You are on page 1of 5

This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2017 conference.

HEMAN: Health Monitoring and Nous


An IoT based e-Health Care System for Remote Telemedicine

Chanchal Raj,1 Chaman Jain2 and Wasim Arif3


Dept. of Electronics and Communication Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Silchar Assam, India
Email: 1 craj.nits@gmail.com 2 chamanjain.nits@gmail.com 3 arif.ece.nits@gmail.com

Abstract—Any country with Social, technological and economi- sensors with recent advancements in Information and commu-
cal advancement needs enhanced healthcare system. Telemedicine nication technologies. An attempt to monitor elderly people’s
healthcare system provides the provision of medical treat- health profile in their own home with help of wireless sensor
ment from a remote distance. The telemedicine research and
product development has embarked prodigious growth during technology and electronic devices is described in [2]. A remote
the past decade primarily due to tremendous technological ad- e-healthcare system using a medical care provider instrument
vancement in ICT and automation. The aim of IoT-based health that reciprocally supervises the patient’s health position by
care system is to ensure and increase the welfare of patients and querying the patient queries instantaneously and receiving
the quality of life in rural areas. In this paper we present a low replies to those queries, is represented in [3]. Communication
cost Health sensor platform for rural health monitoring with
a well-structured and secure interface between medical experts made available using telephone line for centralized monitoring
and Remote centers for sharing of important medical parameters. station that receives data from many remote patient and allow
In our proposed and implemented model we developed separate medical treatment remotely is proposed in [4], [5]. Implements
interface for medical experts and remote Centre’s and introduced a uniform architecture for amalgamating conventional medical
a new algorithm for implementation. Features like live video systems in the field of telemedicine systems with the help
streaming, chat boxes, automatic prescription generation and
push notification are included. The prototype is used for trial of smart health devices and hospital information systems.
under the supervision of medical experts and the data are Adaptive e-Healthcare data management for structural imple-
compared with standard test done in pathological laboratory. mentation shows solution for serving medical facility at remote
The result is satisfactory with good level of acceptance. locations outside of the premises of conventional medical
Index Terms—e-health, Telemedicine, LabVIEW, IoT. institution is presented in [6], [7]. Implements an e-healthcare
I. I NTRODUCTION system which aims at collecting blood glucose and blood
pressure parameter for various patients that uses smartphones
With India being the seventh largest country on the globe
and web services for front end.
with an area of about 32 lakh square kilometers consisting of
29 states and 7 Union Territories governed by a syndicated III. I NTERNET OF T HINGS FOR H EALTHCARE
system. Proper and systematic healthcare for India’s rural and
IoT is a buzzword which is guessed as one of the promising
remote population is a challenge for the health department of
technology driver for automation and control in the industry.
the country. Even today 75% [1] of the medical practitioners
It has extensively been researched over the past couple of
practice in urban areas for better infrastructure whereas 70%
years. IoT implemented health monitoring system for rural
of India’s population are suffering from poor rural healthcare
areas has tremendous leverage over conventional healthcare
infrastructure.
Telemedicine/Tele-health, is of great communal apposite- system. The cost of medical healthcare is rising and even
ness to the nation for empowering expertise Healthcare to the higher for chronic diseases which leaves a percussion on the
underprivileged population of remote area. E-healthcare is an arete of people’s life [8]. The population of elderly people is
adequate key for providing expertise healthcare to the remote increasing continuously, which makes an impact on medical
area patients at reduced cost and easy access to overcome the facilities or services. [9]. Various advantages of IoT can be
issue of doctor isolation from remote area. The gap between seen in the healthcare sector in the form of wearable devices
patients at rural area and the medical practitioner at urban area and medical applications [10]. Hospitals use IoT to monitor
has been effectively reduced. LabVIEW embraces extended the location of medical devices, personnel and patients. An
assistance for interfacing to sensors, instruments and various IoT based e-Healthcare system lets medical practitioner carry
devices. LabVIEW consists of front panel and block diagram. information with them anywhere they go through apps on their
Front panel is used for design of front end and block diagram mobile devices [11].
consists of all backend design with the help of graphical IV. P ROBLEM S TATEMENT
coding. Hardware can be easily accessed through LabVIEW
by serial UART or Ethernet communication. Any healthcare system designed for remote monitoring
must ensure continuous data analysis to support the patient
II. R ELATED W ORK efficiently with provision of maximum diagnostic data through
Various research field emphasize on delivering remote e- sensors. Remote telemedicine not only reduces the round
healthcare services with the help of wireless and portable trip visit to doctors but also helps in emergency incidents.

