful to
questions with text allow her to use a word processor on
evidence, vivid reinforce and the computer when
imagination for practice her sight completing any
writing, writing words, oral reading assignments. She prefers to
displays organization skills, and spelling. type over handwriting.
She also would
benefit from an
online language
program that allows
her to practice her
oral reading and
expand her Lexile

Math No Completes classwork Makana needs Makana enjoys using math

and homework to additional manipulatives during
best ability, on task opportunities to work lessons because they help
and engaged in class, in smaller group her to further understand
gives her best effort settings and the concepts. She also likes
and displays reinforce skills in real world examples
willingness to learn order to build because she can visualize
and try new things retention. She would what is happening,
benefit from a specifically for word
program or strategy problems.
that provides fact
fluency practice.

Science Yes Makana participates Makana would Makana prefers to work

and is engaged in benefit from with peers in science
science. She enjoys additional support because she is able to
the content and when completing consult them when she
comes to class lab reports, having needs clarification or
everyday ready to the reports broken assistance. She does not
learn. into smaller steps or always solely rely on her
components to peers, she carries her own
focus more on weight when working in
quality rather than groups and enjoys the
quantity. content being taught.

Social No Makana participates Makana has a hard Makana enjoys learning

Studies often and displays a time with social about history and
willingness to learn. studies because it completing projects that
relies heavily on allow her to be creative
reading and writing. and explore concepts
She would benefit freely.
from modified notes
that help her to
focus on key
concepts, or
adjusted text when
reading the
textbook or
additional reading

Social/Beha Yes Gets along well with No social or Makana enjoys working
vioral peers and adults, emotional needs to with peers and being
works well in groups, be addressed at this involved in activities both
participates in social time. in and out of school. She
activities in and has a very kind spirit about
outside of school her. She prefers activities
where she can talk to

Student Goals

Students current goals Criteria Characteristics Student Example

Reading: When presented - 4 out of 5 Makana can When given a

with narrative and/or trials over 10 identify details of question about a
informational text, Makana weeks the text when book or a passage,
will answer text based and - Measured verbally responding she will recall
inferential questions to using work to a text dependent information that
demonstrate an samples question, but often relates to the story,
understanding of text - Measured has difficulties but does not go
while explicitly citing text monthly finding and writing back into the text
details and examples as the text based and specifically
the basis for the answers. details to support point out or locate
her response. the details directly
from the passage.
She instead, will
speak directly off of
her own thoughts
and opinions.

Writing: Makana will write - 4 out of 5 Makana struggles Makana can

an trials over 10 with organization produce strong
informational/explanatory weeks and retention of details and ideas for
text, of a paragraph or - Measured skills. her writing but
more, using a topic using writing struggles to
sentences, text-based samples organize them. She
details with domain- - Measured will often write as
specific vocabulary, and a monthly one large
logical closing statement. paragraph rather
She will use appropriate than outlining
capitalization, everything and
punctuation, sentence dividing it into
structure and spelling. different sections to
form a cohesive

Mathematics: Makana will - 4 out of 5 Makana struggles When solving word

use models, tape trials over 10 with retention of problems, or
diagrams, and equations weeks math skills and numerical
to solve multi-step word - Measured building number equations, Makana
problems using the using work sense. often will need a
operations of addition, samples real-life example in
subtraction, multiplication - Measured order to visualize
or division. monthly what the question is
asking. She will ask
for a picture or
manipulatives to
visualize the task at

Test Accommodations

- Flexibility in scheduling and timing: extended time for all tests (1.5 times)
- Presentation: revised directions, simplified for all tests (Check for understanding
of directions. Clarify/simplify if student misunderstands.)
- Flexibility in setting: tests administers in location with minimum distractions for all
tests (Seating in a location where extended time and checks for understanding
can be provided with minimal distractions and disruptions. Groups not to exceed
- Other aids/accommodations: use of a calculator for all math tests (Requiring
math calculations)

Summary and Recommendations

Summary: Overall Makana is a very sweet and hard working student. She is always
willing to help out a peer or teacher is in need. She would greatly benefit from having
hands on and visual aids in order to gain the understanding of the material.

Recommendations: A few instructional strategies that would benefit Makana are the
1.) Whenever possible, using one-on-one instruction or small groups in Math and in
ELA. Allowing others to help teach when in small groups may help to present the
material in additional ways and encourage observational learning (Keel & Gast,
1992, p.358). Allowing for more one-on-one instruction and small groups may
help with overlapping concepts in Math and ELA.
2.) Another instructional strategy that would be beneficial is the incorporation of
hands on instructional strategies and interactive activities such as technology
integration or manipulatives. These activities could be more beneficial if peers
are involved encouraging collaboration (Hand 2 Mind, n.d., p. 3 ). Makana
interacts well with peers. She also would do well with hands on or interactive
activities because it involves less reading and writing. She also will grasp the
concepts better in a way that allows her to use and manipulate things. Also, if
the activities relate to daily life it can help to motivate the student to continue to
3.) The student would also benefit from the use of study techniques, such as Quizlet,
response notebooks, or Cornell notes, and explicit directions and examples of
how to use these techniques. The use of an online study tool such as Quizlet
would be beneficial because it would allow the student a place to organize and
practice the information and presented concepts using a variety of strategies.
Also, she can have the information read to her. It can also benefit the student
by having a website she can interact with to gain a deeper understanding of the
material. Additionally, a response notebook or Cornell notes can benefit the
student by having a place to write notes or organize paper manipulatives to
guide learning. It would also be a great place to keep thoughts about a specific
topic in Math and English. These could be used as a study tool to review
concepts and help build on new concepts. In order to ensure she understands
how to appropriately use these techniques, it is important that she is taught how
to access these study skills and use them for a variety of subject areas (Sturomski,
1997, pg.1)


Keel, M., & Gast, D. L., (February 1992), Small group instruction for students with learning
disabilities: observational and incidental learning. Exceptional Children, 58:4, pgs 357-

Hand2mind, (2017), Research on the benefits of manipulatives. Hand2mind, 2-5.


The Iris Center, (2017). Importance of teaching study skills strategies. The IRIS Center
Peabody College Vanderbilt University. Nashville, TN.
Mccrimmon, Adam & Climie, Emma. (2011). Test Review: D. Wechsler Wechsler
Individual Achievement Test-Third Edition. San Antonio, TX: NCS Pearson, 2009.
Canadian Journal of School Psychology. 26. 148-156. 10.1177/0829573511406643.