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Sepam 1000+

Protection functions
Selection table Series 20
Protection functions

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Selection table Series 40
Protection functions

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50/51 and 50N/51N functions Series 20

„ 4 independant elements, divided into


t 2 groups of 2 elements called Group A and
1 A 1 B
Group B :
†Group A (1A/2A) :
Group A, elements 1 and 2
†Group B (1B/2B) :
Group B, elements 1 and 2
2 B „ enabling/disabling of each group
„ possibility to switch from one group to the
2 A
other

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50/51 and 50N/51N functions Series 20
„ Example of use Group A Group B:
t
1 A 1 B
†Group A 1A/2A 50/51:
network supplied by generator
low short circuit power
†Group B 1B/2B 50/51:
network supplied by Public Utility
high short circuit power
2 B †Group A and B 1A/2A 1B/2B 50N/51N
same grounding system in both
2 A
cases => same protection settings
Important : don’t forget to set the 2 different
I 50N/51N protection groups

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50/51 and 50N/51N functions Series 20

†Group A and group B active


t
†No logic discrimination
1 B

2 A

1 A

2 B

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50/51 and 50N/51N functions Series 20
„ Without logic dicrimination :
†Only group A active , or only group B active
†Group A and group B active
†Switching from 1 group to the other dependent on the
state of logic input I13 or by remote control command,
to protect effectively variable configuration networks.

„ With logic discrimination :


†Group A :instantaneous ouput -> upstream blocking O3
time delayed ouput -> blocked from downstream I13
†Group B : time-based discrimination, to guarantee safety.
†Switching from 1 group to the other group impossible.

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Switching of setting groups Series 20

It’s possible to activate group A or group B :


„ by input I13. The state of the input must be steady
I13=0 group A
I13=1 group B
„ through communication, remote commands (TC) are pulse
TC 3 group A
TC 4 group B

the selection I13 or remote command is exclusive.

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50/51 and 50N/51N functions Series 40

„ 2 groups of 4 elements :
†functions(1A/2A/3A/4A)
group A, elements 1, 2,
3 and 4
†functions(1A/2A/3A/4A)
group B, elements 1, 2,
3 and 4
„ enabling/disabling :
group A OR group B
„ possibility to switch from
one group to the other
„ possibility to use group
switching AND logic
discriminition

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50/51 and 50N/51N functions Series 40

„ Switching of setting
groups :
†by TC3 (A), TC4 (B)
†by I13 ( =0 group A,
=1 group B)
„ logic discrimination :
† free assignment of
blocking input
†elements 1 and 2 have
to be set for logic
discrimination and
elements 3 and 4 have
to be set for time-based
discrimination (back up)

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50/51 functions Series 40

„ In the advanced parameters menu it’s possible to choose for each element
to have a confirmation of operation by using negative sequence overvoltage
protection (47) or undervoltage protection (27)

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50N/51N functions Series 40

„ The choice between Io


(measured) and IoΣ
(calculated by the sum of
the phase currents) can be
set for each element
„ by mixing these 2
possibilities it allows user:
†to have different
dynamic set points
†to have different
applications, e.g.
line zero sequence
protection and tank
earth leakage protection

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50/51, 50N/51N and 67N/67NC functions Series 20
Adjustable reset time Series 40
or timer hold delay

„ Definitions :
†Reset time (of a protection) = time to return to the
initial state after the fault disappearance. (< 50ms)
†Adjustable reset time (timer hold) = time added to the
reset time to delay the return to initial state and
bringing a memory into operation to enable the
function to be activated with intermittent faults.

