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1.

1 OBJECTIVES

1) The structures so designed should have an acceptable probability of performing


satisfactorily during their intended life.
This objective does not include a guarantee that every structure must perform
satisfactorily during its intended life. There are uncertainties in the design process both in
the estimation of the loads likely to be applied on the structure and in the strength of the
material. Moreover, full guarantee would only involve more cost. Thus, there is an
acceptable probability of performance of structures as given in standard codes of
practices of different countries.

2) The designed structure should sustain all loads and deform within limits for
construction and use.
Adequate strengths and limited deformations are the two requirements of the designed
structure. The structure should have sufficient strength and the deformations must be
within prescribed limits due to all loads during construction. Sometimes, structure that
have the insufficient of load, though the deformation of the structure is not alarming.
However, sometime structures are heavily loaded beyond control. The structural engineer
is not responsible to ensure the strength and deformation within the limit under such
condition. The structures, thus should give sufficient warning to the occupants and must
not fail suddenly.

3) The designed structures should be durable.


The materials of reinforced concrete structures get affected by the environmental
conditions. Thus, structures having sufficient strength and permissible deformations in
the long run. The designed structures, therefore, must be checked for durability. Separate
checks for durability are needed for the steel reinforcement and concrete. This will avoid
problems of frequent repairing of the structure.

4) The designed structures should adequately resist to the effects of misuse and fire.
Properly designed structures should allow sufficient time and safe route for the persons
inside to vacate the structures before they actually collapses.
3.0 METHOD OF DESIGN
1) Limit State Method
The term “”Limit stress” is of continental origin where there are three limit states-
serviceability, crack opening and collapse. For reasons not very clear, in English
literature limit state of collapse is termed as limit state. As mentioned in section 3 EN
1990, the semi-empirical limit state method of design has been found to be the best for
the design of reinforced concrete members. This standard has put greater emphasis to
limit state method of design by presenting it in a full section, while the working stress
method has been given in Annex B with the same standard. Accordingly, structures or
structural elements shall normally be designed by limit state method.
2) Working Stress Method
This method of design, considered as the method of earlier times, has several limitations.
However, in situations where limit state method cannot be conveniently applied, working
stress method can be employed as an alternative. It is expected that in the near future the
working stress method will be completely replaced by the limit state method.
3) Method based on Experimental Approach
The designer may perform experimental investigations on models or full sizes structures
or elements and accordingly designs the structures or elements. However, the objectives
of the structural design must be satisfied when designed by employing this approach.
Moreover, the engineer in charge has to approve the experimental details and the analysis
connected there.
2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW

Reinforced concrete has long been one of the most widely used materials in construction
applications. It has numerous material advantages, but one of its most significant benefits is the
ability to be cast into a wide variety of shapes. In fact, reinforced concrete is only geometrically
limited by the complexities or cost of the construction of formwork. As such, the behavior of
concrete structures easily constructed in the field often falls beyond the scope of common frame
analysis programs and conventional design methods. This is certainly true for the analysis of
reinforced concrete systems where slabs, shear walls, shells, tanks, deep beams, and coupling
beams must be modeled. If the structural element contains holes or is subjected to concentrated
or otherwise irregular loadings, the analysis is further complicated.
The structural engineering community responded to this challenge with numerous
approximate techniques that attempt to simplify the design of these reinforced concrete
components. For flat plates, these methods include the direct design, equivalent frame, yield line,
and strip design techniques, all of which approximate the results of classical plate theory. These
methods have gained wide acceptance among engineers because of their simplicity. However,
these approximate techniques have significant limitations. Direct design and equivalent frame
methods are both limited to structures with very regular geometry. The application of yield lines
or strip design may lead to overly conservative designs as well as to poor serviceability.

As such, the finite element method has been an obvious choice for the modeling and
analysis of reinforced concrete systems for many years. Finite elements have the unique
capability to conform to virtually any geometry that could be physically implemented. Thus, the
finite element method has gained acceptance as an appropriate tool for the analysis of flat plates,
especially those with highly irregular or unusual geometries where the direct design and
equivalent frame techniques are not valid. In irregular slabs such as these, the finite element
method can be shown to accurately solve for the distribution of stress where numerous
approximations and assumptions would be invoked if the yield line or strip design technique
were applied.

An additional benefit of a finite element approach to slab design is that engineers no


longer need to develop multiple models to design a structure for various types of behavior. By
integrating the slab model with the three-dimensional frame, the combined effects of gravity and
lateral loading conditions can be assessed together. The interaction of the slab and columns is
accurately simulated, providing favorable results to approximations of connection stiffness. An
integrated approach to analysis and design thus emerges.

The following review details the progression from the conception of finite element based
flat plate design to the current state of the art. Much of the work cited deals primarily with the
modeling and analysis of flat plate systems by the finite element method, without explicitly
discussing reinforcement design. However, the primary purpose of the finite element model is
the determination of design forces and moments, and once these quantities have been accurately
determined, the resulting design becomes a function of the active design code.
6.1 RECOMMENDATION

The reinforced concrete consisting of plain concrete and steel reinforcement opened a
new of fulfilling the imaginations of architect with a unified approach of the architect and
structural engineer. This has been made possible due to mouldability and monolithicity of
concrete in addition to its strength in both tension and compression when reinforced with steel.
However, concrete is produced by mixing cement, sand gravel, water and mineral admixtures, if
needed. Therefore, the final strength of concrete depends not only on the individual properties of
its constituent materials, but also on the proportions of the material and the manner in which it is
prepared, transported, placed, compacted and cured. Moreover, durability of the concrete is also
largely influenced by all the steps of its preparation.

Steel reinforcement though produced in steel plants and made available in form of bars
and rods of specific diameter also influences the final strength of reinforced concrete by its
quality and durability due to environmental effects.

Concrete cover provides the protective environment to embedded steel from rusting that
would need presence of both oxygen and moisture. Not only the extend of the cover but the
quality of the cover is important for this reason.

Thus, starting from the selection of each constitutive material to the satisfactory
construction of the structure, the designer’s responsibility will only produce the desired concrete
structure which only satisfy the functional requirements as well as will have its aesthetics values
exploiting all the good properties of this highly potential material.