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UEME 3223 T3

UEME 3223
Computer Aided Design
And Manufacture

Topic 3:
Computer Aided Manufacturing

Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman


UEME 3223 T3

UEME 3223
Computer Aided Design
And Manufacture

On the completion of this course, students shall be able to:

CO1 Explain the hardware and software requirement for a standard


industrial CAD/CAM system.
CO2 Differentiate machining processes and tools used in a standard
industrial CAD/CAM system.
CO3 Create standard industrial CNC program for machining a
mechanical component.
CO4 Produce 3D model, engineering drawings and also simulated
[Lab1 to 4] virtual manufacturing using standard industrial CAD/CAM
software.
CO5 Produce a mechanical component using standard industrial
[Grp Assgnt] CAD/CAM tools.

Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman


UEME 3223 T3

3.0 Introduction [CO2]


Computer Aided Manufacturing is a wide range of
computer-based software tools, used to assist engineers
and CNC machinist in the manufacture or prototype of
product components.

Historically, CAM has been considered as an NC


programming tool wherein 3D models of components
generated in CAD software are used to generate CNC
codes to drive the numerical controlled machine tools.

CAM functions therefore has expanded into integrated CAM


more fully with CAD/CAM/CAE/PLM solutions.

CAM does not eliminate the need for skilled professionals


such as Manufacturing Engineers and NC Programmers.
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3.0 Introduction [CO2]


CAM actually leverages the value of most skilled
manufacturing professionals through advanced productivity
tools, while building the skills of new professionals through
visualisation, simulation and optimisation tools.

The first commercial applications of CAM were in large


companies in the automotive and aerospace industries in
1971 at Renault (Bezeir) for car body design and tooling.

In the beginning, CAM has several shortcomings that


necessitated an overly high level of involvement by a skilled
CNC machinist. CAM would output codes for the least
capable machine, as each machine tool interpreter added
on to the standard G-code set for increased flexibility.
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UEME 3223 T3

3.0 Introduction [CO2]


During this improperly set up CAM or specific tools, the
CNC machine therefore requires manual editing before the
program will run properly.

No matter how advance, CAM still could not reason / judge


as a machinist can. CAM could not optimise tool paths to
the extent that is required in mass production. Users would
select the type of tool, machining process and paths to be
used for the task.

Over time, these shortcomings are being attenuated /


improved, both by providers of niche solutions and by
providers of high-end solutions.

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3.0 Introduction [CO2]


Overall, CAM:
•provides graphic representation of the part
•is PC based
•has integrated CADCAM functionality
•has “some” built-in expertise / intelligence
•has built-in speed and feed data specifications based on
material and tools
•has tools and materials libraries
•has tool path simulation
•has tool path editing
•has tool path optimisation
•has cut time calculations (for cost estimation)
•has import / export capabilities to other systems (eg: Drawing
Exchange Format (DXF), Initial Graphics Exchange Standard
(IGES)).
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UEME 3223 T3

3.0 Introduction [CO2]


Machining Process:
•Regardless of types of machines (lathe, milling, turn-mill), most
machining progresses go through 4 stages of roughing, semi
finishing, contour milling and finishing. Each is implemented by a
variety of basic and sophisticated strategies, depending on the
material and software available.

1. Roughing
•This process begins with raw stock (known as billet) and cuts it
very roughly to shape of the final model.
•In milling, the result often gives appearance of terraces, because
the strategy has taken advantage of the ability to cut the model
horizontally.
•Common strategies are zig-zag clearing, plunge roughing, rest-
roughing, etc.

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UEME 3223 T3

3.0 Introduction [CO2]


2. Semi finishing
•This process begins with a roughed part that unevenly
approximates the model and cuts to within a fixed offset
distance from the model.
•The semi-finishing pass must leave a small amount of
material so the tool can cut accurately while finishing, but
not so little that the tool and material deflect instead of
shearing.
•Common strategies are raster passes, waterline passes,
constant step-over passes, pencil milling, etc.

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UEME 3223 T3

3.0 Introduction [CO2]


3. Contour Milling
•In milling applications on hardware with 5 or more axes, a
separate finishing process called contouring can be
performed.
•Instead of stepping down in fine-grained increments to
approximate a surface of the tool tangent to the ideal part
features.
•This produces an excellent surface finish with high
dimensional tolerances.