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50/51, 50N/51N and 67N/67NC functions Series 20
Adjustable reset time Series 40
or timer hold delay

„ Applications :
†definite time : detection of recurrent faults in network
grounded by Petersen coil (67NC)
†IDMT : to allow the relay to have the same reset time
than an electromechanical relay in order to obtain a
better discrimination (when this relay is upstream)

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Reset characteristics

100%
tripping
time delay

I > Is

Timer hold

Tripping time
adjustable definite time reset (timer hold)
dependent time resetting (disk)
no intentional delay on reset
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50N/51N function - Harmonic 2 restraint Series 20
„ H2 restraint to ensure stability during transformer Series 40
energization.
†Fixed ratio (17%)
†restraint activated by parameter setting

This function has to be used only in the case of earth fault


overcurrent made by sum of 3 CT on the upstream side
of a transformer.
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Transformer inrush current & CT saturation
10

-2

-4

-6

-8

-1 0
0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7 0 .8 0 .9 1

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IEF = Ia+Ib+Ic => unexpected trip
5

-1

-2
0 0 .1 0 .2 0 .3 0 .4 0 .5 0 .6 0 .7 0 .8 0 .9 1

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50/51V function Series 40

„ Voltage-restrained phase overcurrent


protection is used in generator applications
to detect close faults that give a drop in
voltage and in short-circuit current.
„ Setting correction is done in accordance
with the lowest phase-to-phase voltage.
„ Dependant ou independant timer.

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50BF function Series 40

„ This function is designed to


detect the failure of breakers
that do not open when a
tripping order is sent.
„ The failure to trip is detected
by a level of current or by the
close position of the circuit
breaker after a time delay.

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50BF function Series 40

„ Example :
†50/51 = inst. ≈ 40ms
†output O1 = 10ms
†CB = 60ms
„ time delay setting T :
†output O1 = 10ms
†CB = 60ms
†overshoot time
50BF=20ms
†safety margin = 20ms
†==> T = 110ms

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67 function Series 40
„ 2 groups of 2
elements:
†Functions 1A/2A :
group A, el. 1and 2
†Functions 1B/2B :
group B, el.1 and 2
„ enabling/disabling
group A OR group B
„ possibility to switch
from one group to the
other
„ possibility to use
group switching AND
logic discrimination

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Protection 67 Series 40
„ The 67 protection is used on
incomers in // to obtain
discrimination.
„ The characteristic angle
setting 30, 45 ou 60° gives a
tripping half-plane for each
current.
„ It ’s possible to reverse the
detection direction : line or
busbar
„ In case of fault close to the
metering point the protection
„ Possibility to change the tripping logic : one uses a voltage memory to
out of three phase or two out of three determine the direction
(case of two-phase fault on transformers Dy
or Yd in //)
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Directional phase
V2
overcurrent I1
feeder feeder
51 51
V1
P1 P1

No fault V3 P2 P2

U32

Both of the currents I1 P2 P2


V2
are opposed
because the CT ’s P1
incomer
P1
incomer
V1
are opposed I1 67 67
51 51
≈+270° V3
V2
feedert
I1
V1 P1

P2
V3

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Directional Icc1

V2
phase I1
feeder feeder

overcurrent 51 V1
51
P1
51
P1

V3 P2 P2
Phase fault
on one line
67 Icc1 U32 P2 P2
V2
Both of the currents +45° P1 P1
have the same phase incomer incomer

because they go V1
I1
67 67

through the CT ’s 51 51

in the same ≈+270° V3


direction P1-->P2 67 U32
V2
+45°
P1
V1
I1
Icc1
P2 V3

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67N/67NC function Series 40

„ 2 groups of 2 elements :
†functions 1A/2A
group A, elements 1
and 2
†functions 1A/2A
group B, elements 1
and 2
„ enabling/disabling :
group A OR group B
„ possibility to switch from
one group to the other
„ possibility to use group
switching AND logic
discriminition
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67N/67NC function Series 40

„ 2 characteristics :
†type 1 : projection
- definite time
- input Io (measured)
†type 2 : according to Io
magnitude
- IDMT or definite time
- input Io (measured) or
sum of the 3 phases
„ possibility to mix these 2
characteristics
„ the tripping direction can
be set (line or busbar)

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67N/67NC function Series 40

„ Type 1 :
†the protection function calculates
the projection of the residual
current Io on the characteristic
line which is fixed by the
characteristic angle θo in relation
to the residual voltage and
compares this value to Iso set
point.
†the projection method is suitable
for resistive, isolated or
compensated neutral systems.
†the function is inhibited if the
residual voltage is below Vso set
point.
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67N/67NC function Series 40
„ With compensated neutral systems :
†the detection of recurrent faults
is possible by using a memory
controlled by a time delay or by
the residual voltage.
†the parameter setting of the
sector is used to reduce the
protection tripping zone to ensure
its stability on fault-free feeders.
†in case of Petersen coil with no
additional resistance, the
protection function uses the
transient current at the biginning
of the fault to ensure tripping
(lack of active zero sequence
current)
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67N/67NC function Series 40

