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HARVARD COLLEGE

LIBRARY

FROM THE ESTATE OF

EDWIN HALE ABBOT


Class of 1855

OF CAMBRIDGE
!

1
6mï niât rutin.

ARNOLD'S CLASSICAL SERIES.


i.

A FIRST AND SECOND LATIN BOOK


DVD PRACTICAL GRAMMAR. By Thomas K. Arnold, A. M. Revised and can full i
Corrected, by J. A. Spencer, A. M. One vol. 12mo., 75 си.

lb
LATIN PROSE COMPOSITION:
A Practical Introduction to Latin Prose Composition. By Thomas K. Aehold, A. M

A
Revised and Corrected by J. A. Spencer, A. M. l'Jmo., $1.

Wilb Easy Eitrciooo and


FIRST GREEK BOOK;
ceded by J.
By Thomas K. Arnold, A. M.
A. Spencer, A. M. \¿Mo., 63 cts.
Revised aud I
IV.
GREEK PROSE COMPOSITION:
A Practical Intrndut tion to Greek Prose Composition. By Thomas K.Arnold, A At.
Revised and Corrected by J. A. Spencer, A. M. One vol. 12mo., 75 cts.

V.

GREEK READING BOOK,


For the Use of Schools; containing the substance of the Practical Introduction to Greek Cod
etruing, and a 1 realise on the Greek Particles, by the Rev. Thomas K. Arnold,
A. M., and also a Copious Selection from Greek Authors, with English
Notes, Critical and Explanatory, and a Lexicon, by
J. A. Spencer, A. M. 12mo., $1 60

VL
CORNELIUS NEPOS;
With Practical Questions and Answers, and an Imitative Exercise on each Chapter. By
Таомлв K. Arnold, A. M. Revised, with Additional Notes, by Prof. Johnson,
Professor of the Latin Language in the University of the City of
New-York. 12mo. A new, enlarged edition, with
Lexicon, Index, &c, 81.
"Arnold's Greek and Latin Series.— The publication of this valuable collection of
clinical school books may be regarded as the
teaching and acquiring languages.
aim of better things in respect to the mode oí
Heretofore boys have been condemned to the drudgery of
going over Latin and Greek Grammar without the remotest conception of the value of What
Uiey were learning, and every day becoming more and more disgusted with the dry and un
meaning task ; but now, by Mr. Arnold's admirable method — substantially the same with that of
Ollendorff— the moment they take up the study of Latin or Greek, they begin to learn sentences,
1э acquire ideas, to see how the Romans and Greeks expressed themselves, how their mode of.
expression differed from ours, and by degrees they lay up a stock of knowledge which is utterly;
astonishing to those who have dragged on month after month in the old-fashioned, dry, and
tedious way of learning languages.

a
"Mr. Arnold, in fact, has had the good sense to adopt the system of nature. A child teams
his own language by imitating what he hears, and constantly repeating it till it is fastened 1 in
the memory ; in the same way Mr. A. puts the pupil immediately to work a- Exercises in Latin
and Greek, involving the elementary principles ofthe language — are supplied — the mode
of" putting them together is told the pupil— he is shown how the ancients expressed their ideas;
and then, by repealing these things again and again — iterum itemmyue — the docile pupil has
■hem indelibly impressed upon Iiis memory and rooted in his understanding.
"The American Editor ы a thorough classical scholar, and has been a practical teacher for
years in this city. He has devoted the utmost care to a compleie revwon of Mr. Arnold's works.,
has corrected several error» of inadvertence or otherwise, has rearranged and improved various
matters in the early volumes of the series, and has attended most diligently to the accurate print
ing and mechanical execution of the whole. We anticipate most confidently the speedy adoption
DÍthese works in our schools and colleges." .
V Arnold's Scries of Classical Works has attained a circulation almost unparalleled, being
ln'miMicad into nearly all the Colleges and leading Educational Institutions in the United Wate*
ttat
CICERT) de officiis.
WITH ENGLISH NOTES.
Chieflv *tfe cted and translated from the editions of Zumpt and Bonnell.

BY THOMAS A. THACHER,
Assistant Professor of Latin in Yale College.

One volume 12mo. 90 cents.


This edition of De Officii* has the advantage over any other with which we are acquainted,
of more ccjwAtj notes, butter arrangement, and a more beautiful typography. The text of
Zumpt appeirs to have been closely followed, except in a very few instances, where it is varied
on the authority of Beier, Orelli and Bonnell. Teachers and students will do well to examine
this edition.
"Mr. Thacher very modestly disclaims for himself more than the credit of a compiler and
translator in the editing of this work. Being ourselves unblessed with the works of Zumpt,
Bonnell, and other German writers to whom Mr. T. credits most of his notes and comments, we
cannot affirm that more credit is due him than he claims for his labors, but we may accord him
the merit of an extremely judicious and careful compiler, if no more ; for we have seen no re
mark without an important bearing, nor any point requiring elucidation which was passed un
noticed.
" This work of Cicero cannot but interest every one at all disposed to inquire into the
views
of the ancients on morals.
"This valuable philosophical treatise, emanating from the pen of the illustrious Roman, de
rives a peculiar interest from the fact of its being written with the object to instruct his son, of
whom the author had heard unfavorable accounts, and whom the weight of his public duties
had prevented him from visiting in person. It presents a great many wise maxims, apt and
rich illustrations, and the results of the experience and reflections of an acute and powerful
mind. It is well adapted to the use of the student by copious and elaborate notes, explanatory
of the text, affording ample facilities to its entire comprehension. These have been gleaned
with great judgment from the most learned and reliable authorities,— such as Zumpt, Bonnell,
and others. Mr. Thacher has evinced a praiseworthy care and diligence in preparing the vo
lume for the purposes for which it was designed."

EXERCISES IN GREEK PROSE COMPOSITION.


ADAPTED TO THE

FIRST BOOK OF XENOPHON'S ANABASIS.


BY JAMES R. BOISE,
Professor in Brown University.
One volume, 12mo.Price seventy-five cents.
*.* For the convenience of the learner, an English-Greek Vocabulary, a Catalogue of the Irre
gular Verbs, and an Index to the principal Grammatical Notes have been
appended.
" A school-book of the highest
order, containing a carefully arranged series of exercises de
rived from the first book of Xenophon's Anabasis, (which is appended
entire,) an English and
Greek vocabulary and a list of the principal modifications of irregular
verbs. We regard it as
one peculiar excellence of this book, that it presupposes both the
diligent scholar and the pains
taking teacher, in other hands it would be not
only useless, but unusable. We like it also, be
cause, instead of aiming to give the pupil practice in a variety of styles, it
places before him but
a single model of Greek composition, and that the very
author who" combines in the greatest de
gree, purity of language and idiom, with a simplicity that both
— Christian Register. invites and rewards imitation."

"Mr. Boise is Professor of Greek in Brown University, and has


as an accompaniment to the First Book of the Anabasis of prepared these exercises
Xenophon we have examined the
plan with some attention, and are struck with its
utility. The exercises consist of short sen
tences, composed of the words used in the text of the
Anabasis, and involving the same construc
tions ; and the system, if faithfully
pursued, must not only lead to familiarity with the author,
and a natural adoption of his style, but also to great
ease and faultless excellence in Greek corn
position."— Protestant Churchman.
35
GKEEK OLLENDORFF ;

BEING A

PROGRESSIVE EXHIBITION

OF THE

PRINCIPLES OF THE GREEK GRAMMAR:

Dirigirá for 38г§игаш it êxtù,

AND AS A

BOOK OF EXERCISES FOR ACADEMIES AND COLLEGES.

ВТ

ASAHEL C. KENDRICK,
PROFESSOR OF THE GREEK LANGUAGE AND LITERATURE
IN THE UNIVERSITY OF ROCHESTER.

NEW-YORK :

D. APPLETON & COMPANY, 200 BROADWAY.


PHILADELPHIA :
GEO. S. APPLETON, 164 CHESNUT-ST.
1851.

HARVARD COLLEGE LIBRARY


FROM THE ESTATE OF
EDWIN HALE A MOT
DECEMBER 28, (Ml

Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1850, by

D. APPLETON & COMPANY,


In the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern
District of New- York.
PREFACE.

The present work is what its title indicates, strictly an


Ollendorff, and aims to apply the methods which have
proved so successful in the acquisition of the Modern
languages to the study of the Ancient Greeks, with such
differences of course as the different genius of the Greek,
and the different purposes for which it is studied,
would suggest. It differs from the modern Ollendorffs
in containing Exercises for reciprocal translation, in
confining them within a smaller compass, and in a
more methodical exposition of the principles of the
language. It differs, on the other hand, from other
excellent elementary works in Greek, which have
recently appeared, in a more rigid adherence to the
Ollendorff method, and the greater simplicity of its
plan ; in simplifying as much as possible the character
of the Exercises, and keeping out of sight every thing
which would divert the student's attention from the
naked construction.
The object of the Author in this work was two
fold ; first, to furnish a book which should serve as an
в PREFACE.

introduction to the study of Greek, and precede the use


of any Grammar. It will therefore be found, although
not claiming to embrace all the principles of the Gram
mar, yet complete in itself, and will lead the pupil, by
insensible gradations, from the simpler constructions to
those which are more complicated and difficult. The
exceptions, and the more strictly idiomatic forms, it
studiously leaves one side, and only aims to exhibit the
regular and ordinary usages of the language, as the

proper starting point for the student's further researches.


In presenting these, the Author has aimed to combine
the strictest with the utmost simplicity of
accuracy
statement. He hopes, therefore, that his work will find
its way among a younger class of pupils than have
usually engaged in the study of Greek, and will win to
the acquisition of that noble tongue many in our Acad
emies and Primary Schools who have been repelled by
the less simple character of our ordinary text-books.
On this point he would speak earnestly. This book,
while he trusts it will bear the criticism of the scholar,
and be found adapted to older pupils, has been yet con
structed with a constant reference to the wants of the
young ; and he knows no reason why boys and girls of
twelve, ten, or even eight years of age, may not advan
'
tageously be put to the study of this book, and, under
skilful instruction, rapidly master its contents. And
when mastered, its outline of grammatical principles is
so full and comprehensive that the filling up will be a
PREFACE. 7

pleasure rather than a task. With the younger class


of pupils, he would suggest that the rules for accent,
and some of the other minor points, should be post
poned to a second or third perusal. With older pupils,
the accents, and, with all, quantity should from the first
receive diligent attention.
Another object of this work is to furnish students
with a book of Exercises to accompany the Grammar
in any stage of their Greek studies. It was in the oral
Exercises, which the Author has been in the habit of
holding with his classes in College, that the conception
of this work originated ; and no time, he believes,
could be more profitably employed by the Greek stu
dent, than that spent in going thoroughly, with or
without writing, over the entire body of Exercises con
tained in this work, and such others of like character as
the teacher may originate at the time. The absence of
any peculiar grammatical nomenclature will enable the
work to be used in connection with any Grammar ; and
the number of words introduced is purposely very
small, in order that the pupil's attention may not be
diverted from the principles of construction by an effort
unfamiliar words. It in fact, marked
is,

to remember
a

feature of this book that aims to present the leading


it

principles of the Greek language through the medium


of very small number of words, and those words, in
a

almost all cases, the names of very familiar, and through


all the earlier part of the book, physical objects. Hence,
8 PREFACE.

it has not been deemed necessary to furnish any vocab


ulary of the words employed, as they are of so frequent
recurrence that the attentive pupil cannot forget them.
With these explanations, the Author cheerfully,
and yet diffidently, submits his work to the public.
That it will be as favorably judged as it ought to be he
has no doubt ; but that it will be as much used as it
ought to be he is not so confident. He has labored
with conscientious diligence to make it at once a reliable
and attractive guide to those who are either commenc
ing, or seeking to perfect an acquaintance with the no
blest of human languages. He

is,
to some extent,
aware of its imperfections, and, should meet favor

it

a
able reception, he will spare no pains to render still

it
more worthy of public approval. For the tasteful and
attractive typographical dress, in which appears, he

is
it

indebted to the liberality of his publishers, the Messrs.


Appletons, whose excellent series of school-books
commanding universal favor. is
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

INTRODUCTION.
§ 1. The Alphabet.
1. The Greek Alphabet consists of twenty-four let
ters, as follows : —
Form. Name Sound.

j4 a Alpha a (ah)
B § Btjia Beta b
r
JE Y
8
s
Jtit
'E xfjtXov
a
Gamma
Delta
Epsllon
g
d
6
(hard)

(short)
z t ZTjta Zeta z, dz,
H tj *Hra Eta e (a) (long)
9 & Theta th (in thin)
I ( 'Imta Iota i(e)
K x Kdnnu Kappa k
A I Lambda 1

M fi Mi Mu m
N v m Nu n
3 | •Si Xi X
0 o *0 flUQOV Omicron 0 (short)
n n m Pi P
P Q 'Pa Rho r
2 a (g final) £iyfia Sigma s (sharp)
T j Tav Tau t
r v Upsllon u
0 (p
Phi pb
x X Xi Chi ch
m Psi ps
& CO TJ2 fttya Omega 6 (long)
10 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

2. The letters are divided into Vowels (seven) and


Consonants (seventeen). Vowels, a, o, v, to.

tj,
e,

i,
3.
The consonants
divided into simple consoare
nants and double consonants. The simple consonants
consist of nine mutes, n, t, &,

8,
i,
qp, x,

§,

y,
four liquids,

I,
p, v, q,
and the sibilant (or hissing), a.
The mutes are subdivided as follows
4.

:
n, cp, pronounced with the lips lip-letters, labials,
§,

;
" " palate palate-letters, palatals,
i,

x,
8, y,

;
r, " tongue tongue-letters, Unguals.
&,

"

;
Again, n, x, t, are smooth (unaspirated).
rough (fully aspirated).
" "
8 &
y, g,

(p,

medial (partially aspirated).


|3,

Double consonants.
5.

from na, j3tr, cpo.


ifj

"

xa, yes, %a.


£

sometimes " 8a or a8.


f

Rem. — Thus whenever wo-, /So-, eper come together, they form
xa, ya, xa form But lingual consonants,
x,
d,
f.

if/,
n before a are generally dropt.
v,

Sounds the Letters.


2.

of
§

The vowels are seven.


1.

Short, o.
«,

Long, n, op.

Doubtful, a, v (sometimes short and sometimes long).


i,

Thus, a, o, v the short vowels,


i,
s,

a, n, the long vowels.


7,

m,
v

Rem. — The mark w denotes a short, " a long vowel.


1.

" 2. The long vowels are the short vowels doubled,


and require twice the time in pronunciation thus,
;

SS = «e = »« = oo = cd, Ci) = v.
a,

»),

•,
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 11

2. a, a sound like Oh, Oh, na-itjo. dd-log-


s, n
"
"
"a in fate, fame,
" e " mi, seine,
Xiyto, ijdrj.
t, l it-vot;, xe'<"°-
o, " " o " note, lone,
co
io-yof, lw-rof.
v, v " " u " /te/e, / ant .
nv-oos, Qv-pos.
The short vowels, &, e, #, o, approximate the
3.
sounds of the corresponding English vowels in fat, met,
pin, not, especially (1) when followed by a consonant
in the same syllable; as, j&r-im, nice. orll-fm, 51-
= tatto, petite, stllbo, Olbos;
§oe (2) in an accented
antepenult; as, a-di-xof, i-\apor, tata-rcu, o-jrj-roff = idl-
kos, elObon, istatai, oketos.

Rem. 3. — The pupil should carefully distinguish in pro


nunciation the long and short vowels, as, tot-ioi and
n^Hitm, xQt-"> and X^'ao,> &t and iij, SX-xtj and »T-*ij,
to and tc3, it-noi; and dv-juof. Thus IS-yot, not logos,
but nearly. Idg-os.

The Diphthongs are always .ong, except at and of


4.
which in respect to Accent are generally in inflexion
regarded as short at the end of words, as, at^qmndi, but
av&qmnoig. They are,
at, M, oi. rji, mi, vt
av, ev, ov, i}v, mv
at sounds like ay (English adverb of affirmation),
et
" " t" in mine,
or
" " oi " voice,
av " " ow " now.
iv, tjv " " u " true or you in your,
ov, mv
" oo " moon,
vt
" " «?e; as tn'-off, hwe-os.

5. ta, ll', ooi, are generally written thus, «, c, m, except


with capitals, as, At, Hi, Sii. The iota written under
12 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

the vowel is called Iota subscript, and is not heard in


pronunciation.
6. Note especially the following consonants,

y before x, y, %, sounds like n in anchor, as uyyog =


ang-gbs.
& always sharp as in thin.
t like dz.
a always sharp as in this (never soft as in these),
ai and ti never like sh ; thus A-ol-a, ra-lu-u-a, not
A-shg-a, Ga-la-shg-a.
7. Examples. Si — dap, dq^day.
e-y m = a-gO ; (nearly = 6-gO.)
tov = too, tcov - - tone.
fiov-aa = moo-sit.
onei-yw = spi-ro, nvf) = pure.
oi-xi-a = oi-kt-a, ncpai-oa — sphai-rd.
nrj-yn = pay-gay.

§ 3. Breathings and Punctuation-marks.


1. The Breathings are placed over the initial vowel
of a word, or in case of diphthongs, over the second vowel.
The smooth breathing not heard in pronunciation;
(')
is

the rough our h. Thus, = en, sv=hen; ov = oo,ov


iv
(')
is

= hoo, — hoi. The vowel u and the consonant at the


or

beginning of a word are always rough, vlos, Qodov.


Marks of Interpunction. Besides the comma and
2.

period, the Greek has the colon, thus, too you, and the

interrogation-mark, thus (s) as t«V who


?
J

Accents.
4.
§

The Accents are three, indicating the tone with


1.

which the syllable was formerly pronounced.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 13

'
(a) The acute denotes a sharp and rising tone,
(o|vf roVos',) "kayos.
'
(6) The grave denotes a depressed or falling tone
(payvs roros).
"
The circumflex denotes both a rising and a fall
(c)
ing, or winding tone (jteQtonojfieros topos), aqpv-oa.

Rem. ]. — The circumflex is made up of an acute and


grave drawn together; hence it requires a long vowel
or diphthong, as g6-6g= ooi(, gu-pu =<jfrfitl.

2. (a) The acute can stand on either of the three last


syllables ;

(b) The circumflex on either of the two last.


(c) The grave is never written except on the last

I
syllable, and then only where it stands as a softened
acute.
3. Words are named from their accent.
f Those with acuted ultimate, Oxytone.
" "
penult, Paroxytone.
(1) 4

( " " Proparoxytone.


antepenult,
circumflexed ultimate, Perispomena or
winding.
" " penult, Properispomena.
(3) Those with unaccented ultimate, Barytone.
4. Proparoxytones and Properispomena always re
quire a short ultimate, as av&Q<anog Proparoxytone ; but
-
av&QtonoV Paroxytone, oyv-oa Properispomenon, ocpvoas,
Paroxytone.
■ Rem. 2. — 01 and at are generally short in inflexion at the
end of words, as av&gianot, ^(5pat.

No accent but an acute can stand on the penult,


5.
when the ultimate is long ; none but a circumflex can
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

stand on a long penult, when the ultimate is short.


%(»Qti, aqivQat;, acpvoit, acpvQcd, nodzTio, ngcizte.
6. In continued
discourse an oxytone has its accent
depressed, and appears as a. Barytone (see above 2 c) ;
thus xai eym fiiv ogm, for xai eyco per opoo. Before any
mark of punctuation the acute remains ; as, »al iy<6,

xai av.
Observe any word with the grave accent written on
its final syllable is only apparently a Barytone. It is
in fact, an Oxytone.

7. Proclitics.
forms of the article,
of,

6, at,
ij,

er, «x(f'5), slg, Prepositions,


Particles,
si,

ms, ov(ovx),
are so closely united with the following words that they
lose their accent, and are called Proclitics, or Atonies.
Enclitics. Several small words are so closely
8.

connected with the preceding word, that they throw


their accent back upon and are called Enclitics;
it,

thus,
tovzo ye for tovzo ye,
Tiff,
" its,
avrft) avtjQ
rs
"

Xoyog Xoyog re.

The Greek accent-marks influence our pronuncia


9.

tion only so far as they indicate the quantity of the syl


lable. English usage accents the penult syllable when
= e-kOo-si when short, the ante
is

long, as,
it
is
it

eyovm
;

penult, as e-Xa-fiov = el-U-bon, e-ye-ze = ek-e-te.


GREEK OLLENDORFF.

FIRST LESSON.
1. Nouns, Adjectives, Pronouns and Participles in
Greek have three Genders, the Masculine, Feminine,
and Neuter ; three Numbers, the Singular, Dual (denot
ing two), and Plural ; and five Cases, the Nominative,
Genitive, Dative, Accusative, and Vocative.

2. The Article.
6 rj to, the,

SING.
M. P. N.
Nom. b TO the,
h_
Gen. roS *w tov of the,
Dat. tip for, with
*ij

r(jp to, the,


Acc. top tij* to the,
Voc. wanting.

ODAL.
Nom. & Acc. tti ta tea the two, both the,
Gen. & Dat. tulv and to, for, with
of

ToiV TOW the two.

PLUR.

Nora. ot at t& the,


Gen. rtar
of

toov the,
Dat. TOtg Tciig Toff to, for, with the.
Acc. TOlJff tag t& the,
Voc. wanting.
16 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Rem.— In the Dual the forms of the Nom. Acc. and Voc.
and of the Gen. and Dad, are always alike.

Accent. — o, ai Proclitics (see Introd.

of,

4.
7).

§
The Gen. and Dat. in all the numbers. Perispomena.
The other forms, Oxytone.

The First Declension.

There are threeprincipal modes of declining


3.

nouns in Greek, called the First, Second, and Third De


clensions. The First Declension has in the Nom. four
endings, a and Fem., ag and r\g Masc.
q

olxta, a house.
4.

SING.

N. oixta a house.
G. oixiag a house.
of

D. oixiii to, for, with a house,


A. oixidv a house,
V. oixia O house.

DUAL.
N.A.&V. oixia both houses,
G. & D. oixiaiv and for, with both houses.
of

to,

PLUR.
N. oixicu houses,
G. oixtuv
of

houses.
D. oixinig to, for, with houses,
A. oixiag houses,
V. olxiai
0

houses.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 17

So all nouns of the First Decl. in a pure e. a pre

(i.
ceded by vowel) and qu as,

;
axiil, a shadow,
so rid, a hearth,
a door.

Rule. The Art. agrees with its Subst. in Gender,


5.

Number, and Case as,


;
oixia, the house.
r\

olxiat. the houses.


ai

tijg axiag, of the shadow.


of the hearths.
vars' Ovgati, to (with) the doors.
Accent. — The Gen. Plur. in this Decl. perispomenon

is

;
Oxylones make the Gen. and Dat. of all
as, olxiwr.
the numbers perispomena; as, axtag, <""?, axtaiv,
oxiiav, axiali.

Exercises.
6.

Mender into English.


I.

Oixia. — 'H oixia. — Oixlag. — Tfjg oixiag. —


Olxiai. —XI oixiai. — Oixicov. — Tojv olxuov. —
2xia. — fly 6xcd. — Tijg Gxidg. — Tr) Gxia. — Sxiai.
—At Gxiai. — 2xuiv. — Tav Gxiwv. — ^xtatg. —
'EGria. — 'H eOria. — 'EGriag. — Ti eGrt'cc. — Trjv
eGriav. — 'Eoricci. — Twv eGriav. — Ovpa. — 'H &v-
qa. — Trjg &vpag. — Ovqav. — At -&VQai. — QvQaig.
— Tag -d~vqag.

II. Render into Greek.


house. — The house. — Of the
house. — Of the
A

houses. — The houses. — With the houses. — A door. — Of


18 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

a door. — With the door. — With the doors. — Of the


doors. — The doors. — Doors. — A hearth. — Of a hearth. —
Of the hearth.— Of hearths.— Of the hearths.— To the
hearths. — A shadow. — The shadow. — Shadows. — The
shadows. — Of the shadows. — Of a shadow. — With the
shadow. — With shadows.

SECOND LESSON.
7. We decline mud, a shadow, to show fully its ac
centuation.
BINS. DUAL. PLDR.

N. axid N. axial
G. axidg N. A.V. axid G. aximv
D. axta G. D. axiaiv D. axiaig
A. axiav t A. axtdg
V. axtd V. axutt

So clod, dg, a porch, portico,


7] atod, the porch.
8. Rule. — One Noun governs another which de
pends upon it in the Gen. ; as,
A door of a house, j &voa
oixiag or, oixiag &vqa.

A door of the house,\ ^?Qaoixiag ol^aS-


( tijg ffvoa.
To the porch of the house, zfl aroa ttjg oixiag.
The shadows of the doors, at axiai tuv &vqoiv.
Of the shadow of a porch. trig axidg arodg.

Rem. — The Gen. thus placed may be called the Partitive


Gen. ; for the Adj. or attributive Gen. see Lesson XIX.

9. Exercises.
I. Render into English.
2xid. — 'H cxid. — CH 6rod. — CH crod r^g
oixiag. — Trjg oixiag al Croat. —2xtd &voag. —
Sxia T^g xhjqag. — Tcov &vocov Gxiai. — At Oxcal
tcov zh/gcov. — Taeg Gxcatg tcov olxicov. — Qvoa. —
'H &vqu. — At &vpat rrjg oixiag. — Tcov thiocov rfjg
oixiag. —'H eGria. — FIT tOriu rrjg oixiag. — Taig
sdriacg tcov oixceov. — 'Eoriat oixuov. — Ai eaviai
tcov olxicov.
II. Render into Greek.
A door. — The door. — A door of a house. — The doors
of a house. — Doors of houses. — The doors of the houses.
— The shadows. — Of the shadows. — The shadow of the
house. — Of the shadow of the house. — To the shadow
of the door. — With the shadows of the doors. — A hearth.
— Of the hearth. or for the hearths. — Of the hearth
— To
of the house. — The hearths of the houses. — The door of
the porch. — The shadows of the porch. — The porches of
the house. — A porch of a house. — Porches of houses.

THIRD LESSON.
10. ejfoo, I have, (Ind. Pres.)

SING.

1 Pers. ejfoo, I have,


2 Pers. fyeig thou hast, you have,
3 Pers. s^«( he, she, it has.

DUAL.
2 Pers. fyerov you two have,
3 Pers. Wm"' they two have.

PLUB.
1 Pers. fyonev we have,
2 Pers. ?^ST« ye or you have,
3 Pers. e%ovai(v) they have.
20 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Id3 We shall give the 2 Pers. Sing, by you (instead of


thou) in conformity with English usage. The con
nection will generally show whether ' you' indicates
the Sing, or the Plur. If not, the pupil can select
which number he pleases.

Rem. 1. — The v written thus (v), as in %xovoi(v) (called


movable v) is used before a vowel and at the end of
sentences ; but is omitted before a consonant ; as,

l%ovaiv olxictv.
oixiav e%ovair.
fyovoi &voug.

Rem. 2. — Accent. The accent of verbs is usually as far


from the final syllable as possible. Hence, fyo), j^etov,
sxovojv (Introd. § 4).

11. Rule. Active verbs generally take their object •

in the Acc.

I have a house, e/co oixiav or oixiav Wm


Have you a house 7 oixiav fyeig ; 'drug oixiav;
Have we houses ? fyouev oixiug ; oixiag fyouev .

You have houses. oixiag i^sTS.


The house has a door, i oixia Qvqav ijje*.
Has it a door? &VQUV ijrei ;
Houses have porches. olxiat atoag fyovaiv.

(Proclitic, Introd. § 4. 7).


ov, ovx, OVA, not, no
oil before a consonant, and at the end of a sentence.
ovx before a smooth vowel (Introd. § 3. 1).
oi'x before a rough vowel ; thus,
OV T7JV &VQCKV,

ovx i#w,
ovx o.

Rem. — At the end of a sentence, and with the meaning no,


oil is not proclitic, but has the accent;ov, oiix.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 21

%l acpaTga, a£. the ball.


I have not, ovx Wm
ovx W""" tijvaqiatgap ;
Have they not the ball 1
ov rt)v aqaioav W""'" ;
\ ovx fyovai irjr acfttiQur.
They have not the ball, ov tijv acpaiQur fyovoir.
l tijv atQUioav ovx i^ovam.
Has not the house a door 1 ovx t%ei Ovgccr ll oixia;
The house has not a door, tj outlet ovx ijti Ovqav.

Rem. — The pupil will mark the variation in the arrange


ment of the words, often according to their relative de
gree of emphasis ; thus,

The house has a porch, i]oixia t%ei aroav.


Has the house a porch ? aroav ertt 17 oixia ;
The house has not a porch. Ofjf ij oixia aroav tfti.
(= it is not the house that has
a porch.)
The house has not a porch, ov aroav t%et ij oixia.
(= it is not a porch that the
house has.)
The house has not a porch, ovx ifti aroav ij oixia.

12. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Oixia — Oixiac dvqai t%ovOiv. —


t%ei -d-vqav.
"E%ovC>i &vqag at olxiai ;
— Ov thvqaq t%ov6iv. —
'H oixia ovx £%st &vqag. — Ovx e%ti aroav n
oixia; —'H oixia ov 6voav i'^si. — Ov Oroav tote
rj oixia. — Ovx e%ov6ii' at olxiai 6xi.ag ; — Ov
6xiag t%ov6iv. — Ov Gxiag i'%ovatv at olxiai. — 'H
Oroa rrjg oixias Gxiav ffyst- — Qvqa olxiag. — At
22 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

&VQUI rfjg olxlag.


—At h6riai tcov oixiav. —IZcpai-
Qav e%sig ;
— Ovx t'%co 6(paiQav. — Ovx e%trt acpai-
Qag ; —^(palqag woe. — Ovx e%Ofitv rag 6(pai-
quq.

II. Render into Greek.

Have you a ball ? — I have a ball. — I have not a ball.


— Have they not balls? —They have balls. — Have we
balls? — We have balls. — A shadow. — A shadow of a
ball. — Has the ball a shadow? — The ball has a shadow.
— The balls have shadows. — The door of the house
has a shadow. — Has not the house a door ? — It has a
door. — The house has doors. — Has it not a portico? —
The house has not a portico. — Have not the houses
hearths ? — They have hearths. — The hearth of the
house.

FOUETH LESSON.

13. rig i who ?


ti; what?
iym, I.
we.
6 rials, the boy.

aqiVQa, a hammer,
G. aqivQus, of a hammer,
tj acfVQci: the hammer.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 23

Rem. — Quantity and Accent in Decl. 1.


1. The ending a<; in this Decl. is always long; as. atflgus.

2. The Acc. ending in ov, is like the Nom.; as, otpiga, atfi-
quv, oxia, oxi&r.
3. The Dual ending in a is always long; as, o<pvgu, ol»ia.
4. The Nom. PI. in at is short ; as. oyvgai, axiat.
5. Hence acfvgit, atpiguv, o<pvgai, Properispomena.

o<pvgag, atfi iga, Paroxytone (Intr. h 4.5).

ri txetg > what have you ?


oqivonv f/w, I have a hammer,
tie acpvgav e%et
; who has a hammer?
iya oqvnav ^f<u, /have a hammer.
tjfuTg fyofter acpvgas, we have hammers,
ti e^ste; what have you?
aqiai'gas fyoftsv, we have balls.

Rem. — Observe, the Personal Pronouns iyio, ijfiug, &c. are


omitted with the verb, except where required by em
phasis ; as,

«' fyta ; what have 1 ?


rt e%<o ty<a ; what have 11
ti fyofievfifiiTi ; what have we?
aqiaigni eiofier, we have balls.
rag aqpaigag e^Oftsv rjfiHi ; have we the balls ?
ov, No.

14. o?, no.


yes, certainly.
fytt ttjv aqpaigctv 6 naig ; has the boy the ball ?
vat, Yes.
vac, eftst rtjv aqmlgav, Yes. he has the ball,
ovx fret itjv acpvqav ; has he not the hammer?
ov, No.
ov, rtjv ocpvoar ovx ej(«, No, he has not the hammer.
24 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

iv iv,
15. in, among a Preposition.

;
Tip, in the, (Governs the Dat. only).

Rem. — iv proclitic (Intr.

is
4. 7).

§
oixia, in house,
iv iv iv

a
7% oixia, in the house.
axta rrjs oixiag, in the shadow of the house,
ti i^sii; er oixia what have you in the house

1
;
nati 0<faiQar £%ei sv zjj oixia. the boy has a ball in the house.
6

16. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

Ti t/tig —^(faiQav a/a. — Ti e%ojutv r/jusig;


;

— JEcpvgag
t%trt.
— Ovx t%o/utv oixiag — Ovx

;
i-%kTk oixiag. — -E%st &vgag oixia — Nai, xhvgag
;
f]

t%ti; — E%ti oixia Grodv — Ov, oixia ov Gro


fj

rj
;

cer e%ti-
— Ti e%£TS iv raig olxiacg 'Eariag iv
;—

vaig olxiacg t%ojutv. — Tig e%si rfjv Gcpatgav — ;


'Eyeo i'%cd tt)v ocpaigav. — 'Hjutig ov rijv Gcpatgav

t%0[itv.
—'O nalg Gcpaigag £%u- — Ovx ip^ti Gxiav
-d-vQa rrjg oixiag
—Nai, Gxiav e%ei. — £%ei Ti
6
fj

Ttaig iv Gxia rfjc oixiag — ^cpatqav t%£i-


rfj

II. Render into Greek.


ball. — A hammer. — shadow. — A shadow of
A

ball. — The shadow of a hammer. — The shadow of the


hammer. — In the shadow of the hammer. — The boy. —
What has the boy? — He has a ball. — Who has a ham
mer? — have a hammer. — We have hammers. — Have
/
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 25

we not houses ? —Yes. — Have not the houses porches .2--


No, they have not porches. — Have they not hearths ? —
Yes, they have hearths. —What have you? — We have
hammers in the house. — Has not the boy a ball ? — No.

FIFTH LESSON.
17. Declension of iy<6, I.

8IN0.
N. iyci I,
G. ipov, fiov of me,
D. snot, poi to, for me,
A. efts, fie me.

N. A. via vie two ; us two,


G. D. v$v of us two ; to, for us two.

N. rifisie we,
G. rjfimv of us,
D. rj/uv to, for us,
A. rjfing us.

18. Theforms, fiov, poi, fire, are enclitic, and never


used when emphasis is required; but only the fuller
forms, ifiov, ifioi, e/ie. Hence fiov, pot, fie, cannot begin a
sentence or clause.
e%ug /*s, I you have me.
e%ete ifie,
you have me.
ifis Wide, |
ifioi xat aoi, to me and to thee (you),
ifta xai ae, me and thee (you),
ovx tfis, alia ae. not me. but thee (you).
2
26 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

19. xai, and.


alia, but.

all' before a vowel ; as, aXX ipt, but me.

av, thou, you.


aoi, to, for thee, you.
ai, thee, you.

I and you, sym xai av.


Not I, but you, ovx iym, iXXa av.
Not you (thee), but me, ov as, aXX' ifie.
The house and the door, {joixia xai &vga. i

ijj
Not in the house, but in the ovx iv t§ oixia, aXX sv
porch, atoa.
Not the ball, but the hammer, ocpaiga, aXX oqtvga.

q
01%
i]

Id3 Accents. — Let the pupil read carefully over Introd.


4. in reference to the accents.
7,
8,
§

oixia fiov, my house (the house of me),


ij

oixia fiov, house of mine house of


(a
a

me).
oixia Tjfuov,
fj

our house (the house of us).


fjfimv oixia,
fj

oixia rjfimv, house of ours house of us).


(a
a

naTt; fiov, my boy.


6

naig (iov, a boy of mine.


axid fiov, my shadow.
rj

Ttjs axiag fiov, of my shadow (of the shadow


of me),
axias fiov, of a shadow of mine.
ai axial f]fiS>¥,
our shadows.
axiai,
ai

tjfiar
imv aximv tjfimv, of our shadows,
h,

t-q axia fiov, in my shadow.

£3" The pupil will remember that fiov in these and simi
lar examples never emphatic.
is
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 27

20. tint; whom?


(iaxTtj(>ia, ag, a staff,
tj fiaxTtjQict, the staff.

rivet eisis ; whom have you 1


as s^oftsp, we have you (thee),
ovx ifie, dl).a as s^ovaiv, they have not me, but you.
lira ovx ifpvaiv ; whom have they not ?
oi% Was' vfovaw, they have not us.
Qaxtr^iav pov Move, they have my staff (a staff of
mine).

21. Exercises.

I. Render into English.


'H 6(palqa. —'H 6cpaiQoc fiov. — Ovx tj GcpatQct,
dXX n 6(pvqa. — Oi>% r\ oixia, dXX r) &vQce.

2cpuQa xal ocpaiga. — Ai 6(pvQai xul ai OcpaToai.
—*Eya xul 6 nalg. — Ovx iy&, dXX 6 nulg. — 7V
i%si nuig;—-E%it tt/v /SaxvrjQiuv /uov. —'O Tialg
6

t%et 6(pvqug xal 6(puiqug.


— Ai olxiat t%ov6i &v-
qug xul Orodg. — Oi>% ear tag e%ov6iv ui oixiai
fj^cjv ;— Nut, hGriug i%ov6iv. — Ti if%ti 6 %atg
fiov ev rfi 6xtd rfjg -frvqug ;— Baxrrjqiav t%st. —
Tiva e%ST8 ; — Cs' woe. — Ovx ejus i[%£Te, uXXu
juov. — 0 natg w" /us iv
rfj

rrjv ftaxTTjQiav &vqu.


— Ovx £%si, dXXd 6t
ifis
'.

II. Render into Greek.

staff. — My staff. —
staff of mine. — Have you a
A

staff of mine — Who has my staff? — The boy has our


?

-
28 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

staves. — Has he not our hammers ? — No, he has not our


hammers. — The boy has hammers and balls. — Whom
has the boy ? — He has me. — He has not me, but you. —
He has not us. —What has he ? —He has my staff. —
What has the house ? —It has doors and hearths. — Has
it not porches? — No, it has not porches. — It has not
porches, but doors. — In the shadow of the door. — In the
houses. —What have we in the houses? — We have
staves and balls.

SIXTH LESSON.
22. av, thou, you.

SING.
N. av you = thou,
G. GOV of you = of thee,
D. (rot to, for you,
A. ce you.

N. A. oq*6 you two,


G. D. acpqiv of you two ; to, for you two.

PLUH.
N. vftsts you = ye,
G. vftmv of you,
D. iifiiv to, for you,
A. vftag you.

EEf^ As before remarked, we render the Sing, by you, in


of thou.
stead The pupil will easily distinguish when
the Sing, is required, and when the Plural.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 29

Rem. 1. —aov, aol, at, are enclitics, like pov, ftoi, fit (a).
But when emphatic, they are orthotone, i. e. retain
their accent, like ifiov, ifioi, ipi (b).

(a) olxia aov,


7] your house.
hm as, I have you.
(o) spot xai aoi, to me and to you.
ovx tfte, aXXa at, not me, but you.
as oi itjvaqpaiQuv aov, I have you, not your ball.

?If r'' your ball.

oyaiQu vfimv, a ball of yours.

Rem. 2. — In constructions like fj olxia fiov, n olxia aov, pov


and aov are always enclitic ; hence never ftoi tj olxia,
aov rj olxia, unless preceded by other words so that
they can throw back their accent, and stand without
emphasis ; as,

sjjsi fiov *Tjv olxlav, I he has my house.


ovx l^oo aov itjv aqtaigav, |
I have not your ball.
But, v acpalqa tyuv, v^v, )
om hM
or. t)pcov, vpiav r) ocpaiga, )

23. You, not I, av, aXX ovx syca,


av, ovx iyoi, ( less
av, xai ovx sy<o. N frequent.
sv olxia, dXX ovx sv rg atoa,
In the house, not in the porch, if TTj olxia, ovx sv z\ atoa,
sv «j olxia, xal ovx sv t\ area.
30 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

24. *Qfym> I
am running.
run>
Ind. Pres. like fyw.

SING.

1 Pers. TQe'x<o
I ran, am running,
2 Pers. TQt^sig you run, are running,
3 Pers. tqs^si he, she, it runs, is running.

2 Pers. TQt%stov you two run, are running,


3 Pers. tofysTov they two run, are running.

PLDR.

1 Pers. zqs'xoiiev we run, are running,


2 Pers. tqv%ets you (ye) run, are running,
3 Pers. zoexovai(v) they run, are running.

We are running, Toe%ofiev.


We do not run, qpeig ov tqskpiiev.
Does not the boy run 1 ov 'em 6 naig ;
He does run, he runs, tQEpi. }
He is running in the house, H)£%u iv oixia.

25. Exercises.
I. Render into English.
Tig rel",' — 'Eyd> tq&xoj. — Ovx
sya, ccXXd
Gv TQS^stg. — dXX ovx eya> TQS%a. — Ov tqs-
%£Tt vftttg; — Nat, tqexo/ui-v. —'Yfinig TQt^trs,
dXX ovx fifths- — Ovx iyat tqsx^i <z^% o naig. —
Yfitlg sv ralg Groatg tos-xsts. — Ovx iv rf) oixla
'

ro&x*1 0 naig, dXX iv vrj Groa.


—'Ev ralg GroaTg
tcov olxiav TQbxo/nsv. — 2v xccl iya. — 7f oixla
Gov. — D naig Gov f?x£l Thv /3ccxtt]qIccv.
— Tlva
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 31

e%si 6 aaig ; — J££ *Xec-


— ®v °^ *Xtl> —
Ovx rjfict? fytl> vftceg. — Ov as t%tc, dXXa
TTjV OXLUV 'EyCJ TQ£%(0 XCU OV TQS^tCS.
GOV.

cHjutig TQ£%ofttv xal rgs^trt vjutlg.

II. Render into Greek.


My ball. —Not my ball, but my staff. — Who has your
ball ? — The boy has my ball. — The boy has not our ball.
— The boy has our hammers. — Not I, but the boy. —
You, not we. — Has not the boy my staff? — The boy has
your staff. — No, he has not my staff. — The boy has
hammers and staves. — What has the house ? — It has
doors and hearths. — It has doors, and not porches. —
I
Who is running? — am running. — Are not you running?
— We are not running. — The boy is running in the
porch. — They are running in the shadow of the porch.

SEVENTH LESSON.
26. elfti, lam (Irregular).

Ind. Pres. sing.


1 etui lam,
2 tl you are,
is.
it,

3 iati{t) he, she,

DUAL.
tatov you two are,
2

iarov they two are.


3

PI.UR.

Iff/iiV we are.
1

ears' you are,


2

state) they are.


3
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

27. nov ; where

?
ivrav&a,
here.
uvtov,
there.

yeovta, Sg, a corner,


ij ymvts, the corner.

nov si ; where are you

?
ivxuv&d eifu, am here,

I
nov iauv o naig ; where the boy

is

?
ioxiv w xy ywvia.,
he in the corner.

is
iv ch ycavia. iattv,
enTtv 6 naig iv x\ olxia ; is the boy in the house

1
sativ, he is.
ovx sativ, he not.
is

nov tiaiv ai otxiat ; where are the houses

1
ixn tiaiv, or tiaiv ixei. they are there,
ovx tiaiv ixti, they are not there,
txti si av ; are you there
1

ovx elfu, am not.


I

There
is is,

there are, saxi{v), dei(v).


There not, ovx savi{v).
There are not. ovx siai(v).
There a door in the house, sari &vga olxia.
iv iv
is

There are doors in the house, olxia.


zjj

slat &VQO.I

Accents. — enclitic throughout the Pres. Ind. except


is

elfti
the Sing. el. Except,
2

At the beginning of sentence, as, eoxiv olxia, ttaiv


1.

olxiai.
taxi(v) becomes Paroxytone in such cases, and also
2.

faq, pi, xai, as, ovx taxiv, a/Li' coxiv,


el,

after ovx, otl£,


el

saxtv, mg eoxiv, xal eoxiv.


All dissyllabic enclitics become orthotone, e. retain
3.

i.

their accent, after Paroxytone; as, &vga ioxiv, olxiai


a

elaiv.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 33

Who runs?
ovx tjea TQe%(o, I do not run.
ovx iyto TQex<o, aXXa. av, / do not run, but you. ( = it is
/
not that run, but you),
ov ov ifie ej(J,ff> aiX iym as, you have not me, but / you,
( = it is not you that have
me, &c.)

six o ticus TQs^et, alX sym, The boy does not run, but /.
(literally = not the boy
runs, but I).

28. Exercises.
I. Render into English.
JJov si ;— 'Ev Ttj —
tlfii. -Eoriv 6 naig iv
ycovia
rfj yavia wig oixiag ; — Ovx iGtiv ixtl, dXX tOviv
iv Trj 6roa rr)g olxiag. — -E%ti 6rodv r) oixia; —At
olxiai r)jucov Orodg e%ov6iv. — -Eon xhvqa iv Ttj
oixia fiov. — Eioi tfvqai xal eOriac iv ralg oixiacg
r/juav. — Uov tleiv at Ocpaioai ;—Ai Ccpaiqat- ovx
avrov iiotv, dXX iv rrj yavia. — Ovx iort vpslg
iv Ttj oxia rrjg oixiag ; — Ov% rjfitig io/ucv iv Tjj
6xia rrig aixiag, dXX 6 %atg ioTiv ixtl. —-E%£i
Gcpaiqav 6 naig ; — Ov Gcpaiqav e%si, dXXd /8ax-
TTjqiav. —JScpaiqag xal/3axTr/qiag w". — Ovx o
nag /Saxrr/qiav £%ti, dXXaov. — Oi)% Vfitlg tq 's^-
ts, dXX r)/j.£ig. —'Eya, dXX ov tit/ TQS%tig.

II. Render into Greek.


Where am I? —I am here. — I am in a corner. —
Where are you ? — I am not in a corner. — Is not the boy
in a corner ? — He is. —He is not.— Who is here %—The
2*
34 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

boy is here. — He is not here, but there. — He is there, not


/
here. — Who is here ? — am here. — We are here. — Not
we, but you are here. — Who is running in the shadow of
the house? — The boy is running there. — The boy is not

'ov% o aaTg <fec.) running there, but I.


— There is a hearth
n the corner of the house. —A corner of a house. —Not
nere, but there. — There, not here.

EIGHTH LESSON.

29. The First Decl. Nouns in q.

fj vopq, the posture.

SI NO.

N. vofitj a pasture.
G. vofirjs of a pasture.
D. voftq to, for, with a pasture.
A. vofiqv a pasture.
V. vofuq O pasture.

N. A. V. vofid two pastures.


G. D. and to, for, with two pastures.
of,

voaa.lv

PLUR.

N. rofial pastures.
G. voumv pastures.
of

D. vo/xatg to, for, with pastures.


A. vofiag pastures.
V. vouai
O

pastures.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 35

So all nouns of this Decl. in n, as

xwpti, w, a village,
i xoi/nv, the village.
XQtjvtj, Tie, a spring, a fountain.
i, xofotj, the fountain.

a cow (or ox),


6 fiovg, the ox,
t)§ovg, the cow,
at (lose, the cows,
6 mug the boy.
s fiats, the girl.

xutat, he, she, it lies,


xsivzai, they lie.

— at and ot in inflection at the end of words are


Note.
generally short, in reference to accent. Hence ayioai,
xtixcu, not, acpvoaj, xtixaf. (Introd. § 4. 4, 5).

sail iv vop\, there cow in the pasture,


is

fiovg
a

nov xuvzai at fioeg ; where do the cows lie (lie the


cows)
1
rjj

ov xeitai tj fiovg iv voftq does not the cow lie in the


;

pasture
?

Rem. — To the auxiliaries do, does, did, $c, there


is

nothing
in Greek to correspond as,
j

Does the girl run Is the girl rofyei naZg; (runs the girl?)
?

tj

running
1

She does not run, not run or regret, (she runs not).
is

ning,
Does she not run ov 'er" (runs she not
?)
t

She runs she does run, run


is
;

ning,
36 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Have you a ball 1

I have (one),
I have not (one), ovx fym.
Has the house a door 1 i%u &vqav oixia;

tj
Ithas (one),
Has it doors? dvqug siu

;
It has,
No, it has not, ov, ovx e/8(.
naii oixia

rjj
iv
Is the boy in the house ? eaziv

;
He eoriv.
is is,

He not, ovx sartr.


Are the cows here airov

ai
£w!»
?

;
(Sof.g
They are not, ovx eiaiv.

30. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

naig; — TQt%tc ev vofijj. —


rfj
JTov eorcv
6

Hoi) xtirai jSovg — 'O /3ovg xtirai ev rfj ycovice


6

rrjg vo/zrjg. — Ai fiotg ovx avrov xtlvrai, aXX ev


tjj oxid rtjg oixiag. —ITov 'WK" wait — H
rj

naig rgs^ti ev rrj 6roa. — E%ti Grodv oixia; —


fj

E%u.
— Ovx
i'%ovGiv ai oixiai q/ucov Grodg

;

Ovx fyovGiv. —lH xcojurj. — Tic xco/urjg. —Ai xat-


ftat.
—Ai oixiai rrjg xeo/utjg. — IJov ioriv oixia
f)

Gov —lH oixia /uov eGriv iv rfj xcojurj. — Hov


;

—'H XQTjvrj xtirai ev xa/uy. —


rfj

eGriv XQTjvr]
f)

xdfirj xtirai, dXX ev rfj vofif\. — Ai


rfj

Ovx ev
/8otg xtlvrai ev ycovia rrjg vofirjg. — -H GcpaiQa
rfj

fiov xtirai ev rrj xgrjvrj.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 37

II. Render into Greek.


The boy and the girl. — The ox and the cow. —
Where is the girl ? — She is in the house. — Where is the
boy ? — He is running in the pasture. — Not in the pasture,
but in the village. —What has the village? — It has
houses and fountains. — Our villages have fountains. —
Who is running in the village ? — The boy is running
there. — Where does the cow lie ? — She lies in the corner
of the pasture. — The cows are running in the pasture. —
Has the boy a staff? — He has. — He has not. — have a I
staff, but not (all' ovj) you. — You have not (ov% ifuit Sec.)
staves, but we.

NINTH LESSON.
31. The First Dccl. Nouns in &.

jXiuvti, a cloak
tj xXaivu. the cloak.

SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. %\aTv& N. xlaivai
G. xiaiviji N. A. V. ikaivii G. ^Xiuvmv
D. xXatrt] G. D. yXuivaiv D. yXaivait
A. iXaivttv A. yXaivas
V. jiXulra V. xlaivai

So nearly all nouns of this Decl. in which a follows


any other consonant than g; as,
axav9a, w, a thorn,
rj axavfta, the thorn,
rye axdvOrjs, of the thorn,
a root,
ij Q%a, the root.
38 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

edga, as, a seat,


ij edga, the seat,
ij niiga, as, the rock,
netgai, rocks,
nvltj, ris, a gate,
r\ nvXrj, the gate.

32. >7> or.


either — or.
ov—ovde (oiff) not — nor.

A house or a door, olxla ij dvga.


Where is the boy 1 nov satw 6 nais;
He is either in the village or rj it ry xtofiij iorw, ij aviov.
here,
He is not here, nor in the vil ovx ivrav&a iariv, ov8' iv ry
lage,
You have either a staff or a ?j §axrrjgiav, ij eqiaigav ejus.
ball,
They have not a ball nor a ov oycuoav ovde acfvgavefov-
hammer, aiv.

re — ts, (less common).


33. both — and, re — xai.
xai — xai.

av ts xai ty<a, both you and I.


ij is oixia xai q vo[tq, both the house and the pas
ture.
eon rs xai £/at, he both is and has.
xai av, xai iyw, both you, and I.
xai eon, xai e^si, and has.
is,

he both
xai vvv, xai act, both now, and always.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 30

Rem. — T£ — xai unite more intimately than xai — xai. ri—


xat throws the principal stress on the second member
introduced by the stronger xai ; xai — xai makes the
different members equally important ; as,

vvv re xal asi, both now and always.


xat vvv, xai aet, both now, and always,
xai tots, xai vvv, xai asi, alike then, and now, and al
ways.

H5= Observe, is is enclitic, av t«, both you, rj n oixla, both.


the house. iya> ri xai, both I and.
Quantity and Accent. — 1. Nouns of Decl. 1 with Gen. in r)t
have a, not B in the Nora. as. x^aira, axar&u. Nouns
with Rg in the Gen. generally have a.
2. Questions. — ^iolva is accented on the Penult. —
Why Perispomenon ? (Introd. § 4. 5.)
xlairng, " Paroxytonel (Introd. § 4. 5.)

34. Exercises.
I. Render into English.

XXalva. —CH %kalva fiov. —ITov xetvrat at


;— At %Xatvat iv
rfj

%katvat qjucov 6roa xetvrat.


—"jff iv rr\ Groa xstvrat, iv Gxta rfjg ■d'vqag. —
rfj
§

ITov stGtv at axav&at ;—Al axav&at ttGtv iv rr\


yavta rrjg vofirjg.—E%ovGtv dxdv&ag at vo/uat —
;

Ovx dxdv&ag, ovds iterqag e%ovGtv at vo/uat. —


At Qt£at rav dxavihav. —At axav&at, at qi£at.
rj

—-'H at voftat, at nsroat dxdv&ag e%ovGtv. —


rj

A vojuai dxdv&ag rs xat nkrgag t%ovGtv. —


I

ITov xetrat fiovg ;—H iv %vXyi xslrat, iv


rfj

rj
r)

rij vojuij. —At 6t£at tcov dxav&atv iv ralg %krqatg


40 GREEK OLLENDORFF

£i6iv. — "E6tc JtSTQa iv rfj nvXrj. — Eiolv sdoai iv


rccig nvXccig. —Ai olxiac e/ovGt Grodg rs xdi
tdoag. — Kai Groat, xai e§gac. — Kal qi^ai, xcci
axav&ai.

II. Render into Greek.


My cloak. — Where is my cloak? — It lies in the
porch. — Who has the cloaks ? — The girl has both the
cloaks and the balls. — The boy is either running or ly
ing. — He is not running nor lying. — Both we run, and
you. — Who does not run ? — The boy does not run, nor
I. — There are both seats and rocks in the pasture. — The
rocks have seats. — The rocks have not (ov% ai netQui)
seats, but the porches. — Do not the rocks lie in the vil
lage ? — They lie either in the village or in the pasture. —■
In the village, not in the pasture. — Not in the house nor
in the gate. — What have the thorns? — The thorns have
roots. — The houses of the village have both gates and
doors.

TENTH LESSON.
35. o natrjQ, the father,
the mother.

6 natfiQ fiov, my father,


our mother.
n narijQ xat fj liquid fiov,
my father and mother.
6 natrjo [tov, xai i) ftr/rift),
q ftaxTtiQia pnv xat rj acfmiga, my staff and my ball,
o re nai^ 'er", Kat rj naig, both the boy runs, and the girl,
o re nui<j JUN i) natg TQtjpvow, both the boy and the girl run.
iym xat 6 naig rpsjfo/iey, I and the boy run.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 41

Rem. 1. — When a verb is joined to subjects of different


persons, the first person takes precedence of the
second, and the second of the third ; as,

iyco xai aii TQe^oftsv, I and you run.


iyco xai o naig eaftev, Iand the boy are.
av ts xai 6 ttarrjg gov tqi^sts, both you and your father run.
tjfisTi rs xai iueig WW"', both we and you have.
xai iyco rgfyco, xai av,
both I run and you.
iyco is Tgiyco, xiu av,
xai iycoxai av zqi^outv,
both I and you run.
Lord re xai av TQ^Ofisv,

36. inl (in, i<p), on.


preposition.A
«w tov, Tcp,r6v, (Governs the Gen. Dat. and Acc.)
inl tov, on the.

Rem. 2. — The Prep, govern, some one, some two, and some
three cases. We indicate the cases which they
govern, by the Art. as, inl tov, the Gen. inl t<5, the
Dat. inl tov, the Acc.

tm Trig outlets, on the house,


in oixiag, on a house,
iff

edgag, on a seat.
nov xurai aepctiga where lies the ball?
;
it

eoTiag xeltai, hearth,


icp

lies on
it it

xeitai inl Tijs iariag, lies on the hearth.

inl, before consonant.


"a
Observe,
a

in smooth vowel,
a rough towel.
"
icp

On the house, tm TTjg oi mag.


In the olxia.
iv
t$

house,
42 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

37. Exercises.
I. Render into English.
Tig idTiv iv rjj xd/ujj ; —'0 narrjQ fiov iffrcv
ixsl. —-H fiqrrjQ fiov oiix ixsl s6tiv, dXX ivrav&a.
Evxaii&d idriv q fitfTTjo fiov, dXX oiix ixsl. —
Uov xslrai h %kalvd fiov ; —CH %%alva Gov iril
rrjg sdgag xslrai. — H oil xslvrac rjfiav al 6 (pal-
pat ; —'-'IT inl rijg nsrqag xslvrac, ii iv rjj xoqvrj. —
Elol nsrqai iv rjj vofir) ; — Elolv ixsl xal nsroai,
xdl dxav&ac. —'O naxriq fiov xal r\ firjrrjQ slolv
iv rfj ttvXtj. — Tic tqs%si; — Kal 6 nalg tqs%si, xal
6 /3ovg. —Eyco rs xal 6v TQS%ofisv. — Oii% vfislg
rosters, dXX qfislg.—'O navrjQ fiov oil Gcpvoag
%%st, ovde Gcpaigag.
—*H nalg oil tqs%si iv r»j>
6roa, ovdi iv rfj 6xia rrjg oixiag, dXX ircl rav
nsvQoiv.

II. Render into Greek.


My father. — My mother. — Where is my father? —
Your father is in the village. — Our mother is not in the
village, but in the house. — She is either in the porch, or
on the seat. — The ball lies either on the gate, or in the
spring. — My staff does not lie on the cloak, nor on the
rocks. —The roots of the thorns are in the rocks. — The
cows lie in the gate. — Who runs? — I and you run. — I
and the boy run. — Both we and the cows run. — Either
you run, or the cows. — You do not run (or%
I
but we. — do not run not that run, ova
*e«XSTS)>

&c).
(it
is

fy<6

but the boy and the girl.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 43

ELEVENTH LESSON.

Contracts of Decl. 1.

38. Some nouns in ta and a are contracted in all


the cases ta into and da into as,
ij,

5
;

;
ovxsa, avxij, a Jig-tree.
avxrj, the fig-tree.
{}

SINQ. DUAL. PLUR.

N. 6vx(i&), N. avxai
Tj

G. N. A. V. avxd G. avxav
ije

avx(tag),
D. (Tujcf G. D. avxaiv D. tfvxaiV
A. avxrp A. tfvxas
V. Gvxq V. avxai

Accent.— Observe that an Acute Penult coalescing with an


ultimate always produces circumflex (Introd.
3,
a

Rem. 1); as, avxia, ovxy avxiai, avxai.


;

39. xd&nuai, sit, am sitting.


I

xd&tjTai, he, she, sits, is sitting.


it

xd&TjVTai, they sit, are sitting.

r\g, the maiden.


|

■who? (Plur.)
\

71, something, any thing (enclit.)


ovdev, nothing.
except, but, followed by a
Gen.
44 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

40. ii iftii ; what have you ?


tx<o fi, I have something,
i%eii ; ii have you any thing?
6 nmg ii ejfEi, the boy has something,
oitdev (%0/xer, we have nothing,
oix fyontr ov8ev, we have not any thing.
ovdsv e/o) nXrjv acpvgag, I have nothing but a ham
mer.
ovdsv nXi]v ^axirjQiag, nothing except a staff,
lis nXtjv gov; who but you? who except
you?

Rem. 1. — jig; who? xlvtqi who? ii; what?


are never enclit
ic: it
something; any thing; is always enclitic and stands
after some other word.
2. Observe the double negative oix i'xei ovdsv, lit. he has
not nothing. This repetition of the negative is com
mon in Greek.
3. Distinguish but for aXXd from but = except, for 7iXrjv.

41. r) fivia, Sg, the fly.


r) xeqiaXq, r}g, the head.
iv in
rjj

xstQh the hand.

im iris what have you on your (Gr.


ii

tjf£ij xeqiaXrjg
;

the) head?
/ivlav im irjg xeyaXijg, have a fly on my (the) head,
I

l^oo
ii i%iig
ifj

what have you in your hand


iv iv

xel°£;
?

ii have something in my (the)


i\

ejfoo xslQh
I

hand.
what has the boy in his (Gr.
ri

nct*S ** TV XEIQ*>
0

exel
the) hand?
he has a hammer in his (the)
iv

acpvoar xslQ* *Xel>


hand.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. •15

Rem. 4. — The Art. is substituted in Greek for the Pronoun,


in cases where the relation is a necessary one, or clearly
implied in the connection. Thus, in English; "he
stretched out his hand," "he raised his eyes;" " I send
my son;" in Gr.; "he stretched out the hand," "he
raised the eyes ;" " I send the son."

3*00 iv rg xe'Qh have in the hand = have in

I
my hand,
iv you have in the hand =you
'ii

e^eie xstQh
have in your hand,
the boy has in the hand = in
rjj

naig
iv

Xs,Qh
6

b%u
his hand,
the girl has in the hand = the
Tfj
iv

naTs sjfii
t)

XSIQ'>
girl has in her hand.

wu (tot (tvtaim rtji xeqHtXtjf,


There fly on my head,
is
a

or, tan (ivta im Ttjs xeqia^g


fiOV.
tan
iv
i\

^axTtjQia Xe,6* Pov-


There staff in my hand, sazi /tot ^axrrjgia zy JtigL
iv
is
a

(lit. there to me staff in


is

the hand).

note; when?
vvv, now,
aet, always.
note rgr'xsi naTg when does the boy run
1
6

he running now, he runs al


is

VVV TQ8XEI, <X« 1QS%£1,


ways.
46 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

42. Exercises.
I. Render into English.

'H 6vxfj ; —Al ql£ac rrjg dvxrjg. — Uov slfftv al


avxal ; —Al ovxai slaiv iv — 6v-

xfi
vofif). -E%ovo~c
xdg al vo/ual — Ov Ovxdg e%ovo~cv al vofial, dXX
dxdv&ag. — 77 e%si ;vofirj — OiiSsv nXrjv

fj

;
Gvxav xal ntTQav. — Tlvsg inl rav ntrqoiv xa~
■d-rjvrat—'O narrjQ xal ftqrrjo /uov ixsl xd&rjv-

q
;

rat. — Uov xd&rjrac xoqtj —*Ev rrj Gtocc xd-


fj

;
ftriTai em rrjg e'Sgag. — Tl iv — Ov-

rfj
^siQi i'%£t

J
Ssv w" TtXrjv rrjg %%ulvrjg (her cloak =*lit. the
cloak).
— Uov xdS-rjrai juvia — 'End rrjg xzcpa-
f/

— ;
naig ovx i'%st ovSsv inl rrjg xtcpaXfjg
O

Xrjg fiov.
nXrjv fivlag. — Hots tqs%si nalg — Kal vvv, xal
6

del. — "E%a rt iv vii %£iqL

II. Render into Greek.


What has the boy? — He has something. — What has
he in his hand —He has a ball in his hand. — What has
1

my father in his hand — He has a staff in his hand. —


?

The girl has a fly either in her hand or on her head. —


Not on her head, but in her hand. — Where are the
(the)
maidens sitting — They are sitting on a seat. — They are
1

sitting in the porch, not on the rocks. — When does the


girl sit on the rocks —Now. — have a fly on my head.
I
?

— The ball now lying [vvv xeircu) in the spring. — The


is

boy always runs in the house. —The pasture has both


fig-trees and thorns. — Who are in the pasture — have
I
?

nothing in my hand except a staff.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 47

TWELFTH LESSON.

43. Masc. Nouns of Decl. I. Nouns in as.

Marias, a young man, a youth.


6 *eavias, the young man.

SING. DUAL PLUR.

N. Martus N. reariai
O. veattov N. A. V. Martin G. ttanwr
D. Maria G. D. Mariair D. reariais
A. vean'sr A. ttavias
V. Maris. V. reariai

Rem. Nouns of the 1 Decl. in a? and ijs are Masc. and


make the Gen. in ov. Endings in a? are always long.

7] yXSsaaa, w, the tongue.


Att. yXmtra*
tj /jsXiaaa, ng, the bee.
Att fiiXma,

nlnxm, I fall, am falling.


Ind. Pres. nlnxta, nlnjuq, nlmtt &c. like i'xto.
nifinw, sig, « &C. /
send, am sending.

4A. ano (an, ay) away from, from. A Preposition.


dnb Tov,from the. (Governs only the Gen.)

* The Greek language was spoken in several leading dialects ; of


which the Attic, spoken at Athens, was the most highly cultivated, and
employed in most kinds of literary composition.
48 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

a£ («*) out from, out of. A Preposition (proclitic).


H before a vowel, as t£ olxlag,
ix before a consonant, as, ix Trjg oixlag.
ix roil, out of the. (Governs only the Gen.)

dnb Ttjg oixlag, (away) from the house,


dnb oixlag, or an oixlag, from a house,
acp eooag, from a seat.
ix trig xcSfirig, out from, out of the village,
it dxdv&ijg, out of a thorn.

Out from, out of the porch, ix itjg oroag.


{A way) from the porch, ano rijg otoug.
On the porch, im ttjg atoag.
in the porch,
ijj

iv oxoa.

Render, am running (away) from the house.


I I I I

am running out from the house.


am running on the house.
am running in the house.

Ion there something,


is

71,
tan ti ; there any thing?
is

ovde'v toriv, there nothing,


is is

ovx sci iv there nothing, there not


is

ovde'v,
any thing.
greek ollendorff. 49

45. Exercises.
I. Render into English.

'O veaviag. — 01 vtaviai. — 77 (%ti 6 vtaviag ;


— TXa66av — 01 vtaviai yXcoooag fyovoiv. —
t%ti.
'H yXwooa tov vtaviov. — Tcdv vtavicov ai yXao-
Oac. — 'O vtaviag yXdaoav t%ti ev xitpaXfl. —

rfj
JJov tioiv ai fieXi66ai —Ai fitXiOOai tioiv ev ri\
— ;
%ti(ji. — Ovx

rfj
vofifi- 'O Ttaig fitXiOOav t%ti ev
t%ti tiuiq fj.eXi66av eTil rrjs xtcpaXijg — Ou, dXX"
6

;
xoorj juviav ev rfj %tiQi ej(ti. — MeXi66a xd&qrai
ti

em rrjg dxdv&rjg. — IHnva. — Tig ninrti; — 'H/utig


—'H 6(patqa ninrti dxb rr/g tSoag. —'H
■jiitiTOjuev.
/3ovg TQt%ei ex rrjg vojii/g. — Ai xoqui ex rr/g Grodg
— — Tiva ne/uno/uev
TQe%ov6iv. 'Hfieig Tisfinojutv.

;
—'O narrtQ tov vtaviav ns/uTtti. — 'H /urjrrjg rt]v
xogrjv ex rrjg nvXr\g ns^tnti.
—Ai fteXirrai del
avrov xd&r\VTai.

II. Render into Cheek.

The boy running from the house. — The maidens


is

are sitting in the house. — Not on the hearth, nor in the


porch, hut in the door. — In the gate, not in the shadow
of the house. —Whom does my father send — He sends
1

either the youth or the maiden. — He sends the young


man out of the village. — The cows are running out of
the village. — What has the hoy on his head — He has a
?

fly or a bee on his head. — He has either a hammer or a


3
50 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

ball in his hand. — The hammer now lies on the hearth.



The bee always sits on the fig-tree.— Who sends 2.-_ Both
I and you send. — My father and mother send.

THIRTEENTH LESSON.

46. Masc. Nouns of Decl. 1.

6 xXsnttjg, the thief.


SINO. DUAL PLUR.

N. xXsjtrtjg N. xXintai
Q. xXiniov N. A. V. xXimS. G. xXentwv
D. xXenTTj G. D. xXentaw D. xXimaig
A. xXsmrjv A. xXimctg
V. xXenra V. xXenrai

So 6 tsyvirris, ov, the artisan.


6 iqyarrig, ov, the labourer, the workman.

Rem.— Many Nouns of Decl. 1 in w, including all in tijs,


make the Voc. Sing, in a; others make it in ij.
Those in as make a ; as, vtuviag, V. vearia.

47. &ni (<W, &v&). A Preposition.


Meaning, — over against, hence, instead of for.
avu rov. (Governs only the Gen.)