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3.0 Introduction [CO2]


4. Finishing
•Finishing involves a slow pass across the material in very
fine steps to produce the finished part.
•The step between one pass and another is minimal.
•Feed rates are low and spindle speeds are raised to
produce an accurate surface

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UEME 3223 T3

3.0 Introduction [CO2]


CAM software supports the complete range of major
manufacturing applications, which includes 2.5D Milling, 3D
Milling, Turning, Turning with Driven tools and Wire EDM, in
one integrated solution.

Machining operations can be based on 2D Design Drawings


as well as on 3D Solid and Surface Models.

CAM usually have a powerful general post-processor tool


that enables easy customisation of the G-Code file output to
various types of CNC controllers.

In the end, we need to just specify all information relevant to


the machining project or workpiece we want to manufacture.
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3.0 Introduction [CO2]


These information includes all machining geometries,
operation definitions, and generated G-Code files.

We can also define the Coordinate system origin location


and axes orientation by selecting the elements of the solid
model or the already define Coordinate system.

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Before there are computer controlled machines, there were
manual machines.

Manual machines still holds an important role especially if


the need to machine something simple, fast while being
accurate. This of course depends entirely on the machine
operator.

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Milling machine

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Lathe machine

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Milling table (T-slots, Fixture plate)

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Milling / precision vices

NO!

YES!

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Step Clamps

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Jigs and fixtures

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Custom design work piece holder

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Large milling machines

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Lathe chuck (3 Jaw and 4 Jaw)

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Lathe chuck (5 jaw and 6 Jaw)

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Lathe faceplate with dog leg

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3.1 Manual / Conventional Machines [CO2]


Large lathe
machine

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3.2 Coordinate System [CO1]


During the Coordinate System definition for 3-axis CNC-
machine, we have to define 3 points:
•Origin: Select the origin point (1st point) on the graphics
screen.
•X-direction: Select a point (2nd point) relative to the origin
that defines the X-axis.
•Y-direction: Select a point (3rd point) to finish the definition
of the XY-plane.

The Tool start level defines the Z-level at which the tool
starts.

The Clearance level is the Z-level to which the tool rapidly


travels when moving from one operation to another (in case
the tool does not change).
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3.2 Coordinate System [CO1]


The Part Lower level defines the lower surface level of the
part to be milled.

The Tool Z-level is the height that the tool moves to before
the rotation of the 4/5 axes to avoid collision between the
tool and the workpiece.

This level is related to the Coordinate System position and


we have to check if it is not over the limit switch of the
machine.

It is highly recommended to send the tool to the reference


point or to a point related to the reference point.

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3.3 Axis Type [CO1]


The axis type defines the Coordinate System definition
method.

The axis type can be: 3 axis, 4_axis_around_X or 4_axis


_around_Y and 5 axis.

3 Axis:
•In this type of machine, every side requires a new clamping
(new Machine CoordSys).
•For each Machine CoordSys, we have to define the origin
position, the X-axis direction and the Y-axis direction

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3.3 Axis Type [CO1]


4 and 5 Axis:
•4_axis_around_X is used for vertical machines with the 4th
axis on the table along X-axis.
•For all additional positioning, based on this clamping, we
have to define origin position and Y-axis direction only
(angle).
•The X-axis direction is determined automatically by the X-
axis direction of the Machine CoordSys.
•4_axis_around_Y is used for horizontal machines with 4th
axis along the Y-axis.

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3.3 Axis Type [CO1]


4 and 5 Axis:
•The Y-axis direction is determined automatically by the Y-
axis direction of the Machine CoordSys.
•5 axis type is used for 5-axis CNC machines, where all
additional positioning is related to this Machine CoordSys.

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


There are a plenty types of tool that can be used for milling
purposes.

End Mill / Rough Mill


•These tools are used for the definition of rough / finish
cutters.
•The tool shape and basic parameter are shown.

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


End Mill / Rough Mill

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


End Mill / Rough Mill

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


Ball Nose Mill
•The corner radius of a tool of the Ball nose mill type is
always equal to a half of the tools diameter

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


Drill
•This tool type is used for the definition of drills, bores,
reams, threading tools, etc.

Drills
Boring tools

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


Drill
•This tool type is used for the definition of drills, bores,
reams, threading tools, etc.

