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DEVELOPMENT OF CHARACTER EDUCATION LEARNING MODEL

USING E-COMIC IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL

Achmad Buchori1, Rina Dwi Setyawati2


e-mail : buccherypgri@gmail.com, budirina15@gmail.com
Departement of Mathematics Education, PGRI University of Semarang

Abstract

This research aims to develop character education learning model using e-comic in
elementary school. Development theory which used is modification of Plomp and Borg
and Gall development theory with the following steps : (1) Initial research ( literature
study-field study) (2) Design (model design and media design), (3)
realization/construction (assessment design-revised design), (4) test, evaluation, and
revised(improvement of hypothetic products), (5) implementation (pre effectiveness test
and post test)

The research result showed that develop character education learning model consist by 5
fase and examine the learning process effectiveness that showed with the increasing of
student’s character value through observation and student’s achievement value.

1. PREFACE

A country will not developed, before there is one of those countries


some teachers who always sacrifice for their country. According to this
statement, two key words of country’s progress are teacher and sacrifice.
Therefore, the initial revival of a country have to start with producing
teachers who like to sacrifice. Teacher who referred is not a teacher in formal
class. Teacher is the leader, parents, and educator. Teacher is the pattern.
Teacher is the person who listened and emulated.Teacher is not only skilled
teaching how to answer national exam test, but theirself and their life can be
the example to their students. Education in Indonesia is now entering the
complicated time. The big fund with various breakthrough programs seems
have not able to solve the basic problems in education,how to produce
indonesian people who superior, faithful, cautious, professional and have
character.
Diverge actions that did by students made character education have to
applied in every school level. The strong character fondation also make
student can competiting in international cauldron soon. The face of Education
in Indonesia smudged with every bad news. The examples are drawl,
bullying, drugs and alcohol, free sex among students that ended up with
abortion etc. But, indonesian students who made achievement in every sector
and be approved by world. The facts show that this is the right time to
character education reestablished through education at school. The
Government has launched the implementation of character education in every
educational level which began in elementary school. National education
minister said that character education in elementary school get bigger portion
than others. This thing aims to be more easily teached and cling in student’s
soul until adulthood. Because if character education doesn’t formed from now
on, it wil be hard to change someone’s character in the future.

Character education which going to applied at school doesn’t teached


in particular subject. “But,carried in daily learning which has applied in
school,”. Character education should able to succeed the process of moral
values internalization . “So, not only know where’s the good and bad”. A
student also should be able to aplicating those values rightly in daily life.
Character education is a character values implantation system to school
element which cover knowledge component, awareness or willpower, and
action to do those values, to God, ourselves, fellow, environment, and also
nationaly. So that become perfect men. Prayito (2011) in his research showed
that knowledge and good character to students can be increased by learning
process and helped by e-learning.

In learning metodology there are two aspects that prominent the most,
that are learning model and learning media as a teaching tool (Sudjana, N., &
Rivai, A., 2010: 1). Media is a one of determinat of student learning success.
In learning activity there is process of learning and teaching, that are
transferring information from information source to information receiver
through model and media. With the existance of learning model and media
which interesting and completed by hasanah nationality character, so student
become more easy to receive information in order of reach learning purpose.
According to Schramm (1984:386), some weakness of text books are not
“living”, only present the picture, can’t present sounds, and easily outdated.
Teachers have to develop learning model and media which interesting,
economics, effective, and easily made. As a fasilitator, teacher should be able
to present facilities which enable the easiness of teaching-learning activity.

Based on the research results of Surtino (2013) with the title “The
comic of clamat ; the use of comic as a linguistic mediator” show that with
using comic media can motivate the davelop of mental diagram or logic
which using certain mathematic symbol, motivate to remember certain
formula or to understand certain problem situation better and relation between
data in certain problem. It is suitable with research of Achmad Buchori
(2011) which titled “ Development of Teaching Material of Mathematic
Based FlipBookmaker to Build Student Which Intelligent and Humane, show
that student more enthusiastic in studying if teacher using FlipBookmaker in
learning and it doesn’t make student bored. Reinforced by research result of
Hadi (2008) with title “ Learning of Addition and Substraction Fractions
using Comic at third grades student of Muhammadiyah Elementary School 08
Malang” showed that with using comic can make student feel happy, relax
and not feel tense.