I, instead of you, iyd> avrl aov.


You, instead of me, av am ifiov.
A staff instead of a ball, {SaxTix/la avu aqjalgag.
We instead of you, rjfieig dv&' (or dm.) ifiav.
You run instead of me, ov rge^tig aril (or avr ) t/iov.
I send you instead of the youth, nifufoo as avrl rov vnaviov.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 51

near' (Adverbs> governing the


IrtfeT' \ Gen.)
nXtjalo* tiijg xoapng, near the village.
iyyvg ztan nvXdtv, near the gates.

Out from, out of the gates, ix rmv nvlmr.


From (away from) the gates, ano ratv nvXav.
On the gates, tm tut nvltor.
Instead of the gates, avn T(a» nvXmv.
In the gates, tr iatg nvXaig.
Except the gates, aXtjv zwv nvXcov.
Near the gates, nltjaiov, iyyvg twv nvX&r.

Render,
I send you out of the gate.
The father sends the young man from the fountain.
The bee sits on my head.
I have a bee in my hand instead of a fly.
There is nothing in the gate except a rock.
My cloak lies near the spring.

48. no&ev (from aov ,0 whence ? (from


where?)
ixsi&sr (from ixei), thence (from there).
evTsv&ev (from ivrav&a), hence (from here).
o'xot, at home,
otxo&ev, from home,
o'xads, homeward, home.
ovze (oh', over) — ours, neither —nor —
(both not and
not).
52 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

ao&tv TQf'xcig ; whence do you run ?


TQrxw ixeiOsv, svtsv&sv, I run thence, hence,
oixaSs zpfjfos, I am running home.
OVTS tytO, OVTS (TV, neither I nor you.
ovts tvzavda, ovts sxsT, neither here nor there.
ovts ^axrijQiav, ovts aqivgav I have neither a staff nor a
hammer.
OVTS xddtjflttl, OVTS XtlflUl, I neither sit nor lie.

49. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

KlsnrTjQ. —'O
xXsitrriQ.

'H xscpaXr) tov xXs7t-
rev. — Tl £%a 6 fckejtrqs sv i fj %tiQi ; —-E%si rrjv
%kalvdv Gov. — OI xXs-xtcci rag j^Xaivag fj/ucov
i'%ovGiv.
— XXaivag dvrl /SaxrtjQiav fyovGcv. —
JIo&sv tqs%ov6iv oi xX&Tirat ; —■'Ex
tqs%ovGiv. — Oi vsavlat, vvv dnb rciv xcoftav tqs-
%ovglv. — 'Egydrr/g xccl TS%virr]g. — cO sqydrrig xcu
6 rt^viTTjg. — Ov% oi igydrat, dXX oi ts%vitcu. —
'Eoydrcei dvrl rt^vircov. — 77 t%si 6 iqydrrig iv tj?
%siqi ; — 2cpvoccv dvrl G<paiqag £%se. — *0 itcttg
oi'xads tqs^si. — ITov xtirai q %Xalva fiov ; —
HXrjGiov TTjg xgrjvrjg xsitcii. — JJo&tv Gs 6 ns/xnsc
narrjQ Gov ; — Oixo&sv nsfinti /us. — Ovx ixst&sv,
ovds ivrsv&sv. — Ovts uvrov, ovts ixsi. — Ovts sv
xafit), ovts iv —-H /usXittcc ovts
rfi

rf/

vo/ufj. em
rf/g Gvxrjg xcc&r/TCCc, ovts em rig dxdv^rjg.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 53

II. Render into Greek.


Both the laborer and the artisan. — Not the laborer,
but the artisan. — The artisan, not the laborer. — The arti
san instead of the laborer. — Not a laborer nor an artisan.
Neither laborers nor artisans. — Neither my cloak nor my
hammer. — The artisan has his (the) cloak. — Whence
runs the boy ? — From home. — Not from home, but from
hence. — The girl is running home (homeward). — My
mother sits at home. — Does not your father send the
young man home ? — My father sends the young man
out of the pastures. —The cows lie in a corner of the
pasture. — There is a gate near the village. — There are
neither fountains nor fig-trees in the village. —There is
nothing in the village except houses.

FOUKTEENTH LESSON.

50. riff fQydrijg ; what laborer ?


TiWff igynrai ; what laborers?
riff olxm J what house ?
TiVsff olxiai, what houses?

The house in the village,


iv

7\i X*W2 oixia.


tj

the house which in the olxia


iv
is

%\

e. xm/iy.
(i.

tj
7j

village),
What house riff oixia
?

The one in the village,


Tjj

tV XCOftTj.
Tj

That (which in the village,


is)

h,

oixia dvQa.
T^

-- -u
ij

s
,{

-i
The door in the house,
iv ,

otxt'a.
tj

■9vQa
ll
I
54 OLLENDORFF.

That in the house,


iv oixia.
The one in the house. r) %%

What youth do you send ? rtW vsaviav aepneig ;


I send the young man (who is) ntfiticD toviv 15 aroa veaviav,
in the porch, niftnco top veaviav tov iv zg
otoa.
I sendthe one in the porch,

zjj
tov iv o"ro« ntfxnco.
"What balls? Ttveg aqiuiQai;
The balls (which are) on the at ini Tr)g edyag oycuQCU.
seat, at aqiaioai at im irjs idgag.
Those on the seat, at ini zrjs sdgag.
What cloaks have we? Ttvag y/Xaivag s^oper

;
Tag nhjaiov tr)g satiag %Xal-
We have the cloaks (which j vas e^oftsv.
are) near the hearth, zag yXaivag s^o/isv Tag nXt)-
awv Trig ioriag.
We have those near the hearth, zag iyyvg Tijg iaziag fyo/isv.

51. Exercises.
Render into English.
I.

Tig rr/v %%alvdv fiov—'O xXsnrrjg fysc


;

TW X^ulvav 6ov. — Ttva j(Xaivav i'%ti — Tr/v ini


;

rrjg edgag %kalvav t%£t. — Uov tiocv at ftoeg —


;

Ttvsg /3otg —At iv rr} vofj.fi ftoeg. — Ov% at iv rjj


;

vo/tifj (Song, dXX at nXqatov rijg xg^vrjg.


—At iv tjj
xa/urj oixtat. — Ov% at iv rfj xco/urj oixiat, dXX at
iyyvg rr\g xQ^vrjg. — At wukai rmv oixicov. —At
nvXac Toiv iv rfi xcofirj oixcav. — Tivag Gvxdg
— Tag Gvxdg 6%0{isv rag iv yavia rijc
rfj

e%£rt.
vo/urjg.
— Tag TtXrfitov trig xgrjvrjg, ov rag ivrav&a
e^o/usv.
—Ho&ev TQ^trt — Tqe^ojusv otxo&tv.
;
OLLENDORFF.

II. Render into Greek.


The hammer. — What
hammer? — The hammer
in the hand of the workman. — What cloak
is)
(which
have you — have the one on the seat. — have the one
?

I
on the seat, not that (which is) near the spring. — have

I
neither the one on the seat, nor the one near the fig-tree. —
What cow — The one in the pasture. —When does the
7

father send the young man home — Both now and al

?
ways. —The tongue of the young man. — bee sitting

is
on the fig-tree (which in the pasture (em tijg

tV
is)
iiq ropy

ovxijg).

FIFTEENTH LESSON.
52. The Second Declension,
Ends in the Nom. Sing, in og and or (Attic endings of
a few words, cos and am).
og (and me) Masc. sometimes Fem.
ov (and <av)
Neut.
x7jnog, the garden.
6

SING. DUAL PLUR.

N. xynog N. K.lj7ZOl
G. xtjnov N. A. V. xtjnm G. XtjlUOV
D. xfjnco G. D. xtjnoiv D. x-qnoig
A. xtjnov A. xtjnovg
V. xrjne V. xrjnoi

So efinogog, the merchant.


6

nflog, the hat.


6

the horse.
In

nog,
6

Fem. bdog, the road, way.


rj

" tn^-og, the chest.


h
*
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Rem. — Accent. 1. Observe xifjioq is Properispomencm, ex


cept in those cases in which the ultimate is long,
where it becomes Paroxytone (Introd. $ 4. 4, 5).
2. Oxylones in this Decl., as in Decl. 1, make the Gen.
and Dat. in all the numbers Perispomena; as, Ma,
oSov, 65(3, odolv, cdani, bdois, X7)^0?' /Pi^°£> &c-

53. sis, into. A Prep. (Proclitic.)


sis *oV, info £Ae. (Governs only the Acc.)

us Tt)v oixiav, into the house.


nepnco sis tccs- xcofxas, I send into the villages.

From the. ano tov.


Out from, out of the, sx (s£) TOV.
drn
of,

Instead for the, tov.


On the, tm tov.
In, among the, 'i,
if
eV

Tote,
Into the, sis tov.
Near the, nXtjaiov, syyvg tov.
Except the, 7i\r\v tov.

Render, From the chest, and Tijg ytikov.


Out of the chest.
Instead the chest.
of

On the chest.
In the chest.
Into the chest.
Near the chest.
Except the chest.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 57

mi ; whither ?
ixeiat thither.
devgo,
hither.
ivrav&oi,

Thus,
nov; where? no&ev ; whence? not; whither?
exei, there. ixtl&ev, thence. ixeiae, thither.
ivtav&a, ' ) , insv&ef,' hence. ivxuv&ol, ' ) . ...
, . > here. , . > hither,
avrov, ) oevQO, )

Qinrm, tig, <fec. / throw, cast,

noT qlmeig tijv ocpuTgar ; whither do you throw the ball 1

devgo TTjv aqiaiQctv qititovoiv, they throw the ball hither,


Qimti Qi£av Big tov mlov ftov, he throws a root into my hat,
nifaut ixsiae, I send thither.

54. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Ti t%m iv tji iv
rfj

xrjXai ;—E^a xi^*? Ttiv


X%oclvccv tov iftnoQov.
— Ov 'm' %kalvav, dXXa
tov nikov tov ifinoQov £%sis. — Ti woe iv tg>
xr\%q — 2vxdg xal dxdv&ag iv ra xijTtqj £%tTt.
;

— Ovx tloi xgijvai iv TOig xrjnocg — Nat, iv toiq


;

xr\noig xgfjvai si6iv. — Ti e%ov6iv oi eftnogoi iv


5*
58 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

TOig niXoig ;— Ov8sv iv xolg niXotg e^ovat nXrjv

tcov xt<paXan>. — Tig xd&rjrac stii tov 'innov ; — Oc


vtaviac ml tcjv itmcov xd&rjvrcci.
— Tq£%£i 6 £'tf-
nog iv 68a — Ovx iv rfj 68a, dXX' iv rr\ vo/urj
rjj

;
—'O innog tig rr/v 686v TQt%ti. — Hoi tqs-
TQ£%ti.
%ov6lv oi 'initot;— Ov dtvQO TQt%ov6tv, dXX' tig
— Ovx ixtiGt,
rt]v vofirjv rrjv nXrjaiov rijg xcojur/g.
dXXd Stvoo. — Uol qinxtig rr/v (your) %Xaivccv

;
— Trio, ts xai tov %iXov tig rr/v %r]kbv
/Xtclvav
'mtg3. — 'PiiTTCo xr\v %kalvctv dvrl rfjg j3axrrjgias.
q

—CH Gcpalga niTivti tig rrjv %rjXov.

II. Render into Greek.

The workman has my hat. — The workman has not


tpyaz^s) your hat, but the artisan.
— The artisan
6

(ov%
has neither a hat nor a cloak. — The merchant has both
hats and cloaks. —The boy has nothing on his head ex
cept a hat. — What has he in his (iv 'ii) head
— Nothing
?

but a tongue. — Whither the horse running — He is


is

either running hither, or into the road. — Neither thither


nor into the pasture. —Into what (ets »Va) pasture —
?

Into that near the village. —The ball falls into the gar
Gen.— The ball lies near the fountain. — The fountain
(which is) in the garden. —Not the fountain in the gar
den, but that among (iv) the rocks. — The pasture has
nothing except rocks, and thorns, and fig-trees. — The
boy sits on a horse.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 59

SIXTEENTH LESSON.

55. The Second Declension.

to qoSov, the rose (In trod. J 3. 1).

SING. DUAL. PLtJR.

N. (>6Sov N. Qoda
G. qoSov N.A.V. §68a> Q. QoSmv
D. godcp G. D. §68oiv D. qoSois
A. Qodov A. $68a
V. §63ov V. $69a

So, to fo^, the violet.


to the apple,
ii.tjk.ov,
to SivSqov, the tree.

Exc.— 8iv8qov has commonly 8sy8gcirt(v) instead of derSqoig


in the Dat. Plur.
Rem. — Neut. nouns always have the Acc. and Voc. like
the Nom. in all the numbers, and in the Plur. these
three xases end always in a. The same rule applies
to Adjectives, Pronouns and Participles

6 aygog, ov, the field.


6 8i8daxakog, ov, the teacher.
ri filjilog, ov, the book.
6 [ict&ijjrjg, ov, the scholar, the learner.
fi pyXeS, ag, the apple-tree.

56. Rule.— The Neut. Plur. in Greek generally takes


a Singular verb ; as,
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

ret goda t%Bi dxdv&ag, the roses have thorns,


fori* "a iv toig sorrow, there are violets in the gar
dens,

ta. fuqka niniu, the apples fall.

57. hi, still, still further,


omen, no longer.

hi nintti ta [iijXa, the apples are still falling,


ovxhi tgfyovoiv 01 vsaviai, the young men no longer run.
ijfuSe ovxiti niiinoptv, we no longer send.

58. avtov, him. it PI. avtovg, them.


(Masc.)
it aitdg, them. (Fem.)
"

aviqv, her.
avro, it.
" avtd, them. (Neut.)

Do you send the young man 1 7ze/j.ntig tbv ttai!


I send him, TifjUTzw avtov.
Who has my hat 1 tig ejjsj tbv nXXov pov ;
The boy has aaig ejffj avtov.
it,


6

Has he not the balls ovu ifsi tag oyaigag


;
1

He has not them, oix ejrei avtdg.


Who has the roses tig ejfft tot goda
;
1

The maiden has them, xoqi] t%ei avtd.


ij

Rem— avtov, avtrrv &c. are often omitted in Greek, when


they are easily understood from the connection.

Has the boy the hat eyei naXg tbv nTXov


;
/ 6
?

»
»
\
.

He has ey«
it,

[avtor).
Does not the teacher send the oi itifiJtu Siddaxalog tag
b

books (}i'(iXovg
1

He sends them, ntfine.1 (uizag).


greek ollendorff. 61

59. Exercises.
I. Render into English.

Tig t%u qoSov ;—'H xogq qoSov fyte. — Ai xo-


qui rt val id e%ovdtv. — '-'Eon qoda ev

rfj
QoSa
XtcQt rip xogr/g.
—'H /ueXtOOa em rtov yodcov xct-
&//tcu.
—'O dyqbg ovvt qoSu t%ti, oiivt id. — Hoi)
so vi rcedsvdga — Td devdya ovx ev ra xf/xa,
;

ccXX ev rolg dyooig eoriv. — Ai juqXtai fyovoi per)-


La. — Ai ev red xrjTta firjXiai fiF/he k%ov6iv. — Ov%
ai ev ai tyyvg rig xgrjvr/g
vofiit ftyXecu, dXX
rfi

/urjha t%ovGtv. — Ov ra id, dXXd ra $6Sa dxdv-


&ag t%tL. — Tic tic rag fiijSXovg —'O SiSdoxaXog
;

i'%ti avrag.
— fia&rjTTjg ovxtrc rag /3i/3Xovg
w".
O

— Ti w" —-E^n Otpaigag dvrl fiifiXurv. — Tig


;

nepnu ra id —CH xogt) nkfinei (avrd). — Tig t%ti


;

tov niXov ftov — Ovx ° ejunogog, dXX' xXenr^g


6
;

tXtL cevrov.

II. Render into Greek.


An apple falling. — The apples fall from the apple-
is

trees. — Do they not fall into the fountain — Not into the
?

fountain, but into my hat. — What has the young man


in his hat — He has either a ball or a book. — The schol
?

ar has in his hand both balls and books. — The maiden


has in her hand both violets and roses. — She has nothing
except roses. — She has roses instead of violets. — The
teacher and the scholar are now in the field. — Who has
the books — The teacher has them. — Who has the ap
?

ples — The young man has them. —He has apples instead
?
62 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

of books. — The young man has still a book in his (the)


hand. — Whither does the father send the young man ? —
He sends him hither. — He sends him neither into the
field nor into the village. — The young men are sitting
among (b) the trees.

SEVENTEENTH LESSON.
60. Adjectives of the First and Second Declension.
These are so called because they follow in the Masc.
and Neut. the 2 Decl., and in the Fern, the 1 Decl.

xaXog. beautiful, noble.

SINO.

Masc. Fem. Neut.

N. xaXog xaXrj xalov


G. xaXov xaXtjg xaXov
D. xalm xaXy xaXq)
A. xaXov xaXrjv xaXov
V. xaXs xaXtj xaXov

DUAL.
N.A.V. xaXco xaXd xaXta
G. D. xaXolv xaXaiv xaXoiv

PLUR.
N. xaXoi xaXal xaXa
G. xaXmv xaXmv xaXmv
D. xaXoXg xaXaig xaXoig
A. xaXovg xaXdg xaXa
V. xaXoi xaXai xaXa

So, aya&og, Jr, good.


if, if, if,

ao<f6g, oV, wise.


Xevxog, 6v, while.
I

Rule. — Adjectives agree with their substantives


61.
in gender, number and case. So also Pronouns and Par
ticiples.

xaXos xrjnos, a beautiful garden.


Xsvxat OIXICU, white houses.
q68ov Xevxov, a white rose.
diddaxaXoi slat aocpot, there are wise teachers.
%Xaivar W'' xaXijv, I have a beautiful cloak.

Rem. — When the Noun has no Art. the Adj. may precede
or follow it indifferently, as,

Xevxov qoSov,
a white rose.
Qodov Xevxov,
h<o said "a,
la xaXa e%a>, I have beautiful violets.
la ifta xaXa, &c.

62. The Noun and Adj. with the Art. admit the fol
lowing constructions ;

t] xaXrj oixta. (a)


The beautiful house, tj oixta ij xaXrj. (6)
olxia 17 xaXij. O)
oi ay ado) innoi. (a)
The good horses, 01 innoi oi aya&oi. (b)
innoi oi aya&oi. (6)

(a) When no special emphasis rests on the Noun, the


natural position of the Adj. is as in (a), between the Art.
and Noun ; as,

tj Xevxij oixta, the white house,


of aya&oi efinoqoi, the good merchants.
64 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

(b) But if the


Noun is to be made emphatic, it can
stand first, and the Adj. follow it with the Art. — The
Noun in this case can have or omit the Art. according as
the first conception is definite or indefinite.

fj KOQij lj xaXij, the beautiful maiden.


xoqij ij xaXrj, (lit. the maiden, viz. the
beautiful.)
oi rt^nrai ol aoq>o,
pot, the wise artisans,
isjvitaiol aotfoi | (artisans, the wise.)

Examples.

(a) The beautiful house, rj xaXtj oixia.


(«) Not the beautiful house, ov% r\ xaXt]
oixia,
(ra) But the white house, aXX' fj Xevxrj oixia.
(a) The good, not the beauti tj <iya&q, aXX' oi>% ij xaXrj
ful girl,
(6) Not the house, but the beau oi>% ij oixia., alX 6 xtjnog 6
tiful garden. xaXoi-
(6) Both the rose, and the white to rs (iodor, xal to "or to Xev
violet, xor.
(6) The white roses, and the to. Xevxa. goSa xa) to. la to,
white violets, Xevxa.

not; whither ?

63. Exercises.
I. Render into English.
XXalva Xtvxrj. —yitvxbg %lXoq. — 'O Xtvxos ni-
Xog. — Oi>x Xtvxog nlXog, dXX rj 6<paiQce q Xivxr'j.
6
—'O nalc, GcpaiQCtv ?xtl Xtvxrjv. — Ol SiddoxccXoi

i-XOv6i xaXceg jSljSXovg. 'O aocpog SiSceaxaXog ftl
GKKEK OLLENDORFF. 05

fiXovg e%st xaXdg re xcel dyce&exg. — 'H xaX >) xoorj.


— Ovft tj xaXfj xoqi], dXX' fj dya&/]. — Ov% % xoorj,
dXX' 6 ftov 6 dyu&og.
TtccrrjQ —
Uov tioiv ui xaXcei
xoqui ; — Ev Xtvxit arod xdirijvrctt. — Ovx ev
rfj
rfi Xtvxfj crop, cal' e:il Trjg i'Soag rfjg Xtvxfjg. —
JJov xtirai /3axrrjoia gov — Ovx inl rig xa-
fj

;
Xrjg i'doceg rijg iv TtvXj, xtirai, dXXd xXijOiov
rf]
xQrjvtjg rijg ev ra xt/xa. — TJov xtlvrat eel xezXccl
%Xalvai ftov — Ev yeovia xtlvrat r/'/g Xtvxi)g yn-
;

log. — Uo&tv rotate ixxog — 'Extl&tv rQtytt. —


6

;
Tgeyee ex TOO xX//6wv n)g xeo/uyg dygoii tig rijv
odov. — Tig xa&rjrai exl rov hfjtov —'O vtetvietg
STtl rov i7i7iov xd&rjTCci. — Hot ntfintt ;
diddaxu-
Xog rov [ta&rjrrjv ;—Eig tt)v xco/ut/v avrbv me 6

II. Render into Greek.

A wise young man.— wise teacher.— beautiful boy.


A
A

—A beautiful girl. — Beautiful maidens. — Where the


is

beautiful maiden sitting? — She sits among the trees in


t4> &c.) the garden.
— Not among those in the
fa

(fa roiff
garden, but among those in the field or the pasture. —
The young men are neither sitting here nor there. — The
garden has a beautiful spring. — The teacher has nothing
but good books. — good father. — wise mother. — The
A

wise teacher has a good scholar.- -Whom does the father


send hither? — He sends either the good workman or the
wise artisan. — and you send the young man home. —
I

The apples are falling into the beautiful fountain.


66 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

EIGHTEENTH LESSON.

64. Adjectives of the First and Second Declension.

Adjectives in og pure (og preceded by a vowel) and oog,


have the Fem. in a, thus, og, a, ov. But Adj. in oog have
except those in ooog, which have a.
tj,

nXovaXog, a, ov, rich.

SING.
Masc. Fem. Neut.
N. nXovaiog nXovaia nXovaiov
G. nXovaiov nXovaiag nXovaiov
D. nXovalqi nXovaia nXovaiq?
A. nXovaiov nXovaioiv nXovaiov
V. aXovois nXovaia nXovaiov

N.A.V. nXovoim nXovaia nXovaloa


G. D. nXovaioiv nXovaiaiv nXovaioiv

PLUR.
N. nXovaioi nXovaiai nXovaia
G. nXovdicav nXovaitov nXovaitov
D. nXovaiotg nXovaiaig nXovaloig
A. nXovaiovg nXovaiag nXovaia
V. nXovaiot nXovaiai nXovaia

JEf Observe, nlovtrlav (not nlovai&v) in the Gen. Plur.


Fem. (See 1st. Lesson, Accent.)

So, axoXtog, or, winding.


&,

crooked,
d, d,

fuutQoe, 6v, long.


[itXQog, ov, little, small.
OLLENDORFF. 67

65. 6 nora.fi.6s, ov, the river.


6 ddxzvXog, ov, the finger.
6 iv&qmnog, ov, the man.

6 nXovaiog ifinoQog, I the rich merchant.


ftqXov fuxgov, a small apple.
axoXibg norapog, winding river.
ftaxQK odog, a long road.

66. Adjectives in the Predicate.

The road is crooked, %


686g eoti axoXtd.
The houses are beautiful, al oixtai xaXai slow.
The roses in the garden are z« iv rip xr\no? QoSa Xevxd
white, iativ.
My father and mother are wise, 6 narijQ xai »/ fitjTijQ pov ao-

W" daiv.
The young men and the maid ol vtaviai xai ai xoqau dya-
ens are good, mu' slate.
The river and the road are long, 6 noraftbg xai tj 6S6g elai
fiaxod.
-- , . ».»%•;. \ix y -r,-.'

Rem. — When the Adj. refers to Nouns of different gen


ders, if they be persons, the Masc. takes precedence
of the Fem. and the Fem. of the Neut. ; if things, the
Adj. may agree with the nearest noun, or be put in
the Neut. Plur. without regard to the gender of the
Substantives.
6S GREEK OLLENDORFF.

67. tiafcm, eig, &c. Iplay, sport (fr. nous, child).


<ag, as (proclitic).
ovrmg or ovum, thus, so.
ovrmg — cos, so — as.

ovztt) aoqibg dig iya>, as wise as I.


oi% ovtm aocpbg cog xaXog, not bewise as beautiful.
mg iyw TQt%co, ovtm x«! av as I run, so also you run.
iQt'xetg,

cogneQ, just as.


ovtm xai, so also.

mgneg ninru to Sivdqov, ovrm just as the tree falls, so it lies,


xeirai,
mgnsQ av, ovrm xou syoi, just as you, so also I.

68. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

"EfinoQOQ %Xov6iog. — 'O sfinooog nXovaiog


sotcv. — Ov% 6 tjLMOQoq, ciXX 6 TS^viT/jg TvXovatog
bGtiv. — Oi>% ovrco nXovoiog cog ciya&og ioriv 6
tfinoqog. — 'H odog sort GxoXice. —^xoXtui tioiv eel
6801 eeliyyvg rov norccfiov. —'H 686g ovrt ovrco
ficcxod ionv, ovrt ovrco GxoXta cog 6 nor a[tog. —
D norajuog ovrt ficxoog ovre GxoXiog s6nv. —'O
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 09

dccxTvXog Gov fiaxQog sort xai jutxpog. — Ti tj(tt 6


natg £7il tov daxrvXov ; —'O jutxpog Tiatg t%ti ij
/uviccv i) /usXcttccv £7il tov SccxtvXov. Ti t%tl £V

rfi j(£i0i 6 avzrpojTtog ; JSopvpav rj %Xatvav t%tt. —
Jlov %ai^£t 6 Tialg ;—'O Ttalg iv rw xrjrta nai^tt. —
Oi Gocpol v£aviat iv rolg dygoig nai^ovGtv. — Hot
rrjv G^patgav giitrovGtv ;
— 'O v£ccvtag rr/v Gqpaigav
£tg rrjv xorjvrjv qititu. — 'H 6<pa7oa tig tov tiotci^iov
TllTZTtl. 'O ITlTTOg £X Trjg dSoV tig TI\V VOflljV TQS-
%£t.
—'O nlXog xai % %kaivd fiov xakd Sgtiv.

II. Render into Greek.


Arich man. — The merchant is a rich man. — The ar
tisan is not so rich as the laborer. — The laborers are rich.
— They are not so rich as wise. — The young man is not
beautiful, but wise. — Not so wise as beautiful. — The
scholar is not so wise as the teacher. — Who are playing
in the gardens ? — The boy and the girl are playing there.
Who is running out of the river ? — The man is running
out of the river into the crooked road. — A small fly. —
Small cloaks. — The fly (that is) on the cloak. — What
fly? — The one on my finger. — What bee? — The one on
the rose. — Whom does your father send into the village ?
— He always sends the wise youth. — Just as he sends
the youth, so also he sends the workman. — The young
man neither plays in the garden, nor sits on a horse, but
throws his (the) ball into the river.
70 OLLENDORFF.

NINETEENTH LESSON.

69. Contract Nouns of the Second Declension.

Some nouns in tog, oog, sop and oop of this Decl. are
contracted ;

6 voog, the mind. ib ootsov, the bone.

SING.
N. voog rovg bariov OOTOVV
G. roov vov barsov botov
D. foqp rep OOtMp OOT(p
A. voov vovv OOTSOV OOTOVV
V. roe POV batsov OOTOVV

DUAL.
N.A.V. vooo oateco oat to
G. D. vboiv volv oaiioiv baroiv

PLUR.
N. *o'o« fOt oarsa data
a. vocov vmv batscav bazav
D. vooig voTg boieoig oaioig
A. voovg rovg bazsa baza
V. VOOl poi baxia bora

So, gbog, qovg, a stream.


xdveov, navovv, a basket.

— vu> and bard


Accent. (dual) irregular for v& and ootw (see
38. Accent), xarovv from xaveov, irregular for r~

o vovg rov vsaviov, the mind of the young man.


«jrw baia. iv t<$ navy, I have bones in my (or, the)
basket.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 71

70. Position of the Gen.

(a) Partitive Gen. (Lesson Emphasis mainly


III.)
on the governing noun. The Construction of this has
already been given ; as,

7] &vga Tt)g oixiag, the door of the house.


Ttjg oixiag tj Qvga,

(b) Adj. (or Attributive) Gen. Emphasis mainly on


the Gen. The Gen. then has an Adj. force, and is placed
like the Adj. either between the art. and noun, or after
both with the art. repeated ; as,

tj Trjg oixiag &vga, ) the door of the house = the


i) &vga tj Tt]g oixiag, ) of-the-house door.

71. Examples.

(a) Partitive Gen. (emphasis chiefly on the govern


ing noun).

The basket of the young man, to xarovr tov veanov.


Not the basket of the young oi lb xavovv tov rearlov, aXX
man, but his (the) ball, tj aqaiga.
Both the cloak and the hat of tj re fXalva, xai 6 nTXog tov
the man, av&gdnov.

(b) Adj. Gen. ; (emphasis chiefly on the Gen.)

The cloak of the merchant, tj tov i/xnogov x^-atva.


Not the merchant's cloak, ov% rj tov ifinooov %XaTva,
but that of the artisan, dXX' tj tov Tiyvizov.
The youth's ball, and the work t) tov tsaviov acpatga xai
man's hammer, acfvga tj tov igydtov.
72 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

72. Promiscuous Examples.

The roses of the garden, Ttt Qoda iov xqnov.


Not the roses of the garden, ov Tit Qo8a rov xrjnov, dXXa
but the trees, ta dwdoa.
Not the roses of the garden oi ta tov xr\nov goda, alia
(i e. the garden roses) but ta Qoda to. tov dygoi).
the roses of the field,
The finger of the man, 6 ddxTvXog tov dv&Qtanov.
The finger, not the head of the J, ddxTvXog, oil rj xsqpaXij tov
man, ardownov.
Both the man's finger, and the o re tov drdooinov 8axivXog,
youth's, xat 6 tov vsarlov.
Not the young man's finger, but ohf_ 6 tov reaviov daxTvXoi,
the workman s head, dXX' tj xeq>aXq rj tov igyd-
TOV.

Obs. — This last construction, fj xtq>alt) 'l &c, is chiefly


employed when not only the Gen. but also the govern
ing noun is to be contrasted with some other object.

73. What ball? tig atpatQct ;


That of the young man,
tov rsavlov.
The young man's, ♦

What hammer do you tira aqyvqav Qirtttig ;


throw 1
I throw the merchant's,
I throw that of the mer QIJITG) TtJV TOV ifinOQOV.
chant,
What horses are running? Tivtg Xnnoi Tofyovaiv ;
Not the teacher's horses,
oi% ol tov dtduoxdXov Innoi.
Not the horses of the
teacher, i
But the scholar's,
But those of the scholar,
iXX oi Toll fia&tjTOV.
|
y CREEK OLLENDORFF.
73

74. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Ti i^tcg sv ra xava ; — 'Oora tyco. — Tee sv r<a


xava oorci Xtvxd sOtiv. — Tig govs; — O iv ra
dyqa. — Ov% o sv re3 dygca qovg, ciXX 6
nkt/aiov
rrjg xcojur/g. —'O vovg tov vtaviov. — there 6 vovg,
ovrt xtcpali) tov vtaviov. —'O tov didaaxdXov
rj
vovg Gocpog soriv. — Ovx tytig
tI/v tov sgydrov

/3axTr]Qiav ; Ov top' tov sgydrov ftaxrtjniav
t%(0, CcXka TljV TOV TtXovOlOV Ov TTjV
tflTtOQOV.
[SuxTTiQtav tyco tov sgydrov, dXXd tov niXov. —
Tivcc ocpaigav QiTiTtig; — Ov Tt/v tov sfinogov
OfpaTgav ginrco, dXXd tj\v tov dya&ov /nudrjrov.
'Hfliig TT]V flCXQCCV OCpCtlQCCV QtTITOfltV, dvrl rrjg
tov oocpov vtaviov. — H tov sgydrov
%Xulva ovx
o'tiTO Xtvxrj soriv ag ?) tov vtaviov. —
Use of sv tt}
VO/ufl LIZTIOI TQt^OVOlV, OVTCO
TQS%0V6l Xal (also)
ol TOV SjUTZOgOV lltltOl. Ol
(>Ol flCXQOl Tt XOl XU-
Xoi tiGiv. — -Eotc xaXd /uijXa xal goda sv rc3 xava.
— JJo&tv rgtyovoiv al lilac; — 'Ex tov
dygov tig
tov norajuov TgsyovOiv.

II. Mender into Greek.

Awhite basket. — White baskets. — Our baskets are


white, — The basket is not so white as the bones. — The
4
74 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

merchant's basket is not so white nor so small as the


artisan's. The merchant's basket, is not so white as his
(the) cloak.
— The girl has small and white violets. —We
have nothing but bones in the basket. — They have roses
and violets in their (the) baskets, instead of roots and
thorns. — A fly instead *of a bee. — What has the thief? —
He has my cloak. —He has the young man's cloak. — He
has not the merchant's cloak, but his hat. — A ball is fall
ing into my hat. — Whence does it fall? — Out of the fig-
tree. — The apples fall from the apple-trees into the beau
tiful spring. —The little boy is sitting on the white seat.
— The cow lies on the rocks, near the corner of the pas
ture.

TWENTIETH LESSON.

75. 6 udsXqiog, ov, the brother.


6 viog, ov, the son.
ti adsXqiij, r)g, the sister.
n oQoyri, r)g, the roof.
6 xqovos, ov, the time, time.
rots, then, at that time.
ndlai, of old, anciently.

o vvv %govog, the present time (the


0 XQ°V°S o vvv,
time).
01 tore av&Qanoi, the men of that time (the
01 av&QtOTtOl 01 TOTS, then men).
oi ndXai peaviat,
the young men of old.
ol veavicu ol nctXcu,
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 75

Rem.— Adverbs following an Art. have the force of Adjec


tives.

76. The pupil will observe that whatever word or


clause has an Adjective force can stand between the noun
and its Art. or after both with the Art. repeated; as,

(a) 6 aoybi av&gmnos.


1. The Adjective, (6) 6
irit(>oi!Joi 6 oocpog.
(c) avdiioinog 6 aoqiog.
(a) {/ tov reaviov dSelqirj.
2. The Adj. Gen. {b) rj adiXcprj rjtov vtaviov.
(c) udtlq )t r\ tov vtaviov.
(a) oi vvv avdQwnoi.
3. The Adv. as Adj. (b) oi av&Qwnoi oi vvv.
(c) avdgtonoi oi vvv.
(a) tj iv tii Oi-Qa.
4. The Adj. clause, (6) ij Ovga ij iv Ty ohia.
(c) &voa r\ iv oixia. t\
Thus, e. g.

What men1?
| rives avQQGtnoi ;
( (a) oi ooyoi avOgconoi.
1. The wise men, 4
(6) oi avOgconoi oi ooqioi.
f (c) uv&omnoi oi aoapoi.
{ (a) oi rrjS xmftqs av9go)7iot.
2. The qf-the-village men, 4
(6) of uv&gcoTJOl oi Ttjs xmfjtjg.
(The'men of the village), ( (c) dv&goinoi oi t^s xmiitjg.
i (a) oi ndlai avOgoinoi.
3. The of-old men, 4
(6) oi av&Qmnoi oi ndXai.
(The men of old), ( (c) uv&gconoi oi nakui.
(a) oi iyyvs tov norauov dv-
&Q037101.
4. The near-lhe-river men, (6) ot uvOgamoi ol iyyvs tov
(The men near the river). nozauov.
(c) av&gasnoi or iyyvs tov
noTa}io\>.
76 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Rem. — In Examples (a) the emphasis is exclusively, or


mainly on the Adj. or qualifying word or clause. In
(b) and (c) there is additionally some emphasis on the
first noun as contradistinguished from some other noun,
(c) Differs from (6) only as it first presents the con
ception indefinitely, but immediately made definite by
the Art. following ; as, uv&gwTiog 6 aya&og, a man, the
good one = The good man.
77. t£&* The pupil will specially observe that whatever Adv.
or clause has the force of an Adj. must immediately
follow the Art. — He must guard against being misled
by English constructions ; thus,

The door in the house, not, i &vqu iv ty oixlct.


but, tj iv otxc'oc &vqix.
or, rj &VQU tj iv rr) oixla.
The cow near the river, not, ij fiovg nltjaiov tov nozafiov.
but, i, nXrjaiov rov noTdjxov (Jovs.
or, i fiovi tj nXtjaiov tov nozauov.
'H ty oixla, would mean, the door is in the
&vga iv
house (ioiiv understood), or, the door, when in the house ;
not, the door (which is) in the house. 'H §ovg nhqaiot tov
noiufiov, would mean, the cow is near the river (iaziv un
derstood) or, the cow, when near the river ; not, the cow
which is near the river.

Examples.
Render,
The horse (which in the road, T« ln™?-
'is)

f
o?

innog
j

ev oot
v

ti)
o
(

The cow (that is) in the field.


The rock near the stream.
The bones in the basket.
The boy on the roof.
The fountains in the village.
The apples in the apple-tree.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 77

78. Observe also the various modes of rendering the Art.


in
connection with a Gen. or with an Adj. clause ; thus,

viva iTtnov fyus ; what horse have you 1


|
t I have that of my brother.
Wt' TOY tov adeXyov,
I I have my brother's.
f I have the one in the pasture.
I have that which is in the
tbv iv vopq, pasture.
I have the one which is in the
pasture.
vivas iTinovg gjjecj ; what horses have you?
I have those of the merchant
10VS TOV tflTlOQOV ija>,
I have the merchant's.
I have those there.
Tovg e'xst t%m, I have those which are there.
I have the ones which are there.

79. Exercises.

I. Render into English.


JIov "allies 6 dStXcpog aov ; —'O ddtX<pog xal
fj ddtXcprj juov iv r<y
xrtnm nuiC,ovGiv. — Ovx iv rob
tov iqyarov xr\%a, dXX iv to) tov nXovoiov ifi-
noQov.
—Hov nai^ti 6 viog 6ov ;— D viog juov
nui^ti iv tt\ Oxid Tr/g oixiag.—Ovx iv tt\ rrjg oi-
xLug Gxcd, dXX iv ttj tov dsvdgov. — 'Hjutig Jew-
x^rjfit&a iv dsvdgov Oxid. — Ov nai£ov6iv
Tij tov
ol viol qjuav TtXrjaiov tov jiotu/liov ; — Ovx ixtl
nai£,ov6iv, ovhs uvtov, dXXa %Xtj6iov Tijg ovxfjg.
— TLva 6 JiavrjQ Gov tig ttjv xojjur/v ; — Tov
nsfiTtti
dya&ov vibv itsftitet. — Eya xal 6 ddtXcpog qinTO-
/uev 'm' 6<puioav.
-
Tiva 6<paiqav ;— Trjv iv tt)
78 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Gtooc. — Tr/v stu rrjg s8gag rrjg sv rfj 6roa. — Hots


—'Ev TM VVV Os'
QlTfTSTS TT)V GCpULQaV %QOVG}.
vtaviac rag ev rrj %rjXcp ocpaiqag qi%tov6iv. — Ours
rag ev %rjXa qinrovoiv, ovts rag sv rolg xavolg.
rfj

II. Render into Greek.

good brother. — The beautiful sister. —


A wise son. — A
Who has the beautiful staff? — My sister has (atn^v). —

it
Not the merchant's son, but his brother. — What hat has
my son? — He has the hat of his (the) brother. — He has
not his brother's hat but his books. — What staves has the
father? — He has those of the young man. — He has not
the young man's, but the merchant's. — What violets? —
The beautiful ones in (ra xala za bp) the garden. — What
roots — The roots of the apple-tree. — Not the roots of the
?

apple-tree, but those of the fig-tree. — The thorns of the


rose. — Nothing so beautiful as the rose. — Not roses but
is

violets. —We have nothing in our (the) baskets except


violets.

TWENTY-FIRST LESSON.

80. ifiog, Jr, (from ifiov) my, mine,


y,

aog, <rq, aov, (from aov) thy, thine = your, yours.


(piXoe, ov, a friend.
(piXos- the friend.
6

qiiXog ftov, a friend of mine,


tfibt epilog, or (pikos iftos, a friend of mine.
epilog f*ov, my friend.
6

iftog epilog,
6

my friend.
epilog epog,
o

6
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 79

Rem. — When my, thy, (your) &c. are to be made emphat


ic, ipos and aog are always used.

tt
Have J myJ cloak?
vou iii S
{
he'i
»*
( e%ns
"7* yXairdr uov ;
f A, , - 1
n?* fnqy jXcurav ;
Ihave not your cloak, but ov Ttjv o>,r jjlouVa*1 ejrco,
mine, Ttjt ifi^r.
Your brother, not mine, 6 obs ti8eX(f6s, ov% 6 iftof.
My friend, not the teacher's, 6 iftbs yiXog, ov% 6 row Btdeto-
xdXov.

81. tins; of whom? whose? (Sing.)


tlvmv; of whom? whose? (Plur.)
twos eoriv o innos ; whose is the horse ?
ffiog iatw, it is mine.
b utnos aos !(ttm>, aXX' oim the horse is yours, not mine.

itj» Tiros sjfttv fiaxTtjoiav ; whose staff have you?


rijr Tiros e%Eis ; whose have you (that of whom
have you ?)
ir Tois Tiroov xtjnots eiatr ; in whose gardens are they?
ir tois iftois, in mine.
iv tois cpiXcor rjnar, in those of our friends,
Tiros taTiv j] aq/Ctiga, whose is the ball ?
fOTi tov ddtXqiov fiov,
I it is my brother's.
irsTi tov tfiov <kdeXq>ov,
tov ijinoQov iariv, it is the merchant's,
ij aqxuQti ifO) tarip, dXX' ov the ball is mine, not the arti
TOV TtftiTOV, san's.

Rem. — If the question a thing?' the Gen. of


is,

'whose
is

the Possessor used what does he possess?' the


is

if,
'
;

Dat. with ioTl, or the Acc. with e/cu.


80 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Whose is the cloak ? tivog iativ ll fXalva. ;


The cloak is the workman's, t] fXaivd tan tov eoydtov.
What is thereto the workman? ti eatt 7<jjigydtQ ;
(What has the workman?) ti e%ei 6 tQydzqg ;
There is a cloak to the work eari ylalva 'tit eoyarQ,
man, i. e. the workman has b igydtqg %latvav tju.
a cloak,

What have you beautiful ? | ti exeie xalov ;


*
SYStS TV HG^hov
' anyJ thing0 beautiful 11,,
^
- ',
Have you < ,
f earn/ vfuv ti xalov ;
°v^tv xalov.
We have nothing beautiful, \ eotiv fy.o/^v ^
I ?n*iv ovosv xalov.
Have you beautiful houses? fjjew xaldg oixiag ;
We have, e^Ofisv.
We have beautiful ones, xaldg fyofiev.
We have the white ones rag Isvxdg WW"' ids $*
I *"Q

(which are) in the village, < xco/xy.

( tag iv xcofirj levxdg e%o/xev.

82. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

'AdtXcpog. —'O ddtXcpog —'O ijuog ddtX-


fiov.
Tot.
— Oi>% dXX 6 6og ddtXcpog. — Hsfina
6 sfiog,
tov (my) viov tig tov dyqov. — Tov Tivog vibv
TisjuTTitg ; — Ov tov ifiov Ttbfxna, dXXd tov oov. —
'Ev Tolg Tivog xr/Tioig Tiai^ovoiv 01 v&ecviai; — 'Ev
Toig xaXotg ro'ig tov
ifxnoQOv.
— Ovx iv roig ijuoig,
ovds iv roig ooig ncci£ovOiv, dXX iv TOig tov dycc-
&ov didaOxaXov. — Tivog iioiv oi xr\noi oi iyyvg
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 81

rov xaXov gov ; —-H ejuol eiGtv, fj rov oocpov re-


%virov.
— Tivog eiGiv oi xaXol dyqoi ; — Ov rov
ifiov ddtXcpov titiiv, dXXd rov Gov. —IIov tiocv oi

xd&i}VTiu. — TV e
(piXoi tj/uav ;—"H ijti rav JiergcHv, t\ ev ralg Groulg
ra cpika fiov ; — OvSsv vo
cpiXco gov sgtc, nXriv fiaxrrjoiag xal fuxqds %r]Xov.
— Ti xakbv fytig ; — OvSiv ovre xaXov ovre
dya&ov. — Oudev xaXov eGri ftoi itXrtv Qodotv xui
icjv. — Ovx —
s%ti vovv 6 veaviccg ; Socpov vovv
%Xtl"
— a TOO fia&rjTOv yhnGGa ov% out a oocpt]

eGriv, ag rj rov diSuGxdXov.

II. Render into Greek.

What has my brother ? —Your brother has a staff. —


My fatherhas nothing but a staff. — Whose staff has he ?
— He has mine. — He has not mine, nor the merchant's,
but that of the wise artisan. — Has the teacher (any)
books? — He has. — He has
(some) good ones.
—The
teacher has not so good books as the scholar. — Neither I
nor you have so good books as the teacher. — The teach
er has a wise tongue. — What has (what is there to) the
scholar ? — There are to the scholar good books, and a
good mind. — Has the artisan any thing beautiful? — He
has something both beautiful and good. — What has he
beautiful? — -He has nothing beautiful except a small
hammer. — He has a ball instead of a hammer. — Is not
the hammer mine ? — It is not yours, but your friend's. —
Where does it lie? — It lies either on the hearth, or in the
small chest, or near the beautiful fig-tree.

OLLENDORFF.

TWENTY-SECOND LESSON.

83. Contracted Adj. of the First Second Declension.

%otoeog, a, ov, golden.

ovv

rj,
N. xQvo-eos, ea, eot %Qva-ovg,
G. %Qva-i!ov, tag, iov iQva-ov, qg, ov

jj,
D. ea,

ii
xQvo-tq>, em ^pvu-cp,
A. iQva-sov, Jan eov ^groovy, ijv, ovv
V. doubtful, ea, eov i\, ovv

DUAL

N. A.V. ^ova-eta, ea, em jfpw-oo, a, oo


G. D. xQvo-eoiv, eaiv, e'oiv %qvo-oiv, aiv, aiv

N. XQva-eoi, sou, ea XQva-oi, al, a


G. xgva-emv, emv, emv xqvg-oov, mv, mv
D. jcptNT-e'ots, e'aig, eoig ^vcr-oiff, art, oig
A. XQva-iovs, eag, ea %qva-ovg, ag, a
V. ^Qva-eoi, eai, ea %Qva-oX, cm, a

silver.
of

So, ctpy^-soff, tea, soy,


Contr. agyvQ-ovg, a, ovv.
noQCfvo-eog, ea, MW, purple.
Contr. nogcpvQ-ovg, a, ovv.

Except that they contract throughout the Fern. Sing,


into a instead of as dgyvgea, dgyvga.
jj
;

Accent. — Observe the irregular accentuation; thus,

from xQvaeog, %Qvdoi(, regularly, %Qvoovg.


" "
mvata, n>vaa, igvaa.
" "
%Qvoem, XQvfrw, %(>va<o.
" &c.
"

dgyvgeog, agyvgoig, dgyvgovg,


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 83

6 xQtaos, ov, the gold, gold.


6 agyvQog, ov, the silver, silver.
to nottiqtov, ov, the cup, (drinking-cup).
{} TQdfts^a, w, the table.

A golden cup, igvaovv nottjqiov.


The silver table, fj agyvQa tqa-ne^a.
Purple cloaks, ■/"/.uhai nogyvQcti.

84. ini, upon, Prep. (Gen. Dat. Ace).


im toil, (Gen.) on the.
im ton, (Acc.) on to the (motion on to).

y).aivu utitai im tmv »«- the cloak lies on the rocks.

ta [i>j).a runtti im tag nitqag, the apples fall on to the rocks.


im tijg tqaneXqg, on the table.
ini Tijv tqdns^av, on to the table.
ij acpaiQu xehui im tijg tqane- the ball lies on the table.
tys,
f] otpaiqa nintei im tijv iqa- the ball falls on to the table.
ns^av,

and roil, from the.


ix toil, out from the.
avtl toil, instead for the.
of,

ini toil, on the.


toil for, on to the.
iv tip, in the.
dog tov, into the.
Rex. —<*» tot, differs from Ari tov, as its tor differs from
6 tw, thus,

er, tn, the being in.


eif, into, the coming in.
«r« tov, on, the being on.
«i tor, on to, the coming on.
on the chest,
in the chest,
on to the chest
into the chest.

Render,
From the hearth, from the fig-tree.
Out of the basket, out of the chests.
Instead of a staff, instead of the cloak.
On the table, on the tongue.
On to the table, on to the rocks.
In the hat, in the mind.
Into the fountain, into the basket
Except a ball, near the river.

( xaXij y).ca> a' uov.


A beautiful cloak of mine,
( ifitj xaXy -/}.uU a.
My purple cloak, tj noQCfVQOt fXalrd fiov.
ij iftij TTOQqvQa p.uhct.
Not my purple cloak, but yours, ot'z tj iftij noqqivqa. yltura,
aiX ij on.
My beautiful cup is golden, rb iftov xalitr notyoto* jjpv-
aovv tattr.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 85

85. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Xqv60VV TtOTT\QlOV. Tb %QV60VV TtOTTjQlOV


xaXov 66tcv. — To ifiov Ttorrjqtov ov% ovrco xaXdv
sotiv, cog to gov. — Td od 7iori)qia ov% ovrco .fitr
xqd sot iv rd rot) ifinoqov. —'Hfirv eoriv dq-
cog

yvqd rt norrjqia xai %qvod. — Xqvaovv xavovv.


— Ov XQV6a s6rc rd xavd, dXX' dqyvqd. — Ti
t/ti 6 naig iv rco xqvGco xavco ; — Exec xaXd dq
yvqd firiku. — -E%ti dqyvqdg acpvqag, xai xqvod
norrjqia. — Td rivog norr\qia xqvod idriv ; — Ov
rd Sfid norriqia %qvc>u ssriv, ovd£ rd od, aXXd
rd rcov cfiXcov rjficov. — Ti idri rco ifinoqco ; — -Eori
rco e/LMoqcp %Xalva noqcpvqd rt xai %qv6rj. — Uov
xtlvrai al %Xatvai ;— 'Ev xqvofj ^rjXco xtlvrai.
rji

— CH acpaiqa ov xtlrai tbil rrjg rqani^rjg, dXXd


%inrtt, em tt)v %rjXov. — 01 vtaviai xu&rjvrai
r}

em rfjg tdgag, em ttjv oqocprjv rqe^ovoiv. — 'O


i)

nalg qinrti rtjv Gcpaiqav km rr/v oixiav.

II. Render into Greek.

friend of mine. — My friend. — Not my friend, but


A

yours. — Both my friend, and the merchant's. — What has


the merchant? — He has purple cloaks, and golden cups.
86 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

— The silver cup is not so beautiful as the golden one. —


Whose is this golden cup? — Whose is it (<m>o« eWV)? —
It is the merchant's. — It is neither mine nor the mer
chant's it is the laborer's. — The purple cloaks are not
;

so beautiful as the white ones. — Who lies here ? — My


son lies here. — Where? — On the roof. — Not on the roof,
but on the table. — The ball falls on to the table. — The
ball does not lie on the chest, but in the chest. — The
apples fall not (ov mnrei) on to the basket, but into the
basket. — The horses always run either into the road, or
on to the rocks. — The cow is either running in the road,
or into the road. — The boy is not running on the house,
but on to the house.

TWENTY-THIRD LESSON.

86. Declension 2. Attic Form.

6 tamg, the peacock.

SING. DUAL. PLUH.

N. tamg N. tao)
G. Ktm N. A. V. raco G. tamv
D. Tarp G. D. T«(j5r D. raq>s
A. tamv A. tads
V. tatog V. ram

So, q emg, the morning, dawn, Exc. Acc. Sing. em.

o Xayoig, the hare.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. "7

to dvcayeoor, the dining-hall.

SING. DUAL

N. drmyem* N. drmyita
G. artoyito N. A. V. avmyem G. (<)0);to)^
D. drooyecp G. D. drwyeqv D. avoayeapf
A. dvmysmv A. axa/fto
V. drwyemv V. avtoyem

Accent. — Gen. Sing, raw instead of ia&. aruyiwv Propa-


roxytone throughout, tu standing for o, and being re
garded as having but half its usual length.

Tj rifUQa, as, the day.


rj eanegS, as, the evening.
as,
tj i*eat]ft{}()tiz, noon (fteatj middle, rjfitga day).
ll ovgd, as, the tail.
6 oxiovqos, ov, the squirrel, (mud, ovgd, shadow-tail).

>, I take, catch.

87. ago, in front of = be/ore. A Preposition.


ngb iov, before the, (Governs only the Gen.)

ngb tr\s "aw, before the gate,


ngb rov %govov, before the time,
ngb ione'gas, before evening,
ngb rrjS tin, before the dawn.
ngb Tjfit'gas,
before day.
ngb Tijs ij[ie'gas,
88

aao tov, from the.


sex tov, out from the.
avti tov, instead of the.
ngb tov, before the.
em tov, on the.
em toy, on to the.
h, top, in the.
elg tov, into the.

88. eoxoficu, I come, go. (Passive and middle form.)

Ind. Pres.

SING.

1. / come, am, coming,


2. you come = thou comest.
3. egxetai, he, she, it comes, is coming.

DUAL

1. ig%6[ie&ov, we two come,


2. egxea&ov, you two come,
3. egxea&ov, they two come.

PLim.
1. egx6fie&a, we come, are coming,
2. egxea&e, you (= ye) come, $c.
3. egxovtai, they come.

note egxea&e ; when do you come 1


ngb fiea^ft^gtag egxopeda, we come before noon,
b naif omovgov Xafifiavei, the boy catches a squirrel.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 69

89. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Tig tq^trctc; —-Eq^trai 6 narrjq /uov. — Ovx


sq^trai tig rr\v drodv fj /urjTTjq 60V ; — Ov% *) £f*r]
firjrrjq eqj/trcei, dXX' f] 6r}. — 'O rcccog. — Taco xai
Xayco. — O'i rt Xayco xccl oi raco. — 77 Xcc/u/3dvti 6
itatg ;— ^xiovqov Xa/j./3dvti. —'Yjutig ov gxiov-
qovg, dXXd XccfifidvtTt.
Xccycog — Oiij( rifitlg rovg
Xccycog Xaufiavo/ttv, dXX' tifitlg. —'H/utig rt xccl
V/utig vqo TT\g e'co tig to dvcoytcov sq^o/ut&a. — 01
cptXoi rj/ncov tcqo rrjg kontqag tq^ovvcci. — Jlort
nkpnti- 6 TtarrjQ rov viov ; — -Ilt/H7iti uvrov nqb
rrjg — 'H ovqd rov raco. — Ot>% r) ovqd,
fj/uiqag.
dXX rj xt(paXrj rov raco. — Ovrt rj rov raco oi)pd,
ovrs f\ roil Gxcovqov. —'H rov Gxiovqov ovgd ov%
ovrco xaXrj eonv, cog rj tov raco. — Hod rov /qb-
vov. — 'O xX&TTTrjg ttqo rrjg tco tq%trai. —Ai (3otg
xtlvrai Ttqb rrjg %vXr\g. —7f e'cog ov% ovrco xaXr]
eGrcv cog rj honkqu. — To ftixqbv dvcoytcov.

II. Render into Greek.

Whence comes the young man ? — The young man


comes out of the dining-hall. — The peacock and the
squirrel are running into the dining-hall. — When does ,
the thief come ? — Not before noon, but before morning. —
The teacher sends his (the) disciple before evening. —
Whither does he send him? — Into the village.— Into
90 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

what village? — Into the one near the river. — What do


the young men catch ? —They catch hares and peacocks.
— The tail of the peacock is beautiful. — The tail of the
peacock is not so small as that of the squirrel. — A pur
ple cloak. — Whose is the golden cup? — It is mine. —It is
not mine, but my brother's. — The horse lies before the
gate. — The maidens sit before the porch. — Noon is not
so beautiful as morning (I sing). — Where lies the basket ?
— It lies in the dining-hall. — The day is beautiful.

TWENTY-FOUKTH LESSON.

90. Adj. of Declension 2, of two endings.


Most compound Adjectives in og, and many others,
belong in their inflexion, entirely to the 2 Decl. The
form is the same for all genders, except where the Neut
has a separate ending.

aXoyog, irrational, unreasonable.


(from a privative, and Xoyog, speech, reason.)

SING. DDAL PLUR.

N. aloyog aloyov N. aXiyoi aloya


G. aloyov N.A.V. aloya, G. dXoytar
D. dXoycp G.D. aloyoiv D. aloyoig
A. aloyov A. aloyovg aloya
V. dXoye aloyov V. aloyoi aloya.

So, aSixog, unjust.


experienced, skilful.
sfinstgog,
d&dvaTog, immortal.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 91

V yi'XVt VS>
the soul.
to £6ior, ov, the living creature, the animal.
6 iarqog, ov, the physician.

r\ ypv%rj a&draTog eativ, the soul is immortal.


tj \pv%r] d&dvaiov iartv, the soul is immortal (an im
mortal thing).
6 av&Qoinog faioV iariv, man is an animal.

91. noTog, a, ov, of what sort ? what kind of?


xaxoV> 17, ov, evil, bad, wicked.

nolog avdomnog ; what sort of a man ?


noia QoSa fyei ij xoqtj ; what sort of roses has the maid
en?
rce 7101a i%u ; what sort of ones has she? (the
qf-what-sorl ones has she ?)
Ta xula she has the beautiful ones.

Rem. — nolog referring to something previously spoken of,


commonly takes the article.

yooKfm, sig, ei &c. I write, am writing,


tj imatohq, w, the letter,
aQog 70V, to the.
92 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

92. ngog, in front of, before, to. A


Preposition.
ngog tov, to), tov, (Governs Gen. Dat. and Acc.)
ngog tov, to the.

figog Tiva ygatpsig ; to whom do you write 1

agog Sfis ygdqpovaiv, they write to me.


ne'/inm, egypnou ngog as, I send, I come to you.

From the, ano tom


Out from the, sx rov.
Instead of the, uvi\ TOV.
Before the, ago tov.
On the, eni tov.
On to the, in) tov.
In the, iv TOp.
Into the, Big TOV.
To the, ngog tov.

Render,
From the soul, out of the mind,
Instead of baskets, before the gates,
On the roof, on to the rocks,
In the fig-tree, into the river,
To the physician, to the thief.

93. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

'O av&Qconos (man) geoov eGtcv. — 'H i^v^rj d&ct-


varos eariv. —'O avfrqconoc, (man) ipv%r)v seal voiiv
w" — 0 iitTtog £cjov aXoyov iOTiv.—Ovrh oi lot-
not, otiTt ol Xaya tfn/^dg t%ov6iv.
— Td dXoyct
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 93

£(oa ovx d&dvccrd eOtiv. "Av&Qcanog dSixog. —



01 ddcxoc dv&qcoTioi xaxoi tiGiv. —'O dyaifog vt-
ccviag ovx dSixog &6TIV. — ToOKpCd STtiGroXtiv. —
'Eycj xal ov ini6TO%dg yqdcpofitv. — Hqog xiva
yqacptTS ,— Hobg rov t/tntioov
iurqov. — Hoiag
interoXdg yqdcpsre ;—KaXdg yqdtpofttv imGro-
Inc. —Hotav inuSToXqv yqdtpti r\ xoqr) ; — Kakijv
—'O —
youcptt. narriQ yqdcptc nqbg rov (his) view
'O ddtXcpog STtiGToXrjV ite/xmi nqbg riv ddtkcpt'/v.
—D TtarijQ rov viov nEfinti noog rov oo(pbv 81-
SdoxaXov.

II. Render into Greek.

An experienced artisan. — The


experienced physician.
— My physician is not so skilful as yours. — The young
man is unjust. — An irrational soul. — Horses have irra
tional souls. — Man -is not an irrational animal. — What
has the maiden in her (the) hand ? —She has a letter. —
Who writes letters to the maiden? — Either her (the)
father, or the good youth. — We do not write (oh rjfieT*
YQaqtoftEv) letters, but you. —It is not you that write (ofy
ifieig yqdcfstB), but the merchants. — Whither are the
hares running? — They are running to the river. — What
does the thief take? — He takes purple cloaks. — What
does the young man catch? — He catches peacocks. —
What sort of a physician have you ? — We have a skilful
physician. — The squirrel runs before day into the dining
hall.
94 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

TWENTY-FIFTH LESSON.

94. Contracted Adj. of Dec. 2.

evvoog drove (si well, vovg, mind), well-minded,


friendly.

3ING. DUAL PLUH.

N. tvvovg tvvovv N. svvoi svroa


G. tvvov N.A.V. win G. svvcov
D. iVVCp G.D. svvoiv D. svvotg
A. svvovv A. evvovg svvou

V. svvov svvov V. svvoi evvoa

tvrovs ttfu aoi, I am well disposed to you


(thee).
ol aya&ot roig ayadoig svvoi the good are friendly to the
good.

(love, j ov, alone, only.

tQ^oficu fiovog, I come alone,


6 fiovog viog, the only son.
6 vlbg fiovog to^erou, the son comes alone.
OLLENDORFF.

Observe,

6 povog viog, or
the only son.
6 vibg 6 povog,
but, 6 vlbg povog, or the son alone, (Lesson XVII.)
povog 6 viog, or, the son is alone.
6 aoqibs iajQog, ■
the wise physician.
6 larobg 6 aotfog,
6 latgog Goqog, the physician is wise («'<m
ooybg 6 laroog, understood), or, the physi
cian, when wise.

95. povov, only. (Adv.)


ov povov, not only,
ov povov — aXXa, not only — but.
ov povov — aXXa tuti, not only — but also,
povov oi, only not = all but.

6 uya&bg pivot aocpog, the good (man) alone is wise.

t
ov povov aoqsbg, dXX' dya&og, not only wise, but good.
ov povov nspnu, uXXa xat he not only sends, but also
fiTOU, comes,
ov povov ov, dXXa xcu eyto, not only you, but also I.
ov ah povog, aXXa xat iyoi, not you alone, but also I.
povov oi aotfog, only not wise = all but wise.

Rem. — In many instances either the Adv. povov or the Adj.


povog can be used ; as,

ov povov ijpeig, not only we.


ov% qpeig povoi, not we alone,
ov% ijpeig povov, not we only.
96 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

TlOTCQOg, d, OV, which of the two ?

noriQot; tqiju, ov, q 6 tsa- which runs, you, or the young


titoi ; man?
noTBQOf eon Xevxov, zb qooov, which is white, the rose or the

Tj TO iov ; violet ?

96. Double Questions.

Questions implying an alternative, (either, or) are in


Greek generally introduced by noiegov or noisoa.

notega Tij* ilalvav i%us, ll have you the cloak or the


ibv nXXnv ; * hat?
notSQov m'finei;
e(j%ST(u ii (which),does he come or send?
TtoztQov irrav&a ionv, ») ov ; is he here, or not?

Rem. — This construction really blends two questions into


one ; as, which is it? bad or good?

97. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

IIoTtQa rolg xccxoiq tvvovg ti, rj rolg aya&olg ;


—-Aei tvvovg tlftl rolg aya&olg. —
JIovtQov inl
tojv TitrQcov xd&rjvaf- 6 nalg, rj tig toy
nora/uov
tqs%£c; — Movov ovx tig tov nor a [tov xqtjrti. —
Jloxtqov siu rr)v OQOcprjv {tinrtig rr/v GcpaTqav, ij
tig ri)v XQrjvrjv ; — Ovvt tig tt)v xQr'jvrjv qitvto) av-
ttjv (it), ovrt em rrjv OQOcprjv.
— Tivtg ngbg ijftdg
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 97

kQ%ovrac ;
— 01 vtaviai fiovoi tQ^ovrai. — Tiva
TisftTiti 6 TiarrjQ ngog tov ScSdoxaXov ; — Tov jio-
vov vibv Ttsfinti. — Ov rov vibv n'sfiitti,
/uovov
ccXXa xal ins. —
IIoTtQOv t%ti rijv e/urjv xijXov 6
t£%vitt]Q, rj rrjv tov iftnoQOv; — Over rijv efirjv
you, ovre rrjv tov s/utioqov. — Tr/v Gr'jv, dXX ov
rrjv tov ifinoQov w". — O oocpbg diddoxakog
tvvovg £Oti Ta dya&a fia&rjTrj. —JTortgov d&d-
varog iOTiv fi tyv%T], 7] ov ; — 7f tfjv%rj fiovij d&d-
vaTog io~Tiv. — Ovdsv aXr/v wig tf/v^ijg d&dvccTOV
E6nv. — Tav dv&QeoTfcov fiovtov ai ipvjral d&dva-
toL 8i6iv. — 'O xXknrr]g xal xaxbg xal ddcxog sGtiv.

II. Render into Greek.

The soul of man is not irrational. Is the soul irra


tional or not ? — Is the physician experienced or not ? —
My physician is not so experienced as yours. — Is the soul

immortal or not? Even (xat) the wicked soul is immortal.
— What sort of a cloak has the merchant ? — He has a pur
ple cloak. — He has neither my cloak, nor yours, but my
friend's. — He has not only cloaks, but golden cups. —
When does our friend come ? — He comes not only be
fore morning, but also before evening. — Not only the day
is beautiful, but also the morning and the evening. — Both
the morning and the evening are beautiful. — To whom
does your father write letters ? — He writes not only to
me,but also to his only son. — The son comes alone. —
Who comes besides {n\qr) the thief?
5
98 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

TWENTY-SIXTH LESSON.

98. Adjectives of the Attic 2 Decl.

TXmg, propitious, gracious.

SING. DUAL PLDR.

N. iXscog iXsmv N. iXecp tXeto


G. tXeoo N.A.V. Heat G. iXecov
D. IXtop G. D. D.«<j>»> D. tXecpg
A. ilecov A. ilgoiff lieoo
V. iXetag iXsmv V. iXscp iXsa

6 &eog, ov, God. (Voc. Sing. &eog not


&ee.)
dtxaiog, 8, ov, just.
fiaxdqtog, a ov, happy.
a&Xtog, a, ov, wretched, miserable.

99. 6 dixaiog, the just (man),


oi Stxaioi, the just (men),
to Sixaiov, that which is just, justice,
ra dixaia, the things which are just, just
things.
6 atya&og, 6 xaxog, the good (man), the bad
(man).
oi aya&oi, oi xaxoi, the good, the bad.
to ayadov, to xaxov, good, evil (that which is
good. &c.)
to. aya&d [raya&a) good things,
tcc xaxa, evil things.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 99

The good man is happy, 6 ayaQbg fiaxdgiog (ion*).


The unjust are wretched, ot adixoi eiatv aOhoi.
God is propitious to the good 6 &ebg iXeoig iaTi to) dya&q}.
man,
God is not friendly to the bad, 6 &ebg ovx tvvovg Toig xaxotg.

100. Staxco, eig, et, &c. I pursue.


qievym, sig, ei, <fcc. /flee, shun.
a> veavia, diolxeig to dya&ov, young man, you pursue what
is good.
ol aya&oi to xaxbv (pevyovotv, the good shun evil.
ftovov yevyopisv to xaxov, we shun evil alone.
ol Xayoi tbv reuviav (pevyovair, the hares flee the young man.

101. im tcj>, close on, at, by the.

xdQi)(ia.i em Tfjj noretfiif, I sit by, at the river.


r)
tialg im ry XQtjprj xd&rjrai, the girl sits by the fountain.
nai^ofitv em XQqrq, we are playing at, by the
fountain.

From the, out from the, ano tov, ex tov.


In the, into the, iv T(j5, tig tov.
Instead of, ibr the, d*Tt TOV.
Before the, 7Z(>0 TOll.
On the, on to the, im tov, im tov.
At, by the, to the, im Tcj), aqog tov.
Render,
TQ£%0[iev ano Trig vofirjg, ex tov dyQOv.

rj aqiatga xeitai iv Tip xav<^, i] mnrH eig to xavovv.