Reams

Threading

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


Shaped tools
•Used for the definition of shaped end / rough mills and drill
tools.
•The tools diameter describes the cutting diameter of the
shaped tool that will be coincident to the machining
geometry.

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


Slot Mill
•Used in a variety of applications from simple 2.5D undercut
profiles to machining cavities in Simultaneous 5 Axis
operations.
•The parametric definition of a slot mill tool also enables to
define a cylindrical tool with a tool shank with a relived
diameter.

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


Taper Mill
•It is supported in the calculations of the simultaneous 5
Axis, 3D milling rough and finish operations.
•In 2.5D milling operations, such as profile and pocket, only
the bottom diameter is taken into account in the tool path
calculation.
•It Is used for milling internal / external walls with a constant
drift angle.

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


Lollipop Mill
•It is used in the simultaneous 5-axis operations

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


Tap Tool
•It is intended to machine the internal threads in Drilling.
•The tool consists of two parts: cylindrical and conical.

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


Reamer
•It is intended to machine precise holes in drilling
operations.

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3.4 Milling Tools [CO2]


Thread Mill
•It is intended to machine internal and external threads in
Thread Milling operations.

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3.5 Milling Tools Topology [CO2]


Corner Radius
•When the tool is Rough Mill or End mill, the corner radius
field is displayed.
•There are 3 possibilities to enter the corner radius of tool.

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3.5 Milling Tools Topology [CO2]


Angle
•If the tool type is Drill, the Angle field is displayed
•Enter the drill point angle of the tool (between 0.01 and 180
degrees.

Shank Diameter
•This parameter is relevant only for Slot, Lollipop and Taper
tools.

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3.5 Milling Tools Topology [CO2]


Pitch
•It is the distance between corresponding vertices of
adjacent teeth of a thread for Tap tool

Number of Flutes
•This field defines the number of teeth of the tool.
•It is used when calculating the feed in the Feed rate type
Fz.

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3.5 Milling Tools Topology [CO2]


Length
•In milling calculations, the system does not use this data.
•The length of the tool is only the output to the G-Code file.

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3.5 Milling Tools Topology [CO2]


H Length
•It defines the distance from the tool end to the CNC
machine spline.

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3.6 Milling Tools Data [CO2]


Spin
•It defines the spinning speed of the tool. It defines two spin
values:
• Spin Rate: Normal spin rate, used in rough milling
• Spin Finish: Finish spin rate, used in finish milling
•For Drill and Tap tools, the Spin Finish parameter is not
relevant.
•The spin value can be defined in two types of units, namely
S and V.
•S is the default and it signifies Revolutions per Minute.
•V signifies Material cutting speed in Meters/Min in the
Metric system, and is calculated according to the following
formula:
V = (S x π x Tool Diameter)/1000
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3.6 Milling Tools Data [CO2]


Feed
•It defines the feed rate of the tool. It defines 3 feed values:
• Feed XY: Feed rate in the XY plane.
• Feed Z: Feed rate in the Z direction.
• Feed Finish: Feed rate used for finish mill.
•For Drill and Tap tools, Feed XY and Feed Finish
parameters are not relevant.
•The feed value can be defined in two types of units,
namely F and Fz.
•F is the default and it signifies units per minutes.
•Fz signifies Units per tooth and is calculated according to
the following formulat:
Fz = F / (Number of Teeth x S)

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3.6 Milling Tools Data [CO2]


Tool Holding System
•CAM software enables us to define a variety of tool holders
to help us check and prevent all possible collisions of the
tool holding system with the workpiece.
•The tool holder is defined by combining two components.
The first component is the tool adaptor mounted in the
spindle of the milling machine.
•The second component may consist of different types of
extension and reductions like collet chucks, arbors, shanks
and any other components.

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3.7 Geometry
CAM enables us to turn 3D models, 2D and 3D sketches
built with CAD into G-Codes for any CNC-machine.

Geometries have to be defined to determine where the


model will be machined. Eg: A drill geometry consists of one
or more points (drilling centers / holes) that are defined by
the X-, Y- and Z-values.

They can be selected from models using a number of


different methods.

The drill points have been selected by their radius and Z-


level on a 3D solid model.

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3.7 Geometry
With automatic selection, the distance between two drilling
points is optimised to reduce machining time.