978-1-5090-4442-9/17/$31.00 2017
c IEEE 2115
This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2017 conference.

In proposed model the bio-signal data are collected using


an embedded hardware architecture and the same is made
available in cloud infrastructure for rural areas with limited
or zero Internet connectivity. The proposed model stores the
data locally in proper format to be used at a later stage.
All different sensors provide data in different format which
is unstructured, which is challenging to manipulate, store and
understand. Therefore, there is a demand of complex and
hybrid database management system (DBMS).
V. P ROPOSED M ETHOD
In this paper, the above proclaimed issues have been in-
scribed by the proposed IoT based e-healthcare telemedicine
system for detection and estimation of general health profile
of a patient. Our proposed methodology is based on a remote
e-health telemedicine system consisting of a portable sensing
unit comprising of Pulse Oximeter, ECG, EMG, GSR, Body
temperature and blood pressure that is assigned with the work
of acquainting various medical data along with images of eye, Fig. 1. Hardware interface.
tongue and area of impact of the patient’s body, following
a desired sampling rate specified for the parameters. The unit
enables a video communication between a patient and medical
practitioner and also has the features of storing and processing
the sensed data locally for storage and diagnosis of the patient.
The system is capable of working in both online and offline
modes so that it can be used efficiently in limited Internet
connected areas.
A. Hardware Interface
Proposed system consists of AVR Atmega 328P, Arduino
shield, Body Temperature, Pulse Oximeter, ECG, GSR, EMG,
Blood Pressure, Camera module. This microcontroller has
14 pin GPIO, USB port. Blood Pressure (manufactured by
Omron) gives serial output at 9600 baud rate [12] with
Diastolic pressure, Systolic pressure and Pulse reading as
output. Blood pressure with relaxed heart corresponds to
Diastolic pressure whereas blood pressure when contracted
corresponds to Systolic pressure. Pulse rate is determined in
the format of heart beats per second. Pulse oximeter is used to Fig. 2. DAQ system for data collection.
measure Oxygen saturation and Pulse rate. The serial output
common channel with help of sensor node unique identifica-
is set at 9600 symbol per second. Blood oxygen saturation
tion string name and the required number of samples instead
level (SpO2) is an estimation of the instantaneous oxygen level
of conventional data acquisition system where each sensor
present in the hemoglobin. SpO2 is denoted as a fraction (in
node require separate channel. The system flowchart of DAQ
percentage) of the greatest measure of oxygen that hemoglobin
is illustrated in Fig. 2.
in the blood can carry. ECG, EMG and GSR are connected
This is an event driven process where at the same time from
to ADC of microcontroller and samples are taken at desired
all sensors data acquisition is not required. Instead, data is
interval according to sensor specification at baud rate of 9600.
captured on occurrence of some specific events and stored. The
The integrated system is connected to a computing device with
sampling rate of sensor acquisition mainly depend on sensor
Intel i3 processor with Windows XP and above. LabVIEW is
specification.
used for data acquisition and processing. It is also used for
Advantages of DAQ
front end design. For storage purpose Amazon AWS is used
• Use of single USB channel for all sensor data acquisition.
and for syncing an application is developed on Google script
• Data sampling rate only depend on sensor and not on
platform. The developed hardware interface is shown in Fig. 1.
computer interface.
B. Data Acquisition from Sensors • Seamless data acquisition from sensor to software
E-Healthcare system needs to record distinct types of sensor Interface.
data. The proposed system inherits the sensors data through a • It restricts the serial buffer to overflow.