Xa^dvco axiovoovg dvit Xayav.
noTt'ga xd&ijvTui nob Ttjg nvXtjg, t]
ov ;
to noTtjoior ov xelrai em Tijg TQaneXqg, dlXd m'nTCi em
t\p tgdne^av.
irj

6 TtaTg tj xeiTiti im ngbg Trjr xmfirjv.


>}

xQrjvtj, eg^STai
100 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

102. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

'O &tbg llecog s6ti toiq dya&olg. — Ov rolg


xaxolg evvovg sGnv 6 &eog, dXXd rotg dya&otg.
— 01 dya&ol del rd dya&d 8icoxov6iv. —'H/utlg
ovSev nXrjv rov xaxov cpevyofj-ev. — O xaxbg del
to xaxbv Siaxei. — Tig juaxdoiog ionv ; — 01 81-
xaiot fiovoi fiaxdqioi eitiiv. —D dya&bg del fut-
xdqiog earcv. — 01 dycc&ol ov /tovov aocpoi, dXkd
xal fiaxdqiol eloiv. — 01 xaxol fiovoi d&Xioi
elGiv. — 'O &ebg ov% iXecog ion rolg xaxolg. —'O
xaxbg del d&Xiog. — Tiva Sicoxeig ; — Tbv xXenrrjv
Sidxa. — 01 xXixrae. rjfidg diaxovGiv. — cH/ueig ov
/uovov ditoxojuev, dXXd xal Xa/u/3dvOjuev
rovg
xXe%rag. — 01 dSixot del rovg ddixovg Scaxov6iv.
— 01 xaxol rovg dyairovg (pevyovOiv. — JJoii xd-
Srjvrai ai xoqai ; —'End ratg xqrjvaig xd&qvrai.
— 01 veavlai iiu ra /uixpa qa %ai£,0V6iv. — To
dya&bv del xaXov eonv.

II. Render into Greek.

The thief is miserable. — Thieves are neither wise


nor happy. — The young man is not a thief. — The thief
always shuns the good (man). — The good (to aya&or) is
always honorable. —God is propitious to the good. — The
good neither flee nor pursue the bad. — The unjust al
ways either flee or pursue the just. — The morning pur
sues the evening. — The good always pursue what is
GREEK OLLENDORFF.
101
noble (to — Is the physician
xaXot). just or unjust ? — He
is just, not (xor aU'
ovx) unjust. — Is the good
(man)
happy or miserable ? — The good
is always happy.
— The bad are (man)
always miserable. — The soul of
the un
just (man) is evil. — God is
always propitious to the
good. — What have you in
your (the) basket ? — We have
purple cloaks, and golden
cups. — Not my cups, but the
merchant's. — Where do the silver balls lie? —
by the fountain. — Both the horse They lie
and the cow are fleeing.
— The youth flees
alone.

TWENTY-SEVENTH LESSON.
103. The Demonstrative Pronoun.

ovtos, this, this person, he.

SINQ.
N. OVTOg avjrj tovto
Q. TOVTOV ■tavtTjg tovxov
D. lOVTCp
XOVTty
A. tovxov tUVTTjV TOVTO

DDAL.
N.A. TOVTm TaVTtt TOVTCO
G.D. TOVTOIV TttVTtttf TOVTOIV

PLUR.
N. OVTOl avrai TCtVTU
G. TOvxoav Tovrmv TOVTWV
D. Tovioig Tavtaiii TOVTOig
A. Tovrovg Tavtae Tavta
102 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

This merchant, ovtog 6 ifinoQog, 6 Sftnoqog


ovtog.
This cup, TO HOtTjQlOV tovto.
This beautiful cloak, avzn ij xaXtj ylaivu.
These golden baskets, to. iQvaa xava tavra.

Rem. — This golden basket admits all the varieties of


position consistent with the article's standing before
the Adj. and being omitted before the Pronoun; as,

tovto to %Qvaovv xavovv.


to %qv6ovv xavovv tovto.
This golden basket, to xavovv tovto to %Qvaovv.
TO XapOVV TO 1QV60VV TOVTO.
tovto to xavovv TO iqvoovv.
This cloak of mine, avtrj rj %\and pov.
(this my cloak) avtrj ij ifit] jrXaiva.
avzn i) noQCfVQa fXaiva Nov.
This purple cloak of mine,
avtn ij ifiij noQcpvoa -/Icava.

ovtog, this man, this person,


avtn, this woman,
TOVTO, this (this thing),
OVTOl, these men.
tavta, these things.
Tovteov, of these persons, of these
things.

ovTog 6 avdQtojtog tqi%si,


this man runs.
ovtog TQ?%Sl,
tovto iati xaXov, this is noble.
tavta Slxaia tativ, these things are just
tavta ygdcpm, I write these things.
tiva Innov iftig ; what horse have you?
TOVIOV tj((M, I have this one.
ovtoi. a&Xiol doiv, these (men) are miserable.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 103

6 Xoyog, ov, the hill.


yo netiio*, ov, the plain,
vxptjloi, 17, or, high, lofty.

104. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Avrri fj oixia. — Avttj tj vif/r/Xr] oixia. — At


oixiai avrai ut xaXal Orodg xal t6riag tj(ov6tv.
— Ovtoq 6 Xocfog infji(kog sarcv. — Ovrog 6 Xocpog
oi>x ovrtog vif/r/Xoj sorry, tog 6 nXtjoiov rov nova-
fiov.
— Ilothtv tQ%ovTctL ouroi ol dyu&ol vtaviai ;
— 'Atto Tijg ev r« ittSia xcofttjg tq^rovrai. — Tivtg
tloiv ev rotg xrjTiocg rovroig roig xaXolg ; — Avrai
al xaXal xoqai tiolv avrov. — Ti e.Ori tovto ;—
Tovro iciri £cbov aXoyov. — Ovroi ol Stxaioi av-
&qgmioi rd dyafhd Suoxovffiv.
— Ovrog 0 xkinrrfg
rov dixaiov (fitvyti. —-Taura xaXa eoriv. — E101
(there are) xaXal xcojuat ev rovra ra TttSta.

Uoloi Xo<poi tiol xXr/filov rov norafiov ;— Elolv
utprjXol Xoipot. — Tivag 6(pa 'iQag QiTtrtrt ; — Tav-
rag Qtnro/utv dvri rav rov eoydrov.

II. Render into Greek.


The hill is high. The hills are not high.—The
houses in the village are not so high as the hill.. —These
hills are not so high as the one near the village. — Whose
are these gardens? — They are mine. —They are my
104 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

brother's. — Who writes these things? — The father writes


these letters to his son. — The brother writes this letter to
his sister. — This beautiful letter. — These beautiful pea
cocks. — This young man pursues these peacocks on to
the hill. — This letter is beautiful. — Who writes this
beautiful letter? — This day.— Before this day. — A day
instead of an evening. — Either on the table, or on to the
roof, or by the spring. — Who are playing ? — It is not we
that (oi>x ijftsii;) play, but you. — Not only we play, but
also you.

TWENTY-EIGHTH LESSON.

105. waovTog, so much.

(PI.) so many.
roaovzoi,
Declined mainly like ovrog.
SING.

N. toaovrog tosavxrj Toeovto{v)


G. roaavTOV tooavTTjg toaovrov
D. toaovTw ■zoaavirj Т0(Т0ИТф
A. toaovrov toaavti¡v toaovto{v)

DUAL
N. A. roaovrm roaavtä toaovxm
G. D. toeovTOiv toaavxaw ToaovTow

PLÜR.
N. roaovroi ToaavTcu roaavra
G. tooovtcov waovrmv roaovtmv
D. zoaovtoig zoaavTttig loaovtoig
A. rooovtovg toaavzag toaavra

So, TOioxnog, roiavjr}, roiovzo(r), such.


Tt¡Xixovtog, Tr¡Xixavit¡, tr¡kixovjo(v), so great, (so old.)
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 105

106. noaog, ov how much Plur. how many

ij,

?
anXtxog, t], or, how great how old?

1
how much Plur. how many

1
;

?
noiog what sort

of

?
;
ntjXtxog how great how old

1
!ooog, inoaog
joaovrog, to much, Plur. so many,
roiovtog such.
tnXixovrog, so great, so old.
as much as, how much or many,
olog, such as, what sort.

of
ijXixog, as great as, how great, how old.

Rem. — Tovovxog, toiovtos and triXixoxnog are more common


in Prose than tooog, idiot, xijXlxog.

Toaovrog — ooog, so much, PI. so many — as.


Toiovrog — olog, such — as,
rnXixovtog — qXixog, so great, so old — as.

ohog, ov, the wine, wine,


6

ooyta, ag, the wisdom, wisdom,


ij

mvat, sig, &c, drink.


II

opto, see.

see as many balls as apples, opto toaavtag oyaiQag oaa


I

fXTjXa.
have such a cloak as yours, yXaZvav ola oij.
I

zoiavzr[V s^oo
i\

roaavta /ujXa avrov oaa txet as many apples lie here as


xeitai, there.
noaov ohov WM how much wine have you?
;

5*
106 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

zoaovTOv sx<o,
I have so much.
ov jo6oviov eyw oaov av, I have not so much as you.
(joaovrov) oaov av, I have as much as you.
e%a>
toaovrovg Xnnovg ogm oaag I see as many horses as houses.
olxiag,
nolov olvov nivsig ; what sort of wine do you drink?
toiovtov nlvto olov ejroo,
I drink such as I have.
tzi'i to oiov sjm,
xai of what sort, i. e. such as you
olov av nivsig, toiovtov
drink, such also I (drink).
*Vm>_
tov toiovtov nlvto, I drink such.
nijllxa ion Tama ; how great are these things 1
TijXixavia xaxa ijXlxu, so great evils as.

xa(, and, also, even,


oids, nor, not even.

olog syta, TOiovTog xai av, of what sort (such as) I, such
also you.
ovds TavTa xaXd iaTiv, not even these things are noble.

0BS — xai and ovSb besides meaning and, nor, have often
an emphatic force, also, even, and not even.

107. Exercises.
I. Render into English.
Uoaog %q6vos ;— Tooovrog %oovog. — 'Ev ro-
Oovra xqovg). —'YjuTv ovx tort rooovrog %Qovog
baog rjfjXv. — Uooov olvov i%ere ;— Ov tooovtov
e%ojuav olvov oaov oi cpiXoi rjftnv.
— Jloeoi vect-
viccc elolv iv ra xr]7ia ; — Ov rooovroi beovg oqcj
btu tov Xog>ov. — Ovx ixtt rooovrot, veavicci tioiv,
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 107

oGccQoda.
— Td iv ra xtjiza qoScc ov roGavrd
ianv oGa rd iv rotg dygoig. —D nctlg oiix w"
roGccvrag dqyvqdg Gcpaioag oGag iya. — Ov ro-
Govrovg Xctyag ka/u/Sdvsi oGovg Gxiovgovg. —
UoTov oivov Were' ; — Ov tolovtov olvov Wop''
olov vjutig. — 'O sgydrrig ov tocovtov olvov ntvtt
oiov 6 TiXovGiog ejuTtogog. —Hr\kixa earl ravra
rd xaxec (these evils) — Td e/ud xaxd ov rrj/U-
;

xavrce iarcv rjXlxcc rd ad. — UrjXtxog (how old)


sGriv 6 vtctviag ; — Ov rrfiixovrog iortv fjXixog 6
ddeXtpog fiov. — Ov% ogco roGavrrjv oocpiav iv xa
SiSccGxdXco Tovra, oGrjv iv ra jua&r/r^. — Avtt) rj
Gocpta.

II. Render into Greek.

What sort of a house has your friend ? — He has a


beautiful house. — He has such a house as the rich phy
sician. — He has such a house as those in (roiavr^v oixiav
olai at iv) the village. — The physician has not such a
house as that (eta of the merchant. — These houses
tj)

are not so beautiful as those in the plain. — Has the boy


as much gold as silver? — He has not as much silver as
gold. — Do you throw as many balls as apples — We do
?

not throw so many apples as balls. — We do not throw


so many apples into the cup as (Saa) on to the house. —
We have not so many purple cloaks as silver and golden
cups. — The father does not write so many letters as the
son.— How old the father? — He not so old as —
is

is

I.

The wisdom of the artisan. — My wisdom not so great


is

as the artisan's.
108 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

TWENTY-NINTH LESSON.

108. f}v, I was (Irreg. Imperf. of etfti, am).

i\v,

i}g,
Sing.

1p
(?)
Dual TjZOV, qTIJV
Plur. rjfiev, we, rfiav.

%&ig, i%&eg, yesterday.


nQcotjf, lately, the day before yesterday,
nqmi, now, early in the morning.
e<oitet>
(from stag dawn) at early dawn,
ana, at the same time.
lip
rjj

afta at the same time with the


tut ecp morning,=ai dawn.
at the same time with day =
ii\

afta ijptQa,
at day-break.
ioneoag, at evening (as in Eng. of an
evening).

nov
r)g

where were you


;

1
iv

i%&tg Tip xqam, was yesterday in the garden.


I

noreoov t\g ixel ov were you there, or not


;
ii

1
b

was.
I I
i

ovm tjr, was not.


ovx qoav im taXg were not the young men at the
ol

&vqaig
tmviui doors?
;

ovx ijaav, they were not.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 109

109. oiSafiov, nowhere.


oidsig, no one, nobody.
oiSir, nothing.

nov ian taiira ; where are these things 1


ovSitftov four, they are nowhere.
ovx tanv oidu/iov, they are not any where.
ti ooco, what do I see ?
oider oqco, I see nothing.
ov% opc5 oidiv, I do not see any thing.
oiSev bow oiSapov, I see nothing any where.
oil ovo*v ovdapov I do not see any thing any
where,
ovdsie 6p«, (contr. for boast) nobody sees,
oideig aider dpre, nobody sees any thing,
oideis oidtr opre oiSupov, nobody sees any thing any
oi% op« oideiii oidiv oidupov, where,
ovdeig oider yodqiei, nobody writes any thing.

110. ovv(Iv?) with, along- with. A Preposition,


ow zip, with the, (Governs only the Dat.)

tqfpfiai ovv rep qjiXm,


I come along with my friend.
ovv aoi tov vlbv nifinm,
I send my son along with you.
tov vior aoi avfi7tt'fi7t(o,
nifiTMo avrbv eaneoag, |
I send him at evening.

(Away) from the, ajro tov.


Oat from the, ex tov.
of,

Instead for the, avTi tov.


Before the, nob tov.
On the, MR TOV.
On to the, Ml TOf.
110 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

In the, Mr T(j>.

Into the, sig iov.


At the, in) tcp.
To the, agog iov.
Along with the, OVV TQ).

Render,
Away from the river, and out of the house.
Instead of a basket, and before the door.
Not on the roof, but on to the hill.
Either in the field, or into the plain.
He sits, or plays by the spring.
I send the young man to the physician.
The boy comes (along) with the merchant.

111. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Tivct nkfintig TiQog ejus; — lis/una %Qog 6e tov


viov. — 2vv rivi nkfintig uvvov ;—2itv ra e/ua

d8tXcpa. — Tivi 6V{i7i£{A3itii; rjjuccg ; 'Y/udg 6vv ra
60(pq xai efintiqa SidaOxdXq 6vfi%8fi7ia.
— Tivsg
tQXOvrui; — Ov fiovov fQ%ovrac ol EQyccrac, ccXXd
xcd 6vv£QxtTcei dya&bg iurQog.—TIov rjg e'x&eg;
o
—*E%&eg koittQag ovv vfilv ev r«5 xr]%a w'. — Ovx
iv tovtco r« xrjTia, dkX e'v ra TfXrjGiav too vy/r)
GREEK OLLENDORFF

Xoit Xotpov. —Roger T£%viTai 6tn> ra


ool rjoav ev
xr'lTtep ;— Ov tooovtoc 0601 ivrav&cc rjoav. —Hots
eqXOvtcci oi cpiXot fjfiebv ; — Ovrs Zco&tveq^ovrai,
ovrt eOnsQccg, aXXd nqb /utOrjfi/Sqiug. — 'O xXtnrtjg
ovx egxsTcei cifia rfj Tjfisqp, dXX' i] konkqag, rf nqb
TTjS tCO. 2v Oil TtQCJ tQXXl- Ov% TJfltlg OVTtO ItQOH
eqXOfit&a dg vjutlg. — Ti bqa ;— OvSiv ovdccfiov
oqco.
— Ovdslg ovdav bqd ovdct/uov. — O dStXqiog
fiov ovSiv yqucpti nXqv rovrcov rdv encOroXtov.

II. Render into Greek.

What are you writing? — We are writing nothing but


letters. — Nobody writes any thing but letters. — When
does your mother write letters? — Either in the morning
(em&ev), or at evening. — With whom does the little girl
come? — She comes with the wise maiden. — Where were
the maidens at evening? — They were in the white and
beautiful porch. — Was the young man's sister there or
not? — She was. — She was not.— Where was she? — She
was nowhere. — She was neither here nor there. — I see
the hares nowhere. — Nobody sees the peacocks any
where. — Who comes at day-break ? — Nobody comes to
the house at day-break. — This man comes into the field
only in the morning. — Were you in the field yesterday
or not ? — I was not there yesterday, but the day before.
—How many evenings? — Not so many evenings as
mornings. — What sort of wine do you drink? — This
wine is not so good as yours.
112 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

THIRTIETH LESSON.

112. avrog, self.


6 avrog, the

N. avrog avrtj avro


G. ttirov avrJjg airov
D. avr<p airy avrqi
A. avzdv avtrjv avro

DUAL.

N. A. avrm avrd avrco


G.D. avroTv avrair avrolv

X
airal
1
N. avrol avro.
G. avrmv avt&p aizmv
D. avroig airaig airoig
A. avroig airdg aira

113. I. airog with the Art. means in all cases and


numbers, the same.

o avrog ratog, the same peacock,


7] avrrj avxij, the same fig-tree,
to avro oatovv, the same bone,
ra. aira xava, the same baskets,
iv roig avroig noTTjoioig, in the same cups.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 113

Mar. — The Art. often coalesces with the Pronoun ; thus,

Sing. N. 6 avzog, avzog ij avzzj, nvin to a\>TO TavTo'(*).


G. tov avzov, zavzov, but zijg avzqg
D. Wei, aizip, T«ir<j) avzy, zaizy

*jj
A. to avxo, zavt6(t).
Plur. N. uvtoi, avzoi, avzat avzai, za avid zuvid.

ai
oi

but, tcov avzmv &c.

Id3 Distinguish carefully from

Sing, avzog (for avzog) OVTOS


6

avrrj the avrtj this.


>

TavTo{v) TOVZO
\

Plur. airzoi (for


oi

avroi) OVZOl
aiizai the same, avzai these.
\

TaVTOL tavza
Thus,
This merchant, OVTOS tfiJZOQOg,
o

The same merchant, avion or aizog efirzooog,


6

This tongue, avztj yXaaoa.


ij

The same tongue. avztj, or avzrj yXmana.


ij

These roses, zavza TO. Qodtt.


The same roses, Tct avza, or zavia Qoda.

114. II. avzog without the Art.

(a) In the Norn, always means self, and applies to


either person as,
;

avzog TQtxto, myself run.


I

v/ieTg avzoi ygdytzg, you yourselves write,


ovtoi avToi yqdtpovaiv, these men themselves, these
very men write,
ambg TzitTtjQ, nazriQ avzog, the father himself,
6

avzog ap&Qconog, the man himself, the very man.


6

zovzo avzo, this thing itself this very thing.


114 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

(b) In any case when accompanied by a noun it


means self; as,

o Qovg avrog, avrog o govs, the stream itself.


ago avicov itov &vqwv, before the doors themselves =
before the very doors,
»v avrcp rep avtoyeep, in the dining hall itself,
avtov TOVTOV, of this itself =of this very thing.

Rem. — Observe that avrog, self, can often be rendered by


very.

(c) In
an oblique case (any besides the Nom.) stand

it,
ing without a Noun, it means him, her, them.

nariiQ ttvrov, the father of him=his father,


6

adeXqii; avrtjg, the sister of her=her sister,


tj

rig svvovg sari who well-disposed to my


is
r<j> ddelyo) pov
;

brother?
iym svvovg airqi sl/u, am well-disposed to him.
I

Innoi airmv, the horses of them=their


oi

horses.
syat ogm avrovg, see them.
I

nortpov \is
iv

roTg xnnoig, were you in the gardens or


n

ov not?
iv ;

qpev uvrotg, we were in them.

115. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

'H fivlu. —Avrr) juvice. — 'H avrr) fivta. — To


rj

uvvb BsvSqov.—Tcc avra MvSqcc. — 77 ioriv iv ra


xr]iia —-Egtiv iv avra xccXr) 6vxr). — Ovx t6riv
;

iv ra ai/rco xr]na /ur/Xta — Ovx eOriv iv rovrw


;
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 115

TCp xrjTtip /UTjXsa, ciXX iv ra nXqaiov tov Xocpov. —


udvrog 6 av&oanog.— Avri} fj ipv^y. — "Eotcv Tj rov
vtaviov yjvxh Gocpr'i ; — Nai, tj if/v%r) avxov Gocpr)
€6tiv. — Tig tQxtrai ; —'-Egxtrai avTog 6 naxrjQ. —
Tivtg avrco 6vvsQ%ovrai ; — 01 dya&oi cpiXoi CCV
TOV 6VV£Q%OVTai. UoTt yQCCCpSI 6 TiaTTjQ nqbg
tov viov ; —'E6n£Qceg no6g avrbv yoccytt. — 77 8i-
coxti 6 .vtavictg ; — Tov xXstztt/v dicoxtt. — 'Hfitlg
tov ccvtov xXsnrr/v 8ta>xo/ntv. — Tig tov Xaywv

Xafxftdvti j Ovdttg ccvtov Xccju/3ccvh.—'H olxia
fiov sGtiv iv TUVTfl Trj xco/urj. —7f i/ur) olxia iv rfj

avTfi xco/urj ioxiv. 'Eat seal xifxtlg ttjv aiiTtjv
Gcpalgav qiTtTO/Litv.

II. Render into Greek.

The porch. — This porch. — The same porch. — The


porch itself. — In this very porch. — These houses have
the same gardens. — The golden cup. — The cup itself is
not golden. — Not only this ball is golden but also the
cup itself. — Both the chest is silver and the apples (that
— Not the ball, but a cup in
are) in it (ra iv avtri pijXa).
stead of it. — What do I see in the river ? — I see nothing
in it. — Nobody sees any thing in it except a horse and a
ball. — Not in the river itself, but in the small stream. —
The cows lie in the plain and the horses are running
into the same plain. — Whom do the bad pursue ? — They
pursue the good themselves. — The bad always shun the
good. — God himself is friendly and propitious to the
I
good. — Who has the merchant's hat 1 — have his hat.
116 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

THIRTY-FIRST LESSON.

116. This day, avTTj r\


'we, r\ rjfieQa avrq.
avrij ij avrij rjfifQa.
This same day,
t] uvit] tj/ifQa avrij.
This very day, avrij j] rjfitQa avrij.
This same beautiful day, avrij tj avrij xaXtj {jpega.
This very man, ovrng avrog, avrog ovrog.
These same things, ravra ra avra.

117. Rule. — The poir of timeat which any thing


happens is put in the Dat. Duration of time is put in
the Acc.

tavttd Tfl fjutQrt, on this day.


on the same morning,
rfl avrfl sop,
ravrtjv rtjv we", during this day.
10VTOV JOV XQOVOV, during this time.

pinto, sig, si, I remain, stay.


noaov iqovov fxivopsv ; during how much time = how
long do we stay 1
roaavrag ypegag pivovatv, they stay so many days,
paxgov xqovov /livers, you stay (during) a long time.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 117

aXXog, ll, o, another (like avrog).


ersQog, a, ov, another of two.

Another hat, aXXog mXog.


The other hat, 6 heQog niXog.
The rest of the hat, 6 aXXog aiXog.
Other hats, iXXot niXoi.
The other, i. e. the rest of the oi uXXoi ntXoi.
hats,

Thus,
Another, SXXog
(see).
The other, 6 heoog.
The rest of, (Sing.) 6 aXXog.

Others, aXXoi
The others, the rest, oi aXXoi.

118. ixeirog, o, that person, that, he (like avrog).


ll,

exeivt] oixta,
tj

that house.
olxt'a sxdvr}
rj

ty tjlitga ixelvrj, on that day.


ixeivov 70Vavrbv %qovov, during that same time,
ixeivrj a.vir[ rg iansQa, on that very evening,
ov% oviog, till' ixeirog, not this man, but that.

riff aXXog what other person? who else?


;

ovrog ezeoog, this other person,


6

oidelg aXXog, no other person, nobody else,


aXXog rig, some other person, somebody
else, any one else,
ft aXXo what else
?
;

aXXo it, something else.


118 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

ovSev alio, nothing else,


rovto to ezsgov, this other thing,
ravza ralla (ret alia) these other things.
ovSev alio roiovrov
no other such thing.
ovdev aXXo zmv towvzmv
rig aXltj filpiog what other book 1

;
szegee (MfiXos, this other book,
uvtt]
ij

ai u'/.lai pifSXot ixEwai, those other books.

119. Exercises.

Render into English.

JJov ixsivrj rft rjfiEQa; — 'Hv iv rjj Oroa r»J


r)S
nXrjaiov Tr/g TivXrjg. — Tig dXXog r\v sxsZ sv ra avra
Xqovco ;— Ovdtlg — Ovbtlg sxsZ r\v 6vv Sfiol
dXXog.
TtXrjv rov cpiXov fiov. — 'Eycj xal 6 ddsXcpog juov
juovoi sxsZ rjfitv. — Horsgov dXXog rig fisvti uvrov
6vv 6oi, rj ov ; — Ovdtlg dXXog. — Ti ygdcpovdv oi
Tt^viTCU ;
— 'EnidToXdg yqdcpovGiv. — Ti dXXo
yourpovGiv ;
— Ovdsv dXXo. —'HjusZg ovdsv yQcxcpo-

jutv nXrjv stiiOtoXcov. — -AXXr] /3i/3Xog. 'H ersoa
/3i/3Xog. — Oi>% a'vri] dXX fj st'squ. — Tivu
t) j8i/3Xog,
— Ov vrjv sv
rfj

jzrjXai
%XaZvav asjuxsi 6 e'/UTtOQog ;
■x'sfx-nsi, dXX dXXrjv.
— Ov ravrrjv fyti, dXXd rr/v
srsgav. — Oi iTtnoc ovx sv ravvaig raZg xco/xccig ti-
oiv, dXX sv ralg dXXatg. — Uosag r\fisqag jusvsrs sv
— Ov rooavrag fisvo/usv fjfiSQag
rfj

xco/ufj Tcevrij;
Offceg oi dXXoi. — Oi dXXoi sxtZvoi juaxoov %qovot-
/usvovoiv istl roil Xocpov. — 'ExsZvai at dXXcct
xci)[icci ovx ovrco xaXui tio~iv tog avrcei.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 119

Render into Greek.

This day. — On this


day. — On this same day. — On
that very day. — Another day. — During these other days.
The rest of the day. —The other days. —The rest of the
village. — What village? — This village. — In that same
village. — Into this other village. — We send into another
plain. — What other plain ? — No other. — Nothing else. —
This other village is beautiful. — This fig-tree. — What
fig-tree ? — This other fig-tree. — What other fig-tree ? —
What does the young man write ? — He writes letters to
me. —What else does he write? — Nothing else. — Who
else writes ? — Nobody else writes. — Either this finger or
the other. — Not the same tongue but another. — How
long (noaov XQorov) do you remain on this high hill ? —
We remain a long time.— We stay during so many days.

THIKTY-SECOND LESSON.

Possessive Pronouns.

120. ifios, j;, 6v, (from tftov) my, mine.


aog, aov,
" your, yours =thy, thine,
<srj, ( aov)
ti/tfoioog, a, ov, " rjiimr) our, ours.
(
"
vpeTsgog, a, or, ( vfimr) your, yours,
"
oyhegog, a, ov, ( ayeig) their, theirs (rare).
120 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

6 qii'Xog fiov.
My friend, 6 iftos qiiXog.
6 qiiXog 6 i/iog.
Not my friend, but yours, ovi 6 iftos qiiXog, aXX 6 tfttff.
ij x<6/xij rjficov, rjfxatY r\ xcofit],
Our village, ri {jfietega xtoftt], rj xeiftij tj {jfis-
rigu.
Both your village, and ours, T£ VflSTtQCt XOOfltj, XCU

Tj
jjf
rega.

Rem. — fjftwv and vfiuv differ less from rjfihcgog and v/iiiE-
WI, than fiov and aov from ifiog and oog. Yet in
cases of marked emphasis r/fihigog and ifiiitgog are
preferred.

Are these baskets ours taxi Tccvra ra xaru rjfihega


?

;
Are these our baskets eari zavra rjftezega xara
1

They are not ours, but our oii%fjfitxcga ioTiv, t'o./.a t»»
friends', qlXwv tjfiwv.
Are not your friends in the vil ovx tiaiv
iv

qlXoi
oi

xoZfijj
lage? ifimv
;

Our friends are not there, but ovx 01 WiTiQ°i qn'Xot exei tun*,
till'
oi

yours. vfihegoi.
Whose ball do you throw Ttjv Tivog aqxtTgav gmreig
?

throw ours, tip tjfUTegar ginrm.


I I I

throw the young man's, 7ijv rov veariov gimw.


throw not mine, but his, ov rtj* fftrjv ginzca, aXXa rrjv
exuvov.
OLLENDORFF. 121

121. Tovrov and ixsirov, rovrtav and ixeirmv follow


the rule given for the position of the Gen. in Less. XIX.
70, 71.

The house of this man, I tjoixia tovtov.

Not this man's house, but that


) tovrov i
oixia.
ov% tj tovrov oixia, all' rj
man's, ixeifov.
Not their cloaks, but ours, yhihai, all' ai
OVJ ai fxtivmv
tjuengai.
Not only that man's cloak, but oi (id t or all'
t) ixtivovylaTra,
this man's,
i rovxov.
Not in our chest, but in ha. oix tp tj tjutriQa xi^V> 4A£
ir ixtirov.

122. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

'O itiXog fiov ; — JJortQov opco tov ifiov nlXov,


rj tov Gov ; — Tov vivos niXov oqco
• — Over tov ijuov
OQCO, OVTt TOV TOV iflTlOQOV. TtQ OQCC
TOV TOVTOV
TtlXov; OvdtlQ OQCC
OVTS TOV TOVTOV, OVTS TOV
TOV STSQOV. TcCCOQ. 'OOv% 6 SflOQ
SJUOQ TCCCOQ.

TaojQ, ovds 6 tov nXovdov sqyuTOV. — Tivog sGvlv 6


xaXog Tadg ;— Ovts rjftSTSQog sOriv, ovts v/ists-
pop, dXXa tov largov. — ITotsqov t%sig to tov sfiito-

QOV %QV60i)V nOTTjQIOV, Tj ; OvTS TO GOV


TO S/UOV

TtOTr'jQiov e%co, ovts to sxsivov, dXXd to int Trig


6
122 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

— Elalv al xaXal xogai iv rotg


aqyvQag TQocne&is.
xrfnoig ; — Ovx iv vote r)jU£T£QOig xrjTioig
rj/xwv
slotv, dXX i) iv rolg isu ra norafia, rj iv roig rov

ifiov dSeXcpov. JJoGai fiiftXot tlolv iv xtiqi

rfj
tovtov. — Ov roGccvrai iv rrj rovrov %&iqI-> odat iv
rfj ixstvov. — IIotiqcc rov 8i8cc6xdXov tlolv. al
filftXoi avrai, rov /ua&rjTOv; — Ov rov fia&rj-
i)

tov si6iv, akkd rov BcBaGxaXov.

II. Render into Greek.

Where lies your silver — Our silver lies on the table.


?

— The silver lies not on our table, but yours. — Not on


your table, nor on the rich merchant's. — How much gold
there in our chest — Not so much in our chest as in
is

yours. —The cup of this man. — That man's cup, not


this man's. — There not so much wine in that man's
is

cup as in mine. — Who of us («« ^fimr) drinks wine —


1

Nobody drinks it. — What sort of wine does this mer


chant drink? — He drinks such as he has. — Does the
thief take the gold? — He takes it. — Whose gold does he
take —He takes either the young man's or the laborer's.
'
?

— He either takes that man's gold, or this man's. — The


thieves take neither our purple garments, nor yours. —
The morning. — On the same evening. — The noon not
is

so beautiful as the morning. — Before the morning. — In


stead of us.
OLLENDORFF. 123

THIRTY-THIRD LESSON.

123. Reflexive Pronouns.

iftavjov, of myself, (from ifiov, of me, and uvtov, self).

Sing. Plur.
G. iftavxov, fa, of myself, yu&v avxwr, of ourselves.
D. ifxavxw, to,
for myself avxoiq, aig, lo, for ourselves.
f),

r^fiiy
A. ipavrov, rp, myself, y^as avxoig, at, ourselves.

aiavTov (aavrov), of yourself.


G. atavxoii, yourself, &c. viiay avxiav, yourselves &c.
of

j)q,
of
D. otavxto, viiiy aixoig, aig,
jj,

A. oiavror, rp, vfiag aixovg, as.

iuviov (avrov), of himself.


G. iavxov, rji,
of

luvxwv (avxmv) themselves.


of

himself
D. iuvxw, iavxolg, aig (avxoig, aig).
i],

A. havxoy, ip, iavxovg, ag, a (uinovi &c.)


6,

Id1* Distinguish carefully between


aixov, him, self and, avxov (= iavxov)
of of

of of
of of

himself '(reflexive)
avxyg, her, self,
" avxijg = iaviT)g) herself,
(

aixovg = iaviovg)
"

axixovg, them, selves, themselves.


(

Thus,

ipv^i] avxov, his soul (the soul of him),


ij

avxov ipv%r], his own soul (the of-himself


t)

avzov soul).
V

opca avTor, see him.


I

boa avzov or iavxov, he sees himself.


124 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

bgm ifiaviov, I see myself,


tte savior OQa, who sees himself?
ovdeif rtjv iuvzov xpv^ijv oqa, nobody sees his own soul,
if reus rj/iSTCQais aitav 01- in our own houses.
xiaig,

I see both you and myself, opw xai as xai ifiavrov.


You have both your own cloak e%ei$ xr\v
is oravtov %\aivay,
and mine, xai rtjv epfy.
You have both your own and rtjv ts atavtov t%sig, xai rijv
his, ixetvov.
The merchant has neither his 6 gfinogog ovts rrjv avzov ejjei,
own nor mine, OVTS TljV ifttjP.

tC^ Distinguish carefully the following uses of his.

(a) The merchant has his 6 sfinogog zrtv yXaTvav fyei.


cloak,
(6) / have his cloak, iya e^to rrjr xAaiyav aitov.
(c) I have not his cloak, but oi Ttjv ixdvov %\aivav sjrw,
yours, alia ttjv arjv.
(d) He has not Ats = his own, oi Ttjv iavTOv s%si xlairav,
cloak, but his friend's, dXXa tijv iov q>fl.ov.

(a) His unemphatic and referring to the immediately pre


ceding subject, and therefore expressed only by the Art.
(6) His unemphatic, but not referring to the subject of the
preceding verb, and expressed therefore by the unemphatic avtov,
of him.
— txilrov, or tovtov.
(c) His, emphatic and contrasted,

(d) A loose and inaccurate use of his for his own eavrov.
GREEK •ENDORFF. 125

6 feVoff, 0 V, the stranger,


6 ayyeXog, ov, the messenger.
0reiVa>, eig, et,
I walk, go.
I
Padi£a>, eig, et,
Xe'ym, etg, et, <fcc. say.
speak,

Xvyw Tivi, I speak to some one.


Xf'ym ngog lira, I speak to or before some one.
ttn Xiyeig ;
to whom do you speak 1
ngog tivu Xeyetg;
Ttva odov fiatveig ; what road do you go 1
TavTqv tijv odov @udt£co, I walk this road,
ev toig dygoig ^adi^o/xev, we walk in the fields.

124. negi, about, around. A


Preposition.
negl rov, to}, tov, (Governs Gen. Dat. Acc.)
negl rov, about the, concerning the.

Xe'ym negi tovtcov, I speak concerning these


things.
negl gov Xeyo/xev, we speak about, concerning
you.
negl 7% adeXqiijg ygdepto, I write about my sister.

ctno tov,rev.
ex from the, out from the.
ev tq>, eig tov, in the, into the.
avil tov, ngo tov, instead of for the ; before the,
tnt tov, em rov, on the ; on to the.
into}, ngog tov, at or by the ; to the.
avv to}, keel tov, with the ; concerning the.
126 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Render,
Icome from the hill, out of the plain.
The ball lies in the chest, or falls into the fountain.
The messenger comes instead of the stranger.
The cows lie before the gate.
The young men sit on the roof or throw the ball
on to it.
The girl plays by the river, or near the tree.
We send these letters to the strangers.
Nobody comes with me except my brother.
We say or write these things (retina.) concerning
ourselves.

125. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

A'sya TtiQi sjuavrov. — 'O narrjQ ravra ov TitQi


fjftav Xsyti, dXXd Tttol avrov. — Ti ittqi Otavrov
Xsytcg ; — Ovdev dya&bv itsql s/uavrov Xsya. — Ov
7ttQi Gov Xsyti 6 dyytXog, dXXd 7vsqi r/jucjv. — 77-
vtg ravra litql kavrav Xeyovaiv ;— Ovrot oi £'t-voi
ravra rt xui dXXa roiavra ttsqi kavruv Xsyov-
6iv. — Upbg rlva yqacpti 6 JiarrjQ; — TFQog rbv vibv
yQacpti. — Ov nobg rbv havrov vibv yQacptt, dXXd
ngbg rbv Sjuov. — Tivt ravra Xsyti b dyytXog ; —
"H ijnoi, tj Ool Xbyti ravra. — o £svog ravra ngbg
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 127

tov dyyeXov Xtyei. —'Hfteig del rd uvrd (the


same things) jieyi tojv avrdv Xeyofiev. — Tavra
Xeyro dvri — Tivog early cevrr]
e'xeivcov. 77ftuxTrj-
gia ; — "Eon tov dyyeXov. —'O dyyeXog e%ei rr,v
/3axr//giav dvri rr'/g eavrov. — D £evog fast
e'juijv

ri)v eavrov yXaivav dvri rf\g tov dyyeXov. — 0


xaxbg eavrov (pevyec. — 01 xaxol ov fiovov rovg
dya&ovg dXXd xal eavrovg (pevyovOiv.

II. Render into Greek.

Ofmyself. — My own hat (the of-myself hat). — Not


my hat, but yours. — I have not your hat, but my own.
— Whence comes the stranger ? — He comes from his
(the)
house. — He comes from his own house. — We come not
from our house but from his. — To whom does the mes
senger speak 1 — He speaks to me. — He speaks to himself.
— These messengers speak to themselves. — We write
letters to ourselves. — Nobody writes to the stranger ex
cept me. — The stranger writes instead of me.— I speak
concerning these things. — Who else speaks concerning
the same things? — Nobody else. — The young man
writes concerning his sister. — What do the good pur
sue 1 — They pursue wisdom. — The bad not only shun
wisdom, but pursue evil. — They pursue evil instead of
good. — Evil comes before good. — Whither do you walk ?
— We walk into the fields.
128 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

THIRTY-FOURTH LESSON.

126. fts'yag, great, large. (Irreg. in the Sing.)

SING.
N. fts'yag fieyaXi] ftsya
G. ftsyaXov ftsyaXqg ftsy&Xov
D. ftsydXqi ftsydXrj peydXcp
A. fts'yav fisydXijv ftsya
V. ftsya fieydXij ftsya

DUAL

N. A.V. (tsydXca fteydXd ftsydXm


G. D. ftsydXoiv ftsydXaiv fisydXow

PLUR.
N. fttydXoi fisydXat fieydXa
G. ftsydXmv ftsydXmv ftsydXmv
D. fttydXmg /ttydXatg ftsydXoig
A. ftsydXovg ftsydXag fisydXa
V. ftsyaXm ftsydXai fteydXa

A large table, ftsydXtj tgdns^a.


Great wisdom, ftsydXt] aocpia.
Something great, ftsya ti.
I have nothing great, ovSsv syrm ftsya.
These great things, ravta rd ftsydXa.
These things are both beauti zavza xaXa it sari xai fte
ful and great. ydXa.
These evils are so great. zavza td xaxa zrjXixavia.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 129

other, of one another.


127. aXX^Xmv, of each
Dual Plur.
G. D. aXXtjXoiv,aiv, oiv, G. dXXqXcov, a>», »».
A. dXXtjXm, 8, to, D. aXXrjXoig, tut, °<S-
A. aXXqXovg, atf, &.

128. noXXaxis, many times, often, frequently.


inore, sometimes.
pidmco, ei(, I hurt, harm, injure.
tjxa>, its &c. I am come, have come.
"fly, (at the time)
= already, immediately.
ovnm, not yet.
qiaregdi, d, 6v,
vi;
visible, manifest, clear.
HrjXos, n, ov, |

ravta ovnm qaieod iazir, these things are not yet mani
fest.
6 ayyeXog jyjcw, the messenger has already
rfin
come.
noXXdxig Tjftdg avxovg (SXdn- we frequently harm ourselves.
TOfUV,
of xaxot at! dXX^Xovs [iXda- the wicked always harm each
TOV01V, other.

rt Xeyei?, co veavia; what do you say, young man ?

tig who are you, stranger


el,

co £«Ve
;

Rem. — In Greek prose w commonly employed in re


is

spectful address.
6*
130 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

129. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Msyag 'initog. — 'O ioriv. —'H/ueig


'innog fisyag
sv jutyaXop mSia eOfisv.
— Tovvo to dsvdoov fikya
rs xal vif/TjXov sGtcv. — Tig nsql tovtcov Xeyti ; —

Ov ntql tovtcov, dXXd Tttol dXXrjXav Xsyo/utv.
— 'O xaxbg tt\v
Oi xaxol del dXXr/Xovg dicoxovoiv.
havroii /3Xa7tTti.
— HoXXdxig oi xaxol
if/v^r/v
eavTOvg /SXaTtTOVGiv. — Ov
juovov dXXovg ftXdn-
tovGiv oi ddixoi, dXXd xal eavTOvg.
— Ti ^inret
6 naig ; — '0 naig evioTS ccpaiquv qinTti. — Ovx
rjSrj rjxtc 6 dyytXog ;
— Nai, j]8rj jjxsi. — Ovnco rjxec
6 rj/MTSQog ayysXog ;— TavTa ovnco cpavtoa sOtiv.
—Hots s^ovtcci oi dyytXoi; — IIqo qjuegag o-
— cO £svog tq^t-Tac nqbg fadg djua rp
Xovrai.
fifikqa.

II. Render into Greek.

We speak concerning one another. — I do not speak


concerning you, nor you concerning me. —This (man)
always speaks about (concerning) the same things (neol
tmv avtmv). — Whom do the wicked flee? — They flee
both each other and themselves. — They harm their own
souls. — The good harm neither themselves, nor others.
— Who is great ? — God alone is great. — God alone is both
great and high. — A large tree. — I see a great tree on the
hill. — The messenger is already coming. — These things
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 131

are not yet evident. — God is not manifest to men (yavt-


obg roig avQ^mnoig). — The wise are always happy. — This
teacher is sometimes wise. — The maiden frequently
writes letters to her (the) brother. — Nobody sees his own
soul. — Nobody sees God except the good (man). — God
alone sees the soul.— Is the soul immortal or not ? — The
soul is immortal.

THIRTY-FIFTH LESSON.

130. noXtg, much. Plur. many.

N. noXvg noXXr\ noXv


G. noXXov noXXrfi noXXov
D. noXXqi nolXy noXXty
A. noXvv noXXtfv noXv
V. noli noXXy noXv

DUAL.

N. A. V. noXXm noXXi TtoXXco


G. D. noXXolv noXXaiv noXXoTv

PLUR.

N. noXXoi noXXai noXXa


G. noXXcov noXXmv noXXmv
D. noXXoig noXXalg noXXoig
A. noXlovg noXXag noXXa
V. noXXoi noXXai noXX&
132 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

much time, a long time,


ftokve xqovos,
fa nollw XQoyep,
in much time, in a long time,
many persons,
noXXd, many things.
ov Toaavta — oaa not so many things — as,
ov% ovtm noXXa — oaa
noXXa xat xaXct, many beautiful things,
many high trees.
(a) nollk xal vxfjijXa devdgtt,

(a) Rem.— noXvg connected with another Adj. generally


takes
xat, and; as, many golden baskets, noXXa xalxQvoS xa-
ra. But not with aXXog, roiovtoq &c, as,

roiavta noXXa, many such things,


allot 710XX01, many others,
alia noXXa, many other things,
aXXa roiavta nolla, many other such things,
noXXoi tovttav, many of these persons,
nolla rovtav, many of these things.

ovSsig rjiimr, no one of us.


ovSev roiovrov, no such thing.
ovdiv rmv toiovttov, nothing or none of such things,
ovder rovroov, nothing or none of these
things,
noXXoi riov iuiioQCtP, many of the merchants,
r4' im* i/MOftw; who of the merchants 1

oi avv buyer, those with us.


oi vvv, those of the present time.
oi ndlai, they of old, the men of old.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 133

131. oXiyog, or, a little, little.

ll,
oXtyoi, Plur. a few, few.
oXiyog, little in quantity, opposed to noXvg, much.
little in size, fif'yag, large, great.

"
(iixQos,
"
So Plur. oXiyot, few, noXXol, many.
"
/Aixgot, small, peyaXoi, large.

piyag ftixgoi XTjnog, a large or small garden,


5

'rolls bXiyng ofoog, much or little wine,


>i

aoXXoi bXiyoi ardgtonoi-, many or few men.


oXiyog XQot>og,
little time.
a

fttxgbg XQ"v0St
bXlynv xqovov ut-'ra, he stays (during) little time.

a
bXiyag tjpuoag fiorag pirn, he stays only few days.

a
oXiyov ii, some little.
bXiyoi nvtg, some few.
ovx bXiyoi, not a few=many.
oi noXXoi, the many.
the few.
oi

bXiyoi,

132. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

mu; %QV6~6g.
— Ov ro6ovtog %Qvobg baog

apyvoog. oXiyog agyvQog. — 'O ev vij %r]Xa


— Movog
agyvqog noXvg sGtiv. — JJoXXa xai xaXcc dgyvgd
TtorrjQia. —'O ev tg> Sfia norr\qia xgvobg oXiyog
£<JTiV. IIOTtQOV w" §£VOg TloXl/V %QV60V,
6

T)

oXiyov — Movov oXiyov Wed.


—UoXXcel fjftEQcci. —
;

JJooag Tjfisgccg juevei (piXog gov — Ov noXXag


6

y/ueQccg.
—'O e'/ubg cpiXog ov roGavrag q/uegag fievsi
134 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

boag 6 roiavra noXXa Xkyti. — Ov


6og. — Oiirog

fiovov ravra, dXXd xai noXXd roiavra dXXa


XsyovGiv. — Uo6ov
xqovov yqacpti 6 %arr\Q f)[/,ejv ;
— Ov noXvv xqovov. — IT0XX0I rav dyysXav rat
roiavra Xtyovoi TttQi sfiov. — Oi xaxoi ovx oXiyoi
tioiv. — Oi dya&ol ov rooovroi sioiv boot oi xaxoi.
— 'Ev rovra ra 7tt8ia tiol TioXXai xal xaXal fj-rjXsai
xai 6vxal. — Oi oiiv fjfilv tloi noXXoi. — Oi Gvv
rovroig ov rooovroi tioiv 0001 oi Gvv ixsivoig. —
Oi ndXai av&qanoi ovx rjGav ovrco noXXoi ovds
ovrco 6o<pol dg oi vi/v.

II. Render into Greek.

The few. — Only the few are wise. — The many are
not wise. — The many are neither wise, nor good, nor
happy. — Not a few came with us. —They stay a long
time. — These (men) stay many days. — They either come
hefore morning or in the evening.— In this time they flee.
— There is a little wine in the cup. — There are a few
cups on the table. — There are not so many cups as balls.
— Many of the merchants are rich. — None of the work
men either (owe) says or (ovts) writes these things con
cerning me. — The brother writes many such things con
cerning us to his sister. — There is a little gold either on,
or in the silver chest. — Gold instead of silver. — A white
hat instead of a purple cloak. — The cows either lie be
fore the gate, or run on to the hill, or into the pasture. —
Not a few cows.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 135

THIRTY-SIXTH LESSON.

133. &c. I hear.


Ifind
axovm, e ig,

I
evgtoxm, sis,
iodiio, sis, eat.
6 agios, ov, the bread, bread, Plur. loaves,
0 ftVQOS, ov, the wheat, wheat,
b oitos, ov, corn, grain, food,
tj ymvq, rjs, the voice,
the thunder.
ij aotoanri, w, the lightning.

What do you eat 1 t( io&lsig ;


I eat bread, OLQTOV fO&im.
I send these loaves, nt'ftnco robs agxovs xovrovg.
What do you hear? %i dxoveis ;
I hear a voice, qpmri]v axovm.
Whom do we hear ? Tirof dxovofisv ;
You hear the messenger, tov ayytXov axovsze.
They hear this man, iovtov dxovovaiv.
They hear these things. dxovovai zavza.

134. Rule. — axovm usually governs the Acc. of the


sound, or thing heard, and the Gen. of the source
whence the sound proceeds ; thus,

axovm rijv ftoarrtjv, I hear the thunder.


axovm tov vsariov, I hear (from) the young man
(the source).

-
7
136 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

apyoTEQog, S, or, both,


sxaarog, or, each, each one.

ll,
dfiqioreoa ravta xaXd eoTiv, both these things are beautiful,
the merchants are both rich.
o't

epnoQoi eloiv dftqiozegoi


nXovatoi,
ixdnrij ijfif'ga,
ixdottj ijpeQa, each day.
ij

rjusQa exuaii},
tj

^to'pa, region, country,


as, the
i

y~nt, the earth,


land,
tj

•fl, earth, used only in the Sing.


is

G. pic; D. yl, A. ftp, V. fir

dvd, up, back, over. Preposition.


A

135.
ava tov, (Governs only the Acc.)

ava tov qovv, up the stream.


ava t\v fjiaqav, over= throughout the country.
ava ttjv yijv, throughout the earth, the land.

From the, ano tov.


Out of the, tov.
ix

Instead of, for, the, aVTl TOV.


Before the, 'No tov.
In the,
iv

iqj.
With thex OVV TQ).
On the, em tov.
At, by the, em t($.
On to the. em tov.
Into the, e»V TOV.
To the, rzQOi; tov.
Concerning the, negl tov.
Throughout the, ava tov.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 137

Render,
ano tys Jfopaf, T<"*' XmQ^v-

aoTQanrj drrl fjoorTijs.


tj ngb rije CXOOi, Tj It Tfl XV}-V-
xddijficu avr ry adei-tpq ini xgyrfl.
nai^ovair in) tar netgmr xai tqt^ovair in) tovs Xotpovs.
til ftrjXa efc tor Qovr nintsi.
nt(ino\iiv nobg tor oiddoxnXor.
ygdqm nQog ae nefft lovimr.
ttjv pQOrrrp dru rtjr %aQar dxovovatv.
of innot tQi^ovnir dru to nedior.

136. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Ti dxovug ; — <t>covtjv dxovco. — This rivog ;—


Tr/v tov ddthcpov. — Uortgov dxovco rr\v fioovTTjv,
i) rrjv ccGTQamjv oqoj ;
— Trjv /3qovttjv dxovug. —'H
ftoovrrj ton cpcovi) tov irtov. — 01 dva rr\v yr/v rr/v
ftoOVTTjV dxOVOVGlV. 'AVU TUVTT/V TtjV %h)QUV
ravrag rag (fcavdg dxovovCiv. — Ti tvoioxtig ; —
Evoioxa noXiiv uqtov sv rrj j(TjXa). —'O %atg tvgio-
xti ttoXvvxai dya&ov olrov iiti rig TQaTn-^rjg. —
CH nalg tvQi6xti rt xai eOiriei uqtov. — Ovroi oi
OoqDol ovrt dorov e6&iov6iv, ovrt oivov nivov6iv.
138 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

—cH/utig d/ucpdrsqoc ccqtov io&ioftev. —'OqcH noXvv



%Qv6oiiv nvqbv sv rc5 ntdla. -ExceSrog rav vscc-
vicov nokvv nvqbv sv ra xavw sxtl- — H xbqr\
dxovsi TTjv rijg /3qovrj)g (pavr\v xai rqs^st. — Hoi
rqs%ti ; — Eig rbv xrjnov. — Eig rov rivog xrjnov ;—
*H rov eavvrjg xrjnov rqs%si, rj tig rov rov e'/u-
sig
noqov. — jff dorqanrj cpavsqd s6riv. —'O dqrog sGriv
dycc&og. — Tivog dxovsrs ; —^Axovofisv rov oocpov
8c8u6xdXov. —'O vsaviag rov 8i8a6xd%ov dxovsi.
— 01 fia&ijTOU rrjv rov 8c8aoxdXov qicovrjv dxov-
ovGtv.

II. Render into Greek.

What does the boy hear ?— He hears a voice. — What


voice does he hear? — He hears his teacher's. — What else
does he hear ? — He hears nothing else except the thun
der. — Who hears the stranger? — Nobody except me
hears him. — Throughout the earth we hear the voice of
God. — What does the young man find ? — He finds hares.
— He finds and catches peacocks instead of hares. — Much
and beautiful wheat. — This wheat is not so good as mine.
— Mine is not so good as my brother's. — What do see ? I
—I see the lightning. — Nobody sees any thing except the
lightning. — The young men eat. much corn. — They both
eat bread anddrink wine. — Wine harms the mind of the
young man. — Young man, wine harms the soul.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 139

THIRTY-SEVENTH LESSON.

137. Verbs compounded with Prepositions.

I
I
anoniiuica, send away, send back.

I
tXlttftTHD, send out.
send in.
iigntpnto,
I along with.
send
I
avfintfinm,
go away,
I go out, go forth.depart.
ant'oxopcu, come,
i^tQXOftat,
I or go in, I enter.
I along with,
siaeQXOfiai, come

I go up, ascend.
awtQfpiutx, come come together.
avafialvw,

Observe, av/i-ni/xiToi for awnifrnm («w and 7teftnta),


aniqxo/tai from ano (an) and tgxo/xai.

anoneftnm as ano tys oixiag, I send you away from the


house.
ixntunco tov ayytlov ex rtjs I send forth the messenger out
of the village,
oi av&goinoi avveQ%ovrai, the men come together,
TjfUii rtp vsaria. avveQx6fie9a, we come along with the young
man.
bis olxiav datQxovTai,
t\v they enter into the house.
avafSuivm mt tov Xoyov,
I ascend (on to) the hill,
ava§alvu em tov mnov, he mounts his horse.
140 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

138. amg ; how ?


tv, well.
xaXmg, beautifully, excellently,
xaxag, badly,
Six aims, justly.
ov xaxmg, not badly = well.

nwg yQttqieig ; how do you write 1


sv ypregxo, I write well.
nmg zavra ej(a ; in what condition are these
things? (how do these
things have themselves?)
ravra sv Wu, these things are in good condi
tion.
ta Ificc ovx sv Wu, my affairs are not prosperous,
xalmg Xtysig, you speak excellently,
Pavia sv Xsyeig, you say these things well.

139. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

D tov veaviav ditons finu. — 'O diddff-


nuTT\Q
xaXog tov xaxbv veaviav ex Trjg oixiag exnsfntti.
— IIs/n7iov6i,v dyyeXov xal 6Vfine^inov6t tov Xev
xbv innoV' — Hots eg^ovTcct. ol £evot; — '-Eaihtv
eqXovtccc a7iSQ%ovT(xi.—At xogcci cw"
xal heneqag
tt) rjfisga dneo%ovTai.
— 'O dSeXopog fiov tlok()%STUt
tig TUVTrjv tt\v xaXrjv oixiav. — 2uv rivi eioeg^e-
tui ; — l£vv Tjj dBeXcpfj xal noXXalg dXXacg
ififi
xoouig. — Tig dva/3aivet inl tovtov tov 'innov ; —
'O vtavlag en avrov dvafiaivei. — Ol veaviat 6vv
Tolg 'innoig enl Tovg Xocpovg dva/3aivov6iv. — Hug
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 141

£7Tt0ToXcig yqu(pov6iv; —'Eviors xaXcjg yqacpovciv.


— Jtxaicog Xeyecg. —'O iargog tccvtcc ov Sixctiag
Xsysi. — Tec ifia xaxag $Xtu — ^* °^T0}

xccxoog w" cog ret rov ciyysXov. — Tuvxct sit w".

II. Render into Greek.

Whom do you send away 1 — I send away my son. —


The teacher sends away his scholar. —Not his own
scholar but mine. — We send this horse out of the pas
ture. — My father and mother enter into the village. —
Both I and you mount the horse. —Who else mounts the
horse ? — Nobody else. — Nobody except the young man.
— The young men depart before evening. — The horses
come together into the plain at dawn. — Early in the
morning. —A long day. — A beautiful evening. — How are
these things? — They are well (si — The maiden
writes beautifully. — The bad (man) speaks badly. — The
good (man) speaks well. — The just (man) always speaks
justly.

THIRTY-EIGHTH LESSON.

140. Greek Verbs.

Greek Verbs have three Voices, Active, Passive, and


Middle ; six Modes, Indicative, Subjunctive, Optative,
Imperative, Infinitive, and Participle ; six Tenses, Pres
142 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

ent and Imperfect, Perfect and Pluperfect, Future and


Aorist ; three Numbers, Singular, Dual, and Plural ; and
three Persons, First, Second, and Third.

Rem. — A few verbs have in the Passive a seventh sense,


viz. a Perfect Future.

141. The Imperf. Ind. Act.

Ends in with the augment prefixed.

(e)
ov

write, am writing,
II
yqdqs-to,
s-yqdqi-ov, was writing, used to write.

1
:
I

SING.

was writing, used write.


3. 2. 1.

tsyqdcpov, to
I

eyqdcpsg, you were writing, used to write.


eyqacpe(v), he, she was witing, &c.

DUAL
2. iyqdqietov, you two were writing.
writing.
3.

iyqa(phtjv, they two were

pll'r.
we were writing.
3. 2. 1.

iyqdqiofisv,
iyqdcpSTS, you were writing.
tyqacpov, they were writing.

So from any Act. Pres. in <o, commencing with a Con


sonant, form the Imperf. in e—ov as,
;

(ildnzto e-^Xanz-ov, was hurting, used to hurt.


II

tqr'x<a szqs^ov, was running, used to run.

(ia3i£tt> was walking, going, &c.


fJatVco
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 143

nutria snintov, was falling, &c,


nifinta intymov, was sending,
encu£or, was playing,
dtwxco idicoxor, was pursuing,
qievyco eyevyov, was fleeing,
duira iQQlTZZOV, was throwing.

Rem. — Observe initial q, after the augments doubled, and


when doubled, the first P has the smooth breathing,
the second the rough.

ore, (or, (W) when (Relative).


uQtt, uQrtcoi, just now.

non tXeysq; when were you speaking 1


aordog eXeyov, I was speaking just now.
eXsyov ots ifieig iygdcpsre, I was speaking when you
were writing.
%&eg ipudt^ov cv toig aygoig. I was walking yesterday in the
fields.
t!zai£ofiEr eantQag, we were playing at evening,
we were "running during the
day.

142. The Augment.

1. Syllabic Augment. — This is e prefixed unchang


ed to all past tenses of verbs beginning with a conso
nant. It is so called because it adds a syllable.
144 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Temporal Augment. —When the verb begins with


2.
a vowel, the s unites with this initial vowel, and if short,
lengthens so that

it,
a and become

s,

rj.
" v " and v.


" CO.

O " " "


at lengthening
or e.

i.
Q),

s
the a and o, and writing under, or subscribing the

i
(called subscript).
t

axovw, Imperf. rjxovov, was hearing, used to hear.

I
iadtoo, " qadiov, was eating.

In few verbs becomes


a ei, as 'den sJ^ov.
e

But long vowels (except and frequently diphthongs


«)

remain unchanged as
;

i/xoo Imperf. %xov, had come, came.


" was finding.
evQtaxod, svqiaxov,

This lengthening of the vowel increases the time or


quantity hence called the Temporal Augment.
is
it
;

Accent. — Observe, the Accent thrown as far back as


is

possible as tnTvov, tyqiiffov, iygonpezt.


;

143. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

"EyQoccpov. — ITors eyQucpt?; — "Aqti ZyQcecpov.


— -Eygacpov bra oi vtuviai
trtoci^ov.
— Tt tyQacptq
;

— 'EjiiOroXrjv i'yoctcpov. — JTooov %q6vov tygacptv


Icctqos — Tooovtov %qovov odov rj/uaig sv roig
6

;
GREEK OLLENDORFF. , 145

ayqolg sj8celvo/usv. — IIoGov xqovov sxsl iftaiveTe;


— Ovtooovtov oaovvjuetg rovgXayag eSicoxtre. —
'Ort Tj/utlg iv xolg xrjitocg r)fJ-tv, xoxt 6 naxiiq xbv
vibv nqbg xdjurjv tTttjun&v. — 'H CcpaiQa tmnrsv
xrp>

eni tt/v yfjv. —'HfJtig nccXac xavxcc xai noXXa xoiav-


xa eXtyo/utv. —-Afia Trj rifieQa ecptvyov oi xXeitxai.
— IIoTtQOv tcptvytv iq
— Ovre
sdicoxtv 6 tgydxrjg •

tcptvytv, oirtt iSicoxtv, dXX' svxai&a tfitv&v.


— 77
dxovtcg ; — OvSiv vvv dxovco. — X&sg rj %Qat]v
TTjv/jQOvrrjv ijxovov.

'H/utig ndXat xavxceg rag
cpavdg rjxovOjUtv. — 01 dycc&oi ttuXcci xrjv tov
dtov cpcovr]v rjxovov. — 'O &tbg ndXai nqbg xoi/g
dyu&ovg sXtytv. — Tig xavxrjv xr\v tpcovrjv dxovsi ;
— lHjutlg ccvrrjv dxovo/utv. — IldXccc ot xtjTtoi ovxoc
noXXd godcc xcti id sl%ov.

II. Render into Greek.

was running. — Who else was running 1 — Nobody


I
was running except me and the messenger. — I and
the stranger were running. — You and the young man
were pursuing the thief. —The thief was fleeing from the
village, when these men (over) were walking near the
river. — The thief was fleeing when we were pursuing.

The teacher was speaking when the scholar was writing.
— To whom was your mother writing these long letters?

— To my good sister. — How many sisters have you ?
I have not so many sisters as brothers. — I have not many
sisters, I have only a few. — Formerly this (man) had
7
146 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

many sisters. — Formerly these apple-trees had many


apples.— At that time (tots) we used to hear the wise
teacher. — These trees have not so many apples now as
formerly. — This teacher formerly had not (ov ndXat efys) so
many scholars as now. — Where was the girl finding
roses ? — Among the thorns of the garden. — Not among
the thorns of the garden, but among those of the pasture.
— In this same large garden.

THIRTY-NINTH LESSON.

(ogam), contr. I
them I was
144. 6oa>, see.

Imperf. smgaov,
" seeing, used to see.
Note. eaiQnr irreg. for mqmv.

itoQcor raw a, I was seeing these things.


i/tavtop iooQwr, I was seeing myself.

145. When the verb is compounded with a Prepo


sition the augment usually comes between them, and the
( last vowel of the Preposition (if it end with a vowel) is
elided, exc. niqi ; thus,

ava-§alva, Imperf. av-i-{Smvov, was ascending, used to ascend


"
cmo-QyiTiTCti, an-&QQUixov,was casting away.
"
cmo-<ptvyta, tm-itpevyov, was fleeing away, escaping,
ix-qlmco,
"
iS-efymior, I
was throwing out, or forth.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 147

rjj
On that day, exerrfl tftttQct.
airy

rjj
On the same evening. tomtfga.
During those times, roiig XQ°ruvS txutovf.
During that same morning. ixeirqv 'll' avtijv em.

(air, lay together, collect.

I
avXXs'ya) Xiym)
Imperf. avv-t'Xsyov, was collecting, used to collect.

in avXXf'yco, am still collecting books,

I
(il{}Xoi<g
ruvza oixe'it (SvXXsym, these things no longer collect,

I
ovxtsTi, no longer.

Note. — Xfyoo means originally not speak, but lay

;
hence avXXtya, lay together, collect.

Note also avX-Xsya for aw-Xsym, for euphony.

aoqta, ug, wisdom.


h

agsTtj, fro (manly excellence) virtue.


ij

&av fiasco, tie, wonder at, admire.


I

&av[td£to as, wonder at you, admire you.


I I

Oavftd^co rrjv dqstriv aov, admire your virtue.

146. Generally the Predicate omits the Art.

aoqia tativ, virtue wisdom,


is

aQSTTj
tj

aoyia agsxri saw, wisdom virtue,


is
fj

rtarlag xXsnr^g iativ, the young man a thief,


is
6

xXe'mijg sazi rsaviag, the thief a young man.


is
6

ovtog sgyaTrjg saziv, this person a laborer.


is

ovrog sanv this man the laborer, i.e. the


is

sgydiijg,
6

laborer this man.


is
148 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

147. Exercises.

Render into English.

ITov r)v i%&sg 6 rs^vlrrjg ;— "H ifiddi&v ev ra


ntSia, tj avhftaiviv iitt rov Xocpov. — Tiva odov
t/3ddt&v dyysXog ; — Tr)v slg rr)v xco/urjv s/3d8i-
6

£ev.
— 'H/usig ixaivrjv rr)v q/uioav ETtiGroXdg eygd-
(pofibv. —'O naig rag Gfpaiqag aTtSQQinrtv.
— RT xo-
Qn GvvsXtyev
tig rb xavovv qoScc xal id. —'Eyco
scoqcov raiira rd xuXd Qoda.
— 'Exelvrj Ttj avrf,
fifxtqa q/usig iv oixia Gvv vfilv e/uSvojusv. —'O
rjj

vtaviag rr)v /3axrr/Qiav dnkqqmrtv. —D sfiTioQog


ov vvv roGovrov oivov nivti ogov JtdXcu entvsv. —
'O StduGxaXog fiiftXovg ovXXsyti. — Ovxsri roGav-
rag /SifiXovg GvXXsysc b&ccg %uXai GvvsXsysv. — CH
dotrrj Gocpicc sGriv. —'H Gocpia rov SidaGxdXov
jutydXtj sGriv. — JTdXai f/Gav rj/xiv noXXoi xal
Gocpol SidaGxaXoi.—Oavjud^a) rr)v dgsrrjv rov
vtaviov. — Tig ov S-av/Lid&i rrjv rov diSaGxdXov
Gocpiav —'O &tbg Gocpog sGriv. — cO &eog juovog
;

Gocpog sGtc xal jusyag. — Ovvog sGriv vt'og /uov. —


Ovrog ifiog vibg natg iGriv.
6

II. Render into Greek.

throw away my ball. — The boy was throwing


I

away his ball. — He was not throwing away his own


ball, but mine. — We had not mine, but the merchant's.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 149

— What was the young man saying? — He was saying


nothing except this. — What were the young men pursu
ing? — Either a peacock or a squirrel. — The squirrel was
fleeing (from) the young man. — What young man was
he fleeing? — This same young man. — We were then
sending these letters to the good stranger. — We do not
now send so many letters as we formerly used to send.
— What were you admiring ? — I was admiring both the
wisdom and the virtue of the teacher. — Who were play
ing among (in) the roses ? — The maiden was either play
ing there, or at the spring. — The horse was running into
the large pasture. — The stranger had much gold. — The
horses were fleeing away (escaping). —I see myself. — I
see my own hat, not yours.

FORTIETH LESSON.

148. The Third Declension.

Nouns of this Decl. are very numerous, and of all


genders. The Gen. regularly ends in og , but a few classes
of nouns have the Attic ending tag.

Note. — Observe that any substantive.

or of the Decl.
is

ag
1

tag

in of the or Decl.
is is

ov,
2
1
!in

in (or of the Decl.


3

os are)
150 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

6 PP, the month.

SING. DUAL PLUR.