Technological development demand teacher to become innovative and


creative in making media for learning process. Titik haryati (2012) showed
that student more interested in learning material with the existance of
illustration in every texts, so that facilitate student to understand it. Abdul
malik (2012) said in his research result that students in junior high school
very interested to a teacher who make learning media like comic because it
can facilitate student’s abstraction appropriate level of thinkingin concrete
operational stage. Based on considerations of the description above, to solve
the problem then we do the research with title “ Development Of Character
Education Learning Model Using E-Comic”. This research develop character
education learning model trough e-comic dan effectiveness that model in
learning process.

2. LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 Definition of Character Education


Strengthening of moral education or Character Education in now
context is really relevant to overcome moral crisis which surge our
country. The crisis that are the increasing of promiscuity, rampant levels
of violence children and adolescents, crimes against friends, theft teens,
the habit of cheating, drug abuse, pornography, and the destruction of
property of others has become a social problem that until now could not be
completely resolved, therefore, character education is very important.

According to Lickona, related to the concept of moral character


(moral knowing), moral attitudes (moral felling), and moral behavior
(moral behavior). Based on these three components can be stated that the
characters are well supported by the knowledge of the good, the desire to
do good, and do deeds of kindness. Outlined below is a chart of the third
link this framework.

Moral Moral
concept atitudes
Character

Moral
behavior

Picture 2.1 : The relation between moral component in case to


formating the good character according to Lickon
The Definition of Character Education ccording to Experts

1. Character education according to Lickona


Simply put, the character education can be defined as any attempt
to do to influence the character of the students. But to know the proper
sense, it can be stated here the definition of character education delivered
by Thomas Lickona. Lickona stated that the definition of character
education is a deliberate attempt to help someone so that he can
understand, pay attention, and do the ethical values that core.

2. Character education according to Suyanto


Suyanto (2009) defines the character as a way of thinking and
behaving that is characteristic of each individual to live and work together,
both within the family, community, nation, and state.

3. Character education according to Kertajaya


Character is the hallmark of which is owned by an object or
individual. Characteristic is genuine and rooted in personality or individual
objects, as well as an "engine" that drives how an act, behave, say, and
respond to something (Kertajaya, 2010).

4. Character education according to dictionary of psychology


According to the dictionary of psychology, personality character is
to be reviewed from the standpoint of ethical or moral, for example a
person's honesty, and is usually associated with the properties are
relatively fixed (Gulo, D., & Kartono, K., 1982).

There are 18 items the values of character education, namely,


Religious, Honest, Tolerance, Discipline, Work Hard, Creative,
Independent, Democratic, Curiosity, Excitement Nationality, Love
homeland, Appreciating the achievements, Friendly / communicative,
Love Peace, Joy of reading, Care for the environment, social Caring,
responsibility. Described in figure 2.2 below:
Character Values Based Culture of
the Nation

1. Religious 10. The national spirit


2. Honest 11. Love of the homeland
3. Tolerance 12. Appreciate the achievements
4. Discipline 13. Friends / communicative
5. Hard work 14. Love peace
6. Creative 15. Like to read
7. Independent 16. Environmental care
8. Democratic 17. Social care
9. Curiosity 18. Responsible

Character education has become the attention of other country in order to


prepare the quality generation, not only for the benefit of individual citizens, but
also for the citizens as a whole. Character education can be defined as the
deliberate us of all dimensions of school life to foster optimal character
development (we deliberate effort of the entire dimension of the life of the school
/ madrasah to help the formation of character optimally. Character education
requires special methods appropriate for the purpose of education can be
achieved. Among the appropriate learning method is an exemplary method, the
method of habituation, and methods of praise and punishment.