2116
This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2017 conference.

Fig. 3. Design flow.

After the data acquisition from sensors is completed the


locally stored data is processed using Signal Processing and
Bio-medical toolkit of LabVIEW R which may help the med-
ical practitioner to evaluate the data in quantitative manner.
C. Work Flow of the Proposed System
In the proposed method after acquiring the data from
sensors it is stored in our local database and for syncing the
database with the cloud storage a sync application is developed
which works on Google spreadsheet script based database.
The proposed sync application is responsible for data transfer
from local database to cloud storage whenever proper Internet
Connection is available. In offline mode the application stores
the data in its local repository (see Fig. 3).
Features of the proposed sync application:
• Works on slow Internet Connectivity.
Fig. 4. Working principle of proposed method.
• Data Acquisition can be done without Internet.
• Data is efficiently placed in repository.
• Efficient use of space in cloud data storage. Remote center is responsible for enrollment of the patient
• Structured form of data. and it generates a unique reference id for each pa-
• Data redundancy is reduced. tient based on combination of timestamp and center id
• Uniformity is maintained across all system users. (YYMMDDHHMMSS-< Remote center id>) which is unique
The data stored in cloud is accessed by the medical practi- and given to the patient for future reference by email and SMS
tioner referred by the remote center and data is available for gateway. After enrollment basic details like Name, Age, and
treatment in respective formats such as text, image, waveform, Height etc. are stored and data acquisition dialog box pops
and audio/video. All medical parameters are then verified by up for acquiring data from different sensors, symptoms and
the referred medical practitioner and AV calls may be made images, The remote center has the liberty to chat or do a
to the remote center on demand. After successful verification AV communication with the medical practitioner on demand.
prescribed document or feedback report is generated and are Remote center has access to all previous patients’ record
made available to patient/remote center with unique reference with their prescription, enrolled at their remote centers (see
id for individuals. The unique id and login access may be Figs. 5 and 6).
used by the patient for reference at any time from anyplace. Doctor Interface has a list of patients which are referred by
The flow chart of working principle of the proposed model is the remote center. The interface displays all relevant sensor
shown in Fig. 4. data of a particular patient in order. Medical practitioner may
be live online or offline and hence the proposed model offers
D. Software Interface live session and offline session. The sensor data are streamed
We design the front/home screen with three type of login during online session whereas the data are stored in proper
access for Doctor, Remote Center and Admin. The Admin format for offline sessions. Standard signal processing toolkits
stays at the top of the hierarchy with features like add/remove are used to provide some additional graphical analysis of some
of doctor or remote center. It is responsible for issuing of of the received sensing data to help medical practitioners in
user-id and password for the other two interface. diagnosis.

2117
This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2017 conference.

Fig. 5. Snapshots of software (symptoms, ECG analysis, DAQ window, home window in right to left order).

TABLE I
C OMPARISON TABLE .