N. p>]v N. /ui;»'£ff
G. [ttjvog N.A.V. fiijre G. f^cor
D. (intt G. D. fttjvoiv D. ftt]ai(v) (for ptp/aiv)
A. fierce A. ftijfag
V. firjv V. ju^ts,'

Quantity. — The terminations Dat. Sing, and Plur. t, Acc.


Sing. «, Acc. Plur. a, are short ; as in 1 Decl. is every
where long, as vimnBg, x<^o"S-

Accent. — The accent generally stands throughout, as far


as the general rules of accentuation allow, on the
same syllable as in the Nom. But most nouns of one
syllable in Decl. 3, have in the Gen. and Dat. of all
numbers the accent on the final syllable, and a* and
otv are circumflexed : see in (irjv.

Rem. — v before a is generally dropt, as in first, fafn.


Decline like Ftp,
b o~(f^v, oqinvog, the wedge.
6 'Earn nvog, the Greek.
oi "Elltjvsg (Plur.) the Greeks.

149. rfsr ; who 7 rt ; what ?

!
SING. DUAL :. PLUR.

N. tig; Neut. N. jivsg ; tiva ;


G. ttvog ; N.A. rUs; G. t(Vom> ;
D. itvt; G. D. rivoiv ; D. n'(ii(») ;
A. jtva;
t *y v V:
r A.
. S .it- j
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 151

So also rJi-, some one, any one, with a c hinge of


Accent.

SING. DUAL PLUR.

N. tis ; Neut. t/ N. «Wf,


G. twos N. A. Tire' G. T trior
D. tirt G. D. rifof* D. Tl<n'(r)
A. Tint, u A. wo? tira

tie ; who ? always retains its accent unchanged.


tie some one, &c. is enclitic.

tis av&Qwnos J what man ?


ar&(>a>n6s rig, a certain man.
Tiros axovtis ; whom do you hear 7
axoim Tiros, I hear some one.
axovoftU ri, we hear some thing.

150. The way in which Enclitics lose their accent.

1 after Oxytones, axia tie for oxia tis


axtd (tov " axia
Gov.
axtai Tires " axiai
Tire's.
2. after Perispomena, aximr te
" ffxico*' r/.
aximr raw "
(Txieaf TircSr. >
"
aximr fiov (TXUDf /<o5.
after Paroxytones, oixia tie " oixia
3 tie.
" oixia
/tov.
i Tires
" oixiai twig
"
4. after Properisponn na, oyaZod tis crgiatpa Tiff.
"
acpvuQa (tov
aqjaioai Tires "I tlMff.
0qpa»pa poti.
152 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

5. after Proparoxytones, av&qtnnog Tig for ar&Qoonog rig.


"
ar&Qomdg Hot) av&Qtonog [tov.
"
ar&Qwnot Ttvsg av&gmnot nveg.

Observe that after Paroxytones, dissyllabic enclitics


retain their accent, as olxiui xtve's-

Rem. — If several enclitics succeed each other, they throw


their accents back on each other ; as, olxia xi -tig i<nw.
Here tt has the accent of us, and r«s that of iiriiv.

na,i'°'
{
I strike.
Imperf. eW, Iwag stHki
tjvntov, )

nvi namg ; with what do you strike?


naico, I strike with a hammer.
cyvQtt
tvntm ty Jf«£>t, I strike with my hand.
you speak with your tongue.
rjj

y/lwWfl leyeig,
I

151. Rule. — The instrument, or that with which a


thing done, put in the Dat.
is

is

Note. — Distinguish carefully between with denoting


the instrument, and with denoting accompaniment
(ovr) as,
;

avr rtVi (Qxezai with (along with) whom does


;

he come
?

eQXerat avv rip q>{Xq>, he comes with his friend,


with what does he eat?
he does not eat with his
tongue.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 153

ffjrifo), I am splitting, I split,


iajfior, was splitting, &c,
to ^vXov, or, the stick of wood.
%vXa, sticks of wood, wood.

*ajf£i its £v\a, somebody was splitting wood.


t4" Tovtay ia^iv ; who of these was splitting?

152. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

'0 MW'.
— '0 /urjv ovrog.
— Ourog 6 avrog firjv.
— IToXXol juijvtg. — Ov togovtoi fifjvtg 06eu q/ue-
qccc.
— Ovrog 6 puffy ov/ ovra /uaxpog iarcv dig
ixuvog. — Tig §vXa 6%i£ti ;—'O eqydrr)g §vXa
Oy(i^ti. — Tin 6%i£ovoi gvXa oi SQyarai ; — Tovra
roj fitydXa ocprjvi. — X&eg tco&tv oi eqydrai £vXa
t6%iL,ov.
— "Ore 6 naig rrjv Gcpalgav irvnrsv, rj/uttg
rd gvXa volg 6cpr]0iv e6%i£o/Litv. — 2<prjv rig. — Tig
Oq>rjV; — Titii 6(pti6iv dqriag §i/Xa eo^i^tre ; —
Tovroig avroig rotg arprjaiv. — Tivi naitt xbv vta-
viav 6 dv&Qconog ;— "H rfj %tiQi avrov naitt, fj tt)
— Tivtg rjoav oi EXXrjvsg ;— Oi
fiixQa 0axrr\qia.
rjoav. — Oi
'
EXXrjvtg xaXol xal oocpoi dv&oomoi
"EXXrjvtg oi>%
oi vvv uv&qgj-
ovvco Gocpol rjo~av, dig
noi —JJoXXol Toov 'EXXrjvav Gocpol r\6av. — Twig
(some) rcov 'EXXqvav Gocpoi rt xal dya&ol ijOav.
7*
154 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

II. Render into Greek.

A stick of wood. — This wood. — Who was splitting


this wood ? — Somebody was splitting this wood either
yesterday or the day before. — This (man) splits wood
with a wedge. — Not with a silver, nor a golden wedge.
— This wedge is not silver. — This month. — On that
month. — During those same months we were writing. —
Was your father writing during that month, or the other?
During the other. — During how many months do you
stay 1 — We do not stay so many months as days. — The
Greeks were wise. — The Greeks used to write many
books. — This rich merchant, when he was rich, had
many books. — He had not so many books then as he has
now (Saas rvv F.— A certain Greek was wise. — Certain
Greeks were both good and wise. — God was always pro
pitious to the good. — The just are always happy.

FOKTY-FIRST LESSON.

153. 6 aotftrjv, the shepherd.

stem, noiftsv.
'
SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. noiptjr N. noisette
G. not/ievos N.A.V. noifit'ps G. noipisvmv
D. noiften G. D. noiftevoiv D. noipiiai{*) (for notftevot)
A. noifteva A. noipivag
V. aoipqv V. noiftsreg
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 155

Rem. — The Nom. of the 3 Decl. is often a strengthened or


otherwise modified form of the stem, or root, to which
the several endings are attached. The system can gen
erally be found by throwing off os from the Gen. as,
fttjv-of, stem, pijv, noifdr-og, stem, natftir.

fCST Observe Oxytoned subst. inijf i»os



ijp, ifot,' tir, ovof
retain the long vowel in the Voc.

154. Fut. Ind. of Verbs.

This ends in am generally added to the stem or root


of the verb, as Fut. yQaipm (from ypaqp-aw) shall
yqd<f-m, I
write, tvnito, stem xvn- Fut. rvtpea from rvn-oto. ojitj°>
stem oxdS- Fut. a^'am from uxiS-aa, Sec. (See Introd.
§ 1. 5).

Observe no, (to, Fr,--- %p, as, mpneo, nifut-ato = ne'fixpea.


xff, ya, %a,= I, Xiym Xtyam = ).i%m.
in 70°, 8a, &a, the lingual is drop t; try (fro, a^ldam, ojtato.

Thus, ypaqpw, Fut I shall write,


" shall harm, hurt,
{ilartxm,
" shall come,
ijxco,
- " shall say, speak,
Isym,
" shall send,
ttiftnm tttfixpm,
" aytam, shall split, cleave,
•j^tw
(
shall admire,
shall have.
rinrto, "
rv\\)<a,
'
, shall strike.
Praia>, naiam and navijaia, {
" shall throw, cast.
Qiatm, oirpta,
"
evQioxm, evQrjam (from tigem) shall find.
156 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

The Fut. in m is inflected like the Pres. thus :

Sing. yodxp-oo, sis, si.


Dual stov, stov.
Plur. oftsv, sts, ovat{v).

to-day.
Att. rtffisQov, I
avqiov, to-morrow.
avqiov soo&er, to-morrow morning,
UVQIOV 7IQCO, 77(5001 early to-morrow morning,
avqiov senegas, to-morrow at evening.

nort rfesi 6 ayyslos ; when will the messenger


come?
avgiov %%ft, he will come to-morrow,
ov yqaypovaiv ; will they not write 1
Bt'ftTpca tov view I shall send my son.

155. did, through. A Preposition.


dia toy, tov, (Governs Gen. and Acc.)
dia tov, through the, by means of the.
Sia tov, on account of the.

Sia notaftov Toi^m, I run through a river.


ns'finia Sia tov dyyiXov, I send through, by means of
the messenger.
8ia rt, on account of what ? for what
reason 1
oi efts, on account of me, on my ac
count.
Sia ravxa, on account of these things, for
this reason,
Sin noXkd, on account of many things, for
many reasons.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 157

and tov, ix tov, from the, out from the.


dvu tov, ngb tov, instead of the, before the.
iv Tip, avv rip, in the, with the.
inl tov, im Tip, on the. at or by the.
in) tov, eit; to*, on to the, into the.
negi tov, ngba tov, concerning the, to the.
ava tov, over, throughout the.
did tov, did TOP, through the. on account of the.

Render,
ntfixpm ae ano Tys voftlji, ij tx tov ayoov.
tj

f|oj §axTTjQiav avri acfrjvog. •

6 dyyskoi tgxstai nob tov iqovov.


ij xogtj xd&rjTtu avv Tip ddeXqxp iv zy aroa.
ol vsuviai natZovoiv im Tav mt(w, dXX ovx im tq
&vga.
Ol JfVoi ovtt tie Tijv nixiav r^ovmr, ovts im tov Xbqiov.
b naT/jQ fQacpsi nqbe tov noifte'vu neQi tov viov.
dtd to nsdiov eiQt%ov ot irtnoi.
did TavTa nt'fimo ngbi at did tov dyyiXov.
Ot Innoi did tov nediov TQtyovaiv.

156. Exercises.

I. Render into English.


Hov xd&rjrai 6 noijur/v ; — Ol 7ioi/uSv£g ovroi
em tov Xocpov xu&t]vtui. — Hon dtvpo rjgovaiv ;
— ^rj/ttgov r\§ov6iv, rj avqiov. — Ue^iipa eniOro-
krjv. — Aia ri ravrrjv rijv eniOToXrjv nefiif/eig ;—
Usjuipeo avTTjv dice tvoXXcc. — Jicc rivog cevrr/v nsfA,-
yjeig ;— JlkftifJto cevrr/v Sict tov fiovov viov. — IIo-
6a £vXcc 6%i6ei 6 iqyartig;— Tooavra 6%i6ti becc
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

tgtl. IIOTSQOV §V%CC %&Sg t6%l£0V ol T£%VlTat, t)


ov ; — Ov xfrsg i?6%t£ov £vka, dXX avqiov Oj^isov-
0iv. — IToaag iniGroXdg yodipti avgiov 6 narrjg
Gov; — Ov yqdipti baug rrj/utgov yqdcpst. — Tire
tuvtoc Xigtig ; — Tccvra ra Tiotjusvi tovtco Xsgco. —
Ovroc ol Xoyoi (words) rag ipv%dg rj/uav fiXd-
ipovGiv. — Ol ddixoi dtl dXXrjXovg /3Xdtfjov6iv. —
Ol Slxaiot oiirt eavrovg ovrs dXXovg ftXdif/ovGiv.
— Ovrog 6 xaxbg rov vtccviav /SaxTrjola naiosi. —
Ol 'innoi f) nob tov nvXav xttvrai, r} did rov
ittdlou ngbg tov Xocpov tq'sxovGiv.

II. Render into Greek.

The shepherd. — This shepherd. — This good shep


herd. — These same shepherds. — We speak concerning
these shepherds. —I in the pasture. —
see the shepherd
The shepherd remains many months in the field. —
When will the shepherds come? — To-morrow. —
Through whom will they send? — Through the good
stranger. — The father will send to the physician through
his (the) son. — Not through his own son, but through
mine. — Not through the merchant's son, but the teacher's.
— What will the messenger say? — He will say nothing
good. — He will not say so many things as (roaavta oaa)
he was saying yesterday. — What shall you find ? —I shall
find my cloak ? — I shall find my cloak either before the
door, or on the table, or in the golden chest. — The mer
chant does not drink as much wine as he formerly (mi-

lai) used to drink. The man has not as much gold as
he had. ■
OLLENDORFF. 159

FORTY-SECOND LESSON.

157. 6 QtjTcoQ (from obs. gem speak), the speaker,


orator.

stem, gtjtog.

SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. gfamg N. gtjiogss
G. gqrogos N. A. V. QtjtoQe G. gtjrogav
D. gtjxogt G. D. gjjtogoiv D. ()>7TOpcT((t')
A. gqtoqa A. grjtog&i
V. g'ntog V. grjiogte

fterco, I remain, stay.

Fut. Ind. ^e»(5 shall remain (contr. from perim). Thus


inflected ;

Sing, perm pevel$ fisvsi.


Dual ptreltov furtitor.
Plur. fitrovpEV pereite pevovai(v).

Rem. — So most Liquid verbs e. verbs whose stem ends


(i.

have the Fut. not in croi but in A.


p)

in p, v, or
X,

avjov pevovpev, we shall remain here.


pittite noXXag t/pegag, you will stay many- days.

158. Many verbs have the Middle form of the Fut


instead of the Active as,
;
160 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

lrreg. flaira, go, Fut. fiqaoficu, I shall go, walk,


axovm, hear, axovaofiai, shall hear.
qiBvym, flee, (pev^opai, shall flee, shun.
Stmxm, pursue, fiia!!(o and duo^Ofuu, shall pursue.
nai£a>, play, nai^Oftai, shall play, sport,
lrreg. oqouo see, oxpoftat, shall see.
" drink, shall drink.
nivea, ntOfiai,
Xafi^aroa, take, Xtjxpo/iat, shall take, catch.
idjpfuu, come, iXsvoofiat (Poet.) shall come.

All these Futures are inflected like egxoftai.

Sing, axovaofiai, axovarj, axovasrai.


Dual axovoofis&ov, axovasa&or, axovaea&ov.
Plur. axovGofiefra axovaea&e, axovaovrat.

ara^ijo'dfiB&a im tov Xocfor, we will ascend the hill,


liia^ijoftai MU ibv vrtnov, he will mount his horse,
o xaxba ov (fev&Ttti savior, the bad man will not flee him
self.
oiix ffie Xr(ipq, you will not catch me.
oixht otvov aiofiai, I shall no longer drink wine.

shall run, irreg. from rqifm.


I
BQUfiovfiai, 1
neaol'pat, shall fall, " " ni'irtn.

Thus inflected,

Sing. dgaft-ovftai y or « sit at.


Dual ovfte&ov sia&or eio&or.
Plur. avpe&a eujOs ovvzai.

ta fitjXa ntatirai, the apples will fall.


Sgafiila&s 67« tov nnrafiov, you will run through the river.
OLLENDORFF. 161

159. ov, not, an absolute negative.


\a\, not, a conditional negative.

Questions. — 1. In questions expecting an affirmative


answer, ov is used ; as, ovx Iqxbtcu ; does he not come 1
2. In questions implying doubt and apprehension, and
indicating that a negative answer is expected, fiq is used ;
as, fitj neaeirai ; he will not fall, will he 1 he will not fall ?
Note.— This latter is often expressed in English by giving
an interrogative tone to a negative expression ; as,
" he is not come
V Otherwise, as above, " he has not
come, has he V

Examples.
ttintsi acfaifta ;
r) does the ball fall 1
oil itintu rj oqjaioa ; does not the ball fell 1

(til niniu ij oqiaioa ; the ball does not fall, does it ?


notiQa mntei rj oqaiQa, i) ov; does the ball fall, or not?

160. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

<t>&vyov6iv xXenrai; — Ov cptv^ovrai oi


ol
xXenrat; — Mr) dnooptv^ovrai (escape) oi xXtnrai
ovtoi ;—UortQOv d%o(pbv£ovTai oi xXtnrai, ij ov ;
— Ovdtlg tovtojv tojv xaxoiv ditocptvgtrai. — Tav-
tu Xtytig ;— Ov ravra Xsyti 6 qi/tcoq ; — Mr) rav
ra XagovGtv oi QjjrOQtg ;— Ov fiovov ravra, dXXd
noXXa roiavra XegovOiv. — IIoOov %qovov Xs§ov
162 GItEEK OLLENDORFF.

civ oi QTjTOQtg ovroi ;— ToGavrag XsgovGiv fjusoag


ooccg rjfiels dxovao/ut&a. — Tig rov Qt'jvoQog dxov-
Ostcci ; — Ovvog 6 Gocpbg qrjrcoQ xccXag Xsyei. —
Tavra tv —-Ort Xs£ov6iv oi qr\Toqtg, tots
qfitig dxovoo/us&ce. —Hoeovg Gxiovqovg X^iptrac 6
vsaviag ;—Ar)ifJtTcu ooovg 8ia><£sTat.
— O xXsnrt/g
cptv^trai, xal ra xccl Xrjif/o/ue&a.
fjfi&Tg 8ico£o/usv
— Ov Socc/uovvrai oi innoi did rov nor a ftov ; —
Uotsqcc nk6UTai fi fttxgd %alg fig rov qovv, rj ov ;
— Mtj rvxfjn rrjv xoqtjv Ttj ftaxryoia 6 xuxog ; —
ITotsqov rtjv /3qovtt)v dxovGtti&t, i] ov ;— 'H/ueig
rrjv ftoovrrjv dxovdojui&a, brt vjutig 'W' dorqa-
nr\v '6tpt6&t.
— Oi dSixoi dti d&Xioi tiffiv. — Mr/
ei/vovg eGrlv 6 &tog voig xccxoig; — Ov rolg xaxoig
svvovg ioriv, dXXd voig dya&olg.

II. Render into Greek.

I shall flee. — This thief will escape. — Will the


thieves escape ? — They will not escape, will they ?— On
what account (dia ft) shall you say these things ? — On
account of many things. —Whom will these unjust (men)
pursue1 — They will pursue the good stranger. — When
the stranger shall come they will pursue him. —
This boy will play. — When will he play? — The young
men will play by the fountain. — The girl will not fall
into the fountain, will she ? —Will the horses fall into
the river, or not ? — When shall we see the experienced
physician? — To-morrow. — By whom shall send to I
OLLENDORFF. 163

him ? — By this orator. — What will these orators say ? —


They will say nothing bad, but many good things (not-
Xa aya&u). — There is something in the chest. — What lies
on the table 1 — The cat lies on the table, or before the
chest. — Has not the girl apples in her basket ? — The boy
has not a thorn in his tongue, has he 1

FORTY-THIRD LESSON.

161. eifii, am, Fut. eaouai, I shall be.

Sing. eooftou iafj earai (for eoerai).


Dual iaofte&ov eaea&nv eaeodov.
Plur. ia6fit&a eaeaOs saovzai.

nov toy; where shall you be ?


avtov eooftcti, I shall be here.
weode it *(p xi/jxcp; shall you (ye) be in the gar
den?
MOfU&K exei, we shall be there.

162. tlpi, I shall go (shall come).

Ind. Pres. with Fut. signification.

Sing, tlpi el ilot(*).


Dual ijov nor,
Plur. tfuv Its "aai(v).
164 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Ind. Imperf. yw or %a, I was going (coming).


Sing, yew (or yet) yets (fjeta&a) fei.
Dual fcov (fisiTOv) fitrjv (rtsUnv).
Plur. b" (rjsiftsv) yrs (yews) Mar.

163. ilfii, shall go, 'Do, shall come, are used instead
of iXevaofiai (Fut. of bq)[0[icu).

So few is common instead of rioxofttp Imperf. of tQ%o-


pa' ; thus,

Pres. I am coming (go).


I come
come,
HQoaiqionai, to.

UTteQ^ofiai, I go away, depart.


mm, am come, have come.
Fut. Ishall come.
tJ/u, shall go (shall come).
ngoasifii, shall go to, come to, approach.
ansifu, I shall go away, shall depart.
Imperf year, or fa. I was going, coming.
I was coming up, approaching.
dnqeir, I was going away, departing.

Examples.

6 S«Vo$ fm nQoaiqn,stai, the stranger comes to me.


oi Innoi unqsoav, the horses were departing,
nozt. ami ; when shall you go away ?
avgiov aneifti, I shall go away to-morrow,
oi (pilot fiov aniaaiv, my friends will depart,
i^taaiv, they will go forth.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 165

164. 6 Xicov, the lion.

stem, Xsovr.

SING. DDAL. PLUR.

N. Ximv N. Xiovrtg
Q. Xioviog N.A.V. Xiovrs G. Xsovrtov
D. XioviX G. D. Xsovtoiv D. Xiovai(v) (for Xioviai)
A. Xiorta A. Xiovrag
V. Xiov V. ItWres

So 6 yigmv, ovrog (stem, yzqovt), the old man.


6 odovg, ovrog (stem, oSovr), the tooth.
Exc. Voc. Sing, odovg.

ddxvm, am biting.I bite,


Irnperf. idaxvov, was biting:
Fut. d^Oftai, shall bite.

6 Xvxog, ov, the wolf.


6, % aoxTog, ov, the bear.
% vXtj, Tjg, the forest.
o

o
Owyzfig,
irrjQarrig,
ov, )
ov,
^ hu ^ huntsman.
)

Siaflaivta, I cross over,


diificuvov, was crossing,
diaflriaoftai, shall cross.

dtafiaivca ibv noxajiov, I cross the river.


6 axiovQog roTg oSovai Sdxvst, the squirrel bites with his
teeth.
166 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Et5= Observe, the vowel of the Prep, which is dropt before


a vowel, reappears before a consonant, as tm-fimbm,
d^i-fiaivov, diu (3y<j0(tai.

Rem. —* and vz rarely stand before a, and where rt is


dropt, the preceding vowel if short is* lengthened, a, t,
v into a, J, v, t into ti, and o into ov, as,

noifitvai noi/ieoi(v).
bdoviai 6dovot(v).
ndvtai naai(v).

165. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Ei/ui iv too xrjna. — Avqu>v y/utfg djuportooi


iv ra ultra xr]na ioo/ut&a. — Kal iya xal ov rr/-
fitqov irii ralg -frvqaig ioout&a. —-ExaOrog tcov
Xtovrav iv Tfj vXr\ s'orai. — Oi ■&T]Qtvral tov Xsov-
ta diagovrai. — Ovroc oi xhrjoswal noXXdg fj/usQag
xal Xvxovg xal dqxrovg dtcogovrut. — Mij dnocptv-
£ovrcei oi Xsovreg ;—JJ6rtqa <ptv£ovTai oi Xvxoi
toy
■&r)QtVTr)v Tj ov ;—'0 noifirjv Suoxsi tov Xvxov.
— Oi xaxol del dtcoxovoiv dXXrjkovg, xal Suogov
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 167

rai. — Oi oSovreg rav Xtovrtav. — 0v% oi roov Xtov-


Ttov oSovrtg, dXX oi rov ysoovrog. — IIoGovg 686v-
rceg w" 6 ysqcov ; — Ov vvv rooourovg t%tt, boovg
TtdXai — Oi noifisvtg an&pxovrcci. — Hoi
tl%tv.
eioiv 6 7toifir\v ; — Oi noifisvtg r) tig 'W' vXijv
dniaGiv, T] irii xbv Xo<pov. —'O ysgav ccqti tig rrjv
olxiav tlor\ti (was entering). — 'H/utig xj][itqov

ci-rtifitv. -O OxiovQog dcixvtc roig odoi/Oiv.
— Mrj
SrjSarac rrjv xootjv roig 6Bov6iv 6 GxiovQog ;

II. Render into Greek.

An old man. —This old man. — This same old man. —


This old man has teeth. — These bears and lions have
large teeth. — The wolf has his (the) teeth large and white.
—The hunter pursues both the wolf and the lion. — The
bears flee the hunter. — The hunter was just now entering
into the wood. — The boy will catch this squirrel. — The
squirrel will not bite, will he ? — The squirrel will bite
the tail of the horse. — Not the horse's tail, but the cat's.
— I shall go away. — I shall come before evening. — Our
friends were going away at dawn. — They will depart
early in the morning. — Who is coming to me?— Nobody
but this old man. — Has not the old man a staff? — He
has neither a staff nor a cloak. — This is a good old man.
— God will be always gracious to the good.
168 • GREEK OLLENDORFF.

FORTY-FOURTH LESSON.

166. The First Aorist.

Form this tense from the Fut. by changing to into a,


and prefixing the Aug. thus ;

yqacfto, yquy-w, 1 Aor. t-ygatp-u, J wrote.


Tlifllfl-W, 'i.ntfiifi-a, 1 sent.
I spoke, said.
TZtflTtW,
« e-AfJ-a,
Xilta,
I threw, cast.
Xiyta,
u
(JtJIIW, iQyttft-u,
I struck.
yjlijjto,
nalw, ii enaiaa,
naloio,
ii it it
xvirtta, tvipa, tTvifia,
pXanTin, pXaifiu,
ii
tpXaipa, I hurt, harmed.
uxova, ctxovaofiai,
ii
7/xowa, I heard.
&avfia£ta ■d-av/iaaw,
u
i&avfiaaa, I wondered.
(livw, fitrw,
u I remained, stayed.
Rem.— The 1 Aor. in Liquid verbs change s of the Fut.
into h, as utv& t/iciya.

167. 6 ytixtov (stem, ysuov), the neighbor.

SING. DCAL. PLUR.

N. ytirmv N. yetrorse
Q. yeizovot; N. A. V. yehove G. yeitovMP
D. yshon G. D. yenovoiv D. yuroai{v)
A. ytirova A. ytixorai
V. yf.nov V. yeiroveg

So %it6v, %wvos, the snow.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 169

Exc. Voc. Sing. %tm>. So most oxytones in dv, yi>, fa,


&c. (153.)
ovrog idri yritmv fiov, this man is my neighbor.
I am a neighbor to the country.

168. xeifictt, I lie, am lying.

Ind. Pres.
Bing. xsiftai, xeiaai, xeirat.
Dual xei'/ie&ov, xeia&ov, xeio&ov.
Plur. xei/xs&a, xeio&e, xuvxai.
Imperf. ixei'nijv, was lying.
Bing. ixelfitjr, ixeiao, extiro. •

Dual ixuftt&ov, exsta&ov, ixsia&nv.


Plur. ixei'fisOa, extio&e, txeirro.
Fut. xei'oopat, xetori, &c. shall lie.

So, xd&npai, vaai, 'mu, &c. I am sitting.


Imperf. ixa&rjutjr, too, nto, &C. I sitting.
was
Fut. xaffqaopat, qan, qasrat, &c. I shall sit.

169. The Imperf.


and Aor. both denote past time ;
therefore both have the Augment. But the Imperf. ex
presses continued and relative action ; the Aor. momen
tary and absolute ; thus,
Imperf. Aor.
iygaq>ov, I was writing, I wrote.
enuiov,
ixvmoy,
I was striking, inaioa,
tivifia,
1 struck.

I was sending,
1

eitprtov, tjiifiifja, I sent,


I was splitting, I split.
aniq^imov, I was throwing away, I threw away.
8
170 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

t, tonog, ov, the place.

me xaXog eottv ovrog 6 zonog ! how beautiful is this place !


cog efintiQog 6 iazqog ! how skilful the physician !
co JeVs, co? aocpbg el! O stranger, how wise you are !

to? paxuQioi. oi uya&ol! how happy the good !

170. The Copulative etpl, am, is often omitted in


general propositions, interrogations, exclamations, and
in some particular words ; as dtjXov for 8ijlov ianv, it is evi
dent; thus,
oi aya&ol paxaqioi, the good are happy.
the soul immortal.

is
t) %lny/}j a&dvazog,
zi zovzo ; what this?
is
tog iXemg 6 &e6g! how gracious God

is

!
drikov oti evident that you are wise.
sJ,

is
it

aocpog

that, ozi, mg.

Srjlof ozi ravra ovzmg fyst, evident that this so.


is
is
it

Xiyovaiv ozi $l§lovg avXkiyeig, they say that you are collect
ing books.
el,

axovm cos ooybg hear that you are wise.


I

171; Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

"Eyoccifjcc incGroXrjv. —Upog viva ruvrag rag


int6roXag tyquxfjug —-Eyqaif/a avrocg nqbg tqv
;

i/uov dyctObv cpiXov. — ITortqov ETitfiipag rr\v f.mo-


roXrpt, ov — '-'EnSjUif/cc avrrjv Scot rov dyysXov.
f)

;
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 171

— Ovx e%&eg eTisftifja ccvrrjv, dXX augiov nsfiipco.


— -Ore f\fitlg eyocupojiev, ai xoqccc stti rcov ntrqcov
rovrcov extefrr/vro. —*Ev rivt rona eorlv 6 ytircov
juov ; — Oi ytirovtg rjjucov sv rot/ra ccvrco rep roncp
xdtrrjvrai. — Ovxeu iv rovra ra romp, dXX' iv
ixtivco. — 'O trtQog rOTiog ov% ovrco fii-yccg edrlv cog

ixtivog. — X&sg rrjv finovrrjv fjxovOctfitv.


' — Avqcov
d6rga7tr)v — AijXov ore Gv /3govrr)v
oif/o/ut&ce.
dxovtcg. —'O ysQeov dni-QQiipt rt'jv rt %Xaivctv xcii
rrjv (3axrr}Qiav. — '£2g xaXoi, cog /utydXoi ovroi oi
xfjTtoc! —D ddixog trvtps (is rft /3cexrr]oia. — 01
igydrai gvXce ocprjalv to^ioav. — "JT %icov. — Atvxi]

%icov.
—-H Xicov Xtvxr] ionv. —W" %icov xslrai s'tii
rrjg yes. —'H %icov tmnrtv dvd rr)v %cooav.
—M
/?dtc trQt%ov did rov %iovog, r) iv rfj jgiovt txscv-
ro. — ArjXov cog juaxdgwt oi dyaOoi.

II. Render into Greek.

This place. — This same place. —These very places.


—Not into these places, but into those.— What other
place ? — This other place. — Those other places. — What
other places 1 — None of these places is so beautiful as
that. — This place lies by (im the river.— I wrote a
letter. — The boy sent a letter to his sister by this hunter.
— They say that the hunter pursued (iSico^t) the lion. —
They say that the Greeks were wise and beautiful. —
The boy threw away his cup. — The young men sent
these letters to each other. — They sent these letters in
172 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

stead of those. — They sent their own (tits iavzmv) instead


of ours. — Who lies in the snow 1 — This old man was
either lying in the porch, or sitting before the door. — The
orator said these things--- Who heard the orator ? — They
say that this is a great orator. — What is this 1 — Wisdom
is beautiful.

FOETY-FIFTH LESSON.

172. The Second Aorist.

Some (chiefly irregular) verbs, have what is called a


second Aorist instead of the First. Its meaning is pre
cisely the same as that of the First. It ends in ov and
is inflected like the Imperf.

C zgfjfto Fut. dgauov/iai 2 Aor. eSgtiuov, I ran.


neoovfuu
" sneaov, Ifell.
XtjlpOflttl
" llSpov, I took, caught.
(eltvaoftai)
" tjl&ov, I came.
cpev$dfi(ti itfvyov, Ifled,
eqtayov, late.
" Smov, I drank.
" idaxov, I bit.
" elSov, I saw.
"
"Kev, I found.
?xo), Fut. jjfoa, Imperf. qxov, with her. meaning came.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 173

Rem. — The 2 Aor. belongs chiefly to irregular verbs and


is formed often from obsolete stems or roots ; as, idga-
ftov (and dga/iovfiat) from 6i>iuo>, dgaftw, ika/iov from
Xafiw, rfl&ov (for r)Xv&oi>) and iXivoopat from iktv&w.

Inflection.
Sing, rtk&ov til9s$ riX9t[i).
Dual fjXdtzov, tjX&eTijr.
Plur. rjk&ofiev TjX&STt qX&ov.

173. Interrogative Sentences.


1. Questions of simple doubt and uncertainty are
often asked by the mere tone of the voice ; as, ygdcpue ;
do you write ? rjX&ov J did they come ?
2. Such questions are often introduced by aga, so
then, so, to indicate that the question grows out of some
thing preceding, or out of the attending circumstances ;

sneasv ; did he fall ?


aga measr ; so did he fall?

Note. — Strictly age (from age so then) has reference


to something preceding, like our so, so then ; but it often
loses its primitive force and becomes a simple interroga
tive, or serves to heighten the expression of doubt or sur
prise.
•tavta lime ; do you say this?
aga tavta Xtyeig ; (so) do you say this ?

Thus it can be used before ovx.

aga a&Xioi tlfU ; am I miserable ?


ag ovx adXios ei/u; (so) am I not miserable?
174 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Examples of Questions.

did you come


rjk&tg ;

1
^
aga («p) i)X&eg ; (bo) did you come

1
oix rjX&sg ; did you not come

1
you did not come, did you
fiil

1
r/X&eg
;

noTSoov ov did you come or not

1
%X&eg,
;
q

174. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

vtaviag — ~Aqa tnaiok of xaxbg


"Ervyje Ot

6
6

ra £vXa — Oiix trvipt rbv jua&r]Tr]v didccOxcc-


6
;

log — Ovx a&Xtoi tloiv dti oi xaxoi — Mr) «jf£-


;
;

otv tig rbv norufibv naig — IIotsqcc itqoOSQXOv-


6

rai rjfiiv oi £svot, dntq^ovrai — Tip ecpccye


i'

TOiirov rbv ccqtov — Oi/roc xcd rbv ccqtov ecpcc-


;

you xal rbv olvov tniov.


— ElSov rbv Xsovtcc brt
tSga/utv tig rip, vXr/v. — 'O nulg rbv Oxiovoov eXcc-
fitv. — Xvxog tdccxt rbv noi/utvcc roig odovoiv.
0

II. Render into Greek.

When found the hat, took it. — saw the lightning.


I

— Who else saw it? — Nobody but me either saw the


lightning or heard the thunder. — Did the horse fall —
?

(So) did the thieves come into the house — Who took the
?
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 175

thieves? — Did the thieves escape (aneyvyor) or not? —


Only one thief escaped. — How many golden cups did
you see in the basket ? — Not so many as I see now. — I
did not see so many as I shall see to-morrow.

FOKTY-SIXTH LESSON.

175. 6 rnth; (stem mud) the boy.


tj ndig, the girl.
SING DUAL. PLUR.

N. 71(Ms" N. nalSti
G. N. A. V. natSe G. nai8<ov
D. nui&t G. D. naiSoiv D. fiatoi(v)
A. nuiSa A. nalSai
V. 77 at V. nattieg

ICf3 Observe irregular accent on Gen. Plur. and Gen. and


Dat. Dual. See Lesson XL. (148).

zb naidtnr, od, the child (diminutive from nais).


to 9rjqiov, ov, the wild beast.

I
176. {Salvco,
2 Aor. f^tjv, went.I
go, walk.
Fr,

'Or, inflected like was.


Sing. i§tp eBtjg l^tj.
Dual epTjTOv f^tjttiv.
Plur. ifStjiten e^tjts efSijoav.
176 OLLENDORFF.

I went up.
I
avt^tjv,
dit'Pqv, crossed over.

tj w,
&dXuaaa, )
the sea.
Att. Qalatta, w, )
n hp*y, is, the lake (marshy lake).
ll ytcfVQa., as, the bridge.
naXXv, back, back again, again,
because, that.

on dya&os
si,

&aviid£m ae admire you because you are


I

good.
tavta Xi'yco on dcxuid ianv, say these things because they
I

are just.
Xr'yto on ravta Sixaid ianv, say that these things are just.
I I

dvtftrjr ini ibv Innov, mounted my horse,


dnfiijaav TOT nota\u>v, 'W' ye- they crossed the river, the
qivgav. bridge.

177. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

'O nalg. — Ovrog nulg. —'H nalg sxtivrj. — 01


6

naiStg nai^ovotv.- —'Hjutig nai^ofj-tv 6vv votg nai-


6iv. — At xccXal naldtg nai^ov6tv iitt Tfj xorjvrj. —
Jia ti (pivytL 7Toijur/v —-O noifir,v cptvyti on
6

tov Xvxov ood. — 01 Ttoi/uivtg tcpvyov oil tov Xu-


xov tldov. — -On ra ttrjoia iikthtv, Tort ecptvyov
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 177

(went to fleeing) oi naiSsg. — Ovx extivoi /uovot,


dXXd xcd fjfJ.ttg icpvyofisv. — Oi xaxol cptvyovGi
xctl (even) brt ovdtlg Siaxti. —'0 §tvog rijv &d-
XaOOav Sdfir]. — Ov tt/v Xifxvryv diaftqaovTcet oi
&i)QtVTai, dXXd tt)v ytcpvoav. — OI ■&T/Qtvral rbv
itorafibv 8t£/3r/6uv on rd 3-tjqIcc tlSov. — '0 kutjiq
fiov dnrik&t (went away) %&es, xal 6t]^itQov nd-
Xiv — Tavra rd ncctdia xaXd ionv. — 'O
dya&bg nocfirjv ov cpsvgsroci, ore rbv Xvxov oxps-
rai.

II. Render into Greek.

I came.— Who came ? — The messenger came. —


What did the messenger say? — The messenger says
that the river is both long and crooked. — When the
young man heard this, he mounted his (the) horse. —
Our friends both went away and came back. — When I
shall hear the thunder again I shall see the lightning. —
The children fled because they saw the lightning. — The
boys. — The girls. — Those good little girls. — The good
little girl is happy. — The bad boy is not so happy as the
good (one). — I saw many happy boys in the garden. —
This boy caught a peacock. — What else did he catch 1
— He caught nothing else except a fly. — The beautiful
little girls have beautiful roses in their (rotg) baskets. —
We crossed the sea and the lake. — They will cross the
bridge.
*8
178 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

FOKTY-SEVENTH LESSON.

178. Numerals.

slg, one.

Sing. N. slg fJia ev


G. ivog fit as svog
D. hi fiia in
Acttva w lw
plow
<F
ev

So, ovSug, no one, nobody, none.

Sing. Plur.
N. ovSeig ovdsftia, ovde'v, ovdeveg
G. о1бегод о1берипд о&бегод ovdivmv
D. ovdsfl ovdefua ovdsvi ovdeoi(v)
A. ovdeva ovSeiuav ovdev ovSerag

So also fxriStlg, none.

179. dvo, two. tgelg, three.


N. dvo N. тра? Neut. rgta
G. dvotv (6vsiv) G. TQidiv
D. SvoTv (dval(v) D. трГ<г1(с)
.' A. 6vo A. tgsig rgtix

теоаадед (Att. rertagsg), four.


N. reaaagtg Neut. rsoaaoa
G. тглгтлрм*'
D. Tt<T<jap(T/(»)
A. riaaagag rianaga
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 179

180. The remaining numerals under two hundred


are indeclinable.

nevis Jive, ivfaxa eleven.


12; six, ScoSsxa twelve.
hnxi seven, zgiaxaiSexa thirteen.
oxrci eight, uxoai(y) twenty.
irvea nine, TQiiixona thirty.
de'xa ten, exajor, a hundred.

sis av&Q<nnog, one man.


fii'a yXmrra, one tongue.
i*

qooov, one rose.


one thing.
sis tovtmv one of these (men).
sr rovtmv, one of these things.
ov8e}g ififtoQOf, no merchant.

ovde/xiav olxiav op<5, see no house.


I

oidsis war avr ifinl, none of those with me.


ovde'res slot tovroar, there are none of these.
ovde sis, not even one, not a single

181. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

Elg — Mia — "Ev xavovv. — CH xoqti


%avg. xoqt].
e%eiSvo xavd ev rj? XSIQ*' — Ho6ccg yXaoeag w"
veaviag — Jvo yXa66ag %Xtc- —
o

ovtoq 6oq>og
6

;
180 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

— 01 av&Qanoi
yitjcop fiovqv fuuv yXa66av
yXa>66ctv seat daxrvXovg e%ov6tv. —
fiiav dexce

OvSslg, nXrjv tovtov rov nacSbg, Svo yXuaaag



Mo. — Tgtig norccfioi tioiv iv ravrij rij gaga.
01 news -&r\Qtvrai ravrrjv rrjv ftiuv ykyvQav <$i£-
flqoccv. — Hooag fjfisgctg e/utivtv ivrav&u 6 gevog ;

-E/utivs Tb66aqag rj news hide. — Ac itceiStg

k*X0i/6i TQifixaifttxa firjXec iv rotg xavotg. — Ovdtlg


voir qt]t6q<dv ravTcc eXt£tv — OvSeftiav jurjXsav
oqw iv ra xr\na rovva. — Ovde filccv 6qg>.

II. Render into Greek.

One apple or two roses. — Either three men or four


horses. — There are five or six apple-trees or fig-trees in
this one pasture. — One shepherd pursues many wolves.
— Many wild beasts flee one hunter. — How long (noaov
Iqotov) do our friends stay? — They stay nine or ten
months. — This boy has ten fingers. — This field has a
I
hundred trees. — In the thunder hear a hundred voices.
— I see only four horses on that hill. — The three messen
gers crossed two great seas, and came into this beautiful
country. — How beautiful is this country ! — There is only
one God.— There is no God but one. — God is propitious
to none (oi'fcW) except the good. — Not a single man will
say these things.
FORTY-EIGHTH LESSON.

182. 6 Art the raven.

..... sqra. - DUAL PLUR.

N. xopot| N. xogaxeg
G. xoprexoi; N. A. V. xo'p«xe G. xoQuxmv
D. xogaxT Q. D. xogaxoiv D. xdptfjr(»)
A. xdpaxa A. xogaxag
V. xop«| V. xogaxtg

So, 6 xo'/Uz£, axoff, the flatterer.

b (dff, ot>, poison, poison.


i\ xngSta, the heart,
ij nnyij, ^ the fountain, source.
r\ foo/), the We, Zi/e.
ijff,

(to) oradYor, ov, a stadium


= (an eighth of a
Roman mile).
_.. ( aTaSia, Neut.
Plur. <
( ardSioi, Mass.

Pres. nogsvopiaa, I go, journey, travel.


Imperf. inogevofitjv, I was going, journeying, &c.
Fut. nogevOrjaofiai, I shall go. &c.
1 Aor. inogsv&ijv, I went, journeyed.
w, &c. like
>

■>
inogev&rjv, %R.
i],


182 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

183. afttrgo) [ano, gjfoo), I am distant.


ansi%ov (Imperf.), Twos distant.

itoatjv odor noQsvovzai ; how great a distance do they


j
travel 1
inogsv&ijaav [taxgav odov, they went a long way.
inogevdtjv dtxa azdSia, I travelled ten stadia.
nooovg aradlovg answer tj how many stadia is the village
xtofitj tov noTUfioii ; distant from the river?
anu%ov u/.Xi^.mv oxroa (ttadi- they were eight stadia distant
ovg, from each other.
aaefyov uV.ij/.cov oh noXv, they were not far distant from
each other.
anijovoi, noXXmv fjfieocov odor, they are distant many days'
journey.

Mar. — Continued space, like continued time, is put in the


Acc.

184. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Ovrog 6 xoQtxg. —'Extivoi oi ccvtoI xoqaxsg. —


Ovroi ol avrol. — 'Oqco tqhiq xoocexccg iv
xoQccxsg

rfi vXrj.
— Tsaoaosg rj nsvrt xoqaxsg em tcov 8ev-
Man, r&v iyyvg tov norafiov ixd&rjVTO. —'0 xo-
la w" lov iv — Ov juovov iv rjj
rfj

yXa>66rj.

yXa66r\ tov xoXaxog s6tiv log, ciXXa xccl iv rfj


ipv%r\.
— xaQditc tov xoXaxog %oXvv ever love. —
rig £arjg. —'Ev iorl
rfj

lH ccotTr) iOTc nr\yr) Gocpla


— cff oocpla xccl ccQirrj gay Trjg if/v%qg el6uv.
rj


^com).

w" lov iv xccgdla. — *H rot)


rfj

~—Ovdtlg ciyu&bg
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 183

6og)OV xagSicc ovdsv w" xaxov.-—Oi "EXXtjvss


noXXa GtgcSmx exsivrjv rrjv y/uegccv snoQSv&Tfiav.
—Hooovg (Sradiovg (xtcs^ovGiv at xafuti rijs &a-
Xa66rjs; —"Oo~ov (as much as, about) sxarov 6ra-
§iovg. — Oi Xorpoi tjftav dntl^ov ov noXXejv rjfit-
qcjv 686v.

II. Render into Greek.

Virtue and wisdom. — Virtue is the source of wisdom.


— Virtue alone is wisdom. — Virtue is in the heart of the
wise. — A raven. — Two ravens are sitting on that tree. —
I saw three ravens yesterday. — Who is a flatterer 7— My
friend is not a flatterer. — No flatterer shall be a friend of
mine. — The flatterer has poison both on his tongue and
in his heart. — How many teeth has the old man ? — He
has only four teeth. — How many days' journey is that
i
country distant from us — six days' journey. — The two
villages are ten stadia distant from the sea.' — The two
merchants were twenty stadia distant from each other. —
When the Greeks crossed the river, they were about
(oaov or at) twelve stadia distant from the bridge.

FOKTY-NINTH LESSON.

185. Contract Verbs.

Verbs in am, em, 6m, contract the Pres. and Imperf. in


all the Modes.
184 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Pres. Ind. Imperf.

SING.
1. c / v < t
OQUOO ogm ecogaor sa>ga>v
2. bgdstg ogag soigusg smgag
3. bgdsi bga saigas saiga

DUAL

2. bgdstov bgdjov smgasrov sasgator


3. bgdstov ogarov smgahijv sojgdrtjv

PLDR.
1. bgdousv bgmue* saigaofisv swgaiftsv
2. ogasre ogats saigders smgdte
3. bgdovat(v) bgmai(v) idgaov smgcov

Rem. — Observe the irregular augment


idgaov for agaov.
(see Lesson XXXV.)

So, I laugh.
iy fur; I was laughing, used to
yeXam, ytXm,
Imperf. iys'Xaov
Flit. ysXdaofiai, I shall laugh. laugh.
I Aor. iyt'X&ad, I laughed.
sm rovtq) tyiXaaav,
they laughed at this.
im mm iyeXdts; at what (or
whom) were you
laughing ?
ysXmaiv sri Fftot, they are laughing at me.

186. ngoorog, ov, first,


ij,

devrtgot,; a, ov, second,


rgitog, or, third,
q,

rstagrog, ov, fourth.


ij,
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 185

m'ftirroe, q, or, fifth,


euros, 9i w, sixth.
SexttTog, n> or, tenth.

first (before any one else.)


ngmtov, first (before any thing else),
to ngmtor, at the first.
figmtov Xtyeis, you speak first (before doing
any thing else),
nomrog Xe'ysig, you speak first (you are the
first to speak),
to ngtojov ravta eXs^ev, at the first he said these things,
rjj

TTQwrrj tjfu-'gii, on the first day.


Tfl dtvTtQit sen, on the second morning,
i(p dexdrcp itqvi, on the tenth month.

187. the hand.


rj

SING. DUAL. PLnB.

N. %eiq N. xfifcs
G. jjtiyo'ff N. A.V. J'ffp*' G ;jnpa5»
D. x«(fi G. D. xiiQoiv D. xtQ<Ji{v)
A. A. jfffpdk'
V. Z«o V. gctjpe;

rm /ftps (not rii pTpf) the two hands.


TOivxeiQOiv( rarely Titirxeigniv), of the two hands.
eig rag ^ftpittf eXajte (iaxrijgiug, he took staves into his hands.
he struck me with his hand.
i\

hvxfje pe Xs'Hh
186 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

188. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

oquts ; —Koqaxag dqcojUiv. — Ov tooovtovq


Ti
xoqaxag oqafitv oGovg xoXaxag. — Oi noifj-kvtg
cpsvyovGiv ore rbv Xvxov ogaoiv. —-Ors oi aqxroi
xcci oi Xeovvtg rovg xhrjQtvrccg slSov, tots icpvyov.
— HccXcci noXXdg /usXirrccg (bees) sv rovroig rolg
xt]iioig ecooajutv. — Tccvrcc roc &r/Qia ecjQav syto
ore 6v uG^Xdsg. — Ti e'Xa/3tv tig rrjv %£iQcc 6 sgyce-
rrjg ; —-2f toy 6(pf]va, rj rrjv G(fvqdv fiov. — Ov rrjv
Sfirjv Gcpvgav tig rrjv %£iQcc eXaftsv, ccXXcc rrjv orjv,
Tj TTjV TOV S/UTIOQOV. \ff 7IQCOT1] fj/USQCC. UorS rj§-
ovoiv oi cpiXoi rjfuojv ; — "H
rfj

devrSqcc rrj rqirrj


i}
— Oi ayytXoc ccniaGi ra dtxccra tUTjvi. —
e6%8Qa.
IToaag ^tiqccg i/ti av&qconog — Jvo %iiqccg e%te
6

seal —
fiiav yXa66ccv. 'Etu rivi ytX&g — 'Eiti tovtco

ysXco. — Hjuiig eni rovroig ysXeo/usv. — Oi vsccvicci


X&sg ts iyeXccGav, xcci ccvqcov ndXiv ysXccGovvcci.
— qrjTCOQ ngarog xai /uovog Xsyti.
O

II. Render into Greek.


We laugh. — We do not laugh. — These (men) always
laugh. — What are they laughing at? — At nothing (in
oiidevi).
— At nothing good. — The good (man) laughs at
nothing bad. — was laughing when was seeing the
I

squirrel. — laughed when this boy took the squirrel into


I

his hands. — The squirrel did not bite the boy, did he? —
OLLENDORFF. 187

I shall laugh again to-morrow. — I always laugh when I


see these two squirrels. — When I heard the thunder I
ran into the house. — The first man. — Who was the first
man? — My friend came on the second morning. — I saw
the lion on the third day. — The little girl took into her
— One wolf, two bears. —The
(the) hands the fourth book.
lions. — I saw not so many lions as bears. — We crossed
the sixth bridge on the tenth day. — The first day instead
of the second.

FIFTIETH LESSON.

189. Contract Verbs in dm.

qtldm qilm, I love.

Pres. Imperf.

SING.
1. qtldm qtla iqtleov iqtlovv
2. qtldstg quiets iqllaes iqtletg
3. qildet qtlei iqtlee iqtlst

DUAL.

2. qtldsrov qilsiiov iqiltijov


eqiile'srov
3. qtiliaiov qiilehov iqulehijv iqiliiri]v

PLUR.
1. qileo/Mv qiilovftsr eqtlto/isv iq>tlov/*ev
2. qilg'sts qiltite iqtlhze iqileiis
3. qnleovat(v) qnlov<ji(v) iqitleov iqtlovv
188 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

190. (fa, flow, and other dissyllabic verbs in «'<js only


contract ss into si ; thus,

Pres.

Sing. QSO) geig QSl


Dual QfXtOV QUTOV
Plur. QSOflEV QSltS QSOVO~l(v)

Imperf.
Sing. SQQSOV SQQCig sq'qei
Dual SQ'QSlTljV
Plur. SQQtlTS

I shall flow.
CQQEOV

Fut. Qvr'jaoftai (Qsvaoftai)

tiva q>iXeii ; whom do you love 1


tovg dya&ovg qiiXm, I love the good.
01 aoqiav yiXovaiv,
aoqioi trjV the wise love wisdom.
6 notafioi Qii dia zov nsdtov, the river runs ( = flows)
through the plain,
6 innog TQt'%si diet tije odov, the horse runs through the
road.

191. nmXeco, nmXm, II was


sell.

I shall
Imperf. snaXsor, inmXovv, selling, used to sell.
Fut. aaXqam, sell.
1 Aor. inmXtjoa, Isold.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 189

to agyv(Sov, ov, silver, money (small or coined


silver).
tj rifiJi, IN, the price (worth,
valuation).
noaov rr)v oixiav TrmXstg ; for how much do you sell your
house 1
tooovtov inuXtjoa, I sold it for so much.
(itfdliig rifijjg maikqtm avrqp, I shall sell it for a great price.

Rule. — The price of a thing is put in the Gen.

6 novg, the foot.


SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. novg N. noSeg
G. noSog N.A.V. n68s Q. nodmv
D. no8( G. D. noSoiv D. noai(v)
A. noSa A. nodiig
V. novg V. noSeg

6, r) analog, ov, the colt,


o, ?] allovQog, ov, the cat.

192. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

'0 novg tov ncoXov. — Ov% 6 novg tov ncoXov,


dXX fj xtcpaXrj. — Ov%
of tov ncoXov n68tg, clXX oi
rov innov. — 'O nMog t%ti TtG6aQag nodag. — Ol
av&gconoi dvo nodag xccl 8vo xeloccg t%ovacv. —
190 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

'ExaGTTj T) %siQ news w" daxTvXovg. — Teo %ei()£


d[t(porsQ<o Ssxa daxTvXovg e%ov6iv. —'H aiXovQog
Saxvtc —
fiov tov 7t68a. JToOov tov ncoXov e.ncoXri-
6ag ;— To6ovtov aqyvqiov. —'O ejunoQog ncoXtl
rag %Xaivag juiydXrjg rififjg. —'E7icoXrjGa rr/v %Xat-
vav xai tov nlXov Tr/g avTtjg Ttjuijg. — Tlva cpiXtlg ;
— Tov £svov tovtov cpiXa. — 01 dya&ol del Toi/g
dya&ovg <piXov6iv. —D dialog tt]V 6ocpiav xai
tt]v dqnTTiv dtl (piktl ts xai didxsi. —'O OxoXtog
TiOTajuog Qtl did tov nsSiov sig Trjv Xl/uvrjv.
— Oi
noTa/uoi ovtoi ovx tig Trjv &dXa66av qsovocv.

II. Render into Greek.

What were you selling? — I was selling this silver


cup. — I shall sell it for a large price. — The boy laughs
because you sell your cloak. — For how much shall you
sell the colt? — For much money. — I was selling my
(the) horse when you came in (eiaiil&es)-
— Where is the
cat ? — She is lying in the corner. — The cat was just now
lying on the table. — The boy caught the cat. — For this
reason (dta jovto) the cat bit the boy. — The good always
love each other. — Nobody loves wisdom and virtue ex
cept the good. — Wisdom is a fountain of life. — Virtue
alone is wisdom. — In the heart of the flatterer there is
nothing but poison. — The unjust do not love each other.
— Whence flows the great river ? — It flows out of this
hill through the country into the sea. —The hill is dis
tant many stadia from the sea.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 191

FIFTY-FIKST LESSON.

193. Contract Verbs in a.

StjXooi, SqXa, I show.

Pres. Imperf.

SINO.
1. dijXoco dtjXa tStjXoo* id/jXovv
2. SrjXosig edijXocg iSfjXovg
3. dtjXosi dtjXoT idqXoe iSijXov

DUAL.
2. StikoEtov 8i]Xovzot> iSijXoszor iStjXovzov
3. dqlostov d/jXovrov idijXoezTjv edijXovr?iv

PLUR.
1. dqXoopw drjlovfiev edjjXoofiev i8qXovfie.v
2. dqXonre StjXoVTE idijXoere idyXovie
3. 8>j).6ovai(v) dqXovai(r) edqXoov idtjXovr

cptXem, quia, dqXooa, 8i]Xco.


Imperf. icpiXeop tcpiXovv, iSijXoov idi'/Xovv.
Fut. qpiXijaco, dqXooam.
1 Aor. ecpiXijoa, t&rjXtaoa.
192 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

194. Adj. of the 1 and 3 Decl.

nag, all, every.

N. nag ndaa nav


G. navtog ndatjg navtog
D. navri ndaq navit
A. navta ndadv nav
V. nag naaa nav

N. A. V. ndvte ndaa navit


G. D. ndvtoiv ndaaiv ndvroiv

PLDR.

N. ndvtsg ndaai navta


G. ndvimv naotov ndvtmv
D. ndai(v) ndtriug naai(v)
A. ndvtttg ndaag navta
V. ndvteg nasal ndvtd

anag, Canada, dnav, all together.

nits' avftgtonog, every man.


niiaa fj yij,
all the earth.
i] M naaa,
ndvtsg av&gconoi, all men.
nacrai ai /«/iki,
all the regions.
ai ymgai ndaai,
ndvteg, all, (every body),
nav, all, every thing,
navta, all things.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 193

navra ravra, ravra navra, all these things,


ndvra raXka {rd aXXa)
all the other things,
rdX't.a ndvra,
ndvra ra roiavra, rd roiavra all such things.
ndvra,
anavrea TjX&ov, all came together.

195. Exercises.

Render into English.

Hag e'fiitOQog.
—Udvrsg tftTiogoc. — JJdvrsg oi
rs%virai.
— Oi igydrai dnavrtg ev ra dyqco tlocv.
—ITdv (jodov xaXov idrcv. —JJdvra yodce dxdv-
&ag We'. — 01 Gocpol ndvrtg oocpiav cpcXovOiv. —
Tic eXt§£ rd roiavra ndvra ; — Tavra ndvra,
xal dXXa roiavra noXXd i'Xt^tv 6 qrjrcoQ. —Hag
dv&QcoTtog rj xaxog, ?] dya&og sGriv. — Udvrtg oi
ravrrj norajuol oxoXioi tiGiv. — Oi Si-
rfj

ev %d>Qa
xuioi anavrtg fiaxdqioi — Qr/raq 8rjXoi on
O

ravra ndvra ovrag Wu. — &tbg ndvra dr/Xoi


0

rolg dya&oig. — JrjXov on ipv^rj d&dvarog. — 'O


rj

■&tog havrbv SrjXoi naOi rolg aya&oig. — Hdvra


ravra dr/Xoi cog
(that) v^tog dya&og sGriv. — Oi
6

QrjroQtg e'Sr/XcoGav firm' anavra ravra.


9
194 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

II. Render into Greek.


Every in the garden. — All
tree. — Every apple-tree
these apples fell into this basket. — We hear these things
throughout the region. — They hear the voice of God
throughout all the earth. — All this plain is beautiful. —
The father showed these things to his son. — This letter
will show you (yfilr) all things. — Every thing is beauti
ful. — The men of this time (ot w up&Qmnoi) are not so
wise as those of old. — The messenger says that the
stranger will come to-morrow. — The Greeks travelled
ten days' journey through the plain. — Wisdom is the
life of the soul. — The sources of the river are from
(£(»)?)

(ex out of) the high hill.


— During all those days we re
mained in the plain.

FIFTY-SECOND LESSON.

196. The Perfect Indicative.

This is formed thus :

Perf. ys-ygaqi-a, I have written,


I have pursued.
ygdcp-co
dimx-ca
"
I have lived.
Ss-dito^-a,
" ns cpiXij-xS,
<ptXe-m

Thus, beginning with a consonant, the ini


to verbs
tial consonant is prefixed with s (which is called a redu
plication), and the ending it is affixed so that
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 195

(a) Stems ending in a labial mute («, 0, make

qp)
cpa,
as, fQctqi, yeyguqia.

ending in a palatal mute

(x,
(b) Stems make %a,

g)
y,
&am, Sedtta%a.

(c) All others make xa, as, cptXs, attfCkipu*.

Thus,
(a) yoatpta (stem yQouf) yeygacpa, have written,
ndfjTia) (nefm) ninofMpu, have sent.
{iXumrto (flap) (/?it(5ia<jpa, have hurt) not used.
Tl/JITO) (Tl"l) (ripper', have struck.)
(6) tfuxvw (3«x, iijx) didrjua, have bitten,
(c) TTCoiew (ntjif) 7if7ia)Aijxa, have sold,
(xtav/iad) n&avfiaxu, have admired,
■&avjia£o>
ratio (yf^a) yiyiXaxa, have laughed,
nalia i.7lai) ninaixa, have struck,
Stjkoia (dijio) Sidi]lu>xut have shown.

Verbs beginning with


197. vowel have of course
a

no reduplication, as also many commencing with two


consonants, or double consonant. — Hence in these the
a

Perf. has the same prefix as the Imperf. and Aor.

have found,
II

evQioxco (shoe) svQrjxa


iafixa have split.

Rem. — Lingual mutes (t, &) are dropt before xa, as,
S,

davfiad, tt&avftaxa (not TS&avfiaSxa) a)(V^a, o%ld, tff-


X*xa (not iaxiSxa).

Observe that verbs generally have their stem in


in

d,

113=
£

verbs in nr have in n, or (jp, as, tvtitu, stem tvti


p,
it

(iXam®, stem f3Xaj3.


196 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

198. Inflection of the Perfect.

yiyqafp- a, as, s(v)


arov, atop,
&fW, are, aai{r)

ntnoncpa on yeygaqia, I have sent because I have


written,
irjv oixiav nsmoXtpias, you have sold your house.

199. to ovg, the ear.

SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. ovs N. ana
G. (OTo'ff N.A.V. o5t8 G. oncav
D. am G. D. wtoiv D. <aoi{v)
A. ovg A. oora
V. ovs V. (oia

to ngoaconov, ov, the face.


t] nagetd, as, the cheek.
b ocp&alftos, ov, the eye.
avf.v, without (Governs the Gen.)

tj avev dcfi&alpuor, without eyes,


without n staff.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 197

200. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Fkyqacpa. — 77 yeyga<pag ;—'EmGroXr/v ysypa-


qxz. — ITqoq riva rr\v entGroXrjv nknofxcpag ;— 77f-
TTOjugpcc avvr]v nqbg rbv ddtXcpov. J
— id vivos; —
Jl dyykXov. — Ovtuo ttjv miGToXijv n'tTtofKpa,
dXX avQiov TSfiipco.—ITQOs riva (to whom) nt-
ncoXr/xug ravrr/v rr)v oixiav ; —Ugbg rbv nXovGiov

S/UTTOQOV. uo%aGiv &r)Qtvrccl rd


ol
■&r\qia, ij ov /
— Ovrt rovg Xsovtccq dt5ico%aGiv,
ovrt rag dgxrovg, dXXd rovg Xvxovg. — 'O Gxiov-
gog rbv naida dtdrtftv. — To ovg. — Td (bra xal
ai naqtial rov vtaviov. — OvStlg 6qa dvtv ocp-
&aXfiav.
— 'Oqro/utv roig ocp&aX/uoig, xal rolg gogIv
dxovojutv. — Tavra ndvra rolg Tj/ttrsQOig avrcov
(with our own) orp^aX^iolg ti'dojutv. — D ysqav ov
/Saivti dvtv ficexTTjQiccg. — Ovdtlg dxovtc dvtv
roToiv. — To rrjg xoQr\g noocunov xaXov sGtcv. —
JJdvTtg dv&qanoi fyovGiv cora, xal ocpfrccXfiovg
xal nodag xal %tlqag. — To qodov ovj( ovrco xaXov
eGriv <ag to nqboanov xal ai Tiaqtial rrjg xbqr/g.
—Evqr/xa rbv viov. — 'O iqydrr\g t6%ixt ndvra
ravra rd fitydXa BkvSqa..
198 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

II. Render into Greek.

To whom has the father written all these letters 7 —


To his son. — To the good stranger. — Who has loved the
stranger? — Nobody has loved him. — How many ears has
the boy ? —He has one ear and two tongues. — Other men
(ot allot av&Q(onoi the rest of men) have two ears and
only one tongue. — We have split the trees and pursued
the wild beasts. — We have sent as many letters as we
have written. — The boy has laughed at (im) all these
things. — We have always admired the wise (man). —
The orator has showed to us (fjftiv, ngbg tjnag) that these
things are so. — Nobody sees without eyes. — We do not
walk without feet. — We hear because we have ears. —
We see with our (iii) eyes. — There is nothing in my
eye except a thorn. — The maiden has roses and lilies on
her cheeks.

FIFTY-THIRD LESSON.

201. The Perfect Indicative (continued.)

Many Perfects are formed like the Fut. from obsolete


roots, or otherwise somewhat irregularly ; as,

Pres. Fut. Perf.


/3r)oo/Aai jUt'Pijxtx, have gone.
1(>ixu> dgrxfiovfiai Stdijitfirjxa, have run.
tgxofiat (iXevooftai) iltjXv&a, have come.
nsaoificu 7it7iio)x«, have fallen.
not used.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 199

OXOWO/Mti ctXTjxoa, have heard,


c 4
O(JU<0 oijjofiai (071) faaoaxat, have seen.
Xiyta d'grjxa (gs'w ) have said, spoken,
\>\xtavli.iy(x> eruil/UJci) ovrtlXoxtx, have collected,
Ito, or axi\aia have had.
wbm nioftai ninwxu, have drunk,
(Sifioxu, have eaten,
Xafifiixyco Xtjifiofiai tYkijtfia, have taken, caught,
ftUW fievw /itfiivrjxS, have remained,
dvtjaofiai eQQVijxa, have flowed,
ipivyw tpsvSo/icu ndq>evya, have fled.

Rem. — The prefix «x-ijxo«, il-rjlv&u, td-qdoxa is called


1.

the Attic reduplication.

Rem. 2. — Afew Perfects retain the letter of the root and


are called 2 Perf., as niytvya for nscpsvxa, axyxoa,
for rjxovxa, (XrjXv&a for ilrjivxu. Some verbs have
both the 1 and 2 Perf., but generally with different
meanings.

avQQsm, run, flow together.


ovvi§Q£ov, was flowing together.
av^Qvijaoftai.

OWeQQVTJXtt.

ol norctfiol avQQtovaiv, the rivers run together.


waniQ aKtjxoa ovtat xa) just as I have heard, so also I
stBQ&xa, have seen.
200 CREEK OLLENDORFF.

202. ro awfia (stem amfnar), the body.

SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. am/xa N. acofiaia
G. aoipatos N. A. V. amfiare G. aaftarmv
D. aaftari G. D. om/taToir D. omfiaat(v)
A. aapa A. atapata
V. aa>[t& V. amftaza

So, to oTOfta, the mouth,


to ttlf*a. the blood.
to xQrm&, the thing:
XQrjftitTa (PI.) possessions, money.

Rem. — All nouns of Decl. 3 with Gen. in arog are Neut.

»off« iQrjpaTa, l
much money?
J
noaov (tQyvQtnr, \
nolla, olfyu iQ^fiaia, |
much, little money.

2U3. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

scopaxag ;— Ovdiv hwqaxa nXrjv rovvav


Ti
duoiv aiXovqav. — Oi TialStg eagdxaOc nkvvt xo-
qaxag S7il rijg ovxr)g vaVTijg. — Oi "EXXrjvtg xbv no-
rccfibv oea/8t/8r]xcc0i xal dtvpo rjdr) (already) tA//-
Xu&aoiv. — Oi JioijLitvtg xal Xvxov kaquxaot, xal
tig rrjv xcofiijv nt(ptvya6iv. — To
al/ua Qti did rov
acofiarog. — 'H tovtov rov vtaviov yXd)66a. — Td
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 201

arret roil vtaviov slg ttjv yXa66av 6vvt(jQvr}xtv. —


*£2 vtavla, dvo ara e%o/usv xai juiav fiovrjv yXcia-
6av. — Kal rrjv {3oovrt]v dxrjxoafitv, xai rrjv a6-
rqanr\v ecogdxafitv. —'O &rjQtvri]Q ov roaovrovg
Xsovrag tiXrjtpev otiovg Stdico^tv. — KccXov Gcd/ua.
—'Ev ra (Srojuari rep rov xoXaxog eonv log. — Ov
ra arojuart, ccXXd xai ev — To

rfj
/uovov ev ifw%jj.
t%tt oard xai Aux.
— Ovrog tfi-jtoqog if%si

6
Oceania
iioXXd %Qri[j,ara.

II. Render into Greek.

How much money have you in the chest — Much. 1


— There much blood in the body. — Much blood flows
is

through all the body. — The mouth has one tongue and
many teeth. — We eat and drink with our mouth (hi
— Just as we see with our eyes and hear with our
GTOfiati).
ears, so we eatwith our mouth. — -We have both eaten
and drunk. — The shepherd has seen the wolf and fled. —
The wolf has seen the shepherd and fled. — We have ad
mired the beautiful face of the maiden, and the wisdom
of the orator. — Nobody eats without teeth. — The orator
has not spoken without a tongue. — have caught all
I

these squirrels. — The disciple has collected all these


books. — How wise the scholar — How happy the just
is

— How miserable the unjust — How white are the teeth,


!

and how beautiful the cheeks of the maiden! — This


young man's ears have run together into his (the) tongue.
— We have stayed a long time.
9*
202 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

FIFTY-FOTJKTH LESSON.