2.2 E- comic as Learning Media


Comic is a series of pictures included in the box that contains a whole
series of a story. The pictures are usually equipped with speech balloons (speak
baloon) and accompanied by narrative explanation (Shadely, 2003). Meanwhile,
Trimo (2011) describes the comic medium can be divided into two, namely the
comic strip (comic strip) and comic books (comic book). Comic comic strip is a
form consisting of several sheets of frame column published in a newspaper or
magazine, usually connected story, while the comic book in question is in the
form of a comic book. Thus, it can be interpreted as a comic picture book
containing messages through illustrations and written text. These books contain a
variety of themes are often based on the experience of the child's daily life.
Characters in the book can be either humans or animals are shown in terms of
human qualities, character, so that children can understand and relate to personal
experience.
Learning is a combination that includes elements arrayed human, material,
facilities, equipment, and procedures that influence each other to achieve the
learning objectives (Oemar Hamalik 2001: 57). The use of instructional media in
teaching and learning can generate desire and new interests, raise motivation and
stimulation of learning activities, and bring psychological effects on students. In
addition to motivating and interests of students, learning media can help students
improve comprehension, presenting interesting and reliable data, facilitate
interpretation of the data, and condense information.
E-comic is currently widely used in learning. According to Darin E.
Hartley, E-comic is a learning that allows conveyed of teaching materials to
students using online image media on the internet, intranet, or other computer
network media. According to Martin Jenkins, E-comic is a learning process based
on narrative picture that facilitated and supported through the use of Information
and Communication Technology (ICT). So learning with the help of the internet
can be categorized in E-comic.
FlipBookmaker is one of the category in E-comic. With FlipBookmaker,
student can utilize it when they looking for the learning material that suitable with
their own class. This research using FlipBookmaker in character education
learning model.
According to Arief Sadiman dkk (2006 : 100), the step to develop
education media as follows :
1. Analyzing student’s needs and characteristics
2. Formulating instructional purpose
3. Formulating material items in detail which support the purpose.
4. Develop the success gauge tool
5. Writee media texts
6. Do the tests and revised.
2.3 Development of Character Education Learning Model
Miarso (2005) interpret the term as a learning activity or activities that
focus on the conditions and the interest of learning (learning centered). The term
is used to replace the term learning teaching more as activities focused on the
teacher (teacher centered). The term learning a broader meaning than the term of
teaching. Teaching is only a knowledge transfer from teacher to student, while
learning has a broader meaning, that are activities starting from design to develop,
implement, and evaluate the activities that can create the learning process. Thus,
learning is a process that is intentionally designed to create the individual learning
process.
Many learning design which offered by the experts, the example is general
model of education design according to plomp (1997) said that aims of the
development research of education are (1) to improve practical relevance of
education research (2) the ambition of education reformation which need basic
change with literacy approach to see the different between problem and needs,
there is no sure about intervention effectiveness in every contexts and the
importance of implementation, (3) traditional research less provide the right
solution to sough problem. There are five fase that are (1) initial research (2)
design (3) realization/construction (4) test, evaluation and revision (5)
implementation. With the following picture :

Initial Research

Design

Realization/ Construction

Test, evaluation and revision

Implementation
3. RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 Approach and Research Type
This research aims to develop learning model of character
education trough e-comis in elementary school, suitabel eith that purpose
so that the research type which used is modification of development
research (educational research and development), this thing corresponding
with the opinion of Borg and Gall (1983) and Plomp’s R & D model said
that the main purpose of development research is develop effective product
which can used at school. The reffered product is not only as concrete
thing, like text books, quenstions, but including product and prosedure like
model or learning strategy. Trough e-comic media hope that elementary
school studentd can understand what is the meaning of good character, not
boring and interesting.
Corresponding with research type that have been raised before, so that
presence of researcher in the field really indispensable. Therefore,
researcher using qualitative approach. This thing caused presence of
researcher in the filed as main intrumen in data collection, planners,
implementers, the giver of action, a data analyzer, the reporting of results
and accountability in the whole process and the results.