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3.7 Geometry
Wireframe Geometry
•It has several subtypes, each with its own set of rules.
•All the subtypes use the same interface to select the
geometry.
•Chain geometries are defined by picking the following
entities: edges of models, 2D curves, circles, lines and
splines.
•Each chain is composed from one or more entities and
defines an open or closed contour.

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3.7 Geometry
3D Model Geometry
•Any surface, solid or a combination of surfaces and solids
can be selected as a 3D Model geometry.
•We need to build or import a model of our workpiece or
part into the CAD system.
•This model describes the actual part with all the
dimensions and topology information, and enables CAM to
use this model to calculate the NC tool path.

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3.7 Geometry
Defining a Drill Geometry
•The XY mode enables us to define the geometry on the
plane / face parallel to the XY-plane of the current
CoordSys.

•The around 4th axis mode enables us to select the drill


geometry wrapped on the solid model around the 4th axis.
This method enables us to select on the holes whose axis
intersects with the revolution axis of the CAM part.

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3.7 Geometry
Defining a Profile Geometry
•Chains for Profile Milling can be either open or closed.
•We can machine one or more profiles in one operation.

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3.7 Geometry
Defining a Pocket Geometry
•Chains for Pocket Milling must be closed.
•The first chain defines the contour of the pocket.
•All closed chains inside first chain of each pocket are
automatically treated as pocket islands.
•Overlapping chains are milled as separate pockets, not as
islands.
•To select multiple pockets with islands, continue adding
chains to the geometry.

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3.7 Geometry
Defining a Working Area
•Working areas are used to constrain the machining to
certain areas of the 3D model.
•The working area is defined by a closed chain.
•The chain can consist either selected points or 2D/3D
edges, curves or splines.
•As in pocket geometries, working areas can be defined
with internal chains, so that the islands are excluded from
machining.
•The working area has been selected to machine the cavity.
The External chain defines the outside boundary of the
area. The Internal chain excludes the porting surface from
machining.

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3.7 Geometry
Boolean Operations

Union
•It enables us to unite selected
geometries into a single one.
•All internal segments are
removed.
•The resulting geometry is outer
profile

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3.7 Geometry
Boolean Operations

Merge
•It enables us to merge a number
of geometries, created by
different methods, into a single
one.

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3.7 Geometry
Boolean Operations

Subtract
•It enables us to perform
subtraction of two geometries.
•The order of the geometry
selection is important. The
second selected geometry is
subtracted from the first selected
one.

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3.7 Geometry
Boolean Operations

Intersect
•It enables us to perform
intersection of two geometries.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


CNC refers specifically to a computer “controller” that reads
G-code instructions and drives a machine tool, a powered
mechanical device typically used to fabricate components
by the selective removal of material.

CNC does numerically directed interpolation of a cutting tool


in the work envelop of a machine.

The operating parameters of the CNC can be altered via


software load program.

CNC was preceded by NC (Numerically Controlled)


machines, which were hard wired and their operating
parameters could not be changed.
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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


NC was developed in the late 1940s and early 1950s by
John T. Parsons in collaboration with the MIT
Servomechanism Laboratory.

The first CNC systems used NC style hardware, and the


computer was used for the tool compensation calculations
and sometimes for editing.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


Later version used punched tape to transfer G-codes and
later superseded by RS232 cables, floppy discs, and now
commonly tied directly to the plant networks.

Introduction to CNC machines radically changed the


manufacturing industry.

Curves are as easy to cut as straight lines, a complex 3D


structures are relatively easy to produce and the number of
machining steps that required human action has been
drastically reduced.

Increased in automation of manufacturing processes with


CNC machining, considerable improvements in consistency
and quality has been achieved.
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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


CNC automation reduced the frequency of errors and provided
CNC with time to perform additional tasks.

CNC automation also allows more flexibility in ways parts are


held in the manufacturing process and the time required to
change the machine to produce different components.

A series of CNC machines may be combined into one station,


commonly called a “cell”, to progressively machine a part that
requires several operations.

CNC machines today are controlled directly from files created


by CAM so that a part or assembly can go directly from design
to manufacturing without the need of producing a drafted
paper drawing of the manufactured component.
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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


CNC machines represent a special segment of industrial
robot systems, as they are programmable to perform many
kinds of machining operations (within their designed
physical limits, like other robotic systems).