„ Type 2 :
†the protection function operates
like an earth fault protection
function with an added direction
criterion.
†this characteristic allows a better
coordination with 50N/51N
protection functions.
†this function is suitable for
closed ring distribution networks
or for incomings in parallel with
directly earthed neutral.
†usual setting θo = - 45°

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67N/67NC Applications
Capacitive currents
VT2
3 V2
aV
2 VT3 T N
N a²V V1 Vrsd
1 VT2
V
VT1 V3
VT3

C1 C2 C3 IC3 IC2

T
ICT ICT = 3CωU = 3CωV
ICT

„ Examples :
†for 6kV, non radial cable : ICT = 0.5 to 1.5 A/km
†for 20kV, radial cable : ICT = 2 to 5 A/km
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67N/67NC Applications
Residual currents
„ residual current in a
3
aV fault-free feeder :
2
N a²V Irsd,s = Ic fault-free
V
1 feeder
ICt - ICd + IZn
ICs
Zn Cd Cs
„ residual current in
the faulty feeder :
Irsd,d = Ic total - Ic
faulty feeder
ID + I zn
IZn ICd ICs where Zn = infinite,
T
R, X or zero

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67N/67NC resistive neutral Series 40

†radial networks
†installation on each
feeder
Ic > ~10% I neutral
Vr †advantage of a type 1
function (projection) :
Ir = Ic totally insensitive to
Ir Ir
capacitive currents.
Ira
Vr Vr

Ic
Ir

Faulted Sound
feeder feeder

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67N/67NC isolated neutral Series 40

†radial networks
†installation on each
feeder for location
since the first fault
Vr †used for alarm or
tripping
Ir = Ic
Ir Ir
†the high sensitivity
Vr Vr with the CSH120 core
balance CT is the
main advantage
Ir

Faulted Sound
feeder feeder

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67N/67NC compensated neutral Series 40

†radial networks
†installation on each
feeder
†only a type 1
Vr protection, using
Ir
projection, is suitable
Irr Ir = Ic
Ir Ir
†protection studied to
allow detection of
Ira
Vr Vr
recurrent faults
(memory time)

Faulted Sound
feeder feeder

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67N/67NC direct neutral Series 40

†closed ring networks


†installation on
incomings
†advantage of a type 2
Ir
protection, Io magnitude
: easy to coordinate with
50N/51N

Vr Vr
-45° -45°
Ir Vr Ir

Faulted Sound Ir
incoming incoming

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32P function
Series 40

„ The protection 32P is


used as active overpower
for energy management
(load shedding).
„ Or as reverse active
power to protect motors
running like generators
and generators running
like motors.

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32Q function
Series 40

„ The 32Q protection function is


used to detect field loss on
synchronous machines
(generators or motors)
connected to the network.

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Series 20
79 function - recloser
Series 40
Recloser is a function which recloses the circuit breaker after a tripping
due to a fugitive or semi-permanent single phase or phase-to-phase fault.
„ setting 1 to 4 cycles
„ possibility to choose the protection functions which activate the different
cycles.
„ time delays :
inhibition : starts when a voluntary close or trip command is given
(detection by the change of the CB position input states)
isolation : 1 per cycle. Waiting time before reclosing.
disengagement : starts when the CB is closed by the recloser
if a fault occurs during this time delay, the next reclosing
cycle is activated or a permanent trip order is given if it was
the last cycle.
If there is no fault during this time delay the recloser
reinitializes.
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79 function - recloser Series 20

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79 function - recloser
Series 40

„ Additional functions regarding serie 20 :


†67N/67NC protection functions can activate the recloser.
†dead times can be extended to wait CB end of loading
†it ’s possible to activate the recloser by the result of a logic equation
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79 recloser - example
I (A)