3.2 Subject and Research Place


Research subject is elementary school students in Semarang city, who
represented by SD Negeri 01 and 02 Central Pedurungan.
3.3 Development Methodology

INITIAL RESEARCH DESIGN

DESIGN AND
LITERATURE FIELD STUDY
First year COMIC
STUDY
target COMPILATION

REALIZATION/CONSTRUCTION

DESIGN
DESIGN REVISION
ASSESSMENT

EVALUATION TEST /REVISION


HYPOTHETIC
DESIGN
PRODUCT
IMPROVEMENT

Second
year
target
IMPLEMENTATION EFFECTIVENESS TEST PRETEST
AND POST TEST

DATA ANALYSIS

EFFECTIVE MEDIA

FINAL PRODUCT

Picture 4.1 : Modification of Borg and Gall and Plomp Development model

Based on the prosedur above, reasearcher design research stages as follows :


1) Initial Research
Preliminary research conducted by researchers with visiting SDN 01 and
02 are located at the Majapahit Pedurungan Semarang. Initial research activities
conducted to determine how elementary school students' understanding of
character education and how to apply it. To capture this data, researchers must
first develop tests prior knowledge about character education, and how to apply
it. Based on this understanding, then the researchers developed a model
education and e-comic character who can help elementary school students to
understand how you can combat the negative character in daily life.

2) Design
Researchers collaborate with one elementary teacher, one elementary, one
cartoonist and one of child psychologists to design a media and educational
character. Researchers itself consists of one chairman educational background
and applied mathematics clump media, educational background of the members
of the media clump mathematics and geometry, then a member of another
educational background in mathematics education clumps. Things are designed
include:
a. The things that need to be present in e-education and their comic character
b. The idea of the mathematical material that accordance with the e-comic
includes background (setting) and what is discussed in the media
c. Application od FlipBookmaker software in e-comic making
d. Scenario of e-comic use in class

3) Realization/ Construction
Based on what has been designed in phases / stages before. Researchers
also together with one elementary teacher, one elementary, one cartoonist and one
of child psychologists develop and implement e-comic character education in
question. Results of development is called PROTOTYPE 1.
4) Test, Evaluation and Revision
The prototype is then validated by 2 validator. That are 1 as person
material expert, he is Prof. Dr. Sunandar, M.Pd. The lecturer of Mathematics
Education University of PGRI Semarang, and 1 person as media experts, he is
Febrian Murti Dewanto, M.Kom. The lecturer of technology Informatics
University PGRI Semarang. Based on the results of this validation, the researchers
improve education-based e-comic characters that have been developed previously.
Results of these improvements is called PROTOTYPE 2. Prototype 2 is then
validated again by the same two people validator to obtain e-comic as well as
models that can be implemented at a later stage. Results of the validation is called
PROTOTYPE 3. Then prototype 3 with improvements by way of implementing
the elementary school students in the next stage.

5) Implementation
Then the third prototype is implemented to elementary school students to
obtain input from the improvement of teacher education-based e-comic characters.
The implementation results were then examined whether it meets the three criteria
that have been determined. if not meet all three criteria have been determined. If
not meet, researchers improve the prototype III into a prototype IV. checked again
based on three criteria, repair, and so on to obtain e-Comik character education
that meets the criteria of a valid, effective and practical.