204. xara, down. A Preposition.


xara tov, top, (Governs Gen and
Acc.)
A. xara tov, down from, down in respect to.

(a) Down from, xatd tco* aerator, down from the rocks.

(b) Down in respect to = under, xara zrjs fys, under


the earth.

(c) Down in respect to = against (of speaking &c),


liyta xara gov, I speak against you.

B.
xata rov, pertaining to, belonging to (without
intimate connection) ; variously modified by place, time,
motion, rest, &c.

ot xa&' fj/iag, those pertaining { locally, those near, opposite us.


to us, J temporally, those of our time.
xar exeirov rov xqovov, at that time (pertaining to that
time).
xara rov noSa, at, on the foot.
xara rovrovs rovg Xoyovg, according to these words.
xara ■yijv xal xara &dXaaaav, by land and by sea.

XS^"Note. — dvd denotes diffusion, over, throughout.


xata, contact at a point, at, on, &c.
ana. &d\aoaav, over the sea.
xara ddlaooav, by sea.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 203

205. The Acc. with or without xara is often used to


limit a general statement.

ddxvt.i /jib (xara) for node a, he bites me on the foot.


xaXbg to ttoodmnov, beautiful in the face.
dya&og ndvta, good in all things.

I go down, descend.
xara.pa.ivm,
aXyeat aXya, I am pained.
f) xXTfiu.%, axog, the ladder, stair-case )
j- ^e
,
j*'
tj add, xog, the flesh. )
itexa, for the sake of (Governs the Gen.)
ivavttov, in presence of. "

aXym %r\v xscpaXqv, I have a pain in my head.


xaTafitftrixu
xara, itjg xXifia- I have come down the stair
xog, case.
xatiSQafis xara tov Xoqiov, he ran down the hill.
svsxa -zovrmv, rovrmv evexa, for the sake of these things.
ivavxiov iftov, ifiov havziov, in my presence.

Rem. — tvixa and ivavtlov may either precede or follow the


word which they govern.

206. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

'O av&Qconog xarantnTSc (falls down). — Tee


/uijka etg vr)v xqr]vr]v xarknsGtv. —'H 6<falqa nin-
rti xara tcjv TitTQCov.
— 01 8vo mnoi xara rav
ntrgav tTtsoov. — Mr) 6 nalg xara rrjg xXifiaxog
204 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

nectirai ;— Oi vtaviat gvXa xard rrjg OQOcprjg

Sqqmtov. — Kar ixtlvov rov %qovov ey<a ocxaSt


S7TOQiv6/ur/v.
—'O GxiovQog rov Tialba XGCTCC TOV
daxrvXov Sedtfttv. —'H xoqtj dXyti rrjv xtcpaXrjv.
— -Oct 6 vsaviag rrjv xoqtjv oqu, rrjv xagdiuv
dXytl. — 'O qrjrcoQ ravra ndvra iv ti'or/x&v. — Kara
rivog ravra eXtgtv ;—Kara TOO ddtxov ytirovog.
— Tavra xar ovdtvdg Xsyco. — 01 &rjQtvral rd
xaif eavrovg &T]Qia dti Sccoxovoiv. —'H odgg xal
rd osrd. — To acofia odoxa t%tt xal aifia. — Tame
ra svavriov ndvrav Xsyo/usv dya&oi) rcvog ivuxa.

II. Render into Greek.

The stair-case. — The cat will descend the stair-case.


— The young men will run down this hill. — The flatter
er says these things against me. — The raven eats the
body. — The flatterer eats the soul. — We have drunk so
much wine and eaten so much bread. — The wolf eats
flesh with his teeth. — At those times the young men
were pursuing peacocks. — I have a pain in my hand. —
The maiden is beautiful in the face. — The boy has a
pain in his eye. — By land and by sea. — The thief has
struck me on my foot {xara rov nodot). — According to
these words. — The orator speaks well. — He has spoken
well. — I have laughed at these things. — God is just in
all things. — In the soul of the unjust (man) is poison. —
The blood runs through the flesh and the bones.
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

FIFTY-FIFTH LESSON.

207. more, once, at some time, ever (enclitic).


ovnots, )
oidsnore, > not at any time, never.
ovde7i(6nOTe, )

Rem. — oi><5£7iciotot£ is not used of future time ; ovdinoxe


rarely of past time.

Tjffnote; who in the world? who, I pray?


zt note i what in the world? what, I pray?
rt notes (more spiritedly for dia ti) why in the
world why,
pray ?
? I
nov note ; where in the world ?

ovnote avrbv oifiofxat, shall never see him.


I

ovSsnwnots emottxa, have never seen,


I

ovdtig nconore imoaxep, no one has ever seen,


ti 7zots Ityiig ; what in the world are you say
ing
?

tavra why in the world do you say


■ti

note Itysie
;

this?

amjjf iq
o

thumb.
^

itryay oa.xxvt.og,
0

nodng ddxrvXog, a toe.


roll nodog Saxrvlog, the toe.
6

rtoSmv ddxxvXoi, the toes.


01
206 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

208. 6 ph—6 8s, the one — the other,


oi fisv — or 8s, some — others,
fier, indeed, to be sure (concessive).
8s, but, and (usual correlative of fire).

aocpbg psv, xaxbg Si, wise indeed, but wicked,


pixobg fis'v, xaXbg 8s, small it is true, but beautiful.
sym /itv yooicpai, av 8s Xs'ysig, I indeed write, but (and) you
speak.
yodq/sig fts'v, Xe'ystg 8s ov, you write indeed, but do not
speak.
zozs psv sSicoxov, vvv 8s then indeed I was pursuing,
cpsvym, but now I flee.

209. Observe 1. — fiiv is indeed, to be sure, it is true, never in


their emphatic, but only in their concessive meaning ;
eljior fiiv hots, vvv 8 ovxeti i'xui, I
had it is true once,
but now Ihave no longer.

2. The force of (ti$> is often too slight to be rendered into


English, but it should always be noticed, and if in no
other way, indicated by the tone of the voice.

210. 6 snavzog, ov, the year.


r\ 'wt, the night.

(stem 'ants.)

SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. vv% N. vvxzsg
G. vvxzog N. A. V. vixze G. VVXZmV
D. vvxzi G. D. pvxzoTv "D. vvl~{(v)
A. vixza A. tixzag
V. n% V. vvxzsg
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 207

vvxrog, rijg vvxrog, by night,


iv t\ vvxzi, in the night.
Tijt> rvxra, vvxra, during the night, during a
night,
rvxjog,
Tjfif'gae xat by day and by night,
xa&' ixdartjv vvxra, ijfiegav, each night, day.
xa&' ijftegar, daily, day by day.
xaTa vvxra nightly, night by night,
xara fiijva, xat ivtavrov, monthly, yearly,
xa&' sv, xara dvo one by one, two by two.

211. puaog, ov, middle.


tj,

fuaov Tjptgag, mid-day (the middle of the


day),
otfufi or negi fteaov tjixegag, about mid-day.
dftqii, 'my pioag vvxzag, about midnight,
rvxisg ijaav, was midnight,
it

ftsaai.
nsgi fit'aag rvxrag tjGav, already was about midnight.
it

fjSt}

(uaos noiotpog, the middle (or intervening)


o

river.
fisaog nora/xog,
6

the middle of the river.


to fteaov tov nozaitov,
rjj

ftiay oixia. ia/tsr, we are in the middle (inter


iv

vening) house.

Rem. — o and fiiaog like Less.


6,

povog, ftovog
6,

fieoog
6

XXV. (94) thus,


;

fiorog viog, the only son.


o

/tovog viog, the son alone.


o

fteaog nozctftog, the middle river.


6

nmitfiog, the river middle, where


is

fteaog
it
o

nozapbg ftiaog, middle, e. the middle of


i.
o

the river.
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

212. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

'O svuxvvog. — Hag sviavrog. —Iluvrsg oi ivc-


avroi. — Tovvov rbv svtavrov. — Ti nors eXegtv 6
"EXt^tv on 6 trsbg fiovog sort ftsyccg. —

Qt/TcoQ
Oi fisv dycc&ot /uaxdqioi, oi 8s xaxoi ad-Xcoc
tioiv. — 'O fitv nccTTjQ wxrbg STtiaroXag yodtyte.,
sycj 8i TjfisQag. — Ilort r)kd~ov oi xXsnrcu ; — tAfupi
/usdccg vvxrceg r/X&ov.
—"Hdrj dftcpt Tjfisqag
/ussov
r\v ort TTjv /Soovrrjv rixovoafitv.
— Oi &r]Qtvrcu
&Hqia §icoxovo~i xa fr' fj/bikoav xal xard vvxra. —
Oi (piXoi riju-uv tg^ovrai, oi fisv xard jurjvce, oi 8s
xad' iviavrov. —*0 fisv noi,fir]v Sccoxti, 6 8s Xvxog
(ftvyki. —2v [j£v xard rrjv xt(paXi]v dXyslg, eya>
8s xard rbv n68a. — ITorsqa rbv sjubv naXov
tvorjxas, q rbv tov dSsXcpov fiov ; — Tbv fisv Gov
tvqr/xa, rbv 8s sxtivov, oi). —Hots /uiv oivov
e'ytivov, viiv 8s ovxsri %iva. — Tqtlg yscpvqui siacv
s'vrav&a. —'H fikorj yscfrvqd s6tl xaXr/. — if jusorj
ytcpvqa xtlrai sv fisorj rfj Xifivrj.

II. Render into Greek.

Where in the world is my father ? —He is writing in


the house. — When does he write ? — By day and by night.
— The thief comes nightly. — The huntsmen go forth
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 209

into the woods every month (xa&' cxaaur fiyva.) — The


shepherds pursue the wolves annually. — It is clear that
the stranger has stayed many months. — The middle of
the garden. — The fountain lies in the middle of the gar
den. — The middle field lies in the middle of the plain. —
About midnight. — Who will come about mid-day ? — No
body but my neighbor. — It was already about mid-day
when the stranger came. — How long (noaov xqovov) did
he stay? — Six months. — He stayed a year. — He stayed
a day and a night. — The nights are not so long as the
days. — Some say these things, others those. —I indeed
sit, but you run. — We (indeed) pursue, and you flee.

FIFTY-SIXTH LESSON.

213. The Relative Pronoun.

04;, o, who, which, what, (like allot;.)


°j,

the young man whom see.


I

the cup which have,


I

the houses in which they sit.


hear what (things) you say.
I
210 CiREEK OLLENDORFF.

214. and p&xqi,


ttt'xQis until, up to, clear to.
tag,

^
l*e%Qi roirov tov xqovov, up to, until this time,
daXaaaqg, clear to, as far as the sea.
fie'xQi tr\g
up to here,
l**XQl
70vtov, up to this.
up to where, until where.
°j>>

(itXQW
pexQig soaeqag, until evening.
fte'xQirtjg iantgag,
icog (fiexQig) ql&sg, until you came.
tovtov fjxovov stag, up to this point heard, until.

I
fieXQi

(xQovy), in what time = while,


iv

215.
q>

soag, so long as, while.


you came while was writing,
iv

yl&sg tygacfov,

I
tp

iygacpov, you stayed while (so long as)

I
e/iereg tooff
was writing,
stag /uvovpev, Xi^ei, he will speak so long as we
shall stay.

ev rovt(p rip XQ0'"0?'


in this time, meanwhile,
IV TOVT(p, meanwhile.

216. nurrjo, the father,


6

Drops in some of its cases and changes the accent.


s

«TT A
DUAL. PLUR.
DT
1

SING.
I

N. TtaTTjQ N. nare'geg
Q. jtwiQog {narigog) N.A.V. natigs G. nazigmv
D. natgi (uaregi) G. D. aaze'goiv D. natga.at{v)
A. tiatigS A. tiuTtgag
V. nursg V. naze'geg

So pqzTjg, the mother.


rj r\

&vyarrig, the daughter.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 211

natijQ xat t\ ftqniQ ftov.


My father and mother, ?
j natriQ pov, xal ij firjnjQ-
Rem. — Observe Voc. irreg. nartQ for rcaujp. See Less
XLI. (153) ; but Mire is regular.

217. fte'Xag, black.

SING.

N. fields fttXatra ftsXav


G. peXavog HeXalvrjg fteXaros
D. peXart (teXaivxi /xeXari
A. fts'Xava /xeXairar pteXar
V. pt'Xag fiiXaiva fisXav

DUAL.
N.A.V. fieX&vs fisXaira fteXars
G.D. ptXavoiv fuXaitatP fitXavoiv

PLUR.
N. (teXavsg fieXaivai fitXata
G. (xeXavwv lieXaivmv fieXavcov
D. fiiXaai{v) fteXaivaig pteXaai(v)
A. fiiXavag fuXatrdg fisXara
V. fiiXaveg fdXaivcu piXava

iQv&gog, a, Jr, red.

218. Exercises.

I. Render into English.


'O xoQccg juekccg sorlv. —'O xoqa^ ov 6v sv
rfj

%siqi e%sig oi)% ovva jusXag s6riv ag sv sxsivr)


6

vXrj. — 'O soriv ag


rfj

x6qu§ ovrco jusXug


6

ov%
212 GKEEK OLLENDORFF.

xoXccg. — 'H tov xoXcexog xccoSice /usXcecvce. — D iv


ra noTriQicp olvog igv&gog sotlv. — CH jusv i/uq
/Xceivce fisXuivce s6tiv, fj 8s 6rj, iov&Qct. —'£2g
ftsXcevsg ovtoi oi xoocexsg ! — Tee /usv q68u a e%et
fj xoQrj, igv&Qcc ion, tcc 8s ice, /usXcevct. — Uooov
Xq6vov i/usivccTt im tov Xocpov ;—'Efitivcejusv sti
ccvtov tag rr\v /3qovttjv qxovocejusv. —'Ejutivcefitv
,uej(()t rye e6nsQag. — OI &r]QtVTcei roc tf-qpia fis^Q1
rip Xijuvyg 8ico§ovrai. —'Ev a vfitig iyQclcpSTt,
fjfttlg iyyvg Ttjg xqf\vT\g inai£o/itv. —"Ecog tXtyov
oiQiJTOQSg, TO0OVTOV XQOVOV fjftStg fjXOVOflSV. — Oi
gsvoi s'xce&rjVTO TQstg fj/usQceg iv tag

rfj
olxice,
f/X&ov iyd. — 'Eya xui ■d,vydrrjQ juov.
— 'O
fj

Trcerr/Q
t'%ti TQtlg fruyarsQctg.
— Oi cpiXoi fjfiav /usjfot jusv
rrjg too fitvoi)6i, tots 8$ ceiticeOiv. — Ov to. ctVTCt
naXcei iXsysg ce vvv Xsysig.

II. Render into Greek.

My daughter. — have my daughter. — When


seen
I

did you see your (the) daughter — On the same day on


?

which Mr awjj fjfieQa sent letters to my son. — My


j/)
I

daughter stayed six or seven days. — She stayed until


evening. — We were pursuing the wild beasts until morn
ing. — We pursued them clear to the sea. — While we
were writing, the hunter was 'eating and drinking. — So
long as the orator was speaking, the boy was pursuing
squirrels and peacocks. —Black squirrels. — Some squirrels
(*<»>' oxiovomv olpiv)
are black, others red. — Of faces some
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 213

are black, others white. — Nothing is so black as the soul


of the wicked (man). — I see my father and mother. —
The father sends many letters to his daughter. — The
face of this flatterer (to (net tovtov iov xoXaxog nqoawnov)
is white, but his (the) soul is black.

FIFTY-SEVENTH LESSON.

219. The Pluperfect Indicative Active.

The Pluperfect Active is formed from the Perfect ;

thus,

ytyoacpa, II had written.


have
Pluperf. iyeyndcptiv,
I written.
I had run.
dtdQd/itjxa, have run.
idtSgafirjxsiv,
iofixa, II split,
have
ia^lxcir,
uxrjxou, II had split,
have heard,
rixijxoeir, had heard.

Thus, the Pluperfect ends in for a and prefixes


aiv
the augment to the reduplication of the Perfect. the If
Perfect has no reduplication, the prefix of both is the
same ; as,

Perf. emQuxci, have seen, Pluperf. emgaxEiv, had seen.


" " had taken.
siXijq,a, have taken, ulrjtftiv,
" "
EQQvrjXtt, have flowed, eQQvijxsiv, had flowed.
" have found. " had found.
evQijxa, sboqxeiv,
" have said. " had said.
e'oTjxa, slqrjxeiv,
214 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

220. Inflection of the Pluperf.

Sing. iysyoaqi- stv, sis, sis,

eizov, sitnv.
sipsv, sits, siaav or saw.

Ihad sent, snsnofufsiv.


We had collected, avvstkoxsinsv.
He had already fled, rfiij snscpsvysi.
He had escaped, drtsnsqisvysi.
He had come when I was de iXrikv&si ots aaqsiv.
parting,

221. Specimens of the entire Indicative Active.

Pres.& Imperf. nifiiua, entfmov, am sending, was sending.


Fut. & 1 Aor. ni/itpa, enifii/ja, shall send, sent.
Perf.& Pluperf. ninoficfa, ineTio/iqitiv, have sent, had sent.

Pres.& Imperf. nimbi, smmov, am falling, was falling.


Fut. & 2 Aor. Tticrovfiai, tntaov, shall fall, fell.
Perf.& Pluperf. niniiaxa, inentuxeiv, have fallen, had fallen.

Pres. &Imp£ tvqlaxw, svqioxov, find, am finding ; was finding.


Fut. & 2 Aor. evgriota, evgov, shall find, found.
Perf. & Plupf. evgrjxa, tvQtjXuv, have found, had found.

Pres. & Imperf. daxrto, USaxvov, am biting, was biting.


Fut. & 2 Aor. Sriiopai, sduxov, shall bite, bit.
Perf. & Pluperf. SiSnxa, idsdtjxeiv, have bitten, had bitten.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. '215

£ifT«a>, fam, I seek, look for (like palm).


^Ttw' 'Ctmw, am seeking, was seeking.
res & Im erf. l
ut. & 1 Aor. jftrjjiraj, i^irjaa, shall seek, sought.
& Pluperf.

,'>,
erf. ^Jijtjjxo, i ijjxciv, yiare sought, had sought.

si,

222.
if.

(>ig, the nose.


ii

SING. DUAL. PLUH.

N. n. ^r»-£ff
G. pWs N. A. V. fire G. (fttajv
D. pin' G. D. gmoiv D. giai[v)
A. Qira A. (Hra;
V. <5fr V. #Mff

ratira isysi, ianv, he says this he wise,


if

is

oocpog
i i

bq>9aXuoi>s s^si, oxpercu, he shall have eyes, he will see,


iaeXijlv&siftcr els rrjp oixiar, we had entered into the house,
%i[xep ex tjJ? olxiag, we shall go out of the house.
lorjeiv sis wire clip. was entering into the forest.
I

223. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

rkygacpcc rrjv £7U6roXr)v. — Ov tots roGavrag


miOroXccg sysygucptiv oouq vvvysyqatpa. — Jthqa-
urjxa. —'O nulg edidqu/u-qxei. — El %&£g edqa/ut,
xccl (also) ndXiv avqiov hqafitlrai.
— Tbv xoqaxa
216 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

idpaxa. — Tbv /usv fisXava xoocixct oifjoftctc, rbv


8s Xtvxov, Nov. — Ovtico rrjv /3oovtrjv dxrjxosiv outs

rr)v aOvQUTirjv haquxtiv, ors rr/v ystpvoav 8&£/3r]TS.


— "Hdrj 8is/3sftrixsiTS brs iya ev ra xrjTia ijv. — El
£r]TSig, svQiOxscg. —El ^rjvrjOscg rrjv xXccivccv,
sugqosig avrr\v. —'O cpiXog fiou s^rjTTjxsc ts xccl
svorjxtc rrjv %Xatvav.
— ElXqcpsiv to ■d-rjoiov. — Oi
Xsovrtg snscpsvysGav. — 'O Xvxog qdr] snscpsvysi
ots 6 noififjv ngoGrjX&sv. — Tec jurjXccninrtu —
X&sg tniTtTS fisv tcc juijXcf, outtcj 8s (but not yet)
navTcc sntitTcoxsi. —-H gig. — Uccvrsg ol av&oconoi
'iuv glva xal 8uo ocp&aXfiovg fyovaiv. —'H tov
[a.

vsavlou gig juaxgd sgtiv. —El jucexdgiot ol ciyce-


&oi, a&Xcoi ol xaxoL

II. Render into Greek.

nose. — The nose. —


long nose. — The old man's
A
A

nose long. — This man's nose not so long as mine. —


is
is

had come. — had run. — We had written many letters.


I
I

— We had not sent so many letters as we had written. —


am collecting books. — am looking for a wedge. —
I
I

I I

had not found so many wedges as had looked for. —


I

had not drunk so much wine as my friend. — had writ


I

ten my letter about mid-night. — The thieves were


already entering into the house, when they saw the la
borer. — hear thunder. — shall see the lightning. — If we
I
I
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 217

hear the thunder, we also (xat) see the lightning. — The


squirrel will bite the child on the foot. — The cat had bit
ten the colt. — At day-break (apu wion) I had sent
away {dnsnenoncfsiv) the messenger. — The lake is ten
stadia distant from the village.

FIFTY-EIGHTH LESSON.

224. n oauxtg, how many times 7 how often 7


loaaxig, so many times, so often,
oadxtg (rel.) how many times, as often as.
noXldxig, many times, often, frequently.
once,
Big, twice.
rg(g, thrice, three times.
times,
zsrgaxig, four
nsvtaMg, five times.
e%dxig, six times.
Bsxaxig, ten times.

How often does he come 1 noadxig sg^siat ;


Not so often as I, ov{roadxig)badxig iym,
They come twice a day, B)g tQxnvTtti zfjg rjftegag.

Not even once a day, oiBe ir/g ij/jsyag.


Many times a year, noXldxig rov hiavrov.
How many times a night 1 noadxig ir\g vvxros ;
10
218 UKEEK OLLENDORFF.

225. KQoztQov (mm), before, previously .

vaTCQor, afterward.

f oXlyov nqorsQOv.
A little before, oXiycp tiqotsqov, (before by a
little).
fltXQOV TIQOTSQOV.
oXiyov vaitQOv.
A little afterwards or after, bXlyoa vatgQor.
fllXQOV V6TSQ0V.
noXv nQOxtQOv.
Much before,
noXXui TiQortQOv (before by
much.
TloXv VO7EQ0V.
Much after,
noXXtij VattQOV.
A long time before, aoXXcjj iQovo) ngoTiQOv.
(Gr. before by much time.)
Not many days after, ov noXXctig fjiUQOug varegov.

On the day before, t§ jigoregala (ijfieQa).


TJ7 ngoa&sv qfttQK.
On the day after, z\ vatsgaia. (qfiiga).
On the day before these things, %r\ HQOiSQaia.
jovtwr.
On the day after the hunt, vartgaia rtjs Oygotg.
Within ten days, dsxa rifieqav.

226. fj &qga, ag, the hunt, chase.


6 ov, t fhg huntsman,
ysvtjg, hu
o {rrjQaTjjs,
&7jQaoi, w,
ov, ^
I hunt, am hunting.

Pres. & Impf I


w, i&riQaov, mv, hunt, was hunting.

Fut &1 Aor ' l ^W"ffa)' i&ijQoiou, I


shall hunt, hunted.
( &rjgaaoftai.
Perf. fcPlupC Te&ijgaxa, itt&iigdxsir, have hunted, had hunted,
aygtog, a, ov, wild, fierce.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 219

Xsovzag &riQmiif.v, we hunt lions.


I shall hunt from a horse = on
4hK>AoofUU anb («<p) Innov,
horseback,
we used to go forth to the
chase.

227. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

O Xvxog dyqiov son x)riqiov. — 01 vtuviai


evroi -&r]QtVTai ti6iv. — 01 &t]Qtvral ovroi fit/Qco-
6cvd(f 'innov Xsovrag, teal dqxrovg, xal tcoXXcc
aXka vhrjoice. — Uoodxtg s£tQ%ovTcti oi vtaviac
eitl rijv thrjoav ;—Kaff rj/usgav i££Q%OVTCU. —
'Exsivot jlisv 8lg tov firjvog i£eQ%ovrai} rj/utig 8s
xaff exuOrrjv fjjuSQav. — IIqotsqov fisv Stxdxcg
tov ivcavTOV s^r'jsoav, vvv 8s /liovov 8lg, ij xal
—Uqcoi
(even) u%a§ tov sviccvtov s^sqxovtui.

fisv i§so%ovrac, ndoav 8s ttjv fifisQav &r}Qoi6iv.
Hoodxig rrjg vvxrog eQ^srac J xlsnrr\g ; — Jig rj
TQig rrjg vvxrog.
—'Y/asig jusv oXiyov nQOTtQOv rjX-
&srs, rjfttig 8s juixqov votsqov.
— Tfj vOrtQuia rrjg
ihrjQag rrjv yscpvqav 8isfir][.itv.
— 'Yjutig avgtov rrjv
■&aXaOOav 8ia/3r}6s6i}s, xal rjfitlg ov noXXalg
fj/negaig vgtsqov.
220 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

II. Render into Greek.

eat and drink. — We eat bread and drink wine. —


I
How often do you eat bread 1 — Twice a day. —Not so
often now as formerly (a>g nQoteQov). — This (man) eats
three times a day. — How many times a year does the
father write to his daughter ? — Many times a year. — Six
times a month. — Once a day. — Either daily or monthly.
— How often do the young men go out to the chase ? —
Formerly (indeed) they went out twice a month, but
now only twice a year. — A little before. — A little after. —
Not long after. — I came mot many days before. —Who
will pursue those fierce wild beasts 1 —Nobody except
the hunter. bad (man) is a fierce wild beast. —No
— The
wild beast is so fierce as the unjust man (admog). — Some
pursue good (ret dya&d), others, evil.

FIFTY-NINTH LESSON.

228. ntql, around, about. APreposition.


negl tov, rt, top, (Governs Gen. Dat and Acc.)

ntQi tov, about, concerning.


'reel tq5, close about.
neqi tov, around, about (more loosely, toward about.)

I speak about, concerning these


things,
a girdle about the body,
the villages about the river.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 221

229. olxs'tn oixm, I dwell, inhabit,


cpxsov qixovv, was dwelling, &c.
olxovfisv idg xafiag, we inhabit the villages,
oixovai jiegl itjv ddXaoaav, they dwell about the sea.

230. Op' (like nsgi) about (lit. on both sides of).


a(Ufi ri)v lien about the lake.
dftqii zivog le'yeig, you speak about something.

Rem. — itfitfl is much less common in prose than ntgl.

231. 6 dvyg, the man. i\ ywrj, the woman.

SING.
N. dvtjg yvrq
G. (dre'qog) dvdgog yvvaixog
D. (dve'qt) dvdgi yvvaixi
A. (dve'qu) dvdga yvvaixa,
V. avsg see ndtsq (216) yvvai

DUAL

N.A. V. (dregs) avSgs yvvaixs


G.D. (dvsgoiv) dvdgoiv yvvatxotv

PLDR.

N. (dvt'gsg) avdgsg yvvaixsg


G. (dvs'gmv) dvdgmv yvvaixmv
D. dv8gaai(v) yvvai^i(v)
A. (dvs'gdg) avdgag yvvaixag
V. (dvt'gsg) dvSgsg yvvaixsg

Rem. — avriQ, a man, in distinction from a woman or a boy ,


av&gamog, a man, a human being, in distinction from
other animals.
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

232.
'imiSq
s^nce> after that, when.
\

Since you say this, iml tovto Xiystg.


since these things are so, insiSij xavra ovroog Ijfst.
After he had said this he came, intiSij tavta sle^sv, rjX&ev.
When they saw this they ins) tovz eldov, iysXaaav.
laughed,
As they heard this they cog tovt fjxovaav, syeXaaav.
laughed,
After I had written, iTteiSrj iysygoiqieiv.

Mar. — ozt means at the time when.


intidq, when, after that, in the order of events.

233. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

ITsqI tivoq ccv&qcotiov ravra Xsymg ; — IltQl


Gov. — JJtQi ejuavrov. — Tavrcc itdvra ov TttQC rov
(your) ddtXcpov, dWd ntqi otavrov Xtytig. — -E%aj
'w' %"kalvav ntqi ra spavroii Gcojuan. — JTov oi-
xovGiv ovroi oi dvSqeg ; —IlQortqov fisv ksqI rr\v
■frdXaGGav axovv, viiv S& iv toiq q/usrsgoig ntdiot-g
olxovGiv. —ITors goi nooGrjXdov oi gsvoi; — Ovrt
X&sg, ovrt
rfj

noortgaLa TjX&ov, aKkd rfj ccvrij


t/jusqcc ccTtrjX&ov oi frr/Qtvrai. —'Easy tocvtu
y

ovrtog t%ti, rif-itlg ythcijutv. — 'EjttcStj ravra tior/-


xag, navra tv tyti. — 'EntiSt] noi/jTjv rov Ivxov
6

tlStv, ttpvytv. — ^ETitidrj dvtfirj i9r]0svrrjg sal rov


6
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

locpov, tldtv ; — Ovdsv side nXrjv /utdg ccqxtov.


ri
— Avo dvSgtg. — 'Avriq dvvl yvvaixog. — "Av&qco-
TTog dvvl dXoyou £gjov. — -Oct 6 dvrtq Xsyti, fj yvvr\

dxovm. —'H yvvrj ov% ovrco 6ocprj ionv dig J dvr\Q.


II. Render into Greek.

This man. — The man and the woman. — The man


and the wild beast. — The man is not so beautiful as the
woman. — When the first man saw the first woman, he
was happy. — Man is a rational animal. — We speak con
cerning the soul. — We have cloaks about our bodies. —
The hunters were dwelling about the hills. — Since the
young man is wise, he is happy. — After I saw the maid
en I wrote a letter to her. — Nobody but the wise is hap
py. — God is propitious to none except the good. — Since
you say this (taiga) you speak well. — Because the old
man is good and wise, all men (adrzee) admire him.

SIXTIETH LESSON.

234. 6, i Sgrii, the bird.


SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. oqvIs N. OQU&tf
G. OQvTilOii N.A.V. ogrTfie G. OQviOtav
D. oQviOt G. D. oQt t&otr D. ngnat(v)
A. oQtTr (Poet OQri&a) A. OQfT&at;
V. oQvTg V. oqpI&s<;
224 GEEEK OLLENDOEPP.

Note — Barytone substantives in ig whose stem ends


in a lingual mute (as 6on&, ilmti) make in prose the Acc
Sing, in v.

235. 7j arjdur, the nightingale.

G. atjSovog and ar/dovg.


D. arjSoi.
A. arfiora, &c. like yiwv.
tj xeXjSmv, ovog, the swallow.
D. %slx8oi, &c, like %toav.

nd<o
(aei8a>) I sing.
Imperf. ndor, was singing.
Fut. aaoftai, shall sing.
1 Aor. pm, sang.

236. (lira (pe'aog), among. A Preposition.


fiera tov, top, (Governs Gen. and Acc.)
fura tov, imp, in connection with, among,
fiera tov, after, next to.

(it.T ifiov, in connection with me.


ftera ravta, after these things.
pBT bliyov, iiEia /uxqop, after a little (time).
aloe fift aXXov, one after another.

Rem. —fii-ta tov and avv rw often differ but slightly. Strict
ly, fisTa rov denotes coexistence ; fie& r,fiav, in con
nection with us : avv tto denotes coherence ; aim >,uh
along with us.
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Render into Greek.

From the basket, out of the stream,


Instead of me, before the time,
Inthe chest, along with the hunter,
On the roof, at the gates,
On to the hill, throughout the region,
Into the earth, down the stair-case,
At (xazd) those times, to the father.
Through the plain, on account of the messenger,
Concerning the old man, (close) about the head,
About the river, in connection with us.
After us. after those days.

6 novog, od, labor, toil,

raiv dyu&mv oidev dvev novov we have nothing good (none of


the good things) without
toil.
navta. ia aya&d novov ntoXei God sells all good things for
6 &sos, labor.

Note. — novov in the Gen. as price of a thing.


ei,

237.
if.

not, unless.
if
ei

(itj,

hear,
if if if if

le'yeie, axovm, you speak,


el el ei el

Xt£tts, axovao/xai, you shall speak, shall hear,


I

fjxovau, you spoke, heard,


I

Xeyeig, oix axovm, you do not speak, do not


I

fit}
hear.
10*
226 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

tES* Observe, fiy, prjdiiq &c. for not, none, after tt.

ovSelg Xf'yet, nobody speaks.


at fttjStlg ieyei, ovSsig axovst. if nobody speaks, nobody hears.

238. Mar. — Constructions like the above e. st with the Ind.)

(i.
imply no uncertainty, but rather that the case as

is
supposed, and admit in the apodosis (or answering
clause) any appropriate tense as,

;
M
if
^TJTBig, SVQlOXEig, you seek, you find (and you
do seek),
ravza you shall say this, you will
si

if

Xe'l-eig, aoqibg eo-fl,


be wise (and you will),
jwif

you have not sought, you


if
si

i$T7j)tccg, ov% evQtjxag,


have not found (and you
have not).

239. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

OvSiv dya&bv dvtv novov l%Oftev. — 'O igyd-


rr/g aSsi fierce rov novov. — Ovhtig {iccxctQiog sGrtv
el /ufj (if not, except) fitrd novov. — 01 ?gyd-
rcci dSovGi fitrd novov. — 01 ogvi&tg dtl adovGcv.
—lH /div %tXi8cov rrjg tw abti, Ss drjfidv, sent-
rj
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 227

qag. — Oi OQVi&tg ddovGiv, or juev iv 777 vXrj, oi 83


sv rolg xrjnoig. — Msrd rovg OQvi&ctg, tcov qrjro-
qcov dxovGojus&a.
— Ei pGsrai rj drj8av wxrog,
xdvrtg dxovGovrac. — Ei [trjSslg lute, ovStlg
dxovG erect. — Ei /lit) aoovrcci at dr/Soveg xcei at
X&Xidovtg, ovStlg avrav dxovGtrcci. — Oi veavtat
aSovGi fitrd rav xoqav. — Ei Xe£ovGt navreg,
ovStlg dxovGtrai. — Ei ovrog 6 Gocpog Xe£ei, oi
aXXot ndvrtg dxovGovrai. — 'IT drjSav naGav 'm'
vvxra aStc. — To fiiv xoqaxog Gcifia, fishav, 77 Be
xoXccxog xaqSia.

II. Render into Greek.

Who is singing ? — My father and mother are singing.


— My brothers are singing in connection with my sisters.
— The nightingale is singing. — The swallow (/«V) sings
by day and the nightingale by night. — If the birds shall
sing no longer {firjaht), nobody will hear them. —If the
wise man shall speak, all will hear. — If nobody has said
these things, all is well {nana ev fyu). — Unless you shall
seek, you will not find. — If the young man writes a let
ter, he sends it. — If he shall seek his cloak, he will find
it. — nobody shall speak, who will hear ? — If these
If
things are so, all is well. — The boy caught nothing except
a peacock and a squirrel. — Nobody is happy unless he is
also (xai) good.
228 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

SIXTY-FIRST LESSON.

240. Adjectives of two endings of the 3 Declension.

atocfQtov, sound-minded, sober, virtuous.

SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. (Tb'icfQaivNeut.atoCpQoy N. (TtoifQovsg oaxfQorn


G. oaxfQovoi N.A.V. adtpgove G. truKfQovisni
D. aa>q>govi G. D. OGXpQOVOlV D. aexfQoai{v)
A. adiifQova aCxfqov A. adxfqovaq auitpgoru
V. aCxfqov V. oKKpQovtg aaxfoovtt

So, svdaifimv, prosperous (happy).

f) evdaipovtu, ag, prosperity, happiness.


i\ apsrij, iqg, virtue.
7] ao(jta, as, wisdom.
6 nXovzos, ov, riches, wealth.

J£ OQSTtjg tariv i Evdai/AOPin, from virtue is happiness.


ov% b nlovatog [taxagiog dXX not the rich is happy but the
not the
is
it

aya&og, good, e.
(i.

6
rich that happy, &c.)
is
OEEEK OLLENDORFF. 229

241. [tola, very.


a<f6dq&, exceedingly.
Ttdw (nav all), quite, altogether.
navtdnaai(v), altogether.
navtsXwg, entirely, completely.

fidXa noXXd, very many things,


aqnSga nXovaiog, exceedingly rich,
ttdw xaleti Xe'ystg, you speak altogether excel
lently,
na.vtdna.ai aoqios, altogether wise.

242. Modal Adverb dr.

The Modal Adverb united with the past tenses


av is
of the Indicative in the apodosis of a conditional sen
tence, to imply that the case is not as supposed. (a)
The Imperf. is used for present time and continued past
time ; (6) the Aor. (rarely the Pluperf.) for absolute past
time.

(a) Imperfect.

si error, mtfinov dv, if I had, I should send (but I


have not),
si tleyss, qxovov ar, if you were speaking, I should
hear.
el eXsysg, ovx dv ijxovov, if you were not speaking, I
should not hear,
si aaqigiav w, fiaxaqios an if you were virtuous, you would
be happy.
230 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

(6) Aorist.

si ti sa%ov, snsfixpa av, j


if I had had any thing, I should
have sent it.
si 'Line, fjxovau av, if you had spoken, I should
have heard,
si awyomv yg, ovx av elsl-ae, if you had been discreet, you
would not have spoken,
si fiy tov Is'ovra sldov, ovx av unless I had seen the lion, I
sqivyov, should not have fled.

Id"* The pupil will observe carefully the effect of av in


the apodosis ; as,

si slyov, sntfinov, If I had (formerly), I sent (and


I had).
si siyov, msftnov av, if I had (now), I should send
(but I have not),
si sldov, scfvyov, if I saw, I fled (and I did see),
si sldov, sqivyov av, if I had seen, I should have fled
(but I did not see).

243. Exercises.

Render into English.

D vsaviuQ ovrog Gacpqav edriv. — Movog 6


Gcocpgcov juccxdgiog ionv. — SI vtavia, tl acocpgav
tog, xai (also) sOfj fiuxceQwg. — Other
ex nXovrov
eerlv tvhaiftovia, dXX ex aocpiag xcci dger^g. —
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 231

Ov% ol nhji/Gioi- svSatfioveg


elGiv, dXX ol 6acpQO-
vsg. —'O nXovrog dvtv ccQtrrjQ ovdsv w"
dya&ov.
— O Gcpodga nXovGiog ov did xovro /uaxdpiog sg-
tiv. — Udvv Goqibg si. — El navrdnaGi Gacpqcov w,
juaXcc juaxccQiog dv rjg. — El imGroXdg ygdcpoj,
7i£jU7rco
— El emGxoXdg tyqacpov,
snsfinov dv.
— El
ovvog 6 nXovGcog Gocpdg rjv, navrdnaGiv tvdai-
Run' dv rjv. — El ravr dxovoerac 6 narrjo, 'no
sGneoccg rjSsi. — El vjutig rov qrjrOQog fjxovGUTt,
ndvv dv avrov e&ccv/udGcers.
—'EnscSrj tig rr\v vXrjv
elGtfX&Ofitv, rcov drjdovcov r\xovGafj-tv. — El fjSov
?6}&ev at xshidoveg, om dv qxovGa/usv.

II. Render into Greek.

Virtue alone is happiness. —Virtue is the fountain of


happiness. — Who is happy ? — None but the sober-mind
ed are happy. — The sober-minded and just are always
happy. — They are very happy. — If the scholar shall
come to the teacher, he will be wise. — He will be very
wise. — These roses are exceedingly beautiful. — If I were
rich, I should have many books. — If the young man
were wise, he would hear the teacher. — If he had heard
the teacher, he would not have said these things. — If I
had seen the wolf, I should have fled. — The squirrel
bites.
232 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

SIXTY-SECOND LESSON.

244. 6 aozriQ, the star. (Dat. Plur. irreg. like 'rare.)

SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. aazriQ N. aarspetf
G. darigog N. A. V. «(TTf'g8 G. airzs'gaw
D. dorigi G. D. acnspoij' D. datgaoi(v)
A. dojiga A. aoTBgai
V. aorjjp V. aarfoeg

So, 6 aiyp, s'goff, the atmosphere, the air.


6 ai&rjQ, sgog, the pure upper air, the ether or sky.
Exc. Dat. Plur. regular, deqai(v), ai&eqai{v).

6 ofyurog, ov, the sky, heaven.


6 tjkXog, ov, the sun.

fj aeXijvtj, IN, the moon,


ll i>E<fs}.tj, tie, the cloud.
Xafingog, bright, resplendent.
ov,
Sl,

shine (chiefly poetic).


I

ld(i7i<o,
eXupnov, Idpxpco, iXapxpa, was shining; «fec.

nstofiai, fly.
I

'£lg la/ingog rjXiog how bright the sun


!
6

tovs aoteoag rvxzog ogmfiev, we see the stars by night,


oi aoieqeg neg\ Jtjv otXrjrtiv the stars shine about the
Idftnovatv, moon.
rfkiog dice veyeXeiv Xd(inu, the sun shines through clouds.
6
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 233

245. Pres. anagram, I


err, mistake.
Imperf. ijpaQiavov, was erring, used to err, &c.
Fut. aiMQiyoopM, shall err.
2 Aor. tihuqtov, erred, mistook.
Perf. I have erred, have mistaken.
I had erred.
i;fidQitjx&,
Pluperf. tjfutQiipietf,

el zavra Xtyeig, aixaqjdveig, if you say this, you err.


si ravitt eXeyeg, ijfiaQiaveg av, if you said this, you would err.
tl ravza eXe^a, yftaorov, if I said this, I erred,
el tavia eXe%a, ijpaoTOv av, if I had said this, I should have
erred.

Even
if,

246. even though, sud el.


Even though —yet, xcit
tl
— ofimg.
although,
If

xat.
el

even,
if,

Not even not even though, ovd' el.


Yet, nevertheless, oumg.

Even though you are rich, you


si,

xai nXovaiog a&Xiog


el

el.
are miserable,
Although saw the lion, yet xat rbr Xe'ovta elSov,
el

oftoog
I

did not flee, ovx ecpvyov.

247. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

01 dorhqsg. —\f2? xaXol ol dorSQHg


— 'O rjXeog
!

XdfMti iv rco al&SQi, cog /usyag xai Xa/nngog


dorrjQ. —'O rjXiog xai ol aGrsQtg did rov ai&sqog
noqtvovrac. —'O fiev ijXiog rj/tsgag hx/untc, Se
rj
234 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

6tXr\vt] sea) dorsqi-g, vvxrog. — 'O /usv tjXiog Bed


ol
rov ccl&sgog noqtvtrai., ol ds oovc&tg did vov
dsgog nsTOvrai. — MsXccivcc vtfptXr]. — At iv ra
ceegt vscpkXai %dvv jusXaival sloiv. — Ov vvv ovtcj
/usXaival sloiv top oXiyov hqothqov.
— El XajuTvgog
sgtiv 6 rjXiog, XccjutcqoI slot xcu ol dorsgsg. — Koci
si Xcc/U7tti 6 r\Xiog, bftcog ov navra drjXoi. — El xai
nctvra ravTCi Xsysig, ov% d^iaqrdvsig. — cO &tbg
ovoavbv olxei. — 'O fieog ftovog ovtioti- dftaqrdvti.
— El rat/Tec Xsgeig, djuaorrjOrj. — El Xs^ojuev on
fiaxdoioi ol %Xov6ioi, djuccQTrjOOfit&a. —El rovg
dor'soag sugar, fi£%Qi rrjgdv ijtootvofirjv- — El
eco

tlnov (had said) on ol xaxol tvhaifiovsg tlGiv,


jj/tccorov dv.

II. Render into Greek.

star. — The stars are exceedingly bright


A beautiful
and beautiful. — No star shines around the sun. — The
sun goes alone through heaven. — Nothing is so beautiful
as a star. — If the stars were shining (elafinov), we should
find the road. — Even though the stars were shining, we
did not find (ov% evgo/xev) the road. — Unless there had
been /xi] raw) clouds in the air, we should have seen
(jet

the sun. — The sun did not shine through the clouds. —
Even though you say this, you do not err. — Not even
though we are rich, are we happy. — If had written such
I

things, should have exceedingly erred. — The birds do


I

not fly in the ether, but in the atmosphere.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 235

SIXTY-THIED LESSON.

248. nagd, by the side of. A Preposition.


naga tov, tqj, tov, (Governs Gen. Dat. and Acc.)
1. naga tov, from the side of = from (with persons).

TjX&e nag eunv, he came from me.


tj nag imarolij,
ij/xmv the letter from us.
tjxovaa ravra naga ytgovrog, I heard this from an old man.

2. naga i$ by the side of = by, with {chiefly with


persons).

fiirei nap' ifioi, he stays with me, (at my


house.)
nag ijftiv Tav&' ovrcog ljf£(, with us these things are so
nagd nasi [tt'yag, great with e. in the estima
(i.

tion of) all.


perm aiiv aoi naga Tip nargi, stay with you at my father's.
I

avv aoi, ftsta aov, along with you, in connection


with you.
naqa aoi, beside, by you where you live,
;

(apud. chez.)

nagd tov, (a) toward the side of = to, toward.


3.

(b) along side of = along, during, by (only


of things).
(c) along side of=in comparison with, be
yond, in violation of.

(a) nagd as,


epjrof<«t come to you.
I I

ygdqxo nagd Ttjv ftvyaxiqa, write to my daughter.


(b) naga tov norafiov, %\i along, by the river, the road.
6S6v,
236 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

flttQd TOVTOV TOV fjgOVOV, during this time,


naga rrjv &r\gav, during the chase,
(c) naga ravra, beyond, besides these things,
naga ta SXka £coa, in comparison with other ani
mals.
naga to Sixcuov, beyond, in violation of justice,
naga toii topovs, in violation of the laws.

249. anb rov, (away) from the.


ix rov, out from the.
of,
avti tov, instead for the.
ngb tov, before (for) the.
iv T<p> in the.
aiiv z(j), (along) with the.
BIS ^or, into the.
dvd tor, up, throughout the.
kid toy, through, by means of the.
kid toy, on account of the.
xara tov, down from, against the.
xara toy, at, according to the.
petite toy, in connection with the.
flBTCt TOV,
next to, after the.
nsgi (aftqii) tov, concerning the.
negi t<j> (close) about the.
nsgi tov, around about the.
ngbg tov, to the.
naga tov, from the (only with persons).
naga toi, by, with the (with persons).
naga tov, to, toward along, during, be
;

side in comparison with,


;

beyond, in violation of the.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 237

250. 6 vofiog, law.


or, the
naQa§a(vco, I
transgress (go beyond or aside
from).
come to ; come, go by = pass.
I
aaQeQ^o/xat,
ndonfii (naqa and eifti am) am present.
auQf'flqg roiig vofiovg, you transgressed the laws,
6 QljtWQ /lUQTjX&SV, the orator came forward,
ftctQelrjXv&ev 6 jjooVoff, the time has passed by.
fjftag jtaQiQiomcu, they pass us by.
no} naQsaovTcu, they will be present with you.
Kara rovg vo/tovg, according to the laws

251. to vdwQ, (stem vdar) water.

SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. vdtOQ N. vSaza
G. vSarog N.A.V. ijSatt G. vdaiiov
D. vSaii G. D. iddzoiv D. v8ttGi(v)
A. vSojq A. vSaza
V. ilStoo »
V. vdarct

to yuXa (stem yalctxr) milk.


Gen. yakaxTog, Dat. PI. yakati(v).
to ftelt (stem iehi) honey.
Gen. /xtXhog 1 at. PI.
(iiXXaX{v).
nlrco vdtog, I drink water (am a water-
drinker).
vdarog aivw, I drink some water (I drink of
water).
to tdojp nivco, I drink the water.
tou vSatog nlvta, I drink (some) of the water.
foQla) tov agrov, I eat some of the bread.
238 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

252. Rule. — The Gen. is used to express a part of


a thing.

tov oivov,
Xaftfiavet he takes the wine.
Xappdrsi tov oivov, he takes (some) of the wine.

253. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Haqa Tivog eq^srat. 6 dyytXog ; — Ilaqa tov



ifiov narqbg sq^erai. Uaqd Tiva yqdcpsi 6 vsa-
viag; —Uaqd (nqbg) tt)v xaXr)v xoqr/v. —HkfinsL
tt)v imOroXrjv ov naqd (%qbg) tt)v £{ir)i> xhvyuTsqu,
dXXd TtuQtc rrjv O/jv. —Kara rivog tccvtcc Xtytig •
—Kara tovtov tov ddlxov. —Kcitu tIvu vo/uov ;
—Kara tov tov &sov vofiov xccl tov too dv&qa-
%ov. — 01 dSixoi navTag Tovg vo/uovg xaff fj/nsgav
7iaqcc/3aivov6iv. — Uaqd tIvi fisvovGcv ol vtavlai ;
— Uaqd tw Gocpa dc§aOxdXa. — Ol &r]Qtvral
olxOVOlV Tj 7t£Ql TTjV XlflVT]V, n TtCtQCC TOV TlOTCCfZOV.
— TaiiTa naqd to dlxaiov. —ITaqd tu
Xeysig
dXXa £cocc ol dv&qanoi dig &sol aloiv. — ITaqd
%a6av tt)v &rjqav ol vKrjqsvTCU ovte uqtov io&i-
ovocv, ovts oivov %ivov6iv. — 01 ftsv vdaq, ol de
ydXa Ttivovoiv. — JTqorsqov jusv oivov imvov, vvv
8s vdaq rj ydXa nlvovdiv. — 'Edrjdoxa tov aqrov.
— Tov /usXiTog rj tov ydXaxTog tiXr/cpag. — El tccv-
tcc ovT<ag r) fidqTr]xag.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 'x!39

II. Render into Greek.

From whom do you come? — We come from the


merchant. — Not from the merchant, but from the physi
cian. — To whom do you send this letter ? — To my sis
ter. — The father writes his daughter. — The orator
to
speaks against the unjust (man) according to the laws. —
Contrary to (in violation of) the laws. — Along the sea,
and along the river. — With whom do you stay during the
chase ? — I stay with my brother during so many days. —
If I stayed with you, I should send letters to my brother
— The time has past by. — The orators all come forward.
— At that time, none of the orators came forward. — If the
orators had been present (tingijaav) they would have
come forward. —I drink as much water as milk. — The
irrational (man) drinks as much wine as water. — I in
deed drink water, and you, wine. — A fly has fallen into
the milk.

SIXTY-FOURTH LESSON.

254. The Subjunctive Mode.

The Subjunctive Mode has three tenses, the Present,


Perfect, and Aorist, formed from the corresponding
tenses of the Indicative ; thus,

Ind. Subj.
Pres. ygaq>m, am writing, ygd(p-(a,may write, or be writing.
1Aor. s-ygenft-a, wrote, ygaip-m, may write,
Perf. yiygacp-a, have written, yeygncp-m, may have written.
240 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Pres. axov-ia, axov-a, may hear, be hearing


1 Aor. fjxow-a, uxovo ta, may hear.
Perf oxijxo-S, axons, may have heard.

Pres. jiYjit-m, ji/jit-w, may fall, &c.


2Aor. e-nea-ov, nia-a, may fall,
Perf. nimwx.a, n&txdix-u, may have fallen.

Rem. — The above shows the formation of the Subj. Act.


It ends in til. The Augment of the Aor. is dropt, that
of the Perf. continues through all the Modes ; thus,

Pres. Xa/t^avm, 'kuft^dvca.


2 Aor. i-Xa§-op, Linear,
Perf eiXifqw, sHyy-oa.

Pres. fievco, fievm.


1 Aor. i-fteira, pstv-u.
Perf. (itptrtixa, fiepevijx-co.

55s Observe that the Aor. Subj. is sometimes like the


1

Fut. Ind. as 1 Aor. Subj. and Fut. Ind. yga^-a. — But

from axovm Fut. Ind. axoveofiai (not axovaa) l Aor.


Subj. axovoa.

Rem. — The Imperf. and Pluperf are found only in the Ind.
The Fut. is wanting in the Subj. and Imper.

ST
255. eifti, am. Subj. co, may be.

T T
lng- <*>,
p, fl.
Dual. ijtnv, T)zov.
Plur. •ttftSP, ijTS, coai(r)
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 241

So, all Subj. in to, thus,

yqdtp- \ to, Sft v,


yqdxp- > tjiov, 'Poe.
feyqay- ) to/xev, we, toai(v).

Pres. sg^ofiai, Subj. "to (from sJ/m) not iq^to/iat.


2 Aor. 7jl9ov, eX&m.
Perf. il^lv&a, ilrilvdto.

256. (G') in order that, that (denoting purpose.)

(in order) that Imay go.


dxovto iva aoqibg a, I hear that I may be wise.

to nvq (stem nvq) the fire.

SING. DUAL. plur.

N. nvq N. wttoa
G. nvqog N.A.V. niqe G. nvqtov
D. nvqi G. D. nvqoiv D. nvQat{v) (nvqoig)
A. nvq A. jr)5p«
V. nvq V.

fcqftog, 17, oV, warm, hot.


xpvxqog, a, G, cold.
6 Xt&og, ov, the stone.

Xi&og ovx iv nvql Xupnei, a stone does not shine in the


fire.
11
242 OKEEK OLLENDORFF.

257. Exercises.

I. Render into English.



QsQfibv v8aq. -YScoq tpv%q6v.
— To fisv vdao
ipv^oov, rb 8s nvq &SQfiOV iorcv. — To ntiQ Xaju-
nqov sGtcv. —cO rjXcog sdrc nvo. — 0 jusv rjXcog %vq
s6tcv, fj 8s GtXrjvT), yrj. — To /uiv tvvq sqv&qov sGtlv,
f) 3s yfj, jusXaiva.
— To iv tuvty\ rfj xorjvr} v8coq
fidXa ijJVXQOv sGtcv. — El Xi&ov slg to tivq qiipscg,
bfiag ov Xd/utf/sc. — 0 /ua&rjTr/g fisvsc nuqa tco 8i-
8a6xdXa, iva Oocpbg xal Gcjcpgcov — -O yrjrcoQ

fi-
naqsqxsTUi 'iva Xsyrj. — 'O naig to £vXov Xrjtptrai
'iva slg to niiq Qiipyi. — Idsl dtvgo soj/Ofis&a 'iva
toov QTjTOgcov —
dxovafxsv. -Hxeo Iva £vXa O^ioto.
— 01 ■d~r\QSVTa\ ndqsc6cv (are present) iva ccqtov
sG&iaGc, xal ydXa nivaGcv. —Tqd(pa tt)v sttcGto-
Xtjv 'iva nkfiipco avTrjv. —'At\ sncGToXdg yqdcpa iva
ns/unco avTag nqog Tiva. — -O -frtbg Tovg xaxovg
ScdgsTac xal dia nvqog, xal 8c vSarog.

II. Render into Greek.

The water warm.— The water


is

not so warm as
is

the fire....-. That water neither warm nor cold,- If the


is

water shall remain near the fire, will be warm.— The


it

boy throws neither wood nor water on to the fire.


I
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 243

have come that I


may throw a stone. — We always throw
wood instead of stones. — I am present that I may drink
wine instead of milk. — Some (or fist) are present that
they may drink wine, others, that they may drink water.
— If I had honey, I should not eat so much bread. — The
young men will go out at day-break (Qiaotv apa

rjj
that they may hunt wild beasts. — We flee that you may
pursue. — We flee because you pursue. — If the lion had
fled, the hunter would have pursued. — We shall pursue
clear to the sea.

SIXTY-FIFTH LESSON.

Passive and Middle form


of

258. Subjunctive.

go a journey, may travel,


I

tioQsvofiut, noQsvoofiai, <fec.

Sing. noQsv-cofJiai, tjtai.


fj,

m/ieOov, tjadov, ijaQov.


<6[A.e&u, tja&s, wvtai.

So from xeipat, lie, Subj. xecofiut, xerj, may lie.


may sit.
"

xd&qfiai, sit, xd&mfiat,

fiaivco, Subj. fiftlvw.


(la, m, &c.
"
efyv,
244 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Pres.Impf. ea&ia>,iqa&iov, Suhj.ia&i(o,mayeat,maybeeating:


FuL edoftai,
2 Aor. eqayor,
" may eat.
tpdyco,
Perf. Plupf. idijdoxa, ś8ijdóxEir, "
edydoxto, may have eaten.

259. to avxov, ov, the fig.


b (i) xe'qaaog, ov, the cherry tree.
to xe.Qa.oXov, ov, the cherry.
xarta&i(o rd xeqdaia,
■ I eat up, devour the cherries
xaieSqdoxa ta. avxa, I have devoured the figs.

Rem. — Through all the Modes the Pres. denotes a contin


ued or customary act; the Aor. an absolute or mo
mentary act. The English often fails to distinguish
them.

Ga xata^aivm, that I may descend (habitu


ally).
iva. xaidfim, that I may descend (absolutely).

Rule. — The Subj. regularly follows only the Pres.


Perf. and Fut. not the past tenses ; as Xeym wa dxovqg, not
ekeyov ha uxovyg.

260. 6 inntvg, the horseman.

SINO. DUAL. FLUR.

N. innsvg N. inneXg (from inne'eg)


G. innetog N.A.V. inne'e G. Innem*
D. inneT G. D. inneoiv D. innevai(r)
A. innea A. inaeag (also inne Tg)
V. innev V. inneig
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 245

Rem. — Observe long 6, as, Initio., Irtniag. Also Att.


Gen. m{.

So, 6 (laotlevg, the king.


6 yovevg, the parent.
6 axviEvg, the shoemaker.

Nouns of the 3 Decl. whose stem ends in a vowel


{inns) are usually contracted in some of their cases, as
above.

261. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

'O inntvg. — 01 rov /SaoiXscog Inn tig. — 01


ircTittg and tojv inncov xaruftrjGovTai. — 'O iiiTitvg
eg^trai naqd rov /utydXov ftaOiXsoog. — 0 /3aoc-
Xtvg rov innsa cog" dyytXov nknofiytv. — 01 yovttg
rovg viovg cpiXov6n>. — 'O %alg Tovg yovttg iv ra
xr\7ta dgd.
— 01 "EXXrjvtg iXr/Xv&aGtv
iva oixaSt
noqtvavrai. —At xoqat igiatiiv iva irii rcov nt-
rqdv xd&avrai. — IJaqd rivog fjX&tv 6 Gxvrtvg ;
—Uaqd rov TiXovoiov iqydrov. — Ti tl%tv iv ratg
%tqo~iv ;
—Svxa xal xtqdoia tt%tv. —'O vtccviag
rjxti i!va xtgaGia cpdyrj. — 'O natg noXXa
xtqdoia
xal 6vxa xal GvXXs£ti xal tdtrui. — Tig ndvra
ravva ra ciixa xarscpaytv ; — Ovrog 6 ■frrjoarrig,

intidrj — TToXXol xsqaaoi


ctno rrjg &qoag tiorjX&tv.
tioiv iv too Tonop rovra. — Ot xsqaooi ovx iv ra
ifico xrjTico tioiv, dXX iv ra 6a.
246 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

II. Render into Greek.

Thisexperienced shoemaker. — How many shoe


makers are there in the village? — Not so many shoe
makers as physicians. — The father sends his son to (agog,
nagd) the shoemaker. — The shoemakers live (oixovai)
near the river. — The parents of the shoemaker live in
the village, — The horseman sits on his (the) horse. — The
horseman came as a messenger from the king. — This
boy has eaten many cherries. — He will not eat so many
cherries as figs. — The king of this country dwells near
the sea. — As long as the king was sober-minded he was
happy. — The wicked (xaxo/) pursue one another, that
they may harm each other. — God is a good and great
king.— There is no king except God. — God is one.

SIXTY-SIXTH LESSON.

262. Subjunctive of Contract Verbs.

ogam ogm, I see.

Ind. Subj.
Pres. ogam ogm, ogam ogm.
2 Aor. scdov, idm.
Perf. ioig&xa emgdxm.

Sing, ogdm ogm, oprcfl? oga? ogart oga.


Dual. ogdrjzov ogdzov ogdijzov ogazov.
Plur. bgampev ogmfisr, bgdrjz& ogate, 6gdwai(r) 6gmai(v)
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 247

263. qr dt co, qsr/U), I love.

Ind. Subj.
Pres. qiiXsm qiiXm, <piXew qiXa>.
1 Aor. iq-.t'Xtjaa, qnXrjaco.
Perf. nsqiiXr/xa, nscpiXrjxto.

Sing, (fiktto (fikat, (piXsr/g (piXrjt, qitXerj qiXtj.


Dual. qttXerjtov qitXr/Tov, qitXeijrov tfiXijtov.
Plur. (piXimfisv qiiXmfisv, cpiXeijre (piXtjts, qiiXi<oai(v) qitX<aoi(v).

264. dtjXoco drjXm, I show.


Intl. Subj.
Pres. drjXow dtjXa>, SrjXoco 8t]X<a.
1 Aor. idtjXcoaa, drjXwom.
Pert dtdtjXmxa, dc8rjX(6xm.

Sing. drjXom Sif/.w, StjXn^ di/Xotg, dyXorj StjXoi


Dual. SrjX6tliov8tjXa>Tov,8iiX6rjTov SrjXwtov.
Plur. dijXom/itv di/laiiit) , SrjXorjtt dtjXate, dqX6<aoi(v) dtjXmai(v).
fy,

265. Air, av, (el av) (only with the Subj.)


if

sav sXdy, oxpofiai avrov, he come, shall see him.


if if

I
fig,

you be wise, you will be


rjv

ootpbg fiaxctQioe sari,


happy,
shall hear.
if

av XtytjS, axovaoftat, you speak,


I

Rem. — iav, av (from and the Modal Adv. av). are all
si

different forms of the same mode, and used exclusively


with the Subj. The conjunction av, (ti, av) must
if

therefore be carefully distinguished (rom the simple


Modal Adv. av which a part of it.
9 is
248 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Itf3 commonly begins the clause, av Adv.

if,
Observe av,
never.

if I if
av Xtyri?, you speak.
iXeyov av,

el should
uuiu ojj^ati
speak 11if—
you
rou are present, you will
speak.
av, you would speak you were
el

if
eXeyeg naffis.
present.

266. idv, (tjv, av) with Subj. implies doubt and inte
rest in a practical question.

av aitov, he be virtuous, shall love


if
5,

I
ococfQwv qpt^jjcroo
him.
find my cloak, shall come.
if

eav ztjv yXaivav evgco, rjl-m,


I

267. Recapitulation.

with Ind. implies that the thing so.


is
el

(a)
with past tense of the Ind. followed by av
el

(6)
a

with a past tense of the Ind. implies that the thing


is

not so.
(c) idv (fjv, av) with Subj. implies doubt and interest
as to whether the thing is or will be so.
el e"

if

(a) MjtM, am.


I I

— were, in that case,


I if

(6) r\v
i

(cj tav be.


if

oj,
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 249

(a) si he shall be alone, shall see

if
fiovog iareu, oxpofiai

I
aizov, him.
si ftovog tjv, siSov aizov, he was alone, saw him.

if if

I
(6) el fiovog qv, eoiQcov av he were alone, should see

I
aizov, him.
si fiovog r[v, sldov av aizov, he had been alone, should

if

I
have seen him.
(c) av fiovog fl, otyofiai avtov, he be alone, shall see him.

if if

I
ftij

sav ftovog ovx o\po- he be not alone, shall not

I
fiou avtov, see him.

Note. — English usage commonly overlooks many of


the nice distinctions of the Greek. Especially con

it
founds the Pres. Ind. with the Pres. Subj. and Fut. Ind.
thus,
avzov, he comes, see him (and he does).
if if

IgftTcrf,
ei

6q<o
I

jj'Jtt, oi/iofiui aviov, he shall come (commonly, he comes),

if
tl

shall see him.


I

he come (commonly he comes),


if
if

oijjofiai,
jj,

I
shall see him.

For the sake of clearness we shall adhere to the


Greek structure as closely as possible thus,
;

tavta leyst, ufta^tdvet, he says this, he errs.


el si

if if if

tavza lieu, afiaqzrjaszai, he shall say this, he will err.


av tavta leyri, afiaqzrjastai, he say this, he will err.

268. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

with Ind. implying that the case is as supposed.


si

(a)
vsaviag, satai iva xsgdrsia ia&iv.
si si si

rfesi
6

ol

aSovaiv oqvi&eg, rjfisTg as) axovo/isv.


^Qovitjv axovaofiai, xal (also) otyofiai tijv aazqanrfv.
11*
250 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

«' xcu fieXaivai at vecpeXat, Sfimg Xd/insi 8i avtmv ij


aajQanrj.
el rrjv imatoXijv tygaxpag, xal enep-tyag avrrjv.
ei ovxa eiigqaei 6 naig, ndvra ederai.
el Toig oq&aXfiolg bgafiev, dxovoftev rots molv.
ftfj

el hiuU'ti rjXios, ovdev oxpo/ie&a.

6
ei Tig zavta eigrjxe, fidXa aotpog iativ.
uaxdgtog sfffl,
el ftrjSera vofiov naga§rj<sri.
%evog, ^et xcu avgiov ndXiv.
el

%X&e %9eg
6

— av, with past tenses of the Ind. implying that the


el

(6)
case not as supposed.
is

ft naqrjv, itogmv dv tov Xeovta.


iv

nvgi exeiro, ovx dv eXafinev.


el

Xt&og,
6

ttjv yeyvgav diefit] inaevg, ovx dv eig tov nora/xov


el

eneaev.
rig ovx dv eyeXaaev, axlovgog tor naiSa edaxev
el

;
b

rig ovx dp iyeXa, tovtov rbv raav emga


el

atoa ixa&rjue&a.
rjj
if

eoneqa i\v, Tjfieig dv


ei el

dv
ftexQi irjg eonegag ifieivag, eXapiipev aeXijvt].
tj

(c) idv, ijv, av with Subj. implying doubt, <fec.

dv avgiov nagqg, rbv Xeovta oxpxi-

idv neoq ov noXiiv %govov xelaetat ini Tijg yijg.


fj

Xl0>v>

idv nagd ttjv vvxta aScodiv


ai

dtjdoveg, dxovadfie&a fj/ietg.


la

tjv eX9rj xogtj eig ibv xijnov, goSa xal avXXe^ei.


y

dareoeg did twv vsqtsXwv, vv^ xaXtj eatat.


ol

dv Xufxnmrav
rj

xav (even if xal dv) id &qgta rbv {hftfevrtj* oxpetat, 6fimg


ov (pev^erai.
to veavla, dv dv&gamov fj/rijj', av&gmnov xal evqrjsetg.
fig,

oo nal, dv oacpgtor xul ear]/laxdgiog.


oiS dv (not fven if) ndvv nXoioiog tjg, dvev ageing
svOaifimr ecTi(.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 251

II. Render into Greek.


If things are so, the man is wise. — If these
these
things were so (ovtmg elxev) the woman would be alto
gether happy. — If these things be so (ovrcog j^j/) the
king will send a messenger to the horseman. — The wo
man is not happy because she is beautiful, but because
she is virtuous. — Why in the world has the shoemaker
come into this place ? — That he may collect books and
hear the orators. — If the orator shall speak, I shall hear
him. — If the orator were speaking against my parents, I
should not hear him. — If the teacher speak concerning
virtue and wisdom, I shall be present. — After these
things, what will the orator say ? — He will say that the
rich alone are happy. — This bad king is rich indeed, but
miserable. — If the horseman were rich he would not sell
his horse. — If those things be so, the boy will laugh.

SIXTY-SEVENTH LESSON.

269. 17 noTXg, the city.

SING. DUAL. PLDR.

N. nolig N. n6lnig(h. noises)


Q. nolemg N. A. V. nolee G. nolsmv
D. tiolsi G. D. noltoiv D. nolsai{v)
A. noliv A. ir6leig(fr,n6leag)
V. noli V. noleig

So. 6 otpig, the serpent,

i] xovig, the dust.


252 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Accent. — In teas and tiov, to is short in reference to accent.

fj noa, as, the grass.