CNC machines can run over night and over weekends


without operator intervention.

Error detection features have been developed, giving CNC


machines the ability to call the operator’s mobile phone if it
detects that a tool has broken.

While the machine is awaiting replacement on the tool, it


would run other parts it is already loaded with up to that tool
and wait for the operator.
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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


The ever changing intelligence of CNC controllers has
increased job shop cell production.

Some machines might even make 1000 parts on a weekend


with no operator, checking each part with lasers and
sensors.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


Numerical Control (NC)
•Electronics Industries Association (MA) standard defined it
as “a system in which actions are controlled by direct
insertion of numerical data at some point”.

•Machines controlled by electronic systems designed to


accept numerical data and other instructions usually in a
coded form.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


Numerical Control (NC)
It can perform the following:
•Absolute Programming: All tool motion is derived from the
origin of the part. (G90)
•Incremental Programming: Next tool movement is relative
to the previous position. (G91)
•Machine / Tool home Position: Internal machine reference
typically used to initialise the system.
•Floating Zero: Ability to set the machine zero to a location
on a part relative to the parts datum(s).

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


Numerical Control (NC)
(Cont.):
•Work Offset Coordinate Shift: Ability to shift the machines
home position so as to set a zero point for a particular part.
(G54 – 59)
•Cutter Compensation: Ability to adjust the cutter location
with offset values in the controller. The adjustment may be
necessary due to tolerance issues associated with cutter
condition, material problems or program utilisation. (G40 –
42)

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


CNC vs. NC Machine Tools.
CNC:
•It is a numerical control system in which the data handling
control sequences, and response to input is determined by an
on-board computer system at the machine tool.

Advantages of CNC Machine Tools:


•Increased Program storage capability at the machine tool.
•Tool path verification. Ease of part duplication, flexibility and
repeatability.
•Accommodates simple to complex parts geometry.
•Reduced set-up time, and lead times. Better machine
utilisation, increased productivity.
•CNC machine tools are more rigid than conventional machine
tools.
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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


CNC vs. NC Machine Tools.
NC:
•It is a control system which primarily processes numeric
input.

Disadvantages of NC Machine tools:


•Limited programming capability at the machine tool.
•Limited logic beyond direct input.
•These types of systems are referred to as “hardwire
controls” and were popular from the 50’s to 70’s.
•NC language is series of commands which “direct” the
cutter motion and support systems of the machine tool.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


Types of Instruction
•A line in a G-code file can instruct the machine tool to do
one of several things.

Movements
•The most basic motion for a controller is to move the
machine tool along a linear path from one point to another.
•Some machine tools can only do this in XY, and have to
accept changes in Z separately.
•Some have 2 further axes of rotation to control the
orientation off the cutter, and can move them
simultaneously with the XYZ motion.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


Movements (Cont.)
•Additional 2 axes allow the work surface or medium to be
rotated around X and Y axis.
•Eg: A 4-axis machine can move the tool head in XY and Z
directions, and also rotate the medium / workpiece around the
X or Y axis, similar to a lathe. This is called A or B axis.
•All motions can be built from linear motions if they are short
and there are enough of them.
•Most controllers can interpolate horizontal circular arcs in XY.
•Some implement the ability to follow and arbitrary (NURBS)
curve. Quite sceptical, since unlike circular arcs, their
definitions are not natural and too complicated to set up by
hand. CAM can generate any motion using many short linear
segments.

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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


Tool Changes
•Originally there would be a G-code instruction telling the
machine tool to stop, so that a human operator could
remove the cutting tool from the chuck and insert a new
one.
•Modern machine tool have a magazine of different tools
which they can change themselves pneumatically,
hydraulically, or electromechanically.

Drilling
•A tool can be used to drill holes by pecking to let the swarf
out.
•Screw threads can be produced by using special tapping
tool and the CNC’s ability to control the exact rotational
position of the tool with the depth of cut.
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3.8 Computer Numerical Control [CO1]


Drilling Cycle
•It is used to repeat drilling or tapping operations on a
workpiece.
•It accepts a list of parameters about the operation, such as
depth and feed rate.
•To begin drilling any number of holes to the specifications
configured in the cycle, the only input required is a set of
coordinates for hole location.
•The cycle takes care of depth, feed rate, retraction and
other parameters that appear in more complex cycles.

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