4. The Result and Discussion


In development research has been adapted to the model development by
Plomp (1997), which consists of five phases: (1) a preliminary study (phase
preliminary investigation), (2) design (stage design), (3) realiszation / construction
(phase realization / construction), (4) test, evaluation and revision, (phase test,
evaluation and revition) and (5) implementation (implementation phase), which is
described as follows:

4.1 Initial Research


In conducting the study of literature has made various efforts to increase
the study of theory related to the depth of material that will be made in the form of e-
comic, books of literature used is from a variety of sources such as a book teacher
and student books in the curriculum in 2013 for elementary school children Grades 6,
Erlangga math book grade 6 Yudhisthira math books grade 6, books about character
education, books on computers and articles on the internet that the point is to produce
model product of character learning with an e-comic that in terms of the content
material of mathematics, media content and character integrated with each other both
online and offline.
In a field study selected 2 (two) favorite school in the city of Semarang,
namely SDN 1 Central Pedurungan and SDN 2 Central Pedurungan Semarang, from
visits to the school gained a lot of info as follows: (1) lack of instructional model
character education aided by the media, both online and offline, (2) the absence of
the math book that includes 18 national character firmly in any math book, (3) the
absence of teachers who are able to make the application of e-comic math online and
offline. Problems of the teachers and students at SDN 1 and SDN 2 Central
Pedurungan Semarang very enthusiastic when learning model based e-comic
character to be developed can be used at the school.

4.2 DESIGN
In design step, researcher make design to develop e-comic of elementary school
mathe matic based character education. Steps of the e-comic making as follows :

Determine the title of e-comic

Design the cover of e-comic

Identified KI, KD and indicator

Preparation of materials and questions

E-comic making using character education model

Designing systematic writing of e-comic by paper dan tool box

Export to kvisoft flipbook marker

Add the pictures, video, sounds, hyperlink etc

chose format e-comic


Publish to internet

Finishing

Picture 5.1. The steps of e-comic making

With the detail steps as follows :


1) See the mathematic syllabus of elementary school grade 6 which suitable
with 2013 curriculum
2) Determine KI, KD, and indicator
3) Choose mathematic materials of odd semester grade 6
4) Choose Problem based Learning (PBL) model, Project Base Learning
(PBL) model or Discovery learning in materials delivery
5) Determine character values which be achieved in materials and fit it with
18 character of nationality education
6) Collate the materials with paper and tool box and completed it with
contextual questions and pictures which suitable with the materials.
7) Save file in PNG or JPG
8) Convert file PNG or JPG in PDF
9) Choose instrumental music which suitable with the development of
elementary school student
10) Insert mathematic material in PDF to FlipBookmaker
11) Insert instrumental music which suitable with the development of
elementary school student
12) Make hyperlink in the table of content
13) Publishing in SWF
14) Make blog named ecomicmatsd.blogspot.com
15) Embed SWF file in blog
16) Materials can be opened online like when we open the book
17) Print the color of material file in PDF wit CTS 150 paper in order to look
good and strong.

In this model design step, researcher make model design of characer


education using e-comic with the modification of PBL Model and Moral
Theory Of Kohlberg based e-comis as follows :

Development Theory of Model PBL (Problem Modification of PBL


Moral by Kohlberg Based Learning) Model and Moral
(1977) Based Cognitive Theory of Kohlberg
Theory of Dewey and based e-comic
Piaget

"Preconventional" Stages: Phase 1: Phase 1:


Level 1: Orient students to the Invites students to active
Heteronomous morality; In problem Describe the learning based on good
this developmental level of purpose of learning, the morality in any problem
morality of deed is necessary logistics, solving aided e-comic
determined by the motivate students
characteristics and effects actively involved in
of a physical nature. problem-solving activity
chosen

Level 2: Phase 2: Phase 2:


Individual morality and Organize students to Being able to customize
reciprocity; Someone learn to help students personal interests and
began to realize the learn limiting and others in dealing with
objectives and purposes of organizing tasks mathematical problems
others. Someone trying to associated with the well and consciously
fulfill their own interests problems faced assisted e-comic
by taking into account also
the interests of others.

"Conventional" Stages: Phase 3: Phase 3:


Level 3: Guiding investigation In the process of
Mutual expectations Encourage individuals investigation is based on
between individual and groups of students mutual trust between
morality. Criterion of good gather appropriate friends in gathering
or bad a deed in this level information, conduct information on the
is determined by shared experiments, and looking implementation of the
norms and a relationship of for an explanation and experimental and
mutual trust breakdown problem solving aided e-
comic.