270. two {mi, wp) under. A Preposition.


vnb tov, to), tov, (Governs Gen. Dat. and Acc.)

1. vnb tov, under, more commonly, from under, by.


vno 77ji ytjs, under the earth.
vnb ftiyov mnovg Xvco I loose horses from under the
yoke.
davfia^ovzai (Pass.)in' ifiov, they are admired by me.

2. vnb Jtf, under, close under, at the foot of.


vno yq etoiv, they are under the earth,
vnb to) loqxp, close under, at the foot of the
hill.

3. vnb rov, motion under, to the foot of.


vnb t\v iQctns^av,
Tptj(cx>
I run under the table.
vnb tov Xoyov ql&ov, they came under =to the foot
of the hill.

omb tov, away from the, Ac tor, out from the.


avrl tov, instead for the, nqb tov, before, for the.
of,

iv up, in, among the, ski tov, into the.


abv iu, along with the, fttia toil, in connection with the.
ava top, over, throughout the, ngbg tov, to the.
Sia toil, through the, Silt tov, on account of the.
x«ra tov, down from, against the.
xctTa tov, according to, (at, by) the.

(iiTa tov in connection with the, fitTa tov, next to, after the.
Intel (Owl) tov, concerning the.
jrtpi toi, close about the, negl tov, around, about the.
dart tov, on the, Aii i<3> close on the, int top, on to the.
OLLENDOKFF. 253

naga tov, from beside the, naga tw, by the side of,
beside the.
naga tor, to. toward ; along, during ; in comparison

of,
beyond the.
into tov, under, from under, by the, vjio t&, under, close
under the, vnb tov, motion under.

271. ore, when.


With Ind *n"^i a,1<^
after that, when, since.
I

ea>g, as long as, until.


i*exQii; and i*sxqi, until.
r[

oiav (oie, uv), when.


intidav {tneiSfj, at),-v)hen, after that,
With Subj. t'ndv {ind, «*) " "
eoos; av, so long as, until.
HtXQ'S "yi until.
[

OTS tQXSTM, when he comes,


otav (not eQXlTai), when he may come,
h

ots, tneiSij ijkdsv, when, after that he came,


orav, snsiSav "sXO^, when, after he may (shall)
have come,
ots fyrqaeii,; svQqaets, when you shall seek, you shall
find.
otav tflT^g, evg^asig, when you (may) seek, you
shall find.
xa&qaopai ems Xel-eie, shall sit so long as you shall
I

speak.
xadtjaoftai ems ap keyrjs, shall sit. so long as you may
I

speak.
e/tsror ems (fexQts) V^£S< stayed until you came.
I I

/iEVG>
sag oiv sX&rjs, shall stay until you may
(shall) have come,
ots rfeti tie ity noliv, oifioftcu, when he shall come into the
city, shall see him.
I

ineidav sl&y els i\v mar, when, after he shall have come
oifjoftai, into the city, shall see
I

him.
254 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

272. Rem. — icai, ozccy, inttddv, tug av, &c. with the Aorist Subj.
denote a completed act, and as the Subj. generally
refers to future time, it then becomes = to a Perf. Fut.
shall have (may have).

lav eX&rj, if he shall (may) have come.


otav evgijrs, when you shall have found.
eneidav tdcofiev, after we shall have seen.
ems, ns%Qii av il&maii>, until they shall have come.

273. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

"Oth els noXiv rjX&ov^ stdov tov fiaGiXea.


— 'Entidav els *hv noXiv tia&X frcojutv, tov fiecGcXea
6i//6jue&a. —-Eag av t\ aiXovQog vnb
rfj
rqansC,^
xerjTai, ovdsva drjgtrai. — 'Ensidccv oi innslg tov
norufibv htaftaGi, tt)v vnb tg> Xocpa %6Xiv oifjov-
Tcce- — -Ecog ctv adaOiv al p(tXi86veg, rjjusig ccvtov

(here) jusvov/usv. ta;


— bepig e'v Tfi %6a exttro,
6

navTCtg i'daxvtv. — 'O GxoXibg ocptg v%b tg> IAN,


xurai. — '0 xoviv ia&iu. —"Ecog ovrog ocpig
bepig
6

ev Trj xovei xslosrat, ndvrccg xara Tdvg 7i6d*<g


Srj&Tcci. — -Ecog av Xdfi%r\ tjXiog, tooovtov %qovov
6

r)/usig tcc {^rjQia §ico§6/ut&a. —'H aiXovqog vtto rqv


tqccth^uv dtdgdjurjxsv. —-Orccv Xsyco6iv oi QrjTOQtg,
tots dxovoofit&a. — '£1 vtavia, Sag av Gcocpqav rig,
tffbg 'iXsag sotuc eoi.
6
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 255

II. Render into Greek.

The city. — The great city. — The great city lies


under the hill. — It lies in the midst of the plain. — The
city is ten stadia distant from the river. — The squirrel is
running under the table. — The large rock lies at the foot
of the tree. — The serpent lies in the grass, or in the dust,
or under a stone. — The serpent has poison under his,
tongue. — The tongue of the serpent has not so much
poison as that of the flatterer. — The poison of the serpent
lies in his tongue, but that (6 8t) of the flatterer in his
soul.— If the serpent lies in the grass, he bites. — When
the boy shall have seen the serpent, he will flee. — As
long as the scholar may have money he will collect
books. — The shepherd will stay until he shall have seen
the wolf.

SIXTY-EIGHTH LESSON.

Ind. Pres. I rejoice.


I was rejoicing,
274. ^aiqw,
Imperf. i^aiqav, used to rejoice.
Fut. ^aiQ^am, shall rejoice.
2 Aor. (Pass, form)
i%&QTjv, I
rejoiced, Subj. xaQ&t
AS, &c. may rejoice.

Perf. xexdQijxct (xe%ttQ7]fiai), have rejoiced.

jfaigoo rovroig, I rejoice in these things.


ovdevi ovrm jrcttgEjs *»ff uya- You rejoice in nothing so
friends,
&oTt; qw'ioiff,
(much) as in good
u iavta le£sif, %aiQ rjaai. if you shall say this, I shall re
joice.
256 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

275. "dm, let me see.


igfyej/tev, let us run.
(irj xata$a>fi8t, let us not come down.

Rem. — The Subj. is used in the 1 Pers. Sing, and Plur. for
exhortations, &c.

ixrjdetg, fitjSefita, [ttjde'v, no one, nobody, nothing,


fiijdsvos, &c, like ovdeig.

Rem. — fttjdilg differs from oldeic: as (it) from Nov.

Rule. — In negative commands, precepts,


276. <fcc,
the Aor. Subj. is used instead of the Aor. Imper.

/XTj yQdxpyg, do not write.


prfieig yodxpri, let no one write.
w) javta. Xi%r\g, do not say these things.
fitjStnOTS /itjdii' xaxov Xe%fjg, never say any thing evil.

277. 6 neXexvg, the axe.

SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. rttXsxvg N. neXexsis (fr. nsXe'xeeg)


G. neXexecog N.A.V. neXe'xee G. neXfxtmv
D. ntXsxu G. D. nsXexsoiv D. askixsat{v)
A. niXexvv A. neXexeig
V. niXsxv V. neXexstg


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 257

Ti'/xvm (xonrco), I cut.


Ind. Subj.
Pres. Tt'/ivm, am cutting, &c. tifivm, may be cutting.
Imperf irtftrop,
Fut. jt/im,
2 Aor. erafiov, Tctftm.
Perf Th/xtjxa,
Plupf nrcT/upKtr,

278. oang (off tig) whosoever, whoever.

Sing.
N. oariff, ^riff, o,ti,
G. ov7tVoff, jJartVoff, ovrifoff, Att. otov, orris, orov.
D. qmri, quri, tyitvt, orrp, org, oriji.
A. ovtXva, iqvtXra, o,n, &c, off and t)g, declined throughout.

oang ravxa Xeyei, whosoever says these things,


ovtiva aya&bv 6o<3, PIG, whomsoever I see good, I love.

279. Indirect Interrogatives.

Direct. Indirect.
rig ; who ? oang, who.
no ffoff ; how much ? bnoaog, how much.
itoiog ; of what sort ? Oftoiog, of what sort,
aov ; where ? onov, where. Subj. o»ot> at:
"
note ; when ? onoTf, when. bnotav.
258 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

rig ianv ; who is it 1


iQtorag oatif tativ ; do you ask who it is 1
noaog ; how much 1
ov Xel-co onoaog, I shall not say how much.
nov siaiv ; where are they ?
igcoTm onov eialv, I ask where they are.
noaov nmXsig ; for how much do you sell 1

Jerri bnoaov nmXsig, he asks for how much you sell.

280. oatig av,


whosoever (with Subj.)
off av,

Whoever may say this, oatig av tovto Xeyq.


Whomsoever I may see, ov av open.
Every one who, naa oaiig or ooog.
All who, ndvrsg oaoi (not olrivtg).
All that may be good I love, ndviag, oaoi av ayu&ot mat,
miXm.
IT * 1
Wherever I may be, onov av m.
Whatever you may say, oaa av Xeyyg.

281. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

XaiQa. — Ov /uovov iyd>, akXa xcel nexvrtq


%uiqovOiv. — cO dya&bg roig dya&otg xccigti. —'O
fie v dyax96g xotg dya&olg %cctQ£C, 6 ds xaxog roig
xaxolg. — El odxpgiav fjv 6 viog, GcpoSqa civ Z%aiQbv
6 %uri]Q. — £2 vtuvicc, ju,i]7iort /urjStvl xccxa ^aQrjg.
— 'OGTcg ra xaxa ^aigti, ct&Xiog s6tiv. — 77 iv
rfj xsiqI fysig ; —HeXi-xvv e%co.
—'0 spyctryg ts/livsc
FM ra 7ieXsx£t. — Tip fisv ntXkxtt §vkcc Tt/uti,
toj —
8s Gcprjvl o^toei. -Ooce av gvXcc ood 6 vt%vi-
TTjg,ravra rsfisi rs xal 6/iGti. — "Iojfitv. — Tqs%oj-

fisv. Mr) ravra tec davdgce d^iarj rc5 ittXsxsi. —
Mrjdtlg /uTjTtort /urjSsv xuxov libs. — Tig ioriv 6
£tvog ; — 'Eoaroj 6t o6rig eorlv 6 ^ivog.—'EQOTu 6
nctlg onov olxti 6 nXoveiog tfxnoqog. — Hert
rjX&eg ;— Mi Xegyg Snore r)X&tg. — Jccc vctiira ovx
erctfiov to dsvdoov, ore ovStva ei^ov %eXexvv.

II. Render into Greek.

Let me see the axe. — Let us


always pursue just
things (ret dixata). — Young man do not pursue what is
evil (ro xaxov). — Never say any thing evil. — Whatever
you may say, I shall hear.- All who shall be present,
will say the same things. — Whomsoever the king may
see just, he loves. — For how much has the young man
sold his cloak 1 — For much money. — He will not say for
how much. — Let no one take this axe into his (arr) hand.
— Do not split wood with this axe. — Who asks how much
milk I drink ? — Nobody asks how many (onoaa) apples
and cherries the boy has eaten. — If I had an axe I should
cut. this stone. — I threw the axe under the table. — Not
under the table, but on to the seat. — On to what seat? —
On to the one in the porch. —The cat lies under the seat.
— I rejoice in these things. —Who does not rejoice in
good friends ?
260 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

SIXTY-NINTH LESSON.

282. fjdvg, pleasant, sweet.

SING.

N. ijdve rjSeia r)dv


G. tjdt'og fjduag rjSeog
D. ijdei r[5uu. fjdsi
A. For rjdsictv rjSv
V. tjSvg ijdeia

N.A.V. rjdee We
G. D. Wow 7jdeia.iv

N. }]8eTg rjdeTai ijoea


G. Wars, fjdstmv r)8e'mv
D. rtdeai(v) qdsiaig Woo)
A. ffleig i)8uag jjoeo!
V. ijdeig qdeiai fjde'S.

So, yXvxvg yXvxsia yXvxv, sweet.


ra-fig za.fi, swift.
fiqaSvg ftgadsta figadv, slow.
(taQvg fia&ua §a&v, deep.
o$6e 6%eia d!*v, sharp.
evgvg svqv, wide,
evQsia
nXarvg nXateta nlatv, broad.
sv&vg ev&eia ev&v, straight.

283. 6%vv fym ne'Xsxvv, I have a sharp axe.


tov 6%vv neXexvv fym, I have the (or my) sharp
o%vv fym tov niXexvv,
tbv TieXsxvv 6%vv e%m, I have my axe sharp
Ijfoo 6%vv tov neXexvv,
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 261

307. Rule — The Adj. when not immediately preced


ed by the Art. distinguishes the substantive not from an
other object, but from the same object in another condi
tion; thus,

ejfco fieXawav 'W' $.uivav, I have my cloak black (not


white).
but, fym ttjv fiiXaivav jXairott, I have my black cloak (not my
white one).

284. So of clauses.

OQO) TJjV SV T§ OMtCt &VQCIV, I see the door (which is) in the
house.
OQm iv Tfl oixta tr\v ■dvgav, I see the door in the house (not
any where else).
I shall throw the ball (which
under the table.
is)

GCfCUQOCV,

Qitpoo rtjv acpouqav vno tijv shall throw the ball under the
I

table.

285. W, sweetly.
ijStoos, with pleasure, gladly,
layy, quickly, swiftly.
@Qa8ems, slowly.
straightway> immediately,
vb{H>S'
(

aocpme, wisely.

ev&vg els tots %£qci9 eXafiev, he straightway took into his


hands.
ivfteiu 686g, the road straight.
is
tj

oyvi&es ij8v afiovoiv, the birds sing sweetly.


oi

xavia ijSsoos dxovm, hear these things with plea


I

sure.
•262 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

286. 6 (love, the ox.


rj "is, the cow.

SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. Bovg N. foes
G. Boog N.A. V. (toe
G. Bocov

D. Bot G. D. Boolv D. flovaHi)


A. Bovv A. Bovg (86ag)
V. Bov V. pose'

287. nqiv, before, sooner.


nqiv before, sooner than (chiefly with Inf.)
ij,

ov nqoadsr — nqiv,
)

ov nqorsqov — nqiv, not before, not until (with Ind.)


>

ov— nqiv,
)

ov — nqiv uv, not before, not until (with subj.)

r before (until)
He did not depart
oi
wf a9,Bv. &^X&t' ^
oof iyoj,
\\

v t,
'
'

came, a
>

»
1

.
I

owx anrjkde, nqiv T//.VOV tyoi,


(

oix up
He will not escape before anoqisv^srai, nqiv
I

catch him, htfw.

try Observe, until = up to the time when, lis*, iiexQii-


not until = not sooner than, ov nqoa&tv — nqiv, ov nqiv.

He stayed until came, efietvsv fa&ov.


ecag, Ht%Qig
I

He did not depart until, before oi nqoteqov anljk&s, nqiv lyl-


-
came, &ov.
I

They will not depart until= be oix anlaai. nqiv av ehSco.


fore, come,
I
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 263

288. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

TXvxvg olvog. —'HSeice cpcovr}.


— CH rfjg drjSovg
cpcovr/ ou% ovrcog r)8tld sOriv cog r) tin. — 'O rce^vg
'innog. — 'O fioccSvg /8ovg. — 'O juiv 'innog avg, 6
8s /3ovg' /3occ8vg soviv. — 'O dvqQ txil TOV nsXtxvv
6§vv. — O 6og nsXsxvg ov% ovrcog d£vg sonv cog 6
tov sqydrov. —Uorctfibg fia&vg. —'O noraf.ibg
fia&vg ts xcti tvQtig. —'H naq r'/juiv Xljuvrj ov%
ovrco nXarsld sdnv cog r) tuq vulv. — 'H /asv b8bg
sv&slcc, 6 8s Tiorcijuog OxoXiog sonv. — ITov rr/v
; — Ev fitydXrj vojurj. —CH
rfj

fiovv tcoQccxccg Xijuvrj


judXa fiu&tict e6riv. —Ai
rfj

ev ravrtj X,coQ{t
rj

drjdovsg r/8v aSovdi ndoav rr)v vvxru. — 01 'innoi


Ta%scog tqs%ov6lv. — Ov 7ZQOO&tv rovg OQVl&Ctg
tjxovGccjuiv, kqiv tXctfixpsv tag. — Ov 6cp68qa
r)

%aiQrj6co ttqiv dv oi cptXoi tX&coOiv. — 01 iTtTttig tov


/3a&i/v norafibv 8ia/3^aovrai.
— Olvog ov% ovrco
yXvxvg &6nv cog ydXa i/8coq.
rj

II. Render into Greek.


Swift horses. — Horses are swift, but oxen slow. — The
horse not so swift as the lion. — The birds sing sweetly.
is

— hear this nightingale with pleasure. — drink sweet


I
I

milk with pleasure. — This lake neither so broad, nor


is
264 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

so deep as the sea. — The man has his axe sharp. — A


swift horse, a wide river, and a straight bridge.
— The cows
walk slowly. — The messenger from the king (o naga rov
ftao.)will cross the straight and broad bridge. — I did not
see the large and beautiful city until (= before) I crossed
the river, — You will not see the city until (= before) you
shall have come on to the hill. — You speak these things
wisely. — If the orator always spoke so wisely, I should
hear him with pleasure. — Let no one ever say that the
wicked (oi xaxof) are happy.

SEVENTIETH LESSON.

289. Comparison of Adjectives.

The comparative commonly ends in regog, a, ov, G.


ov, ag, &c.
The Superlative in rarog, or, G. ov, w, &c.
tj,

ixfinhig, high, lofty,


vyprfkortgog, higher.
vxfjTjXoTatog, highest.

So, ftax-gog, qorsgog, gorarog, long, longer, longest.


(lix-Qog, Qoisgog, ootatog, small, smaller, &c.
\afin-Qog, goiegng, gormog.
Xsvu-og, oregog, orazog.
dixcu-og, otsgog, orarog.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 265

Adj. in off with short penult make oirtQog and tStarog.

ooqiog, aoqioiregog, ooycoTaiog.


nXovoiog, nXovoioirsoog, nXovamtatog.

So, tfxoilio'ff, crooked, fiaxufuog, happy.


a&Xtog, wretched, aSixog, unjust.

290. Rule. — The Comparative is usually followed by


the Gen.

nXovauoreqog iftov, richer than I.


7] otj oixia Xtvxoitqa toil tijg your house is whiter than
,¥s> mine.
, , , , . .
tj till) /AixQOTtQa son irtg JOV mine is smaller than the physi-
ICtTQOV,

291. Where the Gen. is inadmissible, the comparison


is made by than.
7),

am wiser now than yesterday, ooqcottgog si/xi vvv ex&e'g.


ij
I

You have a higher house ov fyeig vxpijXojeQav oixiav


ij

than
I,

eyoi.
Richer in gold than silver, nXovoicoTSQog %gvobv ijaqyvoov.

Still the Gen. often used for


is

as,

ov iysig vxptikoTsqav oixiav


\
$

iyoi, you have a loftier house


I

oil vipijXoie'oav oixiav than


I.

fyeie
[

ifiov,
j

And than, sometimes used for the Gen. as,


is
ri

oidev ddtxcoregov x6Xa%, nothing more unjust than a


is
)
rt

oidev xoXaxog ddixwtsQov, flatterer.


\

12
266 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

evgvg, evQvreQOS, svgvtatog, wide, wider &c.


6%vg, o^vtsqos, o^vtarog,
(fyaivg, §QadvtSQOg, §QaSv7arog.
fia&vg, ^a&vTCQog, (Sa&vTctTog.

fisXag, [tsXdvTSQog, (teldvraTog.


{ evroog, sivoeatsgog, evvoiaza-zog.
contr. svvovarazog.
j efo0Vg) evrovarsQog,
ilemg, lleareQog, iXscojatog.
evBaifimv, svdaifiortaTeQog, siSaifioveaTaiog.
awcpQcov, aotqiQOveoTeQog, aaxpgoi'saratog.

292. 6, q ftdgng, the calf, the heifer.

SING. PLUR. DUAL.

N. fiogiig N. nogttsg and nogitg


G. noQTiog N.A.V. nogris G. nogrimv
D. fiOQzti, noqxT G. D. noQxioiv D. 7lOQTiai(v)
A. noQilv A. nogrtag, nogzTg
V. noQtt V. noqilsg, nogxtg

293. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

ZH fiovg xcci fj noqug. — cff noqrig nXrjoiov eGrl


rr)g /3o6g. — Ai ftotg ovv ralg noQriGiv iv rfj yavia
teeivrai TT/g vo/uijg. — CH Ttoqrig /nixgorsQa iorl rijg
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 267

Wrist, — TdXa yXvxvreoovtori tov oi'vov. — TdXa


jluv yXvxv, yXvxvTtgov 8s /usXc. — To juiv ui'/.i
yXvxv, yXvxvngov §s rj Gocpia. — OvSiv yXvxvTS-
qov ioriv ccotrrjg. — Kogaxa tovtov fxtXttvrtqov
ovSt^cjTiors kcoguxa. — 'O
f-isv x6qa§ fxkXag, 6 Si
xoXag erl fteXavrtoog. — D frtog tvvov6Ttqog rolg
ciya&otg ioriv, rj rolg xaxo/g. — Evdaifiovtartoog
ti vvv, rj ore ftciXa 7iXov6cog rjg. — 'O sjuog nsXtxvg
6§VTto6g ion tov Gov. — El ococpoovsortoog r/v 6
vtaviag, /uctxaoccortpog av r)v.
— Mrjdtlg Xtgr) on
6 ddtxog tvdai/uovsartoog tov dcxaiov.

II. Render into Greek.

A high tree. — A higher hilt — The highest houses. —A


small calf. — The calf is smaller than the cow.— The
horse is swifter than the cow. — The ox is neither so
beautiful nor so swift as the horse. — A man is slower
than a horse. — The road into the city sis rtjv nohv 686$)
(ij

longer and more crooked than that through (rye dta)


is

the plain. — The river more winding than the road. —


is

The stars are brighter than the moon. — have never seen
I

the stars brighter than now. — The ether higher than


is

the atmosphere. — The good are happier than the bad. —


the old man were wiser, he would be happier. — The
If

tongue of the serpent black. — The tongue of the flat-"


is

terer blacker than that of the serpent.


is
268 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

SEVENTY-FIKST LESSON.

294. Comparison of Adjectives (continued).

Some Adjectives are compared in and unog, or,

ll,
Ttov

as,

Wm rfticov, ^Siaxog, pleasant, sweet, sweeter, &c.


tayvg, Qaaamv (Att. &drzcov) id%taiog, (irreg

)
aia^Qog, alayiew, aia%iatog, ugly, base, more ugly, &c.

295. Some Adjectives are quite irregular as,


;

Positive. Comp. Superl.


aptlvav, better, agiaxoq, best.
(leXxttav, (HXTiarog.
ctya&og, good,
xgeiaacov,Att.XQthxw, xqaxiaxog.
Xigwv, Xwaxog.
I

. xaxTav, more wicked, xdxioxog,mostwicked.


,

xaxog, bad, wicked,


plgtarog, worst.
j

xaXog, xaXXtw, xaXXunog.


fiiyag, fieefwv, piyiaxog.
[iixgoxtgog, fiixgoxaxog.
(

pixqog, fiday,
<

(Xdaaav, Att. iXdxxmv, iXdxiaxoq.


(

noXvg, nXdav and nXiwv, nXeiaxog.


• oXlyiaxog.
C

oXlyog, (Xaaaav, iXdxxav, iXuxioxoq.


4

rjaaav, Att. rixxoiv, (Adv. j/xtaru).


(
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 269

296. The Comparative in cov is thus inflected.

SING. PLUR.

N. fxtVCfav [iti£ov N. (iti£ovtg & ful£ovg (tel^ora & /ut/fea


G. (iel£ovog G. jkeiJojw
D. flll^OYl D. fid£ooi(v)
A. (iti£ova & fid£w (tti£ov A. fiu^ovag & nutpvg fid£ova&(iel£a
V. juetjov V. i*el£oveg & fttt Jovs (tti£ova & (iei£o)

DUAL.

N. A. V. titl&vi
G. D. (iu£6roiv

Rem. — fiu&vtg is rare ; otherwise the uncontracted forms


are often found.

Better than (superior to, more HQEITTOOV CftOV.


powerful than) I,
A better man (more good mor- fieliimt* av&qtonog.
ally),
A better physician (more ca afiuvmv ictTQog.
pable),
A worse young man (more xaxtW veuriag.
wicked),
Worse (less excellent) oxen. %eigovg @6eg.
Worse citizens, Xet'govg nolirai.
A smaller tree, ftixgoiegov, eXartov devdQOv.
Less wine, iXdrrmv olrog.
Fewer men, iXdttovg uvOoomoi.
Less money, iXdrtai, psica ^Qrjfiaia.

297. Swifter than all, &arrmv navtrnv.


Swiftest of all, aavzmv ta.%i(STog.
270 GHEEK OLLENDORFF.

Rule. — The Superlative governs the Gen. Plur.

Wisdom is the best of all i aoyia navzmv xoctTiotov.


things,

Rem. — The Adjective in the Predicate is often placed in


the Neut. instead of agreeing in gender with its subst.

{} \\>vy)i a&dvutor, the soul is (an) immortal


(thing),
t] aoyia xakov, wisdom is beautiful.
i] aQsrti navimv xdlfoator, Virtue is the most beautiful of
all things.

The Superlative is often used, as in English,


298.
to express a very high degree of any quality.

KaXXiatog, most beautiful.


tj qmi'ij aov TjSuSTi] iaxiv, your voice is most sweet.

Often with mg or o« ; as,

oof tdxiotoe, as swift as possible, exceeding


ly swift,
ozt, tog fiXuarog, as much as possible, very much.

299. Much more beautiful, noi.ii xaXkimv.


noXXqi xallimv (more beauti
ful by much).
okiyov ftei^mt.
A little larger, greater,
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 271

By far greater, ftaxQm uc(£mv.


Still sweeter, iri yXvxvtsgog.
Still much smaller, less, hi noXv pixQoieQog, eXdrttor.
Much, far better, noXv, noXXq>, fiaxQcp /SeiziW,

Not much better, ov noXv uueliwv.


Much the best, noli), noXXqj QeXnaTog.
By far the best, jiay.QO) xgctTiarog.
to<snvT(p ttfteivcav.
So much better,
toaovxov dutivmv.
By so much swifter as, roaovrqi Qdinav oacp.
Far more men. noXXop nXuovg av&Qiaaot.

300. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

cH8tia cpavi]. —'H ftsv ytXi86vog cpcovr) Meta'


£<Stiv, r) 8s rfjQ dr/Sovg stI 7ioXXq> r)8ia>v.
— Td()6dov
xdXXiOrov sGviv. — 'E8rj8oxa nXsico xsqdoicc k' 6vxa.
— 'O jua&rjrrjg dvvtlXoys (has collected) noXXa
nXsiovg fiifiXovg tj 6 8i8doxaXog.
—Horsqa xaX-
Xia sari, rd iv xr]na q68a, r) rd s'v
to iifxtrsqa
ta fjfitTSQa; — Td %aq r)juiv q68cc noXv xaXXia
s6riv. — OvS£v yXvxvrtQOV sGri rov ftsXixog.

Ov8iv rig 6o<piag d/usivov.
—TXvxv
/usv to fisXc,
yXvxvrtQOv 8s r) oocpia, ndvrcov 8s yXvxvrarov fi
272 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

— '-'06(p fiehriav e6rj, rooovra ear} /naxccQta-


ccQsrrj.
TtQog.
— 01 vi/v av&Qanoi %hiqovg slot tcov TidXctt.
— Ovrog 6 Xocpog vyr/Xorarog ioriv. — Ovdsv fxt-
XuvTtgov tare rr/g rov cedixov ipv^rjg. — Mixgog
pm' 6 dvr'iQ, to 8? fj.tr cxvvov ncudiov erl ■no'kv
[xixQOTtQov eOTcv.
— Olvov fisv oXiyov e%0{liV} STl
8s iXdaoova %qvOov.

II. Render into Greek.

Theson (indeed) is wise, but the father is still wiser.


— The horse is much swifter than the ox. — This young
man is far better (§eXi imr) than I. — The good have bet
ter friends than the bad. — Nothing is sweeter than a
good friend. — Whosoever (Sang) has good friends is most
happy. — This rose is (the) most beautiful of all those in
the garden. — Even the richest (xai 6 nlovGuoTarog), if he
be bad, will be miserable. — There are more men (tiri
nXuovg av&gtoftoi) in the city than (i) in the villages. —
There are fewer men in the village than in the city. —
Those in the (of iv ry) village are better (superior) than
those in the city. — God is superior to (xQurrwr) all kings.
— The clouds are higher than the hills. — The daughter
is much more beautiful than her (rice) mother. — The
moon is still higher than the clouds.— The stars are
much the highest of all. — My friend has little (pen) silver,
but less gold.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 273

SEVENTY-SECOND LESSON.

301. Comparison of Adverbs.

syyvg, near.
iyyvrsgov, )
nearer.
iyyvrsgm, l
iyyvt&ra, )
neare
iyyvxarm, )

fiala, very, (in a high degree).


fidXXov, more, rather (in a higher degree).
ftaXtnra, most of all, especially.

rtjg noXsmg tyyvreqov fjfimr or nearer the city than we.

Ttdvtcov iyyvtata, iyyvrdrm, nearest of all-


(idXXov {nXeov) nuvxav, more than all.
ficihara ndvzmv, most of all.
lovto fiaXXov exetvov, this rather than that.

302. The Sing, of the Comparative of Adj.


Neut.
and the Neut. Plur. of Superlative may be regularly used
adverbially.
Ta/e'ro;, Tojfv, swiftly, quickly, &aoaov(&ii-ixov) xnxiaxa.
<TO<pe5s, wisely, trocpdxcgovmorewisely.aoqiwraxamostwisely.
si, well, afittvov, better, aqiaxa, best.
more rarely (SiXxiov and xquxxov, (iiXxioxa and xgdxtaxa.
xax&g, badly, wickedly, xdxiop, more wickedly, xdxiaxa.
XtiQov, worse, xelgiaxa, worst.
i\aaov, (^ttoj-) less. yxivxa, least.
tXaaaov (narrow) less, {Xaxiaxa,
"
[itiov, less.
tl8v pleasantly, sweetly, qdiov, more sweetly, ridiaxa, most sweetly.
noXii, much, nXdov, more, -nltioxa, most.
12*
274 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Ups ndvrmv ^eXtiara, you speak best of all.


the horse runs most swiftly.
tdfiata. iQtx&i b tnnog,
you write more beautifully
iftov xdXXiov ygdystg,
than I.
qttov, ov fieiov, not less,
oi%
ov8iv tjttov, none the less,

ovdiv fidXXov, no more, none the more,


Sixuiog, less just.
r\xiov
ovdsvbg rjTiov dixawg, less just than nobody = as just
as any.

noXv tXmrov, qtrov, Foot', much less,


noXv nXiov, ftdXXov, much more.

303. tog fidXiota, ( in the highest degree, as much


ort ixdhara, \ as possible,
cag p&TiaTa Xe'ysig, you speak most excellently.
on id%iOza Toejjoo, I run most swiftly.

304. ago, before.


ngoisgog, before, sooner.
ngmrog, first.

rjX&e ngortgog e/tov, he came before me.


rjXQe 7iq6tsqov i/iov,
tjX9s ngortgog i) sj'O),
he came sooner than I. (before
%X8s ngoiegov n tyta, me.)
rjX&s ngotigov i} iygaxfja, he came before (sooner than) I
wrote.
Xeyto ngarog ndvrtav, I speak first (the first one) of
all.
Xiym nqwtov ndvrmv, I speak first (the first thing) of
all.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 275

305. More beautiful than wise, xalXtap rj aoqxortQog.


More wise than just. <TO(pt6rsQoe V SmawreQog.

Greater than can be described, /ASt^oav Xoyov (greater than


speech).
Greater than human, fisftmv r\ nata av&Qmnor.
(lit. greater than according
to man).

6 ^aAxo'ff, ov, brass, copper.


6 loyog, ov, the word, speech.
to xdronrgov, ov, the mirror,
rb ttStaXov, ov, (figure) image.

6 ohog xdzoTttqov iatt vov, wine is a mirror of the mind,


6 Xoyog trig xpv^g sidmXov speech is the image of the soul.
tativ,

306. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

*Eyyvg rrjg — Tijg noXsag iyyvrsQov


noXtag.

eGftsv rj rov norccfiov. —'O nalg tioXv iyyvrsqa


rrjg vXr/g iarlv —
(than we). 'O ayyeXog ag
fifiav
Tce^iffra rjX&sv. — 01 roil /3ccGiXscog initoi navrav
Ta%L6TCt eSgafiov. — 01 &t]()£vtcu egijX&ov noXv
IIQOTSQOV fjftoiv. 'O QTjTCJQ OvSsV 7IQOTSQOV TOV-

rov Xs§st. — Tbv Xsovtu si'dojuev oXiyov vertQov q


tiaqXvrojuev (a little after we entered) tig rr^v
276 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

vXrjv. — 01 Xsovvsg i'Socc/uov tioXv &ccttov tcov


iTtTiav. — 'O ysycov Xsyti noXv GocpcortQov vov vtcc-
viov. — 2% /div iv Xayttg, 6 8s ipiXoq 6ov erl
CCfltlVOV, 6 8s QTjTGJQ TldvTOJV CCQ16TCC. 01 VkaVlUl
OV% 7]TTOV OOCpCJQ XkyOVOL TGJV QTjTOQCOV. HccOl
roig dXXoig fjvrov roig dya&oig cpiXoig.
%cci(>co, rj
— Ov8sva judXXov Gov cpiXa. — 01 dya&ol rovg
dyu&ovg cpiXouoi judXXov rj rovg xaxovg. —'O Qtj-
tcoq Xoyco %aiQSi fxdXXov tropics. — 01 OQVt&tg
fitiov iv rfj noXsc p8ovGiv ij iv roig dyqoig. — Ov-
rog 6 /SaGiXsvg /uti^av iorlv
fisXxitov. 'O /usv rj —
%aXxoq xdronroov tcqogojtiov, 6 8s oivog, vov.

II. Render into Greek.

You run swiftly. — The riverruns (flows) swiftly. —


The words of the young man flow faster than a river. —
Who is less wise than I ? — Who is less just than the
wicked (man) ? — The father is far wiser than his son.—
The mother is less beautiful than her daughter. — She is
more beautiful than wise. — The cloak lies nearer
(to) the
trunk than (to) the table. — The horseman came before
(sooner than) the king. — Nobody will go away sooner
than I. — Before we came (nQozegov rj <fcc.) into the plain
we saw the wild beasts. — We did not cross the river
until (ov nqoaOtv — iv)
the king sent us. — My brother
errs less than I. — Who errs more (nleTov,
nallov) than the
thief? — The bad are always less happy than the good. —
This (man) errs most (jtdJuatu) of all. — Copper is less
beautiful than gold or silver.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 277

SEVENTY-THIKD LESSON.

307. fj 'WWW, the trireme (galley with three banks


of oars.)
SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. Ipt?JplJ? N. (iQu'iQMS) TQiyQCig


G. (Tp!?jgE0e) TqiyQOVi G. Tpj»Jp£<l)>'& TIJlriQWV
D. (jqir^qsi) iQiriQU zqiygioiv XQir^oiv D. Tqir/qiai^f)
A. (Tf(r;pt«) IQl^QT) A. (Tp<jjgei/s)T0Mjp£tJ
V. JQiijQsg V. {xqi^qctg) TpMjpets

So, £coxQaTTjg, Socrates.

2(OXQO.TOVg.
2toxQaru.
£<otQa.TTj and Scoxqnrrjv (1 Decl.)

6 nXdrmv, mvog, Plato.


6 q>iX6aoq>og, ov, the philosopher.
ij EXXag, aSog, Greece, Hellas.
'EXXtjUKog, 6v, Hellenic, Grecian, Greek.
rj,

308. nXriQrjg, full, (contr. like tQing^g).

SING. DUAL. PLUR.

N. TiXijQtig Neut. nXijoeg N. TtXr\q-ttg, tig, Jiijjg-£«,ij


G. nXriq-iog, ovg nXtiQ-ti, G. nXriq-emv, 5m
r\

D. nXriQ-u, u nXijf-ioiv, oiv D. nX^qtfSi(y)


A. nXriQ-sa, A. nXr\q-iag,ugnXi\q-ta,r^
i)

V. nXtjfjcg V. nXriq-itg,tig nXriq-ta,t\


278 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

So, aXq&tjg, true,


rpcvdrjg, false.

Comparison nXyQ-eozegog, sazazog.


aXrj9-tazeqog, sazazog.
xpsvd-eazsgog, sazazog.

6 xrjjiog nXrjQrig iazi godmv, the garden is full of roses,


to tttifut zov iov nXrjQtg, the mouth is full of poison,
zavza aXq&fj Xeysig, you say these things truly
(true).
aXij&ij, ra aXijdij Xeysig, you speak the truth (true
things).
ovdsv cav Xeysig xpevdeg eaziv, Nothing of what you say is
false.

309. ov zoaovzov — oaov, not so much — as.

ov toaovzov Si i/u oaov dia not so much on my account as


as, yours.
fiaXXov ifxov r\ aav ivexa, rather for my sake than yours,
tjzzov diet zavza § di exelva, less on this account than that.
ov zoaovzov gale, oaov aXym, I do not so much rejoice as
grieve.

zavza aXij-&tj lira, / do I


say this truly?
oidaumg, in no way, by no means.
tpuaza, not in the least, not at all.
aXtjOmg, truly.
oig aXtj&tog, in very truth.
tog aXt]&eazaru Xsystg, you speak most truly.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 279

'O 2mxQuzrig "Ellijv fy, Socrates was a Greek.


nxdx<av qiiXoaocpog r\v 'EHijvi- Plato was a Greek philosopher.
xos,

Rule. — Proper names may take the Art. if referring


to persons previously mentioned, or well known. Other
wise they reject it.

310. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

'Extlvrj rj vXrj xhrjoicov r\v nXrjorjg. —At Tttgl rr\v


'EXXdSa &dXa66at nXrjotig rjoav ndXcu rav TQcrj-
Qsarv.
— Tav lEXXr]vav ttoXXoi ntqi rrjv xhdXaGOav
axovv xai noXXdxig tig rag Tgiqgtig evt/3aivov. —
cO 2coxQocTTjg xgdviOrog t)v cpiXo60(pog xai uv-
xhocoTtog fieXnorog. —^Ecoxgdvrjg xccl UXdrcov dX-
XrjXovg cjg fidXiOra scpiXovv.— O f-i&v ^axgdrrjg
8i8a6xaXog r/v, 6 ds UXdrav, /^aS-rjvTjg. — Har
row tcov iv 'EXXccdi Oocparv GcocpgovtOrarog W'
^axgdrrjg. — 01 twv cptXoGocpcov Xoyoi noXXdxig
slol iptvdtlg. — 'O TJXdrcov dXrj&rjg rjv cpiXooocpog.
— UXdrcov iXtytv on fj *pv%ri d&dvarog eoriv. —
'O ^coxgdvrjg eXsytv on tig /nsyiSrog &tog son,
xai on extivog ndvra oga, xccl navr dxovti.
OvSsv tptvdtGTtQOV tfJTIV oivov- — OvSsv iptv
280 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Ssareoov e6rc Tijg tov xoXocxog yXdddrjg. —'H tov


xoXaxog yXa66ce ftsXavog iov nXr\qr]g s6rlv. — Tov
fikv ocpeag fj yXcoTTce iorlv iov, tov di
nXr/grjg
xoXcexog, q xaqbiu. — 01 o(pttg tov iov iv roig
oduvOcv e%ov6iv. —Ai vtcpsXai izXriQtig %iovog tioiv.
— Aia tovto 8vo cora t%Ojutv, gtojucc §s iv, 'ivcc
nXtia fisv dxovcofiev, t)ttovcc ds Xeycofiev. — M*r«
tov &tov, navTav /uccXiOtcc Tovg yovsag yiXov-
/utv.

II. Render into Greek.

Socrates was a Greek. — Socrates and Plato were both


Greeks. — Socrates was (the) teacher of Plato. — Plato
loved Socrates most of all. — Socrates was the wisest and
best of the Greeks. — The mouth of Socrates was full of
wisdom. — On the tongue of Plato was honey. — They say
(leyovaiv) that bees sat on the tongue of Plato. — The Gre
cian seas were full of triremes. — There were many tri
remes about the city. — There were in Greece many beau
tiful cities. — Hellas was a country small indeed, but
beautiful. — The plains of Hellas were many and beauti
ful. — All these things you say most truly. — These words
are not false. — Your tongue (indeed) is true, but your
heart false. — The chest is full of black hats and still
blacker cloaks. — The garden is full of roses. — The pas
I
ture has fewer apple-trees than cherry-trees. — love the
good rather than the bad. — Does God love the bad ? —
In no way. — Not at all.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 281

SEVENTY-FOURTH LESSON.

311. The Optative Mode.

The Optative Mode has four tenses, the Pres. Perf.


Put. and Aor. ; thus,

Ind.
Pres. ygdtp-co,
Fut. ygdxp to,
1 Aor. g-ygaxfj-a,

Perf yeygay-a

Rem. — The t Aor. Act. ends in uifii, the other tenses in


cluding the 2 Aor. in oifii.

312. Inflection in nifii.


Sing. ygdyoifii, ygdcpoig, ygdyot.
Dual ygdcponov, ygaqohr/p.
Plus ygdffoifitv, ygdqtoiis, ygdcponv.

Inflection of the 1 Aor. in aifu.


Sing, ygdypctifu, ygdyxtig & yqaipeuti;, ygdxpai & yQaipete(v)
Dual ygdrpanop, yga\pahrjv.
Plur. ygdifxii/isv, yqdyjaiie, ygdifiaiev & ygdxpsmv.

Rem. — The .(Eolic forms ygaipciag, yiidyeic and ygiiipfiav


are more common than the regular forms. yguifiatg,
ygatf/ai, yquipanv.

Observe. — The inflection-endings oi and at in the Opt. are


long.
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

sigiaxm, Ifind.
Ind. Opt.
Pres. svgiaxm, svgiaxoifti, should, might be finding.
Fut. evgrjom, svQijaoifii, should (hereafter) find.
2 Aor. svqov, evQOiju, shouldfind.
Perf. evgrjxa, svQtjxoifu, should have found.

iva ygaqioifti, that I might write, be writing,


iva ygdxpaiui, that I might write.

313. Rule. — The Optative naturally follows the past


tenses ; the Subjunctive the present and future ; as,

fj/rm iva evQto, I seek that I


may find.
^TjTtjaai iva svgm, I shall seek that I may find.
i^rjtovv iva evgoipi, I was seeking that I might find.
i$Ttjaa iva evgoipi, I sought that I might find.

314. dxovm, I hear.

Ind. Opt.
Pres. dxovco, axovoifu.
Fut. dxovao/iai, axovaoipr\v.
1 Aor. rjxovaa, axovaatpt.
Perf! axtjxoa, axqxooipi.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 283

Inflection of the Middle form axovaoifttjv.

Sing. dxovaoifxnv, uxovaoto, axovoono.


Dual dxovaoi'us9ov, dxovaoia&ov, axovGoto&tjv.
Plur. axovaoifiE&a, axovaoio&e, axovaoivjo.

So, all forms in oifttjv except Opt. from Fut. in


ovftai which
differs in accent.

ninroo, fall.
Ind. Opt.
Pres. ninrto, mmoifti.
Fut. aeoovficu, neaotfttjr.
2 Aor. insaov,
niooifii.
Perf. mnrtoxa, nenjiaxoiui.

Sing, neaotfiqv, nsaoio, neaoijo.


Dual neooi'fie&ov, nsaola&ov, ntaoia&tjv.
Plur. nsaoifie&a, neaota&e, nesoivzo.

So dga/ioi'fiTjv from Sgafiovucu.

315. egxopai, come, go.


Pres. tQyoj.w.1, o, loifu (loinr) Mug, lot &c.)
(Imperf. fiei* or ya, was going, coming.)
(Fut. Os, shall come, shall go, rjl-oiui.)
2 Aor. 'floor, (hoe) ik&m, Outs) eXOoipi (qxoifti).
Perf ilylv&a, iX^Xv9<o, eX7jX.v9otfu.
Pluperf. iXijlv&eiv.

Rem — Observe that the Ind. of dpi is future in significa


tion, but not the Subj. or Opt. The Imperf. of n*<»
am come, is Aor. =i)i.&ot>; and the Subj. and Opt.
Pres. are Aor. rjxot, ijxoi/ii =idea, il&oifii. ioitjv is
common instead of tow.
284 greek ollendorff.

316. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

UctQSt/ui 'iva yodcpa.


— IIccQfjv iva yqcccpoi fie.
— Atvqo TjXirov iva 7tq6q ttjv fir/rtQcc ygdifsaifti. —
"Hgco iva tov cpiXoGoqiov dxovco. — 01 EXXrjvtg nd-
Xai 6vvf}t6av 'iva JlXdravog dxoi/octv. — Sgixqu-
tt/q del nsgl dgtrfig eXtyov 'iva navrtg dxovoitv. —
'Em toy X6(pov dvs/3rjv 'iva rcov dgvl&cov dxovoat-

fit. Aid ti Stvgo rjX&tv 6 ysgav ; -Iva rf/v

fiaxTTjoiav svqoi. — 'O Ttaig ovrog rjXrhsv 'iva to
XQVOOVV nOT7]QlOV
—'O tig TTjV vXrjv
tVQOC. dvr/Q
siatXrjXv&tv 'iva tov nsXtxvv — 01 vtaviac
tvgrj.
del abovoiv 'iva r/fitig dxovcofitv. — El nagrjoav oi
(piXoi, eifftfX&o/uev av tig ttjv vXrjv 'iva Tag t&v
dgvi&cov cpowdg dxoveatjuev.

II. Render into Greek.

What are you looking for? — I am looking for a mir


ror. — The mirror lies on this table. — I was looking for
cherries. —I came into this garden that I might find cher
ries. —I shall come to-morrow that I may find a rose. —
We always come that we may find (svQiaxcoftt.v) apples
and figs.— We come that we may write letters. — We
came that we might write letters. — We used to sit in the
gardens that we might hear the voices of the birds. —
Why in the world did the thieves come into this house 1
—That they might find gold and silver. — They found
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 285

more silver than gold. — They found less silver than cop
per. — The maiden was sitting among (b) the trees that
she might hear the nightingale. — The stranger took nei
ther my cloak, nor yours, but his own. — Whom do the
unjust most injure? —Themselves. — Their own souls.

SEVENTY-FIFTH LESSON.

317. The Optative Mode (continued).

The examples already given show the formation of


the Opt. tenses from their corresponding tenses in the
Ind. We add a few others.

Pres.
Fut.
1 Aor.

Perf.

Pres. Xafi^dv-oifii.
Fut. i.tjxf>-o{ptji>.
2 Apr.
Xdfi-otfu.
Perf. dXij<p-oi[ii.

Pres. (tev-oifti.
Fut. (isv-m, uer-otfu.
1 Aor. tempt, (isiv-aifju.
Perf. fisfievtjx-a, fxsftepr}K-oi/4i.
286 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

318. xXenim, I steal.

Ind. Subj. Opt.

Pres. xXtnrm, xXinxm, xXentoi/u.


Imperf. exXenrov.
Fut. xXe\pm & xXexpofiai, xktipoifu & xXexpotpijv.
1 A or. ixXsxpa, xXsipm, xXeipatpt.
Pert xkxXocpa, xexXoqim, xexXoyoifn.
' i '
Pluperf. ixexXocpeir.

319. ems rjl&ov, until I came.


ems dv 'e'X&m, until Icome=shall have. come,
ems eX&otfti, until I should or might come,
ixd&qvTo ems %X&sv, they sat until he came,
dd exd&r/fjo ems eX&oi, they always sat until he came
(might, should come).

Rem. — The Adv. of time tug, /xtxgig, ore, end, inter) ext
and nqlv are used with the Opt. (more commonly the
Aor. Opt.) to express the repetition of an action.

nsQiefievofiev ixdaiors ems at we waited each time until you


eX&ois, came (might come.)
oi innoi, Get tis dtmxoi, ewsv- the horses when any one pur
yov {civ), (might pursue) them,
sued
fled, used to flee.
oidenore anrjeoav nqiv pi- they never went away before
row', they ate.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 287

320. Conditional Sentences.

El with
the Opt. expresses pure uncertainty, with no
reference to the possible or probable realization of the
supposition. In the apodosis (or answering clause) the
Opt. with the Modal Adverb av is used.

el Xeyoig, afiaqxavoig av, if you should speak (habitually)


you would err.
«t le^aig, afictQTOig if, if you should speak (in a given
case), you would err.
si &rft>lov "601, yvyoi av, if he should see a wild beast,
he would flee.

321. Recapitulation. —We have thus four kinds of


conditional or hypothetical constructions ; as,

1. el Xeysig, aftagrdveig, if you speak you err (and you


do).
2. el eXeyeg, ffttdoTaveg av, if you spoke, were speaking,
you would err.
3. eav Xey$g, afiaQiijan, if you speak, you will err.
4. el Xtyotg, afiaQta.ro tg av, if you should speak, you would
err.

No. assumes that the case is as supposed e. implies no


(i.

1.
uncertainty).
assumes that the case not as supposed.'
is
2.

3. contemplates a case as possible, and expresses doubt and


interest.
expresses pure uncertainty — implies no thought of de
4.

cision.

It by no means follows that the assumptions (1, correspond ne


*

2)

cessarily with the facts of the case. They may be merely made for the
moment by the speaker.
288 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Thus expressed with the English verb to be ;

sl sl sl t"
am, eipi.
I I I I I
If was, ttv.
SIC
If shall be, &c. soofiai.
If were, rjv.
(
g

If had been, si r/r.


Ifl
I

be, sdv m.
3.

If should be,

si

si
4. siijv, saolfinv.
I

The full construction is thus

:
Protasis. — Any tense of the Ind. with u. Apodosis. — Any ap
1.

propriate tense of the Ind. (also Imperative).


2. Protasis. — Any past tense of the Ind. Apodosis. — Any past
Ind. tense with Modal Adv. av.
Protasis. — iuv (b, av) with Subj. Apodosis. — Usually Fut.
3.

a
(sometimes a Pres.) Ind. or an Imper.
Protasis. — Opt. with tl. — Apodosis. Opt. with av.
4.

Examples.

si sati, fiaxdgiog he wise, he


if

happy.
is

is

aocpog
SGTIV,
if he was wise, he was happy,
si sl
1.

aoqibg r\v, fiaxdgiog r\v,


he shall be wise, he will be
if

ootfog sGiou, fiuxuQiog


satai, happy.
l\v,

he were wise, he would be


sl

if

aoqibg (ia.xa.qiog av
V, happy.
2.

si aoqibg av sxXs- he had been wise, he would


if

tjv, ovx
xpsv, not have stolen,
av aoqibg he be wise, he will
if

fiaxdgiog k'a- be happy.


%
g

tai,
he should be wise, he would
sl

if

aoqibg sin, fiaxagiog dv


sin, be happy.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 289

322. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Mtveo naod —ITtoijutvd)


Gov.
(I shall wait)
tag dv &lth) 6 dyytXog. —'Ev rij TtoXti
xai9r/GO/uuc
twg av Gv nani\g. — Exa&rj/urjv ev

rfj
Grod i'cog vr/v
GtXr/vqv tidov. —'Excc&rjjurjv dtl ev ra totud extiva
e'cog Tovg — 01 xX'tmai, intl dicj-
doTSgag i'dot/ui.
xoitv oi inntlg, ttptvyov. —'Ejuevojutv xa& txd-
vvxra
rfj

Grrjv ev vXrj tag rijg dr/dovog dxovGutfitv.


—'Oxort dicoxoctv oi Tioi/nsvtg, ttftvyov oi Xvxot.
— 'O^or* t'X&ouv oi xXtnrai, dtl TioXXd txXtnTOV.
— Ei rbv ocpiv tig rag %tioag Xdfioig, Sc'txoi dv. —
Ei oi xXemac ravrr\ rrj vuxrl tX&Oitv, noXXd dv

xXitf/aitv. Ei xXsipat rig top ntXtxvv, ovbtig dv
rd/uot G%'i6tit t,vXa.
rj

'£1 vtavia, ti jur/ dixaiog i'Grj, ovdiTtort tGr)


[iccxdoiog. — Ei /si) ddixog rjv /3ceGiXtvg, noXv
6

IxaxaQiwrtqog dv iv. — '-Av d&dvarog ipv^y,


r\
f/

ndvrtg nXrjv tojv xaxav —-Avtv


%aiQt}Govrcci.
novov ovdtig dv W' /uaxdgcog. — £1 nut, ti Gocpog
tirjg, ndvv dv ti'r/g tv§ui{iG)v. — S2 dv&ocoxt, ti Mr?
GojcfjQCov tirjg, ovdtnore Got iXtcog ovde tvvovg dv
ti'rj tog.
6

-9~

13
290 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

II. Render into Greek.

The cattle flee when they see the wild beasts. —


Whenever the shepherd saw (might see) the wolf, he
pursued him. — We always used to sit by the river until
we saw (iSoiftev) the moon and the stars. — Nothing is
more beautiful than the moon. — Nothing is brighter than
the stars. — If the orator shall come to-day, I shall hear
him. —If the philosopher should speak, I should hear
him. — If these things were so, we should all rejoice
(ndvzsg av ixalgoftev). — If my daughter were absent, I
should write letters to her. — If I should write letters, I
should send them. — If nobody should speak, who would
hear ? — If the body were (6) only a mouth, where were
the ears 7 — If the soul is immortal, who does not rejoice ?
— If any one should say that the soul is not immortal,
he would exceedingly err.

SEVENTY-SIXTH LESSON.

323. The Optative Mode (continued).

Pres. iifil, am, Opt. e'ljv, should be.


Fut. "
eaofxai, iaoi'fttjv, should be.

Inflexion of e'rjv.
Sing. e"qv, E'V
Dual sirjtov, eiijtijv.
Plur. s'tjftev, £i?]te, e"rtaav and Rev.
(elfier) (the)
iaolfitjv like a-novaoifujv.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 291

jWi'O), I go.
Ind. Subj. Opt.
2Aor. t(iijr, — (Sw, flail]*.
Sing, fiaitji', /Wtfff. (Siuq.
Dual ^atrlxov&.§aiTOV, ^luijrrjv & (Uutip.
Plur. Jtui;uer& faulty, Bait}Tt & fi(ur£ (fait? (rarely ^aitjdav).

324. Optative of Contract Verbs.

bgum bgu, I see.

Ind. Opt.
Pres. bgdm bgm, bgdoiui bga>iM.
Fut. o\pojiat, oxpoi'ftrjv.
2Aor. sidof, Idoifti.
Perf. ic&Q&xa, icogdxoifii.

ogdoifii ogqjftt is thus inflected :

SING.
1 ogdoifii bgcpfii or bgaoiijv ogcprjv
2 bgdoig bguo{rjs bgrpQS
3 bgdoi bgaoitj bgcptj

DUAL.
2 bgdoitov SgaiTOv bgaoiijtov bgopr} tov
3 bgaoiitjv bg4ztlv bgaoiijTTiv

PLUR.
1 ogdoi/xev bgcpiisv bguoirifiev bgipti/xtv
2 bgdoizs bgcpTB bgaoiqrs
3 bgdouv bgcjjev bgdoisv bgmsv
292 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Rem. — The form in oltjv is more common in the Sing., that


in oifii in the Plur.

Note. — £fto, have, 2 A or. soxov, had. twat Opt. axoirjv, w,


&c. (not axoijii).

325. Aor. ilnov, W, s, &c,


2 I said (more common in
familiar discourse than Zle^a).

eJtisvon i)$oi, he said that he should come,


Jaw on tavra. ovzcog ijpt, he said that this was so.
tlnsv on (ws) ovrtog dye*, he said that it was so.

Rem. — sixty on txoi, implies only that he said that it was


so, but does not imply the truth of the statement ; tiney
on ilxev (Ind.) implies not only that he said that it was
so, but that it was so.

326. (a) The Opt. with 3.v (omitting the protasis) is


often used in an independent construction to make an
assertion, more or less positive.

rrjv ipvpjv ovSelg av ogcpt], nobody can see the soul,


6 xaxog oidtnots ftaxdgiog av the bad can never be happy.
''ill,
Xt'yeig <og 6 xaxbg oix av sidal- you say that the bad cannot be
/xtor sir;, prosperous.
oix av dntX&oifii, I might not, may not = will not
go away.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 293

Rem. — This usage springs from Attic politeness and


moderation, which prefers a softened mode of making
especially an unpleasant statement; as, tovxo olx av
yevono, this might not, may not happen, for, this can
not, shall not happen.

327. (6) The Opt. with av is used as a mild form of


the Imper.

Xtyoig av, you might speak = speak on.


dxovoig av, you might hear = hear (if you please.)

328.(c) The Opt. without av, in an independent con


struction, expresses desire (often with — hence the
«',

side)
name Optative.

fiaxdowg uqg, may you be happy,


0X010, may you perish,
fiijSetg Vfiav xaxbg ur\, may none of you be wicked.
ecoQaxa, a fitjdeig akXog tdoi, have seen what may no other
I

one see.

tCw* The pupil will distinguish carefully the constructions


(a) and (c).

(a) uaxdgiog av "w, you may (might) be happy,


(c) uaxagiog stqg, may you be happy,
(a) mm av yevoiro, may not be (become, take
it

place).
2g4 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

let il not be-


(c) pn yivouo,
no one can say this.
(a) otitis av rovto Xeyoi,
to'vjo Xtyot, may no one say this.
(c) pjdtlg

329. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Ovdtlg juaxdgiog av tirj avtv dqtrfjg.


— Ovdtlg
av tirj avtv noXXov tvovov. — El /u.r) Gcocpocov
Gocfibg
rig tirj, ovx av tirj tvvoug aura 6 &tog.
— Ovdtlg

uv dig tig rbv avrbv nora^bv sju/3aitj. -O TidXac
Gocpbg i'Xtytv ore ovdtlg
dig av tju/3airj tig rbv

avrbv nora/uov. — Toig xaxolg ovTtor av tirj 'iXtcog


—'£1
b &tog. — 01 xaxol ovx av dXXr'/Xoig tvvoi titv.
ital, %oXv tvduiftovsortQog tiijg rov nargog.
— Td
rig r'/jutrsgag noXtcog (the affairs of our tfce.) ov%
rd rrjg vfitrtgag. —'O fiaOiXtvg
ovrco xaXcog t%ti cog

tiittv cog rbv dyytXov nsftipoi. 'O ayytXog tlntv
— Mythic
ore ndvru rd ev rfj TioXtc tv av t%oi.
ravra Xsgrj — El Fiat nagtirj tig Gocpog, ndvra av
tv — £1 yvvac, Xsyoig av. 12 ytgov, atl — tirj
i'^oi.
6oi iXtcog d, &tog. — Mrjdtlg /tirjdsnort Xs£rj on
nXtiovg tlol &tol tig). — Ovdtlg ncoTiort
{Jq

kvog
frtbv av idoc.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 295

II. Render into Greek.

If Iwere good, I should be happy. — If the rich (man)


should be good, he would also be happy. — If we should
always say the same things concerning the same things,
it would be well. — None can see (ai> ogytj) the sun with
out eyes. — Nobody can say these things. — Who would
see (t& e'ropa «»■) all these things, unless he had eyes ? —
How would they hear all these words, if they should not
have ears — We
hear voices with our (rots)
(ft

nrj exotev)
?

ears. — Let nobody say (n^dels uh) these things. — May


the maiden be happy. — May the daughter be happier
than her (rye) mother. — The orator said that these words
were false. — Plato used to say that the soul immortal.

is
— The philosophers say that the good can never be
wretched. — The river was more deep than wide. — The
men fled (e.yevyor) until they came to (upon a') a deep
river.

SEVENTY-SEVENTH LESSON.

Optative Contract Verbs (continued),


of

330.

love.
I

cpilem, cpdw,

Ind.
Pres. qiiXtio (fikw
Fut. tyikrjow
Aor. iqiiXrtaa
1

PerC neqstltjxa
968 GREEK ■JiHOCtNanO

Inflection of •lrlioiyii)

•ONIS

I iriioyti) 10 *Uio3xi<b itUioyii)


g Siogynb Shiosyiii sliioyti)
£ tprpib wyitb hiosyitb liioyii)

•ivna
S MUOfllt) 40xhW3\tt) itoihioyii)
£ itllllOSfld) nhthi03fii> *Uitiwyi<b

t *3rlio3ivb n3tiioynb /(3rikj03-()d) tstlUjuyiib


8 titotykb siwynb sihwsyitb
S It3l03yi<b *3103\li>

-fgg 'mo-fig 'myhg


j show.

Opt. 'irliooylig suqi inflected and contracted :

'ONIS
I itiioOfltg iriiuy'ig jo nUwofhg
g Siooyhg fioylio Shiooyhg flUlOyUg
£ woyhg io-(!ig Uwoyhg UlOftlQ

•iTQa
g tonooyhg XOlWykg toiliiooyliQ noiltioylig
£ ithitooflig nhtjayUg xhihiooybg tihihioyhg

I MiiiooyUg tsriiuylig itailUiuoylig tl3tlllW(llg


g sitouyhg sihjouyltg aikjoykg
£ tntooybg 43lopybg .Hiofltg
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 297

332. noiim mum, I do, make.

Ind. Subj. Opt.


Pres. noeco noim, note'co Tioim, noiiotfit noioTfii.
Imperf inouov tnoiow,
Fut. 7l0ht)O(O, noiTjOoifu.
1 Aor. iitoitjaa, noiTjato, novqaaifu.
Pert asnoiijxa, nenoiqxta, ntnoitjxoini.
Pluperf. intaovqxtir.

« ravra nomg, dfiaQzdvsig, if you this, you err.


do
li zavta noiriauag, dudoroig
If
if you should do this, you would
av, err.
ravta ovx dv notoirjg, this you cannot do.

333. a%iog, a, ov, worthy, worth,


|

to dwQOV, ov,
ag,
the gift.
rj doooeti,

you are worthy of great gifts.


si,

dmQEcov fisydXmv a^iog


iti [iei£6rwv Tovrmr dtopemv worthy of still greater gifts
&§iog, than these.
nolXmv xgrjixoiTcov d^cog, worth much money.
nollov a%wg, worthy of much = valuable.
tiXugtov sativ, the man exceedingly valua
is

dpiiQ d%t6g
6

ble (worth very much).


ildriovog, ovSsvog dl-iog, worth less, worth nothing.

The relative og, oang, stands with the Opt. of the past
tenses (like oe dv, oatig dv with the Subj.) to indicate re
peated action.
13*
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

a Wu, he used to send what he had


ensfinev
(what he might have).
ovarivag dmatovg o^tj, ecptksi, whomsoever he might see just,
he loved.

So also e», with or without av in the apodosis.

s" nva OQ(pi], tnaiBv (av). if he might see any one, he


would strike him.

334. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

'12 nal, ndvra Gcocpocov "hr. — -Ogtiq roiovrog


— OvSsv rjdiov s6rt
sit) olog ov, /uaxdoiog av sir].
rr)g doirrjg. — El 6 nalg rbv narkqcc cpi.Xotr], xai
ixslvov cpiXoirj av 6 narr/o. — El Xd/xnoi 6 tjXtog,
ndvra av r)/uiv Sr/Xoh/. —-Ovriva xaxov svqoi 6 ftu-
oiksvg, snaisv av. — -Ovriva dya&ov vsaviav idoi
SaxQarTjg, rovrov navv ecpiXsi. — Tovrovg rovg
Xoyovg dXrj&sig Xsysig. — '£2 §svs, si ravra Tioittg,
d/uagrdvsig. — Tl noisl 6eoydrr/g ; —Scpvgag xul
dcpaiQag noisl.
— Ei s'yoj ravra snow]6a, ag judXi-
6ra av tj/uagrov. — Tig roGovrov dagov agios s'o-
tiv ; — 'O dya&dg qrjrcoo rovrcov, xai srl ftsi^ovcov
Bcoqcov d£iog eariv.
— H e/ur) olxia ov rooovrov
doyvqiov dgia iorlv cog r) rov ejuxogov. —-H tov
tov olxia srl eXdrrovog dgia effri rig sjurjg. —7f
xogrj noXXdg nXsiarov dgiag Scoqsdg sv raTg ^sgdiv
fysi.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 299

II. Render into Greek.

Who is worthy? — Nobody is worthy of these gifts. —


This gift is not so great as that. — The gifts which the
orator has are greater than mine. —The boy loves his
father.— If
this young man should love virtue, he would
be happy. — If the moon should shine, she would show
all things. —Wine shows the mind of man. — How much
money is the cloak worth 1 — It is worth much gold. — If
I should sell this cup, I should sell it for a great price. —
None but a good man can be happy. — If I should do this,
I should not err. — Whatever cloak or hat the thief might
see, he would steal it. — He has come that he may steal.
— He came by night that he might steal. — Thieves fre
quently steal by night.

SEVENTY-EIGHTH LESSON.

335. ffytofuu, I become, take place, happen.

Ind. Subj. Opt.

Pres. yiyvoftcu, yiyvaftcu, yiyvoiftijv.


Imperf. iyiyvo\ir\v,
Fut. ytvYjaofiai, ysvrjaoturiv.
2 Aor. iyeroftrjv, ysrmfiM, ysvoiftTjr.
Perf. yiyova, ysyovm, ysyovot/u
Pluperf! iyeyovsiv.
300 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

after this what happened 1


fltta ravra xi lysvsxo }
Taviaysrouo,
fit] may not this happen.
xavra ovx ar ykvoiTO, this could not, cannot happen.

336. ys, at least, certainly (enclitic).

symys, I at least.
rovto ys, this at least.
Kara ys tovto, at least according to this.

337. ftvqTog, 69, mortal.


tj,

oftoiog, a, or, similar, like.


vnvog, on, the sleep, sleep,
6

Xvypog, ov, the lamp,


b

&dvaiog, ov, the death, death.


o

in many things like


is

vnvog fioXXa &av<tiq) opoiog, sleep


6

death.
tco nargl ofioiog, similar, like to the father.
oidtv aXXo ouoiog, ..
- »,, similar in nothinga else.
,
.

.
f
.

»
>

ovoiv t<ov akkcov ouoiog,


)

"
Rem. — oftoiog, like, constructed with the Dat,
is

antra, light, kindle (primarily, fasten, touch).


I

In "tt"i. ijiiTor, d\l>m, fft'Oi, Vfat tjffSt*.


I.

Suij. u.tnu, oi\[)(o, jjqpco.


Opt. am ot fit, axfioifti, aipeufu, ijcfoifu.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 301

6 ocp&al/tbs Upng ioil iov the eye is the lamp of the body.
amfiatog,
6 <piX6aoqjos Xvfyov rjfisqug the philosopher lighted a lamp
by day.
ira av&qconov £qioin, that he might seek a man.
oide sva evgev, he did not find even one.

338. to rajfoff, the wall.

SINQ. DUAL. PLOH.

N reixoi N. Tei'xea ietxq


G. rei'xeos tefyovg N.A.V. Tei'xee ni'xV G. Tttjffco* Tsix<ar
D. jet'xtii lefyei G. D. isixioiviuxolv D. T«'^«0-l(»)
A. rsix°i A. Tti'xea. rei'x>]
V. reijjotf V. TEjjjea isixT]

So, to ogof, the mountain,


rb irdoe, the Jlower.
lb jjmaoi,1, the lip.

339. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Tuvra ovx av ytvoiro. —'O -davarog ovTtovs


av £o}f] ysvocro ojuocog. — O IJhxreav Xsyti on 6
■fruvarog ex £arjg yiyvtrai (becomes, springs) xal
ex xtavarov fj ^arj. — 'O vnvog dStXcpog save rot,
&avuTOv. — Ovdsv 6 xaxbg ra dya&a ysvoir av
ojuocog.
— S2 nal, ptjdsxort juqd&v roig xaxoig
ytvji (become) 6/uotog. — Ovd' tl itXovoiog ysvoiro
302 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

6 xaxog, Sid rovro /uaxdgiog av suj. —'H rov dya-


rov xaxov 6/noia. —\Q vtavia,

rfj
■&ov ifsv%r) ovdsv

sdv otocpgcov xai Go<pbg ysvrj, &tog 001 svvovg

6
tOvai. — 01 dya&o) dvdgsg noXXd bfioioi sioi ra
i9ta>. —-H xogi] hu%vov rjifjtv. — cfriXoGoqpog rig Xv-

%vov rj/usgag rjif/s, xal sinsv on dv&ganov ^r/Toirj.