Parameters Proposed system Pathological value % Error


67 65 3.07
ECG HR 63 65 3.07
76 77 1.29
98/75 99/71 1.01/5.63
Pulse Oximeter
99/80 98/82 1.02/2.43
(SPO2/Pulse)
96/62 96/65 0.00/4.61
124/86 122/85 1.60/1.17
Blood Pressure
Fig. 6. Web interface. 117/80 117/81 0.00/1.23
(Sys/Dia) mmHg
129/92 127/93 1.57/1.07
96.7 99.2 2.52
Body Temperature
99.8 100.2 0.39
The Patient has a dedicated web portal where patient can (in ◦ F)
100.1 100.9 0.79
get medical report along with doctor feedback by unique
patient reference id which is generated during enrollment at
remote center are made available at their registered email and made available. Data analysis of some of the signals are also
Mobile number. Prescription contains report of all tested pa- made. Inclusion of other sensors and further data analysis is
rameters along with doctor’s suggestion and list of prescribed kept for future work.
medicines.
VI. R ESULTS R EFERENCES
The proposed system is tested under the supervision of [1] About 70 per cent indians live in rural areas: Census report [Online].
medical practitioner for some patients. The results obtained Available: www.thehindu.com/news/national/about-70-per-centindians-
live-in-rural-areas-census-report/article2230211.ece.
from our prototype is compared with the results obtained from [2] P. E. Ross, “Managing care through the air [remote health monitoring],”
the pathological laboratory and is shown in Table I. in Spectrum, IEEE, vol. 41, no. 12, pp. 26–31, 2004.
[3] S. J. Brown, “Remote health monitoring and maintenance system,” U.S.
VII. C ONCLUSION Patent 6, 168, 563, issued Jan. 2, 2001.
[4] B. Avitall, B. Peterson, J. Kletch, E. B. Griswold, and P. Moran, “Remote
The paper is mainly focused on building a common interface health monitoring system,” U.S. Patent 6, 171, 237, issued Jan. 9, 2001.
between multiple remote center and medical practitioner which [5] Adamkó Attila, Ábel Garai, and István Péntek, “Common open
support data transfer in form of text, image, parameters, telemedicine hub and infrastructure with interface recommendation,”
in 11th IEEE International Symposium on Applied Computational
waveform and AV information. In proposed and developed Intelligence and Informatics, Timiúoara, Romania, May 12–14, 2016,
model we have dealt with embedded system platform, ICT and pp. 385–390.
communication protocol, DAQ, sync application for reliable [6] Ábel Garai, Adamkó Attila, and István Péntek, “Cognitive telemedicine
IoT technology for dynamically adaptive eHealth content man-
data and web interface to empower rural villages with good agement reference framework embedded in cloud architecture,” in
healthcare support. We included some of the very important 7th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Infocommunications
sensors in our system to acquire data for effective diagnosis (CogInfoCom 2016), Wrocław, Poland, Oct. 16–18, 2016, pp. 187–192.
[7] S. Agarwal and C. T. Lau, “Remote health monitoring using mobile
and treatment. The system is tested and the results are satis- phones and Web services,” Telemedicine and e-Health, vol. 16, no. 5,
factory with 8 medical parameters along with live streaming is pp. 603–607, 2010.

2118
This full-text paper was peer-reviewed and accepted to be presented at the IEEE WiSPNET 2017 conference.

[8] O. Geman, S. Sanei, I. Chiuchisan, A. Prochazka, and O. Vysata, [11] Andrew Meola. (2016 Dec., 19). Internet of Things in healthcare:
“Towards an inclusive Parkinson’s screening system,” in The 18th Information technology in health [Online]. Available: http://www.
International Conference on System Theory, Control and Computing businessinsider.com/internet-of-things-in-healthcare-2016-8?IR=T.
ICSTCC, Sinaia, Romania, in press, 2014. [12] Suman Sankar Bhunia, Sourav Kumar Dhar, and Nandini
[9] C. Turcu, C. Turcu, and D. Tiliuţe, “The potential of internet of things to Mukherjeey, “iHealth: a fuzzy approach for provisioning
improve the quality of healthcare delivery,” Journal of Applied Computer intelligent health-care system in smart city,” in e-Health Pervasive
Science & Mathematics, Suceava, vol. 13, no. 6, 2012. Wireless Applications and Services (eHPWAS’14),
[10] A guide to healthcare IoT possibilities and obstacles [Online]. 978-1-4799-5041-6/14/$31.00 2014
c IEEE.
Available: http://searchhealthit.techtarget.com/essentialguide/A-guide-
to-healthcare-IoT-possibilities-and-obstacles.

2119