Level 4: Phase 4: Phase 4:


Morality social system and Develop and present the Able to develop and
conscience; A deed is work of Helping students present the work of
considered good if it is plan and menyi-apkan mathematics adapted to
approved by the ruling and appropriate work such as the social system in its
in accordance with reports, videos, and environment and able to
regulations that ensure models, and helping share his duties with
order in society. them to share tasks with
friends.

"Posconventional" Stages:

Level 5: Phase 5: Phase 5:


Transition level; Someone Analyze and evaluate the Able to analyze and
has not reached the level of problem solving process evaluate the process of
"postconventional" truth. helps students reflect on mathematical problem
At this level the criteria of the investigation and the solving adapted to the
right or wrong are processes used during norms prevailing in
subjective and personal, troubleshooting. society-assisted e-comic
and do not have a clear
principle in making a
moral decision. Level 5:
morality of social welfare
and human rights. Criteria
for the morality of the act
is something that can
guarantee the rights of
individuals as well as in
accordance with the norms
prevailing in a society
Phase 6:
Level 6: Able to reflect the
Morality is based on the results of his
principles of public investigations in
morality; The size is right mathematical problem
or wrong is determined by solving with moral
their own choices based on principles based on
moral principles are logical, consistent and
logical, consistent, and universal aided e-comic
universal.

4.3 Realization and Construction

In this phase, the results of which have been designed in the form of the
learning model of education through e-comic character in the validation by experts.
The selected experts are experts in learning and media experts. Learning experts will
review the learning model that has been developed is a character education learning
model. The phase learning model of education through e-comic character is as
follows:
Phase 1 : Invite students to active learning based on good morality in any problem
solving aided e-comic
Phase 2 : Ability to customize personal interests and others in dealing with
mathematical problems well and consciously assisted e-comic
Phase 3 : In the process of investigation is based on mutual trust between friends in
gathering information on the implementation of the experimental and problem
solving aided e-comic.
Phase 4 : Ability to develop and present the work of mathematics adapted to the
social system in its environment and able to share his duties with
Phase 5 : Ability to analyze and evaluate the process of mathematical problem
solving adapted to the norms prevailing in society-assisted e-comic
Phase 6 : Being able to reflect on the results of his investigations in mathematical
problem solving with moral principles based on logical, consistent and universal
aided e-comic
Media specialists validate E-comic that has been combined with character
education. This learning model is very attractive by elementary school children
because of the media E-comic character education that have been integrated, they can
play and learn.
4.4 Test, Evaluation and Revision
Once implemented validated by experts held revisions are then applied in
the learning process. In the learning process of observation that is integrated with the
characters, among others, the character of cooperation, respect the opinions of others,
active in learning, and self-discipline. After learning some of the meetings conducted
tests to see increased student achievement.

4.5 Effectiveness of Learning Model of Character Education Through E-Comic


From the results of the implementation in the classroom and test
evaluation has been carried out, the results obtained in the experimental class average
was 8.9 and 6.5 in the control class. This suggests that the learning model of
education through e-comic character can stimulate students' motivation to learn and
can improve student character education from an early age so that it will be
successful for further education. In line with that given by (Pala 2011) the
development of socialization skills and integration of character education are an
important part of a child's academic success.
In the implementation of character education learning model made
observations on the activity of the students before and after the executed process
models. The result can be seen from the table below:
Activity Cooperation Appreciate other Discipline Independent
people’s opinion
Before 23% 35% 45% 30%
After 82% 88% 84% 81%

There seems to be an increase in the value of a character before and after the
model implemented. The learning model is a success in the process of planting the
character of formal education. Leo (2011) states the character of education that
focuses on the students' identity development to be smart and having students
character needs to be forced through informal and formal education.
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