— Ti hots tjifjtv cpiXooocpog rov Xv%vov -Ivcc
6

;—
dvdgconov tvgoi. — Hortgov avftgctnov svgsv,

rj
ov — Ovbs tva tvgtv. — '12 xhvydrtg [xr\ tovtov
;

rov Xv%vov dxpr\g. — El eGTcegcc ysvoivo, sv&i/g (im


mediately) TOY Xv%vov av dxpaifxtv. —-Ore ?j£si

T)
vv£, rovg Xv%vovg dipo/ntv. — To /usv GeH/ua S~vrj-
rov, 8s ipvxh d&dvarog. — Td vr\g noXsag rsi%r)
r/

vipr\\d set iv. — To goSov xdXXiorov sOnv av&og. —


'Ev rolg ogtoi %oXXd son xaXd dv&r}. — AsyovGtv
ore /usXiGOai irii rav UXdvavog %eiXcov sxd-
■&rjvro.

II. Render into Greek.

The walls ofthe city. — The walls of this city are


higher than those of the one on {zav %iqg mi) the moun
tain. — The city on the mountains smaller than the
is

one in the plain. — The horseman went up on to the


walls. — The king will descend into the plain. — The rose
a most beautiful flower. — No flower so beautiful as
is

is

the rose. — A serpent lies among these flowers. — lighted


I

lamp. — The moon the lamp of night. — The sun


is

is
a

the eye of day. — The soul at least immortal. — Nothing


is
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 303

is mortal except the body. — The scholar is similar to the


teacher. — The good are similar to the gods. — The sleep
of the laborer is sweet. — Sleep is similar to death. — If
the philosopher should light a lamp, he would find a man.
— If he had lighted a lamp, he would have found many
men. — If he shall search until evening, he will find
many things (noXXd).

SEVENTY-NINTH LESSON.

340. The Imperative Mode.

The Imper. has chiefly two tenses, the Pres. and Aor.
(rarely a Perf. except when the Perf. has a present mean-
ing-)
The Act. Pres. 2 Aor. and Perf. (when used) end in e;
the 1 Aor. ends in ov.

ygdqico, I write.
Pres. ygdqis, write, be writing, go to writing.
1 Aor. ygdxpov, write.

Thus inflected :

Pres. Bing. ygdcps, ygaqisrm.


Dual. ygdqtsrov, ygacpsrcav.
Plur. ygdcpete, yqaffsraaaar.

1 Aor. Sing. ygdtyov, ygaxpatto.


Dual. youxfj&Tov, ygaxparcov.
Plur. ygdipats, yoaipdrcoaav.
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Ind. Imper.
Pres. Xa^pdvm, Xafi^ave.
2 Aor. eX&fiov, bafts.
Pres. mnrai, ninxs.
2 Aor. int.aov, nsae.
Pres. tvQtoxa, evQioxe.
2 Aor. evQOV, twee.
2 Aor. eh or, said, due.
Pres. eQxo/xat, (f#t from sl(n, shall go.)
2 Aor. 'Most, iX&s.

341. Inflection of t&i go (irregular).


Sing. i9i, "ico.
Dual, trov, Gr.
Plur. tre, ttmaav or wvttov.

Inflection of fo&i be from eifil am.


Sing, 'lam, edtto.
Dual, gator, sarcov.
Plur. eo"T6, sffTtoaoc*' and iarmv.

firi&i go, 2 Aor. from jWrco (Ind. 2 Aor. 'Or).


Bing. ^j/to).
Dual. fir/rov, fi/jtrnv.
Plur. ^ts, (j^Tcaaav and (iavtoov.

Rem. — The pupil will now be able to form any regular


Imper. from its corresponding Ind. tense, thus from

o^/J-o), o^*f-t ; e-oxur-a, oxlo-ov
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 305

Pres. ia&i'-co, ea&i-e.


2 Aor. t-qiay-ov, (pays.
Pres. aiv-m, niv-s.
2 Aor. t-nt-ov, m-9i (irreg, for mt).

342. Middle or Pass. Imper.


Pres. yiyvofiat, Imper. yiyvov.
2 Aor. "
iyevopnv, yevov.

Thus inflected :

Sing. yevov, yeviadto.


Dual. yevea&ov, yere'a&wv.
Plur. yevia&e, yevea&oaoav.

343. Rem. Accent. — Use, come, tvqi,jmd, Xn@e, take, fine, say.
1.
Ids, see, are accented contrary to the rule, on the ulti
mate. But the compounds are regular, as si'trfX&s, en
ter, aTtohipi, receive. Also the 2 Aor. Mid. Imper. is
circumflexed on the ultimate. See ytvuv, ysvia&ov.

Rem. 2. — Distinguish through all the Modes, between the


continued or relative meaning of the Pres. and the mo
mentary or absolute meaning of the Aor. ; thus,

Xt'ye, speak on, keep speaking, go to speaking.


Xe%ov, speak.
pit] It'ye, do not keep speaking, do not speak (habitually).
(irj l&rj£, (not 3,t|o») do not speak (in a given case).
fir) xXiare, do not steal e. do not be in the habit of
(i.

stealing).
pv xXt'xprji;, do not steal (in a given case).
fitjde'noTS ftt/Sh' xietpf/j,', never steal any thing.
306 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Hence, general precepts for the conduct of life take


the Pres. ; as,

seek the things which are bet


ter.

(fiXei tovg yoveig, love your parents,


ev noiu ndvrag, do good to all men.

ev noim, I do good to, benefit.

render kindness to all indeed,


ds rovg dya&ovg, but especially to the good.
6 &ebg ndvzag ev noisi, God does good to all.

344. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

£2 uyysXs, kcc/3£ ravrrjv rrjv stviotoXjjv. — vice-



r]v

/U' TTjv STtcOroXrjv tfts/nips 8svqo /SaoiXsvg.


6

£2vis, yquxpov sniGroXrjv Ttaqd tov dycc&ov £svov.


— Toi/g dv&qanovg navrag ftsv cpiXsi, fidXiOra ds
rovg dya&ovg. — £2 £svs, siGsXttt tig rrjv rj/xsrsoav
olxictv. —IQ cpiXoaocps, dsl ra avrd Xsys nsqt tcov
ccvtcov. — Mrj8s7iors Xsgyg tog yjv%r) ovx d&dvcc-
r)

rog sOtcv. — £2 ddsXqpr/, Bsvqo itooGtl&t, ivcc rr)v


GsXr/vrjv i'dflg. — 'Aipdcra Tig toy Xv%vov. — 'Entiddv
ysvrjrcci vv£, rovg kv%vovg cog tcc%i0tcc dipurs,
r)
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 307

xal £vXu sTil to xvQ QiifJccTS. —Idtl to jusv dya&bv


cpiXtc, tcc Si fitXTia. £r)rsc. — Mt]8stiots fir/Sip xa-
xbv /urjve noirjoyg, firjTt Xs£flg. —'O &t6g ndvTCtg
del tv noisi. — Mr/Stig Xs£t] cog ol dSixoc tvSai/uo-
vsg tlGiv. — 'H svdaijuovia ovx ex tiXovtov yiyvs-
Tcei, dXX s£ doeTrjg. — 2ocp6g ytvou. — -Og dv Gco-

Ten' ysvr/TCCi, tovtov ndvTtg cpikr\oov6iv. —^XL°~


utco Tig §vXcc. — Tovg Xv%vovg dnToptv 'iva 6 jusv
nalg 'm' ocpalquv, 6 ds cpcXoaoqjog dv&ganov

II. Render into Greek.

Always be wise. — Remain with (naqd) until the


us,
messenger shall (have) come {sw; av tl&-q). — Boy, run
quickly into the corner of the garden. — Do not steal
(habitually). — Let nobody steal (xXtyfi) this axe. — O
maiden, hear the sweet voices of the birds. — Always
hear and pursue that which is good. — Never pursue any
thing (fxrjds7Z0Te 5ico'£tZ? w<5«») evil. — Always do good to
your (toys) friends. — Do good to all indeed, but especially
to your friends. — Love your brothers and your sisters. —
Love your parents. — Say nothing evil concerning any
one (finder Xe^ys xaxov negi furjSsfos).- — To the good life in
deed is sweet, but death is still sweeter. — Boy, become
in all things like your father. — Let the scholar become
as much as possible like (a>s dfioiorarog -ysveodca) his teach
er. — Nothing is sweeter than a good friend.
308 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

EIGHTIETH LESSON.

345. The Imperative Mode (continued).

It
has been mentioned (Lesson LXXI.) that in nega
tive commands when the Aor. is required the Subj. is
used instead of the Imper.

do not steal,
/xtjdeii; eioeX&q, let nobody enter,
do nothing base,
axovaov fiov, hear me.
fir] tovtov axovoyg, do not hear this man.

346. Imper. of Contract Verbs.

ogam, opto, I see. Imper. ogds, oga.


Sing. 2 oQae, oga, 3 ogairm, ogdrto.
Dual. 2 ogderov, ogdror, 3 ogaittov, ogdzmv.
Plur. 2 bgdsze, ogaze, 3 bgaBzmaa*, ogdzmaav, or
bgaovzmv, bgmrztor.
2 Aor. eldov, saw, ids, see.

347. qpde'ra, cpiXoi, I love. Imper. (piles, yt'Xei.

Sing. 2 yiXes, (piXst, 3 qiXeezm, (fiXtirm.


Dual. 2 quXiezov, qnXeirov, 3 (piXtszmv, qiXsizcov.
Plur. 2 cpiXeeze, qiiXsize, 3 qiiXestmaav, qnXtitmaetr, or
cpiXeorzmr, cpiXovrzmv.
1 Aor. e<f(Xrjaa, Imper. (plXijoov.
So, fyjtet, tzoiei, ^tjzqoov, noirjaov.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 309

348. d^Xom, dijXw, show. Impe. SrjXoe, StjXov.

Sing. 2 dfjXos, SqXov, 3 SrjXosrta, dtjXovTm.


Dual. 2 SijXoeror, SrjXovxov, 3 SqXostmv, dtiXovrto*.
Plur. 2 SijXosTe, dijXovrs, 3 d^losrcoiTar, drjXovitaaav, or
dijXoovrmv, dqXowtmv.
1 Aor. j&jlcMra, Imper. (Sip.coaoy.

xaxtog itoico, I do evil to.


to tyyov, ov, the work, deed.
aiaxQoi, d, or, ugly, base, shameful.
§ificuos, a, ov, permanent, stable,
XrtXO)? Tiva 7TOUO, I do evil to some one.

\ir\ noiu aiaxQCt egyct, do not do base deeds,


[trjdsnoTS ftijdsv ala^qov noitj- never do any thing shameful.
o-flff,
ovdfou xaxbv norm. I do evil to nobody.

349. Rule. — Verbs of doing well or ill govern the


Acc. both of the person and the thing ; as,
ev, xaxtog noim riva, I or evil to some one.
do good

iiya&a noico zbv yiXov, I do good to my friend.

Tiftdm, iijAw, I honor.

Ind. Subj. Opt. Imper.


Pres. riji-ata, a, rip, to, Tip-doipi, S>[u, rip-as, a.
Imperf. trl/i-aov, tov,
Fut. iiftijaco, Tiuqaotfti.
1 Aor. irlfttjon, tifiijttm, npirjaaifti, lifirjanv.
Perf! TSTiprjxa, rsuftqxco, jsx iftqxoi/u, (rsrl/itixs).
Pluperf. irsrift^xeiv.
310 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

350. 6, tj xvmv, the dog.

SING. DDAL. PLUR.

N. xvmv N. xvreg
G. xvvoi N.A.V. xvvt G. xvvmv
D. xvvi G. D. xvvoiv D. xtxr((r)
A. xvva A. xiiyae
V. xvov V. xvvsg

6 Seanotijg, ov, the master, lord.


6 olxsTvg, ov, the servant (house-servant).

351. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

dsOTtOTCCi xal olxtrai. —-O dyu&bg oixsrrjg tov


dt07i6rr]v Tijua. — 'O xvcov tov StGTTorrjv cpiXtT
ts xal reftd. — Mrjdsvcc fiySaficog (in no way)
xaxbv TtoirjGrjg. — 01 xaxol dtl dXXr/Xovg xaxcog
%OLOV6iv. — O dSixog ndvxceg /uiv xaxag Ttoitt,

MrjdsTtors firjdsv alG%obv
{.idliGra ds eavrov.
firjrs 7TOirjovg firjTE ksgyg. —'Atl noist xccXd tqya.
— Mrj aiG^od soya noise —Idsl ti/uccth, co vsavtai,
rovg dya&ovg. — 01 GacpQOvtg vtaviai ysoovrccg
dtl — Mr] fiovov rovg dya&ovg tv noise,
tc^icHgiv.
dXXd xal rovg xaxovg. —*0 narrjQ fj/.icov 6 ev rw
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 311

ovqava ov juovov Tovg dya&ovg tii jtoiel, dXXa


xai tovq xaxovg. —'H dgtTrj fiovrj /3tj3aia savlv. —
OvSsv ffsfiutov "Liv dotrr/g. —VI ccQtrrj Tirjyrj tv-
8ai/uoviag eOriv. — Tov /usv Stbv juceXiara ri/ucc,
fttv ixtlvov 8s, rovg fitXritirovg dv&Qomovg.
Tkqav rig ncu8a xccxbv tvQtv tv tivi rwv [trj-
Xscov. —-O
nctlg firjXcc exXtTiTtv. — Tovro xaxbv rjv
egyov. — 77 ilntv avva 6 ysgcov ; —Ha i, tlntv, tug
Ta%i6Tcc (instantly) xaTocfiqd-i dnb tovtov tov
8sv8gov. — TIoTsqa xute^t] 6 nalg, tj ov ; — Ncci,
cog Ta^iOTU xaTt/Srj.

II. Render into Greek.

Boy, light the lamps. — Throw (qtyov) a stick of wood


on to the fire. — Take the golden cup from the table.—
Where lies the dog 1 — He lies either under the table, or
on the seat. — The good dog will always honor his mas
ter.— The dog bites the colt with his teeth. — The base
will always pursue base things. — Young man, neither
hear (/iqze axovs) nor speak base words. — Do not do base
deeds. — Nothing except virtue is honorable (xaXov) and
permanent. — Always honor your father and mother. —
Honor the king. — Love and honor that which is good. —
Love the good. — Pursue (di'coxt per) that which is good,
shun what is evil. — Send this letter. — Do not send the
letter before I come {ngiv uv iXQto). — Hunter, collect all
the wild beasts into one place.
312 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

EIGHTY-FIRST LESSON.

352. olda, I know (irregular).


Ind.
Sing. olSa, ola&a, too).
Dual. unov, iorov. ■

Plur. "after, tags, ioaai{v).

Subj.
u8a>, gf, \, &c.

Opt.
tiSeitj*, w, &c.
tj,

Imper.
S. io&i, "arm. D. larov, wtcav. PI. "are, tarcoaav.

"a&i (ttjut am) oocpog, be wise.


t(j3i
(o?5a) rauia, know these things.
"aOi atavtov, know thyself!

Rem. — More commonly yviafri oiaviov, know thyself, from


yiyvwaxa, have in mind, think, judge, know.

353. Construction of the Rel. 5s, olog.

The cities which


-f
V

have,
I

as fjfoj noktig.
( \

anb twv nolewv as fym.


{

From the cities which have, unb rm* noXemv mv fyco.


<
I

aif mv exm noXsmr.


(
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 313

. iv tccTs noltfiiv ag 6oa>.


In the cities, which I see, , iv ratg noXeaiv alg 6q<b.
ip alg boa noXr.aiv.
tv roiavtaig noXeaiv olaig tyta.
I
,
In such cities as have, 1
iv oiatg e^m noleatv.

Rem. — The Rel. is thus often assimilated in case to its


antecedent (Gen. or Dat.) ; anb icDy noleotv uv yfw, &c.

354.Conversely the antecedent is often assimilated


in case to the Rel. and placed after the Rel.

This is the man whom you f


ovrog iariv or elSeg avdoa.
saw. I ov tides avdoa, ovto'g iotiv.

355. For the sake of emphasis the Rel. and Demonst.


clauses frequently change place, the Rel. preceding;
as,

a ovx av noioinv, rovro ovx what I should not do, this I


av Xiyoifu, should not speak of.
ov av oqw ayu&ov, tovzov whomsoever I see good, this
man I love.

6 TIctQvaaoog, ov, Parnassus,


tj [iovoa, IN, the muse.
j? Tjdovrj, ijg, pleasure (from tjdvg).
ij xaxia, ag, evil, vice.
14
314 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

356. Exercises.

I. Render into English.


'0 Uagvaaoog fjv vif/rjXov ogog iv 'EXXdSt. — To
ogog Ilagvaaaog r)v i'dgcc tojv Movo~ojv. — At
6
ivvsa MovOai itdXai HagvaOOov axovv. — Oi
"EXXrjvtg dtl grijuav rag MovOag. —'O tcXovtoq
dvsv dgtrijg ovSsv t%si rr\g r)8ovr)g. — Oux ex xu-
xiag yiyvtrat r) r)8ovr), dXX e§ dgtrr)g. — 'H dgtrr)
fiovr] /3tj3ceiav i%tt fjdovrjv.
— Tovro ndvvtg L6fitv.
— Tifict rov flaOiXsa. — "ExaOrog oixsrrjg rbv dt-
6n6rr]v rijudrco.
— Udvrtg oi dvftganoi dtl rbv
— Tig ovx oidtv ore 6 §i-
[iovov -d~tbv ri/ucovrcov.
xceiog fj-tyiGrav Sagsav d£iog iarcv ; —'O fisyccg
SiSdoxaXog ti'grjxtv cog 6 [icc&r]rr)g ov jusi^cov &6t\
rov SidaGxdXov, ovds 6 oixsrrjg rov dtGnorov. —
Ev 16-9-c(know well, be assured) on raiira itdvrct
• dXrj&ij iarcv. — 'O
grjrcog Xsytt jttgl rcov nbXtav orv
6v e^fig. — O fictOiXtiig %aigti aig e%tt ■jioXteiv. —
"A civ xaXd ruvva dtl rcoiti- — Tig %dvrcav
j),

kavrbv yiyvojsxtt — £2 vtavia, yvoj&i asavrov.


;

II. Render into Greek.


knew these things. — Who does not know that So
I

crates was great philosopher ?— Who of all (men) does


a

not know that the pleasure of vice short (^«^H"a) —


is

(We) all know that virtue immortal. — The Muses used


is
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 315

to sing on Parnassus. — The Muses were nine beautiful


virgins. — The pleasure of virtue alone is permanent. — Be
assured (sv ta9i) that the Moon is much larger than the
Earth. — The Sun is much larger than the moon. — No
thing is so sweet to the laborer as sleep. — Even (xai)
death is sweet to the good (man). — Sleep is the brother
of death. — Love your brother. — Honor your parents. —
Always seek what is good {to aya&ov) and shun evil. —
Never say any thing base. — Nothing is blacker than the
tongue of the flatterer. — Who stole these apples ? — The
thief came that he might steal the figs and the cherries.

EIGHTY-SECOND LESSON.

357. The Infinitive Mode.

The Infinitive has four tenses, the Pres. Fut. Aor.


and Per/.
The usual ending of the Pres. and Fut. Infin. Act. is
eiv.

The 2 Aor. Act. and the Fut. of Liquid verbs, iTv.

The Perf. Act. ends in tvai.


The Aor. Act. ends in at.
1

The regular Pass, and Mid. ending is ea&cu, 2 Aor.


Mid. ta&ai.
316 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

358. yoaym, write.

Ind. Inf.
Pres. ygacp-co, ygdqi-Eiv, to be writing, to write (habitually).
Fut. yody-m, yqdxp-uy, to be going to write.

1 Aor. iyoatya, ygdxpai, to write.


Perf. yiyqacpa, ytyqaqi-ivcu, to have written.

mnio), fall.
Pres. mm-ca, nlm-uv, to be falling, to fall,
Fut. nsa-oifiai, motivate, to be about to fall,
2 Aor. ensa-ov, ntaeiv, to fall.
Perf. aenrtox-a, nsnioax-srai, to have fallen.

oqaco oca, see.

Pres. oqaca oqcq, boituv (eontr. oqkv), to be seeing, to Me.


Fut. oxjjofiai, o\pe<r&ai, to be going to see.

2 Aor. ddov, Bern to see.


Perf. emouxct, iwQttxs'iiai, to have seen.

tQxofiai, come.
Pres. tQlonai, (ie'vai instead of sipjjscrtfai).
Fut. (if, elfii, W:
v).

2 Aor. 'Mott (Farr), il&sw (rixuv).


Perf. ikrikvOsvai.

yiyvofiai, become.

Pres yiyvo(iai, yiyvsa&ctt.


Fut. yevqoopai, yevyaee&tti.
2Aor. iyEvofirjv, ysvia&ai.
Perf. yeyova, ytyovsvai.

ficVco, remain.
Pres. [isvco, ftspsir.
Fut. ftevm, fievsiv.
1 Aor. ejxetva, ftsirai.
Perf HSftfonxa, (isfievqxevai.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 317

axovto, hear.
Pres. axoica, axoveiv.
Fut. axovnniiut, axovatadai.
1 Aor. ijxovaa, axovaai.
Perf axrjxoa, axrtxotvcti.

So the pupil will be able to form any tenses of the Inf. from
their corresponding Ind.

359. Accents. — The accent of verbs generally stands as far as


possible from the ultimate ; but except in the Inf. the
following :
1. The Perf. Infin. Act. in ivcu as
yeyQacpe'vai, and all Infin.
in tVai, as it'vai.
2. The 1 Aor. Act. always accented on the penult, axovaai,
ysXuaai.
3. The 2 Aor. Act. circumflexed on the ultimate, as ntr
aiiv, iX&nv.
4. The 2 Aor. Mid. is accented on the penult, as yere'o&at.
5. The Fut. of Liquid verbs is only an apparent exception.
[iev a>, (tevuv, doufteia&at being contracted from fierea,
fitviuv, dQctftieo&ut.

360. (pilm quia, love.

Infin. Pres. Fut. 1 Aor. Perf.


cpeXeeiv qnXetv, (ptXqoeiv, (piXqoai, nequXijxepcu.

drjXom StjXm, show.

dtjXoEiv 8t]Xovi>, dtjXmasiv, drjXmacti, SeSijXcoxEvai.

elftf, am, Infin. Pres. that, to be, Fut. saea&at, to be going to be.
olda, know, Infin. eiSsvai, to know,
slaov, said, Infin. sinsiv, to say, speak.
318 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

I am able.
I wish.
Svrapcu,

I
fiovlofiai,
xelsvco, direct, command.

flovXoficu Xkyuv,
Iwish to speak.
rexiksvue jit aouiv ; what do you direct me to do.
a^tog el titvta Xa§tlv, you are worthy to receive these
things,
eati msXv, water is sweet to drink.
vdcoQ tjSv

361. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Tig fiovXevat XSyeiv ; — 01 yrjTOQtg del Xsysiv


— 01
cpiXov6iv. TicclStg Tcai^tiv cpiXovOiv s'tti tco

novafAa.
— 01 fiovXovrac hqutov /uev
&rjQtVTcd
STil &rjQav sgisvcu, vOrtQOV Ss rag tcov oqvi&cov

ipcovag dxovtiv.
—'O nccTrjQ tt]v &vyarsqa xtXtvtt
tov Xv^vov aipai. — Mr/ fiovXov /urjdsv aiaxQOv
%olt)oui.
—'O ccycc&dg ov dvvccrai ovdsva xaxcog
TTOir/Oai.
— El 6 §&6n6rrjS ixtXtvOS tov oixstt]v
gi/Xcc onion, inoinosv civ. — 'Hb*v e6ti (it is pleas
—'0 Sixaiog CC^lOS S6TC /U£-
ant) dociv rbv t]Xiov.

yiOrag dcoQtceg Xafitlv. '0 /usv ccqtoq fjdv e.Gn

cpaytiv, to 8s /ueXi sti rjdiov. 'O tov &ioi) vo/tog
xtXtvtt nuvTag tv noulv. — Ovdtlg SvvciTcei tov
tov -&tov dcp&ceXjudv cpvytlv.— Ovdtlg s'dvvaTO

(was able) aBtiv rjdtov tcov Movacov.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 319

II. Render into Greek.


Who wishes to write? — My daughter wishes to write
letters. — The orators wish to speak. — The father directs
his son to say these words. — God directs all
(men) to do
good and to honor their parents. — The thief wishes to

steal.— What does he wish to steal ? This golden wedge.
- -Who is able to steal this purple cloak ? — Who can
(dvvatai) throw this ball on to the roof? — What does the
father direct the servant to do? — To light a lamp. —
Water is sweet to drink. — Nothing is sweeter to drink
than water. — The good man is worthy to receive much
gold. — Who is more worthy than you to receive these
gifts ? — The bad (man) cannot become good. — Who is
willing to be miserable ?

EIGHTY-THIRD LESSON.

362. The Infinitive Mode (continued).

vneg, over, above. A Preposition.


vneg rov, tov, (Governs the Gen. and Acc.)
I. ineg tov.
(a) over, above (with rest).
(6) over for protection = on behalf of, for.
(c) over, in relation to, nearly = negl tov, but imply
ing interest.

(a) 6 rjltog into yijg nogeve- the sun goes above the earth.
tai,
(b) Xijei* vneg tivog, to speak on behalf of any one.
(c) vneg tov ngdyfiazog Xs%a, I shall speak in relation to the
affair.
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

II. into toV, (a) over, beyond (with motion).


(6) beyond,
— chiefly of place, measure and number.

(a) iitittt vntQ Tijv olxiav, I throw over the house.


(6) iintQ tijv Svvafiiv ndvra I did all beyond my ability.
inoirjda,
(o) vntQ ta iQ/dxovra sitj, above thirty years.

363. rj Svvoifug, sag, power, ability,


to ktog, sot; ov£, the year.

xeXevw, Fut. xeXeiaoi, Perf. xsxs Xtvxa.


" "
fiovXofiai, fiovlrjaoftai, ^ovXtjfiai.
" "
dwafiai, dvnjaofiai, dsSvvtj/xai.

364. Inflection of dvvaftai.

Sing, bivaftai, Svraaai, Svvajai.


Dual, dvvttfte&ov, diivaaOov, ovvaa&ov.
Plur. dvrd/j.e&a, dvvaa&e, Svvavzat.
Imper£ idvvdfitjv, idvra, idvvato (and jJfltWro) &c.

XaXenog, y, 6v, hard, difficult,


gddloi, a, or, easy.
deipog, or, dreadful, fearful, mighty.
t),

365. Many verbs are regularly followed by the


1.

Infinitive.
Svvapai, (iovXofiat rgexeir, am able, wish to run.
I I I

xsXsvai as xara^rat, bid you come down.


diopui aov eX&ur, entreat you to come.
OLLENDORFF. 321

2. Many Adjectives are l followed by the In fin.

Xakenov Xeyuv, it is hard to speak.


deirbg t? Xsyew, evgeir, you are mighty to speak, to find.
axiovoog Qudwg Xa^stp, a squirrel easy to catch.

3. Nouns are sometimes followed by an Infin.

sqyov iatlv svqsiv &s6v, it is a task =is difficult to find


God.
to/tog tail tohg yovsig tifiav, it is a law to honor our parents.

366. Rule. — Adj. or Subst. joined with the Infin. take


the case of their antecedent noun or Pronoun.

ixeXevad ytviadui aya&ov,


(re I bade you become good.
dsofiai aov aocfov ehai, I entreat of you to be wise.

367.Verbs of thinking, saying, &c, can take the


Ace, and Infin. or on, cog with a finite mode.
eJ,

Xeyovaiv on, (cog) aoqibg


they say that you are wise.
Xsyovai as aocpbv slvai,
vofu^m cog xavta. aXqdq iariv, think that these things are
I

true.
t>op!£<o tavta dXij&ij that, think these things to be true.
I

think.
I

vo(ii£<o,

Fut. vofitaoo, Aor. Ivopuaa, Perf. vttofuxa.


1

*U
32-2 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

368. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Tavrcc xard Svvafiiv xai vnso irt-


dvvce/uiv
noir]xa. —D qtjtcoq Xsysc vtvsq tovtov tov dyu&ov
dv&qwnov. — O r/Xiog vtcsq rjuav noqtvtrai.—Ov^
oqdg on ai vtfpsXui vtz&q tojv oqcov xtivrat ; — Ol
cpiXoi fiov vtisq rtjg ■&aXa66ijg oixovoiv —'EStcogt
[xsv 6 ■d'TjQtvrrjg to trr/giov [ASXQi tov xorajuov,
ovx rjSvvctTO 8s Xafitiv. — Td ra^iOra i^r/gia ov
(>d8i6v son Xafislv.
— Ei /utj ravra rd t,(oa tcoXv
■frdrrov tSocc/us rav inncov, sSvvd/usi^a dv avrd

Xa/3slv.
— Tavrcc rd ru%'sa &i]Qia fiovXoftai fitv
■frrjqdoai, ov Suva/ucci 8s. — Tig Xsysiv /SovXsrai ;
— Ovrog 6 qt'itcoq Xsgsi vtisq tov Sixatov. — /ftivog
sari Xsysiv. — XaXsnov fisv Xsysiv, %aXsir<i)TtQov
8s noislv. — Ov %Xov6iog /3ovXo/uai ysvso&ai, dXXd
6ocp6g.
— No/ut^co ravra dXrj&rj sivui. —No/ue'£co
toy qtjtoqcc ndvrag rovg Xoyovg Xsysiv y/sv8sig. —
Nojui£co on cog judXiOra d/uaQravtig.

II. Render into Greek.

Throw the ball over the table.— Throw it over the


house. — It remains above the house. — Do not throw
pfyo*) the axe over the house. — For whom do you speak ?
— For the good stranger. — The father writes on behalf
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 323

of his daughter.— I speak on behalf of my own soul. —


The good always speak on behalf of the good. — It is a
task to find God. — It is hard to speak, but still harder to
write. — I think that my father is coming. — think that I
the nightingales are singing. —I
direct the young man

always to be good. The laws direct us to honor our

(role) parents. It is a law always to do good. — The
moon is not only above the earth, but also above the at
mosphere. — The birds never fly above the earth.

EIGHTY-FOURTH LESSON.

369. The Infinitive (continued).

In negative constructions ov is generally used with


the Infin. after verbs of saying, believing, thinking, &c. ;

elsewhere generally ptj.

vo(tiC,<o as ovx eidercu, I think you do not know,


riff leysi ovx thai tieovg ; who says there are not gods 1

xs^svm ae fir) amerai, I bid you not depart,


(iovXeTCti firj xotxoff
thai, he wishes not to be wicked.

370. If
the Infin. has a distinct subject of its own it
is placed in the Acc. ; but if the subject of the Infin. is a
Personal Pronoun, referring to that of the preceding prin
cipal verb, the Pronoun is omitted, and any Adjectives or
Nouns connected with the Infin. are placed in the Nom.
324 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

♦Ofll'^M (Si KfiaQTHV, I think that you erred.


roptXw «/t«ert«> (not ;«« afittQ- I think that I erred.
teiy),
roft&ig aoybi thou, you think that you are wise,
they say that they are good,
Xeyovaiv slvai ayaOot,
but. liynvatv ifii thai aya&or, they say that I am good.
I think that I shall come.

371. Use of the Inftn. tenses. Mode of Rendering.

rorrjXiov OQKV, I think that I see the sun.


ro/aXm
ero/xi^or 6(tav, I thought that I saw.
vofuX<*> otpeadai, I think that I shall see.
ivoni^ov SxpsaOai,
I thought that I should see.
rouiXm loeiv, I think that I saw.
ifOftiXov ideTp, I thought that I saw.
ro/i!£m tiumtxirai, I think that I have seen.
ivon^ov itoQaxirai, I thought that I had seen.

Rem. — These constructions are literally:

I think to be seeing = that I see.


I thought to be seeing = that I saw.
I think to be going to see =that I shall see.
I thought to be going to see = that I should see.
I think to see (absolute)= that I saw.
I thought to see (absolute)= that I saw.
I think to have seen = that I have seen.
I thought to have seen = that I had seen.

372. that,
catfTs (mar cbatf) so as, so
so as, with Infin.
so that, with Ind.

tyojiev mra mars (obe)axovsiv, we have ears so as to hear.


ovzco ao(fbi m^rs eiderat, so wise as to know.
ooqcoieQOs rj mgzs (dig) a/iag- too wise to err (wiser than
zaruv, as to err).
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 325

Rem. — If the connection is less close Zgrt is followed by


the Ind.

373. The Modal Adv. av is united with the Infinitive,


giving it a conditional meaning.
liyei tovto ovx llv yerea&cu, he says that this could not
happen.
vojiltw d/imof Ht>
fiivXtvaaa- I think I should deliberate bet
{fat, ter.
ro/aXa> nctvras ar tlvai aya- I think that all would be good.
&ovg,

374. nqiv, before, is followed usually by an Infin.

7tqip term, before going.


nQir f/ie eX&Hv, you were singing before came,

I
^o*V
uva idtlr,
pi]

ate 7i(ti'v he went up before any one saw.


but, ov ngoaOer at>efitj nqiv he did not ascend before some
el8s riff,

375. Exercises.

Render into English.


1.

rov &tov navTU tidsvai. — Tedv 'EXlrj-


JVojui^oj
vav oi noXXol svojui£ov rovg &tovg rd jlisv tidsvai,
rd 8s ovx ti8svai. —'O JZcoxgdrrjg s'v6jui£s rovg &t-
ovg ndvra tidsvai. — Uqiv Gocpbg yeveo&ai, noXXd-
xi.g f\fiuQTUvov. — Uqiv rag rav oqvi&cov cpcovdg
dxov6ai, a7irjXi9o{itv. —'-Q.GittQ s'vo/ui£tv, ovrcog
sXsysv. — No/Lii£(o ovSsva tcov dv&QOincov ndvra
326 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

tiSkvai. — Tigdv&Qtoizav vojul&i ndvra tidevai ;


— ^caxQccrrjq ixeXtvs rovg cpiXovg rcc /usv noutv, rot
ds firj noitlv. —'O &tog dv&qanovg xsXtvtc %dvrag
fisv dtl tit Ttoitiv, /urjdsva ds fu.r\Tiorii xaxag noif\-
6cu. — 'O irtbg Ttdvra dvvarac noitiv. — Ovrog 6 vt-
ceviag vofii&i aocpog tlvau — Nofti^a rov /SaGiXecc
ijStiv dfia rr\ f/fti-Qa. —'Ev'ofiiyofisv rov /3a6iXscc
rfj vGTtquia tjgtiv. —lQ cpt-Xooocpog Xsyei rov rjXcov
kagaxsvai. — Ovrog Xsytt rov xXsnrrjv rrjv j(Xcctvav
xtxXocpsvai. —'O rov &tov vofiog ndvrag xsXtvst
dXXrjXoug cptXtlv xal tv noitlv. —'Otp&aX/novg £%o-
/utv wgvt bqav.
— TTodag e%ojutv agve TQS^ttv, xal
%tiQccg coGvt itdvra oo'adv /3ovXdfit&cc noiuv. —
'Odovrecg fyo/utv cogvs sc&itiv.

II. Render into Greek.

was a great philosopher. — Socrates used to


Socrates
say that the gods knew all things. — Who of us thinks
that he knows all things or even xal) himself?— So
(J/

crates says that God both sees and hears all things. —
The boy thinks that he wise.— Some young men
is

think that they are wiser than their fathers. — The mes
senger says that the king will come to-morrow. — think
I

that the king has come.— thought that had seen my


I

daughter. — The merchant thinks that he rich. — He


is

directs the young man not to become rich. — think that


I

hear voice. — think that have heard a voice. —


a

I
I

I
I

thought that had heard a voice. — think that you will


I

hear the voice of the nightingale.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 327

EIGHTY-FIFTH LESSON.

376. The Infinitive with the Article.

The Neut Sing, of the Art. is used in all its cases


with the Infin. converting it into an abstract noun. The
mode of rendering it will be seen from the following ex
amples.

N. to yqdqisiv, the to write = the fact of writing, writing.


G. toil yodyuv, of the to write =of writing.
D. to") ygdqeiv, to, with or by writing.
A. zo yodyuv, writing.
Toi ygdxpai, of writing (absolute).
T(T) ynyguqierat, by or with having written.
to,
to yodifieit, the being about to write.

377. The Infin. thus used is constructed like a


subst. ; as,

ll 8vvauii toil ogdv, the power of seeing.


tx toil yiyoayivcu, out of in consequence of. having
written,
usra roil noieiv, in connection with the doing,
fisra to nenoitjxwM, after having done,
fioo^ to iSeiv, to, in order to the seeing,
ttobi i(p ewgaxerui, in addition to having seen.

Id3* Bear in mind the distinction between the continued


Pres. and the absolute Aor.

ana toil ogav, from seeing (as a continued, or habitual act).


drib Toil ISeiv, from seeing (in a single instance).
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

378. 6 niftji (novos) the day-laborer, the poor man.

Q. nittjtog, D. nitrpi, N. PI. nivqtsg, D. nivrjo~i(v) &c.


ij neria, ag, poverty (not beggary).
havitog, a, ov, opposite, contrary.

tj netia tvavtia eati t(jj nXov- poverty is opposed to wealth.

to Xtyeip oix ivavtiov T<p Na- speaking is not opposed to wri


ting.
m tov oqccv pyvetcu to eldevai, from seeing comes knowing.

379. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

d&Xioi, dXX' oi xaxoL — Ovx


Ov% ol nevrjTeg
ax tiXovtov ioriv fj tvduipovia, dXX' eg cleric. —
To oqav xqtlrTOv sOtc tov dxovtiv. — To oqdv
svavrtov s0ri ra dxovttv. — Nvv eorcv 6 xgovog
rov idtiv. — Mtrd to Xkytiv, yiyvtrai to noitiv. —
To dficcQTttvtiv Qadiov. — Or to Xsytiv %aXtnov,
dXXd to noulv. — 'Ex tov haqaxkvai, olda. —
Axova dvTl rov Xsytiv. —'0 vtaviag Xsyti dvTi
rov dxovtiv. —'Avrl tov yqatpai, tXtga. — 'AvtI
tov eX&eiv, tyqccipa. — -HX&ofitv %Qog to idtiv. —
Asya Jttql rov ytyqcccpsvai, ov itGQt tov kcoqaxk-
vcei.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 329

II. Render into Greek.

The time of running. — The time not of seeing, but of


hearing. — I am present in consequence of having heard.
— We fled in consequence of seeing (« tov Ideir). — What
is opposed to seeing? — Hearing is not opposed to seeing.
— Running is opposed to walking. — Pursuing is opposed
to fleeing. — The shepherd flees instead of pursuing. — He
pursues instead of fleeing. — We shall write after having
spoken. — He spoke in addition to writing (ngbg to) yodipai).
— I speak concerning writing. — Virtue is opposed to vice.
— Virtue is in nothing similar • to vice. — Vice is in all
things opposed to virtue.

EIGHTY-SIXTH LESSON.

380. The Infinitive with the Article (continued).

The Infinitive with the Art. may take a subject in


the Acc. and govern its appropriate case.

ro ifis yqdqisiv, my writing (the, me to be wri


ting).
to i/ie ematoXtjr ygdxpat, my writing a letter (the, me to
write, &c.)
tov ijfidi taita BigTjxtvai, of our having said this (of the
us to have said).
T<j) tov dvSga ysygaqievai tav- l
ta, by the man's having written
to} tavta ysyQCMptvai tov av- these things.
dga,
330 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Even after Prepositions, however, the subject of


381.
the Infin. is omitted, if it would be a Personal Pronoun
referring to the subject of the preceding verb, and the
same rule holds as in (370).

/laxdgtog el Sid to dya&bg you are happy on account of


tlvai, being good.
6 naig aocfog iati ngbg tq> xa- the boy is wise in addition to
Vog ehai, being beautiful.
but, avu toil tbv naiSa xaXov instead of theboy's being beau
thai, aocpog iattv, tiful he is wise.

382. In
negative constructions the Infinitive with the
Art. always takes pri (not ov), uqdeig, &c.

to firj Xeysiv, not to speak (the not to speak),

ovx bgag dux to firi oqi&aXfiovg you do not see, on account of


hElv> not having eyes,
diet, to fttjdira sioivai, on account of no one's knowing.

tvq-log ov, blind.


r\,

bfiaXdg, ov, level, even,


t),

aiy-ata, oo, am silent.


I

Fut. oiyijom, Perf. aeot'ytjxa.

383. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

'O (pikooocpog navrcc ravra tidsvcei voju/£ti. —


'0 2coxqcctt]Q tXtyt tovs navva SrjXovv TOIQ
ceycc&oig. — ITXdrcov svojui^t rrjv i(jv%r]v d&avarov
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 331

eivac. —'O nsvrjg — '0


£r)rtt nXovGiog ytvsG&ac
&tdg nctvTag kit nocti ix tov ciya&bg tlvai. —'O
xXknTiqg x?Jjttu did to xaxog tivcu. — Ovrog 6
vtaviag noXXdg /3//3Xovg 6vvtiXo%t noog {stu) to
oocpbg yavso&ai. —'O xqovoq tov to- toiuvtu
tlb'svca cetl naotGriv. — Ex tov tov avftqa fir)
dtp&aXfiovg e%tiv, TvcpXog sgtiv. — To oiydv ivctv-
t 'iov £ot\ Ta fir) oiydv. — To fj.lv Xeytiv %uXtn6v,
to §s fir) Xsytiv sti %aXt7tcoTtQOv. —'O yr'jrao rccvra
ti'or/xtv ix tov fir) 6oybg uvea-
— To ntdiov bfia-
Xov eGtiv. — To Oiydv noXXaxig xot/rrov eon tov
Xsysiv.

II. Render into Greek.

Laughing. — A time of laughing. —To laugh indeed


is pleasant, but to do good to others is much pleasanter.
— To know all things is difficult. — To do is more diffi
cult than to know. — From seeing the sun, I have become
blind. — We have eyes so as to see many things. —The
old man is blind. — We have a tongue so as to say all
things which (navta oaa) we wish. — Nothing is sweeter
to the poor man than sleep. — The king has both horse
men and galleys so as to pursue us. — If we had horses
so as to pursue, we should not flee. — To flee is less easy
than to pursue. — Speaking is opposed to being silent. —
Nothing is more difficult than being silent.— Life farf)
(ft

opposed to death.
is
332 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

EIGHTY-SEVENTH LESSON.

384. The Participle.

The Greek Act. verb has four Participles ; the Pres.


Fut. Aor. and Perf.
The Pres. Fut. and 2 Aor. Act. Part, end in mv.
The 1 Aor. Act. ends in ag.
The Perf. Act. ends in <og.

385. yQcicpm, write.

Xeye), speak.
Pres. speaking (continued or habitual).
Ito,
Xey-co, Xey-cov,
Fut. Xe'^-mv, being about to speak.
1 Aor. s-Xe^-a, Xs%-ag, speaking (absolute).
Perf eiQijx-a, sioyx-eig, having spoken.

svqioxw, find.
Pres.
Fat,
2 Aor.
Perf

dxovm, hear.
Pres. axovm, axovmv.
Fut. axovaofiai, dxovaoftsvog.
1 Aor. dxovaag.
Perf. dxijxomg.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 333

386. Declension of the Participle in

eifil, am. Part, coy, being.

N. tov ovaa ov
G. ovrog ovatjg ovrog
D. OVTl ovarj ovri
¥
A. ovra ovaav OV
■* 0
V. cov ovaa OP

DUAL.

N.A.V. ovrs ovaa 0V7S


G. D. ovroiv ovaaiv ovroiv

PLUR.

N. ovrsg ovaai ovra


G. OVTCOV ovaaiv ovrmv
D. ovai(v) ovaatg ovo~i(v)
A. ovrag ovaag ovra
V. ovrsg ovaac ovra

So ygdcprnv, yodcpovoa, yodqiov.


yodyjcav, yqaxpovaa, ygdxpov.
svqb)v, svqovaa, svqov.

387. The 1 Aor. Part, in ag is declined like age ndaa,


Ttav.

ygdxpag, aaa, av, G. ygdxpavrog, datjg, &c.

The Pass, and Mid. Participles in pevog are declined


like Adj. in og, or, as dxovadfisv-og, op, &c.
ll,

q,
334 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Accent. — The 2 Aor. Part, in toy and the Perf. Part, in <us

are Oxytone (accented on the ultimate).

388. The Pres. Part, regards an act as going on at


the time indicated by the principal verb ; the Perf. as
completed ; the Aor. regards the act absolutely.

TjX&ev Wm', he came having (while hav


ing).
Tuvra ewgaxag, anlqk&sv, having seen these things, he
departed.
Bah, ibv aate'ga, tj^dgtjv, (on) seeing the star, I rejoiced.

Rem. — The Pres Part, may frequently be rendered with


while, in, the Aor. with on.

ogmv top iatiga, (while) seeing the star,


Babe top aart'ga, (on) seeing the star,
iuiQcixwg lov aorega, (after) having seen the star.
Xat'gm ravra noiar, I rejoice while or in doing these
things.

389. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Tavrce Xsyoiv, djuccQTdvttg. — 'H xoqt] ftsvet sv


olxia, STuOroXdg y(id(pov6a. — Tavra dxovaccg,
rjj
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 335

%"kalvuv Xce/3cov, rd^iGra dnshqafitv. — '0


<ag

dya&og 6(f6dqa ^uigsi dxovcov naqd rov (piXo-


aocpov ore q xpvxh d&dvarog soriv. — 'O /3a6i%tvg,
noXti cov, ■jvdvvag tv iitoiei. — Kaxbg cov,
rfj

sv
rolg xaxolg j^acQtig. — 'Atl %cxigo/*tv oQcovrtg (see
ing) rov rjXcov, xal Tm' ot"kr]VJ\v, xcti Tovg ddrs-
—'H xogrj xd&rjrcci iv

rfj
Qag. 6roa rrjg drjSo-
vog dxovovaa. — Tsqcov rig, Ttaidcc eiti rrjg ftnlMag
tvycov, fiijXa xXsnrovra, sxsXtvatv avrbv xura-
firjvai. —-0 veavtag ntmcoxcog xsirai inl rrjg yftg.

II. Render into Greek.

come having flower. — The maidens are present


a
I

having flowers in their hands. — used to rejoice (while)


I

seeing such beautiful flowers. — (In) saying these things


you do not err. — The philosopher does not err (in) say
ing that there only one God. — (After) having heard the
is

orator, we went away. — On finding this cloak, took


it
I

into my hands. — On seeing the beautiful stars, rejoiced.


I

— The hunter, taking (luficov) his dog, went forth into the
woods. — Who does not rejoice while seeing the virtue of
the philosopher. — The young man (after) having seen
his father, came hither. — Who knows himself — Nobody
?

sees even his own soul. — Boy, be such (Ha&i ioiomov) in


reference to {negl rovt) others, as you wish others to be
in reference to yourself.
336 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

EIGHTY-EIGHTH LESSON.

390. The Participle (continued).

Inflection of the Perf. in mg.

yeygaymg, having written.


SING.
N. yeygnqi-mg, via, OS
G. jeyQ&cp-oTog, viug, otog
D. ytygaqi-ori, via, in
A. yiygaqioza, vlav, 6s
V. yeygay-mg, via, 6g

DUAL.
N. A.V. yeygaqt-oie, via, o'ts
G. D. yeygacp-orotr, Clair, oxoiv

PLUR.
N. ysygaqi-ozsg, vlai, 6ia
G. ytyqacf-ozmv, viav, ormv
D. ysygaq>-dai(v), vac, 6ai{y)
A. yeygaqi-otag, vlag, oza
V. yeygucp-ozeg, vlai, oza

391. Participle of Contract Verbs.

The
present participles of contract verbs are contract
ed throughout ; as from

ogam opto, Pres. Part, ogdmv ogmv.

Sing. N. og-danv ur, dovaa tu3a, dor mv.


G. og-dovzog mvrog, aovoiis cooijs, dovzog avzog.
D. bg-dovzi writ, &c.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 337

qtle co cf
ila, love. Part. qnXemv qnXar.

Sing. N. qiiX-soor cor, iovcta ovaa, tor ovv.


G. gjiJ.-tWtoff ovrzog, Eovatjs ovaqg, gortog ovvtog.
D. (flX-SOVtl ovrti, &c.

So Fut. in oar of Liquid verbs as,

/urcov, fisrovact, [terovr.


from fititcuy, fieve'ovaa, fisviim.

dqXoco drjXm, show. Part. dyXomr StiXwv.

Sing. N. StjX-omv cor, oovaa ovaa, oor ovv.


G. 6qX-6orzog ovvtog, oovaijg ovaijg, oorrog ovrzog.
D. di]X-oorri ovm, &c.

392. Participles of 6qco, see.

Ind. Part.
Pres. oqucq o'gco, oqcIcov ogmr.
Fut. oxpofiai, bxpojitrog.
2 Aor. ddov, \8cor.
Perf. icoguHU, swpaxra'ff.

sQ^ofzai, come (go).

Pres. eQ^ojitu (icov from e^«», used instead of iQ%6/*erog).


Fut. (>;im, iJ/ji) %£cov instead of eXevao/xerog, &c.)
2 Aor. iX&cor.
iJj.#o»> (^xo»)
Perf. iXijXv&u, iXrjXv&mg.
15
'
338 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

393. Rule.— The Participle like the Adj. agrees in


gender, number and case with its suhst.

6 naztiQ oq&v, the father (while) seeing.


at yvvalxsg docoaai, the woman seeing.

394. The Participle is used in Greek much more ex


tensively than^in English ; often where we use the verb
with and, when, since, although, because, &c.

he took his hat and came (tak


lafiwv to* mkor, Wren
ing his hat, he came).
ov% oqag, ovx 6q>9ul[iovg fywr, you do not see, not having eyes
(since you have not eyes).
ov nobg as X/£oo, tara ovx w"" I shall not speak to you, not
ta, having ears (because you
have not ears).
fidvtmv naoovimv, ov8e\g 'at all being present (though all
sr. were present) none spoke.

395. <peg<», I bring, bear (irregular).

Ind. Part.
Pres. qiegco, cpeowv.
Fut. ol'ata, oiamv.
2 Aor. yvsyxov, svsyxtov.
Perf. srijro%a, itijvoywg.

6 verog, ov, the rain, rain.


Tj jr«J.«f«, tjg, the hail, hail.
6 Xsificiv, mrog, the meadow.
jy yaattiQ, f'ooff, the stomach (like nctt^q, Exc. Voc.
regular yaaTrjq).
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 339

396. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Tl ; — BaxTTiQiav (psqco. —'O nalg


(fSQSCQ tQ^e-
rai (peqcov rrjv rov yaqovrog /3axrrjqiuv. —'H yvvr]
6XiyOV TZQOTtQOV T]X&£, TlOrqQlOV £V rft
%tlQl (f>£~
qouoa. — 01 avSptg Ticeytjoav fj.h> fjfitv /us^qi rijg
eOTiSQceg, idovreg ds rovg ctOrsQctg, ccTtrjX&ov. — 'O
vtrbg ix rav vtcptXav i-o^trai. — 'O vtrbg xai
/)
%uXa£,a tig rovg Xti/uavag ninrovGiv. — XccXtTiov
£6vc itQog rrjv yaorsoa Xsytcv, cbrcc ovx i'%ovoav.
—'O ocpig, sv rrj %6a xti/utvog, rbv vtavlav
drf£t-

rai. *0 ysQcov ocpodoa rbv rjXiov oqcov. —
%uiQti
Eioyxccoi rivsg rbv r{Xtov Xi&ov etvcu. — Tbv juev
rjXiov nvQ tlvat Xsyovai, rr/v 8s 6bXr\vr\v, yips. —
CH %aXaC,u eziTvrs %uoav rr/v rj/usoccv ftexQc rijg
vvxrog.

II. Render into Greek.

What do you come bringing ? — I come bringing the


stranger's cloak. — You have not brought his cloak, but
your own. — I shall not bring my cloak, but the mer
chant's. —Who will come, having a beautiful cloak? —
Nobody. — The messenger, taking the letter, departed. —
Having come into the forest, I went to splitting (eoxfav)
wood with an axe and a wedge. — The horseman took
340 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

his horse (Xa^oiv) and went up on to the hill. — Mounting


(ara(idg) his horse, he went down through the plain into
the large meadow. — When (or«) the rain was falling, the
sun was in the clouds. — If the hail had not fallen, the
garden would have been beautiful. — Wine is a mirror of
the mind. — Speech is the image of the soul.

EIGHTY-NINTH LESSON.

397. The Participle (continued).

The Fut. Part, in Greek is often used, especially with


verbs of coming, sending, &c, to denote a purpose.

nt(Uito as ^ttjaorra, I send you to seek.


ijxm tovto yltjcor, I am come to say this.

If the purpose in the mind of an


is represented as
other, dog, as, may accompany the Part.

ibr lv%t>ov ela^ev cbg axpoov, he took the lamp, as about to =


in order to light it.
qldev cog xXexpoov, he came in order to steal.

398. Many verbs, which in Latin are followed by


the Infin., take in Greek a Participle, particularly verbs
of seeing, hearing, knowing, making known, remember
ing, beginning, «fcc.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 341

opto as aoqibv ovia,


oqg) on «, I see that you are wise.
aoqiog
olda avrbv [taxdgiov ovia,
018a on paxdqtog ianv.
I know that he is happy.
sldor tbv TtaTda Tqiypvia., I saw the boy running.
f/xovad aov sinovtog, I heard you say.
dqXoig Tavza ovtcag t%ov7a,
you show that this is so.
dqXotg dig tavta ovzmg |

When the Participle thus stands for the Infin.


399.
the same rule applies as in the Infin.
(see 370) viz. that
if its subject is a Personal Pronoun coinciding with that
of the principal verb, the Pronoun is omitted, and the
Participle placed in the Nom.

olSa ooybg cor, I know that I am wise.


Tjdeiv nXovaiog cor, I knew that I was rich.

400. ol8a, I know, qdgtr, I knew.


lo&i, know, eidwg, knowing.

piprrmai, aai, rat., &c, I remember (Perf. Pass, from (tvdoftcu).


Imper. ps'prijao, remember.
Infin. pepvija&ai, Part, [tsprnfie'rog.

par&ana, I learn, understand.


Fut. fia&ricsoncu, Perf. iieftd&nxa, 2 Aor. g/ia&ov.

naga tov didaaxdlov ftar- I learn from the teacher,


ddvtn,
(tdftpijao av&QConog cov, remember that you are a man.
342
greek ollendorff.

401. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

12 io&i &vr]Tbg cov. — £1 ftcxaiktv,


avd-QCOTtt,
cov. —-Iojusv rrjv if/v^rjv d&dva-
/uf/uvqao dvirgcoTtog
rov ov6av. — Ovrog 6 TcXovdiog ov {isjuvrjrcu &vt]-

rog cov. — Ollie tov cpiXoaocpov Gocpbv ovva. 'O
fiaoiktvg dyytXov tntftipk Xt^ovra on avrog rjgti.
— /dtvgo eXr/Xv&ajutv too Qrjvogog dxovdo/utvoe.

OvStig ovdtv xaxbv r/xovat
nconort ^Ecoxqarovg
Xsyovrog. — 0 %ari]Q dfjXog tare rrjv SvyartQct
cpiXcov.
—-0 tftnogog Xsytt avrog fitv ov ■uXovOiog,
— 01 vtaviai tig rd
nXovGicorarov nvac.
ifie d£
— 01 vtavt'ai
OQrj avifirjoav cog xqvobv ^rjrr'joovrag.
■jtoXXd tidsvcu vofti£oi>6iv.
— O ysqcov oldtv avrog
ov noXXd tedcog. —"Oqcofitv rovrovg rovg /ua&//Tceg
noXXd xai xaXd jutjuairqxorag. —'Eyrtcdrj tldov
rbv innka ninrovra dub tov ltitiov, xcii rjdrj
(already) ntnrcoxora, avrco TtQOGtSga/uov.
— Ovx
dtt jus/tvrjjutira &v//rol ovrtg.

II. Render into Greek.

I think that I
am wise, — The old man knows that
I
he is not wise. — know that the old man is a philoso
pher. — Socrates, alone of all the Greeks, knew that he
was not wise. —We know that we are mortal. —Know
that the body indeed is mortal, but the soul immortal. —
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 343

Nobody ever heard Socrates say any thing evil. — We


know that God sees all things. — O boy, remember that
God sees and knows all things. — I have learned from
my teacher many excellent things. — I have learned that
there is poison in the tongue of the flatterer. — If the king
had come, he would have seen us fleeing.

NINETIETH LESSON.

402. The Participle (continued).

The mode of rendering the Participle varies, as in


the Infin. (see 371) according to the principal verb;
thus,
oTSa afiUQidrair, I know that I err (lit., I know
erring).
fjdtiv anagravoiv, I knew that I erred, was in error.
ol8a rifiaQzrjxwi;, I know that I have erred.
I know that I had erred.
%8siv rj/jiaQTrjxwg,
olda, r^Suv nftagrcip, I know, knew that I erred.
olda aftitQrrjaofievoi, I know that I shall err.
rjSetv ctfiuQTtjaoiAevog, I knew that. I should err.

403. Most of the verbs which are followed by a Part,


instead of the Infin. may take the Infin. but in a differ
ent sense : thus,

ol8a iijiwv, I know that I honor.


olda tifiav, I know how to honor.
(iav&a.vm snqpos <5v, I learn that I am wise.
I learn how to be wise.
fiuv&dvm aotfhs elrcu,
344 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

aoiyaag,
[tf'fiftjucu I remember doing, that I did.
^Hvi,futi notrjaat, I remember to do.
axovco avtoi Xeyotrog, I hear him speaking.
uxovto avTov Xsyetv, I hear that he speaks.

404. aroiyco, avoiyvvfti, I


open.
Fut «voi1-(o, 1 Aor. areola.

Perf. arr'ip^a, have opened.


2 Perf. aveqjya, am open.

6 xodftog, ov, (order) the world (as an orderly system).


navianipv, every where.

405. Exercises.

L Render into English.


—"Av-
"Iofiev tov &tbv ovnOTk djuceOTavovTce.
•&QConog cov, oidcc —To fit]-
noXXdxig dftaqravcov.
nort d/uccQTtiv ion tov irtov fiovov. —-0 fia&tj-
oocpog tivcu.
— 12 /SaGiXtv, dtl fi£/u-
TTjS /uav&dvei
VTjOo ovx d&dvotTog av.—Sl nal, jus/uvr]o~o oacpgcov
tlvcci. — Ttg rrjv -frvqav dvta^tv ; — 'O xlsitrng,
&vqav dvoi^ag, tiGtjX&tv cog xX&if/av.
—'Axova
tcov oqvi&mv dhovrcov. —Axovo/usv rdg xooug
ddtiv. — ital, dvoigov rr\v \)voav. —'O &tog
£2

nccvTCt%ov eOtcv.
— Udg 6 xoajuog TtXrjorjg sort tov
■&&ov. — ■ O r/Xiog oqj&aX/j.og sari tov xoo/uov.
OLLENDORFF. 345

II. Render into Greek.

I have learned these things. — The king has learned


to be just. — I have heard the orator say many things. —
The orator knows that he has not spoken well. — The
great king does not know that he is mortal. — I knew that
I had not spoken well. — Nothing is immortal except vir
tue. — The good (man) knows how to honor the good. —
As a mirror shows the face, so wine shows the mind. — I
remember opening the door.

NINETY-FIRST LESSON.

406. The Participle [continued).

Genitive Absolute. — A Substantive and Participle


are placed absolutely in the Gen. to express cause, time,
and such other relations as we express by the Nom. ab
solute.

rov ijlinv lovrog, »>t>| cpevyei, the sun coming, night flees,
gov Xt'yovTog, iyu> oiyw, you speaking (while you speak)
I am silent
tfiov xslevaavToe, rjk&sg, I directing, you came,
ovde xeXevaavros ifiov, rjl&eg, not even I bidding = though I
bade, did you come.

407. The particle with the Gen. or Acc.


dg is used
absolute to indicate a reason existing in the mind of the
person spoken of, or assigned by him.
15*
346

atya cog navtatv eidotoov, I he is silent, as all knowing =


aiya dtg navrag slSozag, \ on the ground that all know.

Rem. — Distinguish carefully the Gen. absolute with and


without Ji?; thus,

Xiyti, navrmv nagovrmv, he speaks, all being present


(since all are present).
Xeyei cog ndvTmv nagovrtov, he speaks, on the ground that,
as supposing that all are
present.

xlsim, I shut.
Fut. xJ.EKrw, I Aor. exXeiaa.

xXeTaov irjv -9vqav, shut the door.


Gov xkeiovTog, iya> dvolyco, you shutting = while you shut,
I open.

408. In
addressing persons in Greek the omission of
oo implies scolding- or contempt.

nal, ti note Xeyug ; boy, what in the world are you


saying?

409. 6 ix&vg, the fish.

SING. DDAL. PLUR.

N. lxdig N. lxOveg
G. iX9vog N. A. V. ix&is G. tX&voov
D. ixdvi G. D. ixdvoiv D. lxOvai(v)
A. ix(tvp A. ix&vag (tX&tg)
V. ix9v V. lx0Vtg
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 347

Al 'A&ijvai, mv, Athens.


'H Alyvntog, ov, Egypt, Aiyvmwi, ^Egyptians.
'O Nulog, ov, the Nile.
xlsiros, 6f, famous, celebrated.

tj,
410. Exercises.

Render into English.


I.

CH AiyvTtros 8coq6v eart rov NtiXov. — °0


NttXog xXsivdg rjv noTccftog.—'Ev 'A&rjvaig xXecvol
f)6uv (jJiXoootpoi. —cO NtlXog nXrjQrjg iarlv fy&vcov.
— Tov fjXiov XdfiTvovrog, ndvva SijXd iarcv.
— Toiv gr/TOQCov Xtyovvav, ndvTsg i9ccv/ud£ov-
tsg xcrd'r\iit&a.— Tarv SidccGxdXav Xsyovrav, 6t-
ycoeiv ol fta&r]Tai. — Ovds (not even) Xsyovrog
rov 8idce6xdXov, 6cyd vtaviag. — 'O TiavrjQ nefi-
6

Titc rov naidce tt]v &vqav xXu6ovtu. — Msjuvnjuat


Trjv nvXrjv tccvtt)v Trj nQOOxhtv vvxti dvoi£ag. —
Tai/Tce Xsytcg cog ndvTCov sv i%6vTCov. — JTdvvav
rd^iGTOv s6tc vovg Sid ndvTav ydq (for) tqs^si.
'

II. Render into Greek.

know that am mortal. — saw the boy both open


I I
I

ing and shutting the door. — remember shutting the


door.— Boy, remember to shut the door. — We being
si
348 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

lent, the orators speak.— The few (ror blijtor) being si


lent, the many speak. — The Egyptians say that the sun
and moon are gods. — In Athens were many beautiful
porticoes.— The Nile is full of large fishes.— Near Athens
was a celebrated river. — On coming hither, I saw the
fishes in a golden cup. — Much hail has fallen.

NINETY-SECOND LESSON.

411. The Participle with the Article.

is used with the Art. in all cases and


The Participle
numbers substantively, to express the doer (or receiver)
of the act, and may be rendered sometimes by a noun,
or more commonly by the relative and verb ; thus,

6 fQOKfmV, he who writes =the writer,


t^S yQctqiovotig, of her who writes,
TO fQa.(fOV, that which writes,
they who write, the men who
write.

So, in the other tenses ;

Aor. tj fQOLxpaan, she who wrote.


Fut. oi yadxpnvTeg, they who will write.
Perf. tmv yeyyuqiorcor, of those who have written.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 349

412. The Article and Participle thus used are con


structed like a noun ; as,

6 Siaxmv cpeO-siai, he who pursues will flee.


ibv qtvyoria dimxm, I pursue the man who flees,
tj iov Ityortog yowij,
the voice of him who speaks,
Sia ibv iXrjkvOora, on account of the man who has
come.

413. While thus constructed as a noun, the Parti


ciple may govern its proper case as a verb.

6 lavia tlnmv ndoEoitv, the man who said this is pres


ent.

cpevym lovg ifU xaxwg nowvv- I flee those who injure me.

tj xoqtj tj rrjt imaioXrjv ygdipa- the maiden who wrote the let
aa, ter.

ov, useful,
tj,

XQrjdifiog,
lb TTQofiaiov, ov, the sheep,

doovfiog, ov, tumult,


b

evai'fleta, ag, piety.


tj

if,

aftadrjg, unlearned, untauhgt (like nXrjotjg).

XQvaofiaXXog, ov, golden-fleeced (like aXoyog),


from xQvoog, gold, and paXXog, a lock
or fleece wool.
of
350 greek ollendorff.

414. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

*0 rcevrcc ptoiav. — 01 ravrcc nsnoiTjxovsg. —


<PiXai rovg ifj-s cpiXovvrag. —'O i%dg cpiXsl ndvrceg
rovg ecevrov rtfiaivrccg. — Ovx av %qv6ov Xdftoig
nXrjv naQu rov t%ovrog. — 01 vvv ysXavrsg ovx
dsl ytXdaovTUi. — 01 Grjfisgov (psvyovrsg, avqiov
dia^ovTcci. — Tovg top &sbv Tt/uavrccg avvbg ri-
firjOei.
— 01 rovg xaxovg cpiXovvrsg, avroi si6i
xaxoL —'O iv w" xal sv rfj
rfj

yXco66rj ibv fycov,


xaoSla. — Ovx, o noXXd sldcog, dXX' xprjdi/ua

6
slbag, oocpog.
— Avxog, idav noijusvceg %o6fturov
s'a&iovrceg, 'HXixog dv w, sins, &OQvfiog, si iya>
tovto enoiovv! — -O dfia&rjg %Xov6iog nooftarov
son XQvOofiuXXov. — Uaccov rciv uqstmv xaXXio-
tt] sOrlv svosftsicc.
r\

II. Render into Greek.


love him who lovesvirtue. — We do good to those
I

who do good to us. — Those who opened the door will


shut it. — easy to love those who love us. — He who
It
is

knows useful things wise. — None wise except him


is
is

who knows useful things. — None happy except him


is

who honors God. — Those who speak are frequently less


wise than those who are silent. — -He who silent often
is

is

wiser than he who speaks. — -They who pursue are swift


er than those whojlee. — This ignorant rich (man) a
is

golden fleeced sheep.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 351

NINETY-THIRD LESSON.

415. The Participle \ with the Article (continued).

The rendering of this, i Participle varies according to


the tense of the principal verb ; thus,

tiV tativ o Xt'ymv ; who is it that speaks 1


Tti r\v 6 Xiymv : who was it that was speaking?
riveg iiaiv ol siQtjxoTSS ; who are they that have
spoken 1
rives ijaav oi eiQtjxoreg ; who were they that had
spoken ?

416. ov with the Part, makes a positive,

ftij
condi

a
.

tional negation as,


;

oil Xiycav, he who does not speak,


6

firj Xtyaiv, he who may not speak (if there


6

be such),
rovtov ov ygdxpavrog, qX&ov, this man not writing, came,
I

aoii yQaxpatrog, ova av you not writing, "(in case of


TjX&OV your not writing) should
I

not have come.

Distinguish carefully between the Infin. with


417.
the Art. and the Part, with the Art. The former used
is

only in the Neut. Sing, as an abstract noun the latter


is
;

used in all numbers and genders, and always as a con


crete.

to nomv, the doing (the act).


noimv, he who does, they who do.
ol

aoiovvteg,
6

tov nenoitjxt'vcu, of the having done.


twv nenoirjXOTmv, of those who have done.
352 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Rem. — The resemblance between these two classes of


constructions is closest in the Neut. Sing, and there
they should be distinguished with special care ; as,

to thai, the being (the to be),


\ *

I
TO OV, that which is.
to Xeytiv, the speaking,
to Xe'yov, that which speaks,
to eyeiv ivri tov
fiij
(the) having instead of not
having.
to typv avTt tov pi] e%0VTog, that which has instead of that
which has not

Itf1* Notice carefully cor .ructions like the following:

to tov yqdxpavTa. naqtivai, his being present who wrote


(the him who wrote to be
present).
ex tov tov yodxpavTa naqeivai, from his being present who
wrote.
to tov TuvTa sinovTa fia- the man's being present who
qnvcu, said this.
0003 TOV TltQi TOV xXtJlTSlV Xe- see him who speaks about
I

yovTtt, stealing,
VLVU TOV VTttQ TOV XlxXoOJOTOf instead of speaking for him
lie, who has stolen.

naiStla, ag, discipline, instruction, education.


fj

xagnog, ov, fruit.


6

Ttixoog, «, 6v, bitter.


xtijotg, tmg, acquisition, possession.
6 t]

dovXog, ov, bondman, slave.


GREEK OLLENDORFF. 353

418. Exercises.

I. Render into English.


Trio tov Xkytiv. Oav fiasco rov Giycovra fidX-
Xov tj tov Xsyovra. — TivsQ r/ffav oi ndoovrtg brt
dnsdavtv 6 ^coxpdrr/g ;—'OXiyoi cpiXoi ticcQt]6av.
— To /usv dfiaoravtiv, pdSiov, to 8s vttso tcov

dfiaoravovrcov Xsytiv, %aXt7t6v. D noijurjv rbv
Xvxov 8icoxti dvrl rov cptvytiv. — ITavrtg (fiXovai
rovg havrovg cpiXovvrag. — Oi oiycovrtg noXXdxig
tcov Xtybvrcov oocpcortpoi tioiv.
— To oiydv noX-
Xdxig xquttov son rov Xsytiv. — <PiXti TtaiStiav,
Gotpiav, dptrrjv, tvosjdtiav.
— Tijg nai8tiag at jusv
(>i£ai %ixqcci tlcnv, or OS
xaonoi, yXvxtig. — At
dptTrjg xrr\6teg juovai ftsfiaiai tioiv.
— UoXXdxig
6 nXovoiog SovXog son ZQrjiidrcov. —'O nai8tiav
xat Gocpiav yiyvtrai Oocpog. — 'Ex rov
(piXcov ubvog
— 'H dgtrrj
TTjv nai8tiav cpiXtiv yiyvtrai fj oocpia.
fiovrj dddvarog fitvti. — 'O 8t6n6rr\g ovrog noX-
Xovg w" SovXovg.

II. Render into Greek.

Instead of speaking, you are silent. — Instead of pur


suing, we flee. — He who pursues to-day, will flee to-mor
row. — He who loves virtue is happy. — He who threw the

ball into the fountain, will flee into the house. The
serpent has his poison in his tongue, but the flatterer in
354 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

his soul. — Nothing is better than being silent except


speaking well. — Who was it that saw the king ? —The
same man who wrote (6 avibs 6 ygdxpng) this letter. — The
same girl who opened (i dvoi%aaa) the door is now shut
ting it

NINETY-FOURTH LESSON.

419. The Passive Voice.

The Passive Voice has a Pres. and Imperf. Perf. and


Pluperf. 1 & 2 Fut. and 1 & 2 Aor. tenses ; and in a
few verbs a third or Perf. Fut. ; thus,
Ind. Pres. ygdcpoficu, am being written.
Imperf. iyQacpofitjv, was being written.
1 Fut. ygacp&rjoofiat, shall be written.
1 Aor. iygdqi9vv, was written.
2 Fut. ygaqir/oofuu, shall be written.
2 Aor. iygdqinv, was written.
Perf. yeygaftfitti, have been written.
Pluperf. iyeygdftfiqv, had been written.
Perf. Fut. ysygdrpofjiai, shall have been written.

Rem. — Both forms of the Aor. are more frequent in the


same verb in the Pass, than in the Act. Voice.

420. Inflection of the Ind. Pass.

Most of the Pass, inflections have already been given :

thus,
Pres. ygdcpouai, ]

1 Fut. ygacp&rjcsonai, I oftai, tj, Stat.


2 Fut. ygacprjaoftat, f 6fts&ov, ta&ov, ea&ov.
Perf. Fut. ysygaipoftai, j ope&u, eadt, ovtcu.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 355

■ OV, "o.

!6/itjV,
o/ie&ov, sa&ov, are.
opuda, sade, ovto.

tjrov, tjTtjv.

-ygafifiui, ygaxficu, ygamai.

{
Perf. yiygafifiou, yqdtifiE&ov,yqa.cf9ov,yga.q)Qov.

I ( (
ygdfifts&a, ygaqi&E, yga(ifiivoiEiai{y)
-ygdftfirjv, ygaxf>o, yganto.
Pluperf. EyEyqafAfiriv, ygdfifiE&ov,yQa(f{)ov,ygdqiOriv.
4

yqafjifiEda, ygatf&s, yeygap/xtrot tjaav.


(

421. Ind. Pres. nipnoftau, am (being) sent.


Iraperf. inefino/irjv, was (being) sent.
Fut. jiifJKf&tjaonai, shall be sent.
1

Aor. Efit/up&tjr, was sent.


1

Perf. ns'n-EHfiai, Efityai, have been sent.


Pluperf. itieneftfiijv, \po, had been sent.

Pres. (ptX-e'oftai, over, Imperf. sq>il-s6fti]v ov/itjv.


Fat. qnXti&qooputi, Aor. iqiiXq&ijv.
1
1

Perf. necpiX-itfiai, Tjaai, nxai, Plur. ireq/iXijvTai.


3

Pluperf. inegiiX-tjfinv, qoo, tjto, Plur. inetfiXtivro.


3

Pres. Ind. Xaft^dvo/jitti, am taken, Imperf. cXa/j^avoiiijv.


Fut Xt]Qp9j}oofi(u.
Aor. iXr[qi9rjv.
1

Perf. -nnzai,
eiXt}-(i(iai-\\jai, PI. uXrjunevoi uai{v).
3

Pluperf. eiXrj-wit]v-xpo -nro, PI. elXijftfieroi r\aav.


3
356 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

Xeyoftcu, iXeyofitjv, am said, was said,


lexdqaoftai, iXii&rjv.
Instead, -£a«, -xtat, 3 PI. XeXeyftwoi tiot(v).
iXtX-iyfUjv -«|o, -sxto, 3 PI. XeXeyfievoi tjaav.

SdxfOfim, fSaxvoprjv.
SilX&rjoofiai, tdrj-^&rjv.
ded-tjfftai, 'stat, tjxtai, D. qy/ts&ov, ijx&ov, &c.
idtd-ijy/xrjr, 'Or, ijxto, D. tjyfi8&ov, ny9oi>, rjx&1v'

422. two (under) with Pass. by.


nagu tov, from, by. ) less common than vno to
nqog tov, on the part
of,

by, denote the agent.


)

V7i oqpewff edfa&nv, was bitten by a serpent.


I

inifiy&H naqa {vno) toy pa- he was sent by the king.


aiXttoi,
adeixeia&ai tiqos tivog, to be wronged by some one.

423. The Dat. also used to express the agent es


is

pecially with the Perf.

zavtd fioi Xe'Xextat, this has been said by me.

Itf Distinguish carefully between vno, by the agent, and


Sia, through, by (by means of) the instrument.

ematoXtj vno tov (SaotXeme the letter was sent by the king.
r\

intfiqi&t],
intfirpa avijjv tov sent by (through) the mes
it

diet ctyye'Xov,
I

senger.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 357

424. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

'H STCieroXr) yqacpsrai.


—Ac encOroXal avrai
vn error syQacp&rfiav. — Haqd vivos /ucp&r) 6

ayytkog. —Haqd rov narqog — Udaac ai


/uov.
STViGroXccl avTCtt avqcov %tft(p&r]GovTac. — 01 dya-
&6i imb &tov (pikovvTcu. — 01 xaxoi ovds v<p
eavrcHv cpiXovvrcei. — JJavra Tavra 6oc noXXdxcg
XsXsxtcci. —-O nalg vnb rov ocpzas xard rov 7t6Sa
iSqx&J]. — El /urj icpvys ra noofiava, sXrjcp&r] dv
vnb rov Xvxov. —-0 vvv cpsvyav noXvv %qovov di-
cjxsto. — El raiira iX&x&r], rig ovx dv s&av/Liaosv ;
— 01 rov zrsbv Ti/ucovrsg del vit avvov tijucovtcci.

II. Render into Greek.

The letter was written. — The letters have been writ


ten. — Nothing was written in the letter except these
words. — A hammer was found (evqcOi]) in the chest. —
Nothing was found by the stranger except this cloak. —
This wedge was found on the table..-- Good men are
loved by each other. — The good are loved by the good. —
These words have been said by us. — If the letter had
been written (tyQricp&ri) it would have been sent. — If I
had been present (nagy*) the letter would not have been
written.
358 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

NINETY-FIFTH LESSON.

425. The Passive Voice {continued).

Subj. Mode.

oafiai, 5, ijzcu.
Pres. yqacp- iafts&ov, tja&ov, ija&ov.
mfts&a, Tja&e, (ovtau

|ff,
tn, V-
1 Aor. yqacpft-
tjzOV, TjTOV.
2 Aor. yqay-
misc, fire, are).
do,

ftfVoff Jff, 7[.


Perf. ysyqafi- (term, error, t\tov.
fiivoi ajftev, t\ts, mai(v).

426. Optative Mode.

Pres. yqaq:-
Fut. yqacp&ija- Ol/ltjV, 010, OITO.
1

Fut. yqucptja- oifte&ov, oia&ov, oia&Tjv.


2

Pf. Fut. ysyqaxf)- oi/ieO-a, oiads, owro.


IS,
V-

Aor. ygacp&n- nv<


1

IjTOV, tfttjV.
Aor. yqacftt-
2

tjntv, we, rjoav and w.


[ie'voe e'i7]v, uri$, tirj.
Perf. yeyqap- jtirta, e'/ijrov, si^ttjv.
fisvoi etyfist', s"t]TS, eiijoav and shy.

427. Imperative Mode.

or, (g&(o.
{

Pres. yqdq>- sa&ov, ea&oov.


4

sa&s, ia&toaav and ia&mr.


I
CiltEEK OLLENDORFF. 359

Aor. yguffi&tjti
1
IjTlfa&l), JfTO).
qTCQV.
2 Aor. yguqptj&t t]ZOt>,

rjtg, rjtaaav.
aipo, cufOw.
Per/: ys'yo- a<p&ov, dcp&03V.
acp&e, dcp&mauv and dcp&cor.

428. Infinitive Mode.

Pres. yoacfiaQai.
1 Fut. yoa(p9qaee&ai.
1 Aor. ygacp&ljvai.
2 Fut. ygaqptjaeaO-ai.
2 Aor. yqacprivai.
Perf. ysyqacfQcu.
Pf. Fut. ysyQaifieaO-at.

429. Participles.

Pres. yqaqiofitvos, of.


rj,

Fut. yQacp&Tjaoftsvos, ov.


1

iv, r\,

Aor. yqaqtOeig, staa, G. svxog, &c.


1

Fut.
2

yoa<jiij<j6itst>og.
Aor. yoacpets, eiGa, ev.
2

Perf. ysyqanfihos.
Pf. Fut. yeyoaxponevog.

430. Synoptical view of evQiaxopai, am found.


Pres. evoiax-o/xai, toftai, oif*i]v, ov, ea&ai, ofierog.
Imperf. evqwx6[itiv,
Fut. tvgij-aofiai, aoi'f/rjv, aea&ai, aofAtvog.
1

Aor. EVQt-9t]r, -Qoi, 9ijti, Qqvat, &eig.


1

-freitjv,
Perf. evQtj-fiai, fttvog w, (te'ros scijv, ao, oQui, jisvog.
Pluperf. EVQTj/iijr.
360 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

431. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

Haqa Tivog ins ficpd-r] 6 ayytXog ;— 'Enkficpxhri


naga rov fiaGiXseog. — El naqa tov ffaoikecog
nkfxfp&bir] Tig, fjfitlg idoi/utv av avrov. —'Eav
yQa(f ir(06iv ul eniOToXai, fiy/o fitv avrdg ngbg
rovg cfiXovg qjuav. — Mr/ Xtysa&av if/tvdtig Xoyoi.
—Asyovdi noXXag incOToXag xatf rj/zsgav yqu-

(fjt6&cu.~Nofii£co tccvtcc vri ovdtvbg %sXe%&ou.
Jia to ravra v(p v/ucov XtXs%&ai, navra tv e%£t.
— Ti Xtytig ntgl tov tuvtcc tvqfi6&ai. —'O orjfiE-
—'O vvv dtco-
qov ytXav, ccvqiov ovx&ri ytXccGtrtu.
xofitvog vortqov Sico£u.
— O naXog i8rj^&t] vtto
tov ocptag.
—'O nalg, xrnb tov ocpeag 8t]%&eig} ngbg
top naxsqa eSqafitv.

II. Render into Greek.

The boy has been found. — Much gold was found in


the mountain. — so much gold shall be found {tat —
If
— Where was the boy-
tvQt&ri), the workman will be rich.
found ? — He was found by the old man, stealing apples.
— The boy has been bitten. — The peacock was caught.
— If the lion had been pursued, he would have been

caught. — If the thief shall be found, he will be caught.
The boy, on being bitten, ran into the house. — Thunder
is heard. — The voice of the orator was heard {>ixova9q).

Nothing was heard except the voices of the orators.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 361

NINETY-SIXTH LESSON.

432. The Middle Voice.

The Middle Voice denotes an action returning upon,


or terminating with the agent ; as,

lovm, I wash, Mid. lovoftai (lovpai) I wash myself.


. q vXt'inw, I guard (some one).
"
(fvXaTxojiai (Iguard myself),
I am on my guard.
<fOj3io) qpo/S<3, / terrify, " q>o@ovfiai, Ifear.

433. The Middle Voice in four of its tenses, has the


same forms as the Pass., viz. the Pres. and Imperf., Perf.
and Pluperf. The Aor. and Fut. are peculiar ; thus,

Pres. qivXaaaoftai, Att. (fv7.a.Ttofiai, I guard against.


Imperf. ecpvlaoaofttjr.
Perf nstpvXaynui.
Pluperf. etisqivXdyftrjv.
1 Fut. qivld^ofiai.
1 Aor. iqjvXa^d/xrjV.

Pres. cpo{S(£o)ov/icu, Imperf. Eq>o(t(e6)ovfirjv.


Perf neffofirjpai, Pluperf. ineqofiriprjv.
Put. cpoftijooiicu, 1 Aor. icfo^ijadfiJjv.
362 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

434. The Fut. and Aor. Mid. are formed from their
corresponding Act. tenses ; thus,
i

Active. Middle.
Fut (pvXd^-m, qpvXd^-o/jiut.
1 Aor. ecpvXu^-a, iqivXa^-dftri*, oo, ato, D. dptdov, &e.
Liquid Fut. (iev-m, (itt-ovfiou.
2 Aor. iXm-o*, left (fr. Xeinoi), iXi7i-6fiijV.

435. Synopsis of 1 Aor. Mid.

(i)qivXa^-ufii]v, aiftai, al/Atjv, ai, aa&ai, dpevog.


Inflection of Imper. ai, da&ea, aa&ov, da&tav, Sec.

(fvXdtrm tov Xeovra, I guard the lion.


tpvXdtxofitu tov Xiovxa, I guard against, beware of the
lion.
b Xscav ifte qpofiet, the lion terrifies me.
ffo§ov(iai tov Xkovta, I fear the lion.

436. Exercises.

I. Render into English.

*0 <xvr}Q (pvXccTTSi tov Xeovra. —'O Xscav cpv"kdr-


tstcci (Pass.) vnb tov dvSoog. — 01 dv&qumoi, Tovg
Xtovxag (pvXccTTOVTac. — Tig fjftdg cpvXccTTtTac ;—
Ovdtig vjucig (puXdrTtrai. — 01
&i}QtVT<xi xd dyoia
■&rjQia cpvXdxxovxctc. — 01 ddtxoi dtl dXX/jXovg
cpvXdvTOVTCti- — 01 xaxol dtl tovq xaxovg cpoftovv-
Tcct. —'Hfitig TCtvxa xd &t)qicc dg /udXiOxa cpo-
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 363

fiov fit&ov.—Oi dya&ol order cpoftovvrai nXr\v rov


xaxov. —'O dya&og ovSs rbv ftdvarov cpofitlrai.
—'O &avutog dtl vovg xaxovg cpo/3ti. — 01 dSixoe
dtl dXXrjXovg (pojSovvrai. —'O xaxbg
xal rr)v hav-
tov (rxidv q>o/3ttrai. — Tov xaxov xal (even) r)
avTOV axid cpoftti. — 01 xaxoi dtl dXXrjXovg cpofiri-
oovrat xal cpvXd£ovvac.

II. Render into Greek.


Always fear and shun evil. — The good (man) fears
no evil. — Nothing will terrify the good man. — The hun
ter fears the fierce lion. — The fierce wild beasts terrify
the hunter. — We shut our houses that we may guard
against thieves. — We shut our doors because we fear the
thief. — The thief fears us. — This young man will terrify
the thief. — Fear God and honor the king. — He who hon
ors God will never fear. — The blind (man) fears all
things. — The good do not even fear death. — Virtue is a
source of permanent happiness.

NINETY-SEVENTH LESSON.

437. The Prepositions.

The Prepositions are constructed as follows :

With the den. four ; ad, avti, ex(f'l), 'No.


With the Dat. two ; iv, avv.
With the Acc. two; tie, dvd, (tag to),
With the Gen. and Acc. four ; did, xard, vneg, fierce.
With the Gen. Dat. & Acc. six; uftqii, ent, aagd, fiSQi, anoi, two,
364 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

438. I. Prep, with the Gen.

'ArtL over against = hence, instead of, in return for,


for.
BaaiXeiig ctvu SovXov, a king instead of a slave.
OLvri or/ VaXpov, an eye (in return) for an eye.
6(fduXfibs
'
before (of time, place, preference)
TIqo, ; before for
protection = on behalf of, for.
ngb rtjt noXeoig, before the city.
I

7IQO TOV XQOVOV, before the time,


tit tmv fuels- (to choose) the meaner in pre-
it,
^QCt^vteqa. Ttoo
ference to the best,
ngb dtanoTwv &arelv, to die for our masters.

'And, from (removal, distance) ; from, as source or


occasion.
rjX&tv anb i% nolens, he came from the city.
dnb tar xgrmctToov, from (by means of) the money.
anb tov noXtjiov, from the war.

'Ex(IS), out from (of place) ; out from (of time) =

after ; of cause = in consequence of.


«x 'IN oixiag, out of the house.
«$ UQrjvris noXsjiog, (out of) after peace, war.
in tOVTCOV, (out of) in consequence of these
things.

439. II. Prep, with the Dat.

'Er, in, in the midst of = among.


in the region,
ysQtov in veoig, an old man among youths,
iv do/, ndvta ioitv, all things are in (dependent on)
thee.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 365

2w, with, along with ; with = with the help


of.
aw roig innsvatv, along with the horsemen,
avv r6fi(p yji^cpov ■d-sodat, to vote (in conformity) with the
law.
aw &sois ovSsvbs anootjaopsv, with the help of the gods we
shall want for nothing.

440. III. Prep, with the Acc.


'Ava, up, back ; up = over, throughout.
ava qo'ov, up stream.
otxeiv ara ret ogtj, to dwell over, throughout the
mountains
ava naaav fjfiSQav, every day.
ava nsvts (distribut.ively), by fives, five by five.

Els, into ; one thing into another, as object ; hence,


for, with reference to, against; — as result, — into,
among. %

sis ttft nokiv, into the city.


aXovrog tov xaxiatov elg wealth brings the worst among
TZQcazovgaysi, the first,
XQtjaifiovsis noXtfiov, useful for war.
ajxaqtavsiv sis tiva, to commit error against any
one.

'Sis, to (with persons).


nefiTtto ms hfius, |
I send to you.

441. IV. Prep, with the Gen. and Acc.


Aia. tov.
Sta tov, through ; hence, by means of (through one
thing to another).
dia rov nota/xov, through the river,
Sia Tjjs vvkxos, through the night,
Si ayyskov nepnm, I send through, by a messen
ger.
366 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

did rov, on account of.

8td tavra, |
on account of these things.

Kara, down.

xara rov, down from ; — down in respect to = against;


in a more general sense, relating to, upon, &c.

Qinrm xara. rmv nergmv, I hurl down from the rocks.


Xiyn xar ifiov, he speaks against me.
6 xara rtjs noXsme enatvog, the praise (bestowed) on the
state.

xara rov, denotes general contact or relation without


intimate connection — at, by, according to ; (dvd rov, ex
tension over ; xara rov, contact at a point.)

xad' 'EXXdda, | in Greece,


xara OdXaaaav, by sea.
dvd rtjv QaXaoaav, over (throughout) the sea.
xar txuvovg rove XQ^V0VS> at those times,
xara. rnvrov tov Xoyov, according to this statement,
xara ro Stxaiov, according to justice,
xa&' eviavrov, year by year, annually,
xara. noXeig, by cities, city by city.

Merd mid), among, with.


(ueoog,

fierce rov, among, with (in connection with).

ilvai (isr dv&Qoinmv, to be among men.


oidiv xraa&ai fier ddixias, to acquire nothing with injus
tice.
(terd xaXXiartje So^tjg that, to be (in connection) with the
noblest reputation.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 367

(ftera to}, with the Poets, among.)


(istit tov (into the midst of, poetic) ; next to, after.

fxeta ravra, after this.


(xsza &Bovg ipv^y Qsiotutov, next to the gods, the soul is
most divine.

'Tnsg, over, above.

vneg tov, over, beyond (with rest) ;over for protection


= on behalf of, for ; in relation to (with idea of interest
in).
0 &sbg tov yXiov e&rjxev vneg God placed the sun above the
MS. earth.
(
oixeir vneg AiyinTOv, to dwell beyond ^Egypt.
Xeyeiv vneg nvog, to speak on behalf of any one.
ijyeiv into Tye ygacpijs, to speak in relation to the in
dictment.

vneg tov, motion over or beyond ; chiefly, beyond as


to conception, measure, number.

iintttp vneg tov doftov, to throw over the house,


imsg dvra/xiv ti noieiv, to do any thing beyond one's
ability.
vneg avOgianov, beyond man (what is human),
vneg nevte. i 1
yeyovoig, having been born above five
years (more than five
years old).

442. V. Prep, with Gen. Dat. and Acc.

'Aficpi, about (lit. on both sides).


anyl tov, tov, about, on account of (not very common
in prose).
afupi to}, about (not found in Attic prose).
OLLENDORFF.

I7epi, around about.


ntqi tov, about, concerning:

Xifm nso\ lovtatf, |


I speak concerning these things.

asQt zip, close about ; (with verbs of fearing) fm .

yiTwveg neqi ToTg angroie, tunics about the breasts.


ideioav nsol rqi Jtoogup, they feared about, for the place.

niQi tov, around, about (in a more general sense) ; in


reference to.
oi ntqi [afupi) xiva, those about any one.
or not («f*qpt-) nkurtavu, those about Plato = Plato and
his school.
ntol sxewovg tovg %o6vovg, about those times.
aaxpgoreiv nsgi Tovg &sovg, to be right minded about, in re
ference to the gods.
ai asoi to awfia fjdorai, the pleasures pertaining to the
body.

'Enl, upon.
im tov, rest on ; motion terminating in rest on or at.

im Tqg ytjg xeia&ai, tolie on the earth,


on us = in our time.

in) tcp, close on ; various relations with the idea of be


longing and dependence.
olxovaiv im t-q &akdao"Q, they dwell on, by, at the sea.
F, tjXiog im 8v<Sfiaig, the sun was at, near its setting.
XatQUv in <x.io%Qoug rjdovalg, to rejoice over, at (upon) base
pleasures.
noitiv siQtivrjv im Tovtoig, to make peace upon these con
ditions.
im raj adeXqim efoai, to be (dependent) on one's bro
ther.
GREEK OLLENDORFF.

inl tov, motion upon (on to) ; to, against ; for.


avafiaq inl tov innov, mounting his horse,
int tag twv rzlovai'mv &vgag to go to the doors of the rich.
iivai,
inl tovq noXeftiovs otgatevu, he serves against the enemy,
to ofifiu inl noXXa atddut the eye reaches to, over many
ifyxveirai, stadia,
livai tgp vdmg, to go for, after water.

Tlagd, beside, near,

naga tov, from beside, from, by (with persons).


rjlQe nag ifimv, he came from you.
inifiqi&i] naga tov fiaaiXemg, he was sent by the king.

naga tq (by the side of')= by, with, among (chiefly


with persons).
iaiTj naga r<p jSecffiXfi, he stood by the king,
to nag' iifur va.vuv.6v, the navy with you, which you
have.
naga. toig eiiqigovovaiv eidoxi- to be in honor with the right
minded,
jteXv,
nag ifioi, with me,=in my judgment.

naga tov, to, toward ; along side of, during ; in com


parison with ; besides, beyond, in violation of.
tj nag' i/ii eiaodog, the entrance to me,
naga. tov notafiov, along the river (also near or
by).
naga. TOY noXs/xov, during the war.
naga ta aXXa fcoa, in comparison with the other
animals.
oix sen naga tavz alia, there are no other things be
sides these.
naga to dixatov, beyond, in violation of justice. .
370 GREEK OLLENDORFF.

riQo,- (jiqo. before), before, of. in front


nobs tov (from before), before, on the part of, on the
side of, for the advantage of.

to ngog ianegng ttl^og, the wall (before, fronting )


toward the west.
ngog nargog, on the father's side.
igqatov ngog avSgog pqBev it belongs to (is the part of ) a
eproeiv xaxov, good man to think no evil.
ngog tmv i^ovttav ti&evai 'o- to enact a law for the advan
pov, tage of those who possess.

ngog rqi, rest before, in front of ; by, at ; besides, in


addition to.
ngog tjj noXst, before, by the city,
ngbg toig ngdynaow thai, to be upon, about one's busi
ness.
ngog tovtoig, besides, in addition to these
things.

ngog tov, to, toward; against ; in regard to, in com


parison with.
eqtvyov ngbg ttjv yrjv, they fled to the land,
ngbg fiaaikta noXe/xeTr, to wage war against the king,
Xsysiv ngog tiva, to speak to, before any one.
ovSlv fj svysvua ngog tot %gy- high birth is nothing to — in
[lata, comparison with money,
(viewed in relation to),
Xqti agog to nagov del (SovXsv- we ought always to deliberate
"soar, with reference to that
which is present.

'Tno, under,
,
vnb tov, under, more commonly from under, by.
vnb tlqg yrjg, under the earth.
Xnficov ino dfid^rjg, taking from under a carriage.
nifinoftat ino tov nargog, I am sent by my father.
GREEK OLLENDORFF. 371

vnb t% under, at the foot of, subject to.


tit vnb tq> ovoavqj ovxu, the things which are under
heaven.
vnb zip oqei, under, at the foot of the moun
tain.
j4iyvntog vnb ftaaikeT eysrero, ./Egypt fell under, became sub
ject to the king.

vnb tov, motion under ; towards under, to the foot of;


extension under.

levai inb PP, to go under the earth.


vnb to TttjfOff y).9ev, he came under, to the foot of,
the wall,
vnb vvxra, toward night.
vnb tr[v vvxia, ! under, during the night.
tirnk unit rutin.

TITUS LIYIUS.
CHIEFLY FROM THE TEXT OF ALSCHEFSKL
WITH '

ENGLISH NOTES, GRAMMATICAL AND EXPLANATORY


TOOBTHER
WITH A GEOGRAPHICAL AND HISTORICAL INDEX.
BY J. L. LINCOLN,
Professor of Latin in Brown University.

WITH AN ACCOMPANYING PLAN OF ROME, AND A MAP OF THE PASSAGE 01 HANNIBAL.


One volume, 12mo. Price $1.
The publishers believe that, in the edition of Livy herewith announced, a want Is supplied
which has been universally felt ; there being previous to this no American edition furnisher witt
he requisite appararua for the successful prosecution of the study of this Latin author.

OPINIONS OF CLASSICAL PROFESSORS.

From Professor Kingsley, of Yale College.


11
have not yet been able to read the whole of your work, but have examined it enough to be
satisfied that it is judiciously prepared, and well adapted to the purpose intended. We use it
for :he present year, in connection with the edition that has been used for Several years. Most
of the class, however, have procured your edition ; and it is probable that next year it will be
used by all."
From Professor Tyler, of Amherst College.
"The notes seem to me to be prepared with much care, learning, and taste: the grammatical
illustrations are unusually full, faithful, and able. The book has been used by our Freshman
Class, and will I doubt not come into general use in our colleges.

From Professor Packard, of Bovodoin College.


"I have recommended your edition to our Freshman Class. I have no doubt that your labors
will give a new impulse to the study of this charming classic.

From Professor Anderson, of Waierville College.


"A careful examination of several portions of your work has convinced me that, for the use
of students it is altogether superior to any edition of Livy with which I am acquainted. Among
its excellences you will permit me to name, the close attention given to particles — to the sub
junctive mood — the constant references to the grammars — the discrimination of words nearly
synonymous, and the care in giving the localities mentioned in the text. The book will be Here
after used in our college."

From Professor Johnson, of New - York University.


"I can at present only say that your edition pleases me much. I shall give it to one of my
classes next week. I am prepared to find it just what was wanted."

NEARLY READY.

WORKS OF HORACE.
WITH ENGLISH NOTES, CRITICAL AND EXPLANATORY.
BY J. L. LINCOLN,
Professor of Latin in Brown University.

WITH MAPS AND ILLUSTRATIONS.


One volume, l2mo.

The text of this edition will be chiefly that of Orelli ; and the Notes, besides embodying what
ever is vuluable in the most recent and approved German editions of Horace, will contain the
results of the Editor's studies and experience as a College Professor, which he has been gather
ing and maturing for several years with a view to publication. It will be the aim of both the
Publisher and the Editor lo mako thiB-edition in all respects suitable to the wants of Americas
<S>mk mm iatm.
THE HISTORIES
or
0A1US CORNELIUS TACITUS.
WITH NOTES FOR COLLEGES
BY W- S. TYLER,
Professor of Languages in Amherst College.
One volume, 12mo. §1,0*

The text of this edition follows, for the most part, Orellfs, Zurich, lt-48, which, being based or
E new and most faithful recension of the Medicean MS., by his friend Baker, may justly be con
sidered as marking a new era in the history of the text of Tacitus. In several passages, however,
where he has needlessly departed from the MS., I have not hesitated to adhere to it in company
with other editors, believing, that not uofrequently
" the most corrected copies are the less correct.''
The various feelings have been carefully compared throughout, and, if important, are referred to >n
tin notes.
The editions which have been most consulted, whether in the criticism of the text or in. he
preparation of the notes, are, besides Orelli's, those of Walther, Halle, 1831 ; Ruperti, Hanover
IH39; and Udderlein, Halle, 1847. * * * *
It will be seen, that there are not frequent references to my edition of the German ia and
Agricola. These are not of such a nature, as to render this incomplete without that, or essentially
dependent upon it Still, if both editions are used, it will be found advantageous to read the
Germania and Agricola first. The Treatises were written in that order, and in that order they best
illustrate the history of the author's mind. The editor has found in his experience as a teacher,
that students generally read them in that way with more facility and pleasure, and he has con
structed his notes accordingly. It is hoped, that the notes will be found to contain not only the
grammatical, but likewise all the geographical, archaeological and historical illustrations, that are
necessary to render the author intelligible. The editor has at least endeavored *o avoid the fault,
which Lord Bacon says " is over usual in annotations and commentaries, viz., to blanch the
obscure places, and discourse upon the plain." But it has been his constant, not to say his chief
aim, to carry students Heyond the dry details of grammar and lexicography, and introduce them
tnto a familiar acquaintance and lively sympathy with the author and his times, and with that
great empire , of whose degeneracy and decline in its beginnings he has bequeathed to us so profound
and instructive a history. The Indexes have been prepared with much labor and care, and, it is
believed, will add materially to the value of the work. — Extract from Preface.

THE "GERMANIA AND AGRICOLA


OF

CAIUS CORNELIUS TACITUS.


WITH NOTES FOR COLLEGES.

BY W. S. TYLER,
Professor of the Greek and Latin Languages in Amherst College.
One very neat volume, 12mo. 6B| cents.
VV.* welcome the book as a useful addition to the classical literature of our country. It is very
t city and elegantly prepared and printed. Thirteen pages are occupied by a well-written Lift
A Tacitus, ill wl :ch not merely outward events are narrated, but the character of the histoi.an,
!«oih as a man ana a writer, is minutely and faithfully drawn. The notes to each of the tieatuea
> s introduced by a general critique upon the merits and matter of the work. The body of the
KOtss is drawn up with care, learning, and judgment. Points of style and grammatical construe-
arms, and historical references, are ably illustrated. We have been struck with the elegant
■rpcision which marks these notes; they hit the happy medium between the too much of some
ommentators, and the ton little of others." — North American Review.
Among the numerous classical Professors who have highly commended and introduced this
name, are Fklton of Howard, Lincoln of Brown University, Crosby of Dartmouth, Colbmah
Princeton, North uf Hamilton, Packard of Bnwdniu. Owen of New- York, CuaMfli* of
"
&c. &tu
32
€mi uuii tutm.

C. JULIUS CAESAR'S COMMENTARIES


ON THE

GALLIC WAR.
With English Notes, Critical and Explanatory ; A Lexicon, Geographical and
Historical Indexes, &c.

BY REV. J. A. SPENCER, A.M.,


Editor of" Arnold's Series of Greek and Lain Books," etc.

One handsome vol. 12mo, with Map. Price fl.


The press of Messrs. Appleton ia becoming prolific of superior editions of the classics used
in schools, and the volume now before us we are disposed 10 regard as one of the most beautiful
arid highly finished among them all, both in its editing and its execution. The classic Latin in which
the greatest general and the greatest writer of his age recorded his achievements, has been sadly
corrupted in the lapse of centuries, and its restoration to a pure and perfect text is a work re
quiring nice discrimination and sound learning. The text which Mr. Spencer has adopted is that
of Oudendorp, with such variations as were suggested by a careful collation of the leading critics
of Germany. The notes are as they should be, designed to aid the labors of the student, not to
supei-sede them. In addition to these, the volume contains a sketch of the life of Caesar, a brief
Lexicon of Latin words, a Historical and a Geographical Index, together with a map of the
country in which the great Roman conqueror conducted the campaigns he so graphically de
scribes. The volume, as a whole, however, appears to be admirably suited to the purpose for
which it was designed. Its style of editing and its typographical execution reminds us of Prof.
Lincoln's excellent edition of Livy — a work which some months since had already passed to a
second impression, and has now been adopted in most of the leading schools and colleges of the
country.—Providence Journal.
' " The type is clear and beautiful, and the Latin text, as far as we have examined extremely it,
accurate, and worthy of the work of the great Roman commander and historian. No one edition
has been entirely followed by Mr. Spencer. He has drawn from Oudendorp, Achaintre, Lamaire,
Oberlin, Schneider, and Giani. His notes are drawn somewhat from the above, and also from
Vossius, Davies, Clarke, and Stutgart. These, together with his own corrections and notes, and
an excellent lexicon attached, render this volume the most complete and valuable edition of
Cffisar's Commentaries yet published. — Albany Spectator.
" By his editions of Arnold's Greek and Latin Books, as well as by his edition of the New
Testament in Greek, Mr. Spencer has won for himself an enviable reputation for sound and
thorough scholarship, which will suffer no diminution by his recent work now before us. The
notes which Mr. Spencer has added, are judiciously selected and arranged, from the best sources
which are indicated in his modest preface. A Latin English Lexicon, and Historical and Geo^
graphical Indexes, make the volume a complete manual for the student; which the neat typo
graphy and binding will render a pleasure for him to use."
it

"The Notes of Mr. Spencer we are disposed to regard as highly judicious and conducing
largely to a proper understanding of the context. He does not seem to have fallen into the
common error of giving free translations of whole passages, thereby affording a positive license,
in laziness, nor he so meagre as to discourage the student, who really striving after com
is
is

ictent knowledge of the author's meaning. The space, which occupied in the old editions
is

with the Civil, Alexandrine and African Wars,


l

here devoted to a sufficient vocabulary of the


is

language and good Index to the Notes. The book contains also map of the country described,
a
a

ami pome diagrams of that pons asinorum, the bridge across the Rhine.
'* The public are much indebted to the Appletons, whose enterprise and good taste have brought
forth so many excellent editions of standard text-books."-- Literary World.
" Inthis new and improved edition of Caesar's Commentaries, Mr. Spencer has given another
of his sound and ripe scholarship, and of his zeal and industry in that line of labor to which
has been providentially directed.
Sroof He has enriched this volume with body of excellent and
a
e

judicious English notes, not too extended, and with a critical and explanatory Lexicon to whicl"
:

are appended two Indexes— one Historical, the other Geographical. It most appropriately
is

dedicated to that accomplished scholar of whom New- York may well be proud, Gulian C.
Vbrplanck, LL.D." — Protestant Churchman.
/

" A very hadsome edition of Caesar's Commentaries which will be readily introduced into
on clear paper, with fair type, and presents an inviting
is
It

schools as a text-book. published


page." — Observer.
34
A MANUAL
OF

GRECIAN AND ROMAN ANTIQUITIES.


BY DR. E. F. BOJESEN,
Professor of the Greek Language and Literature in the University of Soro,

Translated from the German.

EDITED, WITH NOTES AND A COMPLETE SERIES JF QUESTIONS, BY

REV. THOMAS K. ARNOLD, M. A.

REVISED WITH ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS.

I
One meta volume, 12mo. Price $1.

The present Manual of Greek and Roman Antiquities is far superior to any iteng on lb*
same topics as yet offered to the American public. A principal Review of Germany says :—
" Small at* \o compass of it is, we may confidently affirm that it is a great improvement on all
preceding worvs of the kind. We no longer meet with the wretched old method, in which sub
jects essentially distinct are herded together, and connected subjects disconnected, but have a
simple, systematic arrangement, by which the reader easily receives a clear representation of
Roman life. We longer stumble against countless errors in detail, which long ago
assailed and «xtirp.ued by Niebuhr and others, have found their last place of refuge in our Ma
nuals. The recent investigations of philologists and jurists have been extensively, but carefully
and circumspectly used. The conciseness and precision which the author has every where
prescribed to himself, prevents the superficial observer from perceiving the essential superiority
of the book to its predecessors, but whoever subjects it to a careful examination will discover
this on every page."
The Editor says : — "I fully believe that the pupil will receive from these little works a
correct and tolerably complete picture of Grecian and Roman life; what I may call the poli
tical portions—the account of the national constitutions and their effects — appear to me to be
of great value ; and the very moderate extent of each volume admits of its being thoroughly
mastered— of its being got up and retained."
" A work long needed in our schools and colleges. The manuals of Rennet, Adam, Potter,
and Robinson, with ..->emore recent and valuable translation of Eschenburg, were entirely too
voluminous. Here is nc ther too much, nor too little. The arrangement is admirable— every
subject is treated of in its proper place. We have the general Geography, a succinct historical
view of the general subject; the chirography, history, laws, manners, customs, and religion of
each State, as well i"* the points of union for all, beautifully arranged. We regard the work as
the very best adjurf to classical study for youth that we have seen, and sincerely hope that
teachers may be bri ^ht to regard it in the same light. The whole is copiously digested into
appropriate questions."— 51. Lit. Gazette.

From Professor Lincoln, of Brown University


"I found on my table after a short absence from home,
Roman Antiquities. Pray accept my acknowledgments
or edition of Bojeoen's Greek and
for it. I am agreeably surprised to
that within so very narrow a compass for so comprehensive a subject, the
it,

find on examining
book contains so much valuable matter and, indeed, so far as see, omits noticing no topics es
I
;

sential. will be a very useful book in Schools and Colleges, and it far superior to any thing
is
It

".hat know of the same kind. Besides being cheap and accessible to all students, has the
it
I

great merit of discussing its topics in a consecutive and connected manner."

Extract of a letter from Professor Tyler, of Amherst College.


" have never found time till lately to look over Bojesen's Antiquities, of which you wen
I

tand enough to send me a copy. think an excellent book; learned, accurate, concise, and
it
I

perspicuous; well adapted for use in the Academy or the College, and comprehending m
■*na!l compare, more that valuable on the subject than many extended treH'ises."
i?
HAND BOOK
OP

MEDIEVAL GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY.


BY

WILHELM PUTZ,
PRINCIPAL TUTOR IN THE GYMNASIUM OF DUREN.
Translated from the German by
REV. R. B. PAUL, M. A.,
Vicar of St. Augustine's, Bristol, and late Fellow of Exeter College, Oxford.
- 1 volume, 12mo. 75 cts.

HEADS OF CONTENTS.
I. Germany before the Migrations.
II. The Migrations.

THE MIDDLE AGES.

First Period.— From the Dissolution of the Western Empire to the Accession of the Carlorlft
giatib and Abbasides.

Second Period.— From the Accession of the Carlovingians and Abbasides to the first Cnitade.
Third Period.— Age of the Crusades.
Fourth Period. — From the Termination of the Crusades to the Discovery of America.
" The characteristics of this volume are : precision, condensation, and luminous arrangement.
It is precisely what it pretends to be— a manual, a sure and conscientious guide for the student
* * * *
through the crooks and tangles of Mediaeval history. All the great principles of this
exrensi & Period are carefully laid down, and the most important facts skilfully grouped around

l
them. There is no period of History for which it is more difficult to prepare a work like this,
and none for which it is so much needed. The leading facts are well established, but they are
scattered over an immense space; the principles are ascertained, but their development was
slow, unequal, and interrupted. There is a general breaking up of a great body, and a parcelling
of it out among small tribes, concerning whom we have only a few general data, and are left f.
analogy and conjecture for the details. Then come successive attempts at organization, each
more or less independent, and all very imperfect. At last, modern Europe begins slowly to
emerge from the chaos, but still under forms which the most diligent historian cannot always
comprehend. To reduce such materials to a clear and definite form is a task of no small diffi
"*.

culty, and in which success deserves great praise. It is not too much to say that has
never been so well done within a compass so easily mastered, as in the little volume which
is

now offered to the public." — Extract from American Preface.


"This translation of a foreign school-book embraces a succinct and well arranged body of
facts concerning European and Asiatic history and geography during the middle ages.
is
It

furnished with printed questions, and seems to b°, well adapted to its purpose, in all respects
it

The mediaeval period one of the most interesting in the annals of the world, and knowledge
is

of its great men, and of its progress in arts, arms, government and religion, particularly im
is

portant, since this period is the basis of our own social polity." — Commercial Advertiser.
" This is an immense amount of research condensed into a moderately sized volume, in a way
which no one has patience to do but a German scholar. The beauty of the work its luminous
is

arrangement, is a guide to the student amidst the intricacy of Mediaeval History, the most
It

difficult period of the world to understand, when the Roman Empire was breaking up and par
celling out into smaller kingdoms, and .every thing was in transition state. was a period of
It
a

chaos from which modern Europe was at length to arise.


The author has briefly taken up the principal political and social influences whicl" were
acting on society, and shown their bearing from the time previous to the migrations of the
Northern nations, down through the middle ages to the sixteenth century. The notes on the
crusades are particularly valuable, and the range of observation embraces not only Europe but
the East, To the student will be most valuable Hand-book, savinghim a world of trouble
it

in hunting up authorities and facts," Rev. Dr. Kip, in Albany State Register.
MANUAL
OF

ANCIENT GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY.


BY WILHELM PUTZ,
PRINCIPAL TUTOR IN THE GYMNASIUM OP DUREN

Translated from the German.

EDITED BY THE REV. THOMAS K. ARNOLD, M. A.,

AUTHOR OF A BERIES OF " GREEK AND LATIN TEXT-BOOKS."

One volume, 12mo. $1.

M At no period has History presented such strong claims upon the attention of the learned,
as
U the present day ; and to no people were its lessons of such value as to those of the United
States. With no past of our own to revert to, the great masses of our better educated are tempted
'o overlook a science, which comprehends all others in its grasp. To prepare a text-book, which
shall present a full, clear, and accurate view of the ancient world, its geography, its political
civil, social, religious state, must be the result only of vast industry ana learning. Our exami
nation of the present volume leads us to believe, that as a text-book on Ancient History, for Col
leges and Academies, it is the best compend yet published. It bears marks in its methodical
arrangement, and condensation of materials, of the untiring patience of German scholarship ; and
in its progress through the English and American press, has been adapted for acceptable use in
our best institutions. A noticeable feature of the book, is its pretty complete list of * sources o(
information' upon the nations which it describes. This will be an invaluable aid to the student
in his future course of reading."
" Wilhelm Piitz, the author of this 1Manual of Ancient Geography and History,' is Principal
Tutor ( Oberleker) m the Gymnasiumof Duren, Germany. His book exhibits the advantages of
the German method of treating History, in its arrangement, its classification, and its rigid analy
sis. The Manual is what it purports to be, 'a clear and definite outline of the history of the
principal nations of antiquity,' into which is incorporated a concise geography of each country.
The work is a text-book ; to be studied, and not merely read. It is to form the groundwork of
subsequent historical investigation,— the materials of which are pointed out, at the proper places,
in the Manual, in careful references to the works which treat of the subject directly under con
sideration. The list of references (especially as regards earlier works) is quite complete,— thus
supplying that desideratum in Ancient History and Geography, which has been supplied so fully
by Dr. J. C. I. Gieseler in Ecclesiastical History.

"The nations whose history is considered in the Manual, are : in Asial the Israelites, the In
dians, the Babylonians, the Assyrians, the Medes, the Persians, the Phoenicians, the States of Asia
Minor; in Africa, the Ethiopians, the Egyptians, the Carthaginians; in Europe, the Greeks, the
Macedonians, the Kingdoms which arose out of the Macedonian Monarchy, tne Romans. The
order in which the history of each is treated, is admirable. To the whole are appended a 1 Chro- J
nological Table,' and a well-prepared series of 'Questions.' The pronunciation 'of proper
names is indicated,— an excellent feature. The accents are given with remarkable correctness.
The typographical execution of the American edition is most excellent."— & W.BaptistChronide.
" Like every thing which proceeds from the editorship of that eminent Instructor, T. K. Arnold,
this Manual appears to be well suited to the design with which it was prepared, and will, un
doubtedly, secure for itself a place among the text-books of schools and academies thoughout the
country. It presents an outline of the history of the^ancient nations, from the earliest ages to the
fall of the Western Empire in the sixth century, the events being arranged in the order of an
rate chronology, and explained by accompanying treatises on the geography of the several
itries in which they transpired. The chief feature of this work, and this is a very important
one, is*, that it sets forth. ancient history and ancient geography in their connection with each
Othe

It was originally prepared by Wilhelm Piitz, an eminent German scholar, and translated and
-diited in England by Rev. T. K. Arnold, and is now revised and introduced to the American
blic in a well written prefac*. by Mr. George W. Greene. Teacher of Modern Languages if
jwn University." — Prov. Jounia?.
5
A MANUAL OF ANCIENT AND MODERN HISTORY,
COMPRISING :

I. Ancient Hisrour, containing the Political History, Geographical Position, and Socia
State of the Principal Nations of Antiquity, carefully digested from the Ancient Writers, and il
lustrated by the discoveries of Modern Travellers and Scholars.
II. Modern History, containing the Rise and Progress of the principal European Nations,
their Political History, and the changes in their Social Condition : with aHistory of the Colonies
Founded by Europeans. By W. COOKE TAYLOR,LL.D.,cfTrinity College, Dublin. Revised,
with Additions on A mencan History, by C. S- Henry, D. D., Professor of History in the Univer
Bty of N. Y., and Questions adapted for the Use of Schools and Colleges. One handsome voj..
feVo, at 800 pages, $2,25 ; Ancient History in 1 vol. $1,25, Modern History in 1 vol., $1,50.
The Ancient History division comprises Eighteen Chapters, which include the general
outlines of the History of Egypt— the Ethiopians— Babylonia and Assyria— Western Asia— Pa'
estine — tlie Empire of the Medes and Persians — Phoenician Colonies in Northern Africa — Found,
ation and History of the Grecian States — Greece — the Macedonian Kingdom ind Empire — the
States that arose irom the dismemberment of the Macedonian Kingdom and Empire — Ancient
Italy — Sicily — the Roman Republic — Geographical and Political Condition of the Roman Empire
- -II istory of the Roman Empire— and India— with an Appendix of important illustrative articles.
This portion is one of the best Compends of Ancient History that ever yei has appeared li
contains a complete text for the collegiate lecturer ; and is an essential hand-book for the studem
who is desirous to become acquainted with all that is memorable in general secular archeology.
The Modern History portion is divided into Fourteen Chapters, on the following genera]
iubjects :— Consequences of the Fall of the Western Empire — Rise and Establishment of the
Saracenic Power — Restoration of the Western Empire — Growth of the Papal Power — Revival
of Literature — Progress of Civilization and Invention — Reformation, and Commencement of the
States System in Europe— Augustan Ages of England and France — Mercantile and Colonial Sys
tem — Age of Revolutions — French Empire — History of the Peace — Colonization — China— the
Jews — with Chronological and Historical Tables and other Indexes. Dr. Henry has appended a
new chapter on the History of the United States.
This Manual of Modem History, by Mr. Taylor, is the moat valuable and instructive work
concerning the general subjects which ft comprehends,, that can be found in the whole department
of historical literature. Mi . Taylor's book is fast superseding all other compends, and is already
adopted as a text-book in Harvard, Columbia, Yale, New- York, Pennsylvania and Brown Uni
versities, and several leading Academies.

LECTURES
ON

MODERN HISTORY.
By THOMAS ARNOLD, D.D.,
Regius Professor of Modern History in the University of Oxford, and Head
Master of Rugby School.

EDITED, WITH A PREFACE AND NOTES,

By HENRY REED, LL.D.,


Professor of English Literature in the University qf Pa.

One volume, 12mo. $1,25.

Extract from the American Editor's Preface.


In preparing thisedition, I have had in view its use, not only for the general reader, but also
* * * *
b a text-book m education, especially in our college course of study. The introduction of
th-« work as a text-book I regard as important, because, as far as my information entitles me to
speak, there is no book better calculated to inspire an mterest in historical study. That it has
this power over the minds olstudents I can say from experience, which enables me also to add,
that I have found it excellemly suited to a course of college instruction. By intelligent and en
terprising members of a class especially, it is studied as a text-book with zeal and animation.
THE SHAKSPEARIAN READER;
a COLLECTION OF THE MOST APPROVED PLAITS OF

SHAKSPEARE.
Carefully Revised, with Introductory and Explanatory Notes, and a Memoir
oT the Author. Prepared expressly for the use of Classes,
and the Family Reading Circle.
BY JOHN W. S. HOWS,
Professor of Elocution in Columbia College.

The Man, whom Nature's self hath made


To mock herself, and Truth tc imitate.— Spenser

One Volume, l2mo, $1 25.


At a period when the fame of Shakspeare is u striding the world like &coa)sbus," and edi
don* of his works are multiplied with a profusion that testifies the desire awakened in all classes
jf society to read and study his imperishable compositions, — there needs, perhaps, but little
apology for the following selection of his works, prepared expressly to render them unexcep
tionable for the use of Schools, and acceptable for Family reading. Apart from the fact, that
Shakspeare is the " well-spring" from which may be traced the origin of the purest poetry in
our language, — a long course of professional experience has satisfied me that a necessity exists
for the addition of a w-Hi like the present, to our stock of Educational Literature. His writings
are peculiarly adapted for the purposes of Elocutionary exercise, when the system of instruction
pursued by the Teacher is based upon the true principle of the art, viz. — a careful analysis of
the structure and meaning of Language, rather than a servile adherence to the arbitrary and me
chanical rules of Elocution.
To impress upon the mind of the pupil that words are the exposition of thought, and that in
reading, or speaking, every shade of thought and feeling has its appropriate shade of modulated
tone, ought to be the especial aim of every Teacher; and an author like Shakspeare, whose
every line embodies a volume of meaning, should surely form one of our Elocutionary Text
* * *
Books. Still, in preparing a selection of his works for the express purpose contem
plated in my design, I have not hesitated to exercise a severe revision of his language, beyond
that adopted in any similar undertaking—" Bowdler's Family Shakspeare " not even excepted ;—
and simply, because I practically know the impossibility of introducing Shakspeare as a Class
Book, or as a satisfactory Reading Book for Families without this precautionary revision.—
Extract from the Preface.

^rnfessnr <0miiB'8 listnriral $rrti2.


(NEARLY READY.)
MANUAL OF THE GEOGRAPHY AND HISTORY
OF TBB

MIDDLE AGES.
translated from the French of M. Des Michels, Rector of the College of Rouen,
• with Additions and Corrections.
BY G. W. GREENE,
Professor of Modern Languages in Brown University.
Accompanied with Numerous Engravings and Maps. One Volume, 12mo.

TO BE FOLLOWED BY
A Manual of Modern History, down to the French Revolution.
A Manual of Ancient History,
history of Rome.
Great pains will be taken to adapt these books to the practical purposes of the Cnmu
md for the guidance of private students.
10
COURSE OF MATHEMATICAL WORKS,
BY GEORGE R. PERKINS, A.M.,
Professor of Mathematics and Principal of the State Normal School

I. PRIMARY ARITHMETIC. Price 21 cts.


A
want, with young pupils, of rapidity and accuracy in performing operations upon written
numbers; an imperfect knowledge of Numeration ; inadequate conceptions of the nature and
relations of Fractions, and a lack of familiarity with the principles of Decimals, hare induced
the author to prepare the Primary Arithmetic. *
The first part is devoted to Mental Exercises, and the second to Exercises on the Slate
mvd Blackboard.
While the minds of young pupils are disciplined by mental exercises (if not wearisomely
prolonged), they fail, in general, in trusting to "head-work" for their calculations; Lnd in re
sorting to written operations to solve their difficulties, are often slow and inaccurate from a want
of early familiarity with such processes : these considerations have induced the Author to devote
part of his book to primary written exercises.
It has been received with more popularity than any Arithmetic heretofore issued.
II. ELEMENTARY ARITHMETIC. Price 42 cts.
Has recently been carefully revised and enlarged. It will be found concise, yet lucid. It reaches
the radical relations of numbers, and presents fundamental principles in analysis and examples.
It leaves nothing obscure, yet it does not embarrass by multiplied processes, nor enfeeble by
minute details.
In this work all of the examples or problems are strictly practical, made up as they are in a
great measure of important statistics and valuable facjs in history and fhilosophy, which are
thus unconsciously learned in acquiring a knowledge of the Arithmetic.
Fractions are placed immediately after Division ; Federal Money is treated as and with De
cimal Fractions; Proportion is placed before Fellowship, Alligation, and such rules as require
its application in their solution. Every rule is marked with verity and simplicity. The an
swers to all of the examples are given.
The work will be found -to be an improvement on most, if not all, previous elementary
Arithmetics in the treatment of Fractions, Denominate Numbers, Rule of Three, Interest, Equa
tion of Payments, Extraction of Roots, and many other subjects.
Wherever this work is presented, the publishers have heard but one opinion in regard to iuf
merits, and that most favorable.

in. HIGHER ARITHMETIC. Price 84 cts.


The present edition has been revised, many subjects rewritten, and much new matter added ;
and contains an Appendix of about GO pages, in which the philosophy of the more difficult
operations and interesting properties of numbers are fully discussed. The work is what its name
purports, a Higher Arithmetic, and will be found to contain many entirely new principles which
have never before appeared in any Arithmetic. It has received the strongest recommendations
from hundreds of the best teachers the country affords.

IV. ELEMENTS OF ALGEBRA. Price 84 cts


This work is an introduction to the Author's " Treatise on Algebra," and is designed espe
dally for the use of Common Schools, and universally pronounced 11admirably adapted to tb*
purpose."
V. TREATISE ON ALGEBRA. Price SI 50.
This work contains the higher parts of Algebra usually taught in Colleges; a new method
of cubic and higher equation? as veil as the Theorem of Sturm, by which we may at one*
determine the number of real roots of any Algebraic Equation, with much more ease than by
previously discovered method.
In the present revised edition, one entire chapter on the subject of Continued Fractions
has been added.

VI. ELEMENTS OF GEOMETRY, with Practical Applications. $1.


The author has added throughout the entire Work, Practical Applications, which, in the
estimation of Teachers, is an important consideration.
An eminent Professor of Mathematics, in speaking of this work, says : " We have adopted
because follows more closely the best model of pure geometrical reasoning, which ever has
It,

it

been, and perhaps ever will be exhibited and because the Author has condensed some of the
;

Important principles of the great master of Geometricians, and more especially has shown that
his theorems are not mere theory, oy many practical applications quality in text book o'
a

a
:

this science nn les* uncommon than it important."


is
(fuglistj.

PROF. MANDEVILLE'S READING BOOKS.


L PRIMARY, OR FIRST READER. Price 10 cents.
II. SECOND READER. Price 16 cents.
These two Readers are formed substantially on the same plan ; anc the second is a continue
tfcm of the first. The design of both is, to combine a knowledge of the meaning and pronuncia
tion of words, with a knowledge of their grammatical functions. The parts of speech are in-
TTK'uced successively, beginning with the articles, these are followed by the >_emonsirauve pro-
toons ; and these again by others, class after class, until all that are requisite to form a sentence
Dive been separately considered ; when the common reading lessons begin.
The Second Reader reviews the ground passed over in the Primary, but adds largely to the
vaount of information. The child is here also taught to read writing as well as printed matter;
and in the reading lessons, attention is constantly directed to the different ways in which
sentences are formed and connected, and of the peculiar manner in which each of them is deliv
ered. All who have examined these books, have pronounced them a decided and important ad
ranee on every other of the same class in use.
in. THIRD READER. Price 25 cents.
IV. FOURTH READER. Price 38 cents.
In the first two Readers, the main object is to make the pupil acquainted with the meaning
and functions of words, ana to impart facility in pronouncing them in sentential connection : thi
leading design of these, is to form a natural, flexible, and varied delivery. Accordingly, Uw
Third Reader opens with a series of exercises on articulation and modulation, containing numer
ous examples for practice on the elementary sounds (including errors to be corrected) and on Um
different movements of the voice, produced by sentential structure, by emphasis, and by the pas
sions. The habits formed by these exercises, which should be thoroughly, as they can be easily
mastered, under intelligent instruction, find scope for improvement and confirmation in the
reading lessons which follow, in the same book and that which succeeds.
These lessons have been selected with special reference to the following peculiarities: 1st
Colloquial character ; 2d, Variety of sentential structure ; 3d, Variety of subject matter ; 4th
Adaptation to the progressiva development of the pupil's mind; and, as far as possible, 5th.
Tendency to excite moral and religious emotions. Great pains have been taken to make the
books in these respects, which are, in fact, characteristic of the whole series, superior to any
oilers in use ; with what success, a brief comparison will readily show.
V THE FD7TH READER ; OR, COURSE OF READING. Price 75 cents.
VI THE ELEMENTS OF READING AND ORATORY. Price ftl.
These books are designed to cultivate the literary taste, as well as the understanding ana voea.
powers of the pupil.
Thb Course op Reading comprises three parts ; the first part containing a more elaborate
description of elementary sounds and the parts of speech grammatically considered than was
deemed necessary in the preceding works ; here indispensable : part second^ a complete classifi
cation and description of every sentence to be found in the English, or any other language ; ex
amples of which in every degree of expansion, from a few words to the half of an octavo page
in length, are adduced, and arranged to be read ; and as each species has its peculiar delivery u
well an structure, both are learned at the same time ; part third, paragraphs ; or sentences in
their connection unfolding general thoughts, as in the common reading books. It may be ob
served that the selections of sentences in part second, and of paragraphs in part third, comprise
some of the finest gems in the language : distinguished alike for beauty of thought and facility
of diction. If not iound in a. school book, they might be approprately called " elegant extracts
The Elements of Readino and Oratory closes the series with an exhibition of the whole
theory and art of Elocution exclusive of gesture. It contains, besides the classification of sen
tences already referred io, but here presented with fuller statement and illustration, the laws of
punctuation and delivery deduced from it : the whole followed by carefully selected nieces fcr
sentential analysis and vocal practice.
The Result. — The student who acquaints himself thoroughly with the content of this
book, will, as numerous experiments have proved; 1st, Acquire complete knowledge of the
structuro of the language; 2d. Us able to designate any sentonce of any book byname at a
glance ; 3d, Be able to declare with equal rapidity its proper punctuation ; 4th, Be able to delare,
and with sufficient practice to give Its proper delivery. Such are a few of the general character
istics of the series of school books which the publishers now offer to the friends and patrone
of o sound common school and academic education. For more particular information, reference
is respectfully made to the
" Hints," which may be found at the beginning of each volume.
N. B- The punctuation in all these books conforms, in the main, to the sense and projier de
livery of every sentence, and is a guide to both. When a departure from the proper punctuation
occurs* the proper delivery is indicated. As reading books are usually punctuated, it i» a mattei
of surprise that children should learn to read at all.
• *
The above series of Reading Books are already very extensively introduced and com
mended by tne most experienced Teachers in the country. " Prof. ManaeviUe's system is emi
nenUy original, scientific and practical, ami destined wherever it is introjiicel to supersede a<
once oil others.'' c
Airman.

OLLENDORFF'S NEW METHOD


OF LEARNING TO READ, WRITE, AND SPEAK
THE GERMAN LANGUAGE.
Reprinted from the Frankfort edition, to which is added a Systematic Outline of the differen
Parts of Speech, their Inflection and Use, with lull Paradigms, and a
completeXist of the Irregular Verbs.
BY GEORGE J. ADLER, A. B.,
Professor of German in the University of the City of New- York. One volume, 12mo. 81 EO.

ttJ" A KEY TO THE EXERCISES, in a separate volume. 75 cts.


u Ollendorff's new method of Learning to Read, Write, and Speak the German Lan
guage, with a systematic outline ofGerman Grammar, by George J. Adler, is one of those rare
works which leave nothing to be desired on the subjects of which they treat. The learner's dif
ficulties are so fully and exactly provided for, that a constant sense of satisfaction and progresi
is felt from the beginning to the end of the book. A bare inspection of one of the leasers will
satisfy any one acquainted with the elements ofGerman grammar, that it adapts itself perfectly
to his wants. With the systematic outline of grammar by Prof. Adler, the new method is sub
stantially perfect, and it is probably second in its advantages only to residence and intercourse
with educated Germans."
" The study of the- German is becoming so essential a part of an ordinary education, that
every work tending to facilitate the acquisition of the language should be welcomed. An Ameri
can edition of Ollendorff has been much wanted. His system is based upon natural principles.
He teaches by leading the student to the acquisition of phrases, from which he deduces the rules
of the language. The idioms are also carefully taught, and the entire construction of the system
is such that, if adhered to with fidelity and perseverance, it will secure such a practical know-
»edge of the German as can be acquired by no other mode, so rapidly and thoroughly. We
eartily commend the book to all who really wish to understand a tongue which contains so
many treasures.

NEW GRAMMAR FOR GERMANS. TO LEARN ENGLISH.

OLLENDORFF'S NEW METHOD


OF

LEARNING TO READ, WRITE, AND SPEAK


THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE
THROUGH THE MEDIUM OF THE GERMAN ;

Arranged and adapted for Schools and Private Instruction,


BY P. G ANDS.
One volume, 12mo.

Key to the same, uniform itrith the above. Price 75 cts.


" My compilation of the French Grammar after the method of Ollendorff, has made the Ger
man public so thoroughly acquainted with this highly practical system of instruction, that it will
not be necessary to add any further recommendation in this place. It was so universally ac
knowledged and adopted, that I was induced to compile a similar Grammar for Germans to
learn English, and I did this the more willingly because I was urged to do so by many from all
quarters.
" In carrying out the plan, I endeavored to introduce eXe- cises in questions and answers
suited to familiar and social conversation, so as to do away with lhe aniiquated Phrase-books
still in use. The frequent application and repetition of the rules set forth in this book, I have
sought to make as free from dull monotony as possible, by giving the sentences a new turn, and
by arranging them in different order, so as not to repeat the same over and 6ver again.
" A practical routine of instruction carried on for many years, has taught me the wants of
the student; I feel therefore perfectly confident in bringing this book before the public.
"TV GANDS .»
A DICTIONARY or ths

GERMAN AND ENGLISH LANGUAGES,


INDICATING THE ACCENTUATION OF EVERY GERMAN WORD, CONTAINING SEVERAL
HUNDRED GERMAN SYNONYMS, TOGETHER WITH A CLASSIFICATION AND
ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE IRREGULAR VERBA, AND A DICTION
ARY OF GERMAN ABBREVIATIONS.
COMPILED FROM THE WORKS OF HILPERT, FLUGEL, GREIB, HEYSB,
AND OTHERS.
IN TWO PARTS:
; HERMAN AND ENGLISH —II. ENGLISH AND GERMAN.

BY G. J. ADLER, A. M.,
Professor of the Qerman Language and Literature in the University of the
City of JVew- York.

$5.
One large volume, 8vo , of 1400 pages. Price Strongly and neatly bound.
Extract from the Preface.
In preparing this volume, our principal aim was to offer to the American student ol
M German work whicn would embody all the valuable results of the most recent
a

trestigalioni* in German Lexicography, and which might thus become not only a relia
U

ble guide Tor the practical acquisition of that language, but one which would not lorsake
him in the higher walks of his pursuit, to which its literary and scientific treasures
would naturally invite him. The conviction that such a work was a desideratum, and one
which claimed immediate attention, was first occasioned by the steadily increasing inter
est manifested in the study of the German by such among us as covet higher intellect*

a
ual culture, as well as those who are ambitious to be abreast with the times in all that
concerns the interests of Learning, Science, Art, and Philosophy.
In comparing the different German- English Dictionaries, was found that all of tbem
ft
were deficient in their vocabulary of foreign words, which now act so important a part
not only in scientific works, but also in the best classics in the reviews, journals, news
papers, and even in conversational language of ordinary life. Hence we have endeav
oured to supply the desired words required in Chemistry, Mineralogy, Practical Art,
Commerce, Navigation, Rhetoric, Grammar, Mythology, both ancient and modern. The
ivu^nf uation of the German words, first introduced by Hernsiue, and not little unproved
a

by Ililpert and his coadjutors, has also been adopted, and will be regarded as most de
a
sirable and invaluable aid to the student. Another, and hoped not the least, valu
is
it

able add.tion to the volume, are the synonyms, which we have generally given in an
abridged and not unfrequently in new form, from Hilpert, whu was the first that offered
a

to the English student a selection from the rich store of Eberbard, Maas, and Gruber.
Nearly all the Dictionaries published in Germany having been prepared with special
reference to the German student of the English, and being on that account incomplete in
the German-English part, was evidently our vocation to reverse the order for this side
it

of the Atlantic, and to give the utmost possible completeness and perfection to the Ger
man pari. This was the proper sphere of our labor.

Mm-ning Courier and New- York Enquirer.


The Apptetons have just published a Dictionary of the Qerman Language, containing
Englbr. names of German words, and German translations of English words, by Mr.
Ad lb, a, Professor of German in the University of the City of New-York.
In view of the present and rapidly increasing disposition of American Btudents to make
themselves familiar with the Language and Literature of Germany, the publication
of

this work seems specially timely and important. is in form a large, substantial octavo
It
i

volumu of 14(K) pages, beautifully printed in clear and distinct type, and adapted in every
way to the constant services for which lexicon is made. The purpose aimed at by the
a

editor cannot be more distinctly stated than in his own words, quoted from the preface,
in which he Mates that he sought " to embody all the valuable results of the most recent
Investigations in German Lexicography, so that his work might thus bocome not only
a

reliable guide for the practical acquisition of that language, but one which would not
forsake him in the higher walks of his pursuits, to which its literary treasures would
naturally invite him." All who are in any degree familiar with German, can bear wit
ness to the necessity that has long been felt for such a work. It is needed by students ol
the language at every stage of their progress. None of those hitherto in use have been
satisfactory — the best of them, that published in Philadelphia, in 1845, lacking verv many
of the essentials of a reliable and servicable lexicon. From a somewhat close examina
tion of its contents, we are satisfied that Mr. Adler's Dictionary will be universally re
garded as the best extant. Its great superiority lies in its completeness, no word in any
department of science or literature being omitted. We cannot doubt that will booomi
It

once the onlv German lexicon in -'hp throughout th*» w-untr*.


I
*