Id

1° cycle 2° cycle 3° cycle Permanent fault


In

Inst. T (s)
0.3 0.5 15 to 30 0.5 15 to 30 0.5
isolation isolation isolation
Inhibition Disengagement Disengagement Disengagement

10s 10s 10s 10s

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79 recloser - example

Different types of faults:


„ Fugitive : confirmed instantaneous tripping (35ms<t<50ms)
fast cycle (300ms) to allow the arc de-ionization.
„ Semi-permanent : time delayed tripping (0.5s) to avoid to trip
because of the transient currents due to the
re-energization of the load and to ensure a correct
discrimination regarding downstream protection
devices.
slow cycle (15 to 30s) to allow fault instinguishing
when there is no arc (ex: tree branch) mini 10s
charging time of CB motor.
„ Permanent : end of cycle.

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79 Recloser Series 20
„ A few traps to avoid : Series 40
†circuit breaker control and position are compulsory
†protections inactive with regard to the recloser (external tripping
inputs included) lead to final tripping
†S40 : if logic inputs of MES114 are set with standard
assignment, I24 is the end of loading mechanism
contact (=1 for end of loading). If nothing is
connected to this input, recloser closing order is then
inhibited
†active protections must be set with no latching, if
not: final tripping (S40 and S41 batch 1)

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46 negative sequence current / unbalance Series 20

Motor protection function against overheating due to an unbalance supply or to


a current loss or reversing.
In the substation applications this function allows to detect low phase-to-phase
overcurrent faults or unbalanced currents.
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46 negative sequence current / unbalance Series 40

Addition of IDMT curves

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49 thermal overload Series 20
Principle: heat rise calculation is based on the current consumed
(if I is constant, heat rise is equal to the square value of the
current ratio E=( I / Ib )²

Cold curve: time for E to


go from 0% to trip value.

With I=Ib
Hot curve: time for E to
go from 100% to trip
value.

With I=0

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49 thermal overload Series 20
CB tripping

E=120%

E=100%

E= 63%

T1 t

E=100% when I=Ib t=Tripping time from the hot Curve depending
during an infinite time curve(E=100%) depending on on T2. ( I=0 )
T1 and on the value of the current

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49 thermal overload Series 20

Accounting for ambient temperature: Example: if Tmax=70° and T ambient=50°


Increase factor
T max − 40° 70° − 40° 30
= = = 1.5
T max − Tambient 70° − 50° 20

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49 thermal overload Series 20
Accounting for negative sequence current

Cd Id
Example: current values 0 .5 > >2 5> >8 (from large to small motor)
Cn In
Ωs − Ωn 1500 − 1485 Cd 1 1
g= = = 0.01 0.015>g>0.005 k = 2. . − 1 = 2. 1. − 1 = 4.55
Ωs 1500 Cn ⎛ Id ⎞ 2 0.01.6 2
g .⎜ ⎟
⎝ Ib ⎠ K=4.5 can be set

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49 thermal overload Series 20
120%

Start authorization threshold

A new start is enabled if it ’s possible without


tripping depending on the heat rise calculated
t during the previous start.

t = start inhibition time delay

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49 thermal overload Series 20
2 different uses of logic input I26

„ Series 40 : one basis current ( Ib )for each setting group

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49 thermal overload Initial heat rise Eso Series 20
In red: if the cold curve is placed under
the motor curve, risk of tripping during start.
Both of the curves are moved together

1.1

In certain motor specifications, cold and hot By setting Eso the cold curve of Sepam
curves are very close. With a normal thermal is adjusted under the motor cold curve
overload protection there is a risk of bad motor without moving the sepam hot curve.
protection when it ’s cold or a risk of tripping
during start when it ’s hot
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49 Thermal overload Series 40

„ The cooling time constant T2 may be learnt according to the temperatures


measured in the equipment by temperature sensors connected to the first
MET148-2 module.
„ T2 is calculated every time that the equipment runs for a sufficient time
(E>70%) followed by a shutdown and temperature stabilization.
„ Motors and generators: RTDs 1, 2, 3 stator , 8 ambient temp.
„ Transformers: RTDs 1, 3, 5 primary windings , 8 ambient temp.
„ Once the calculation has been made, the calculated value may be used to
replace the T2 parameter automatically or manually.

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48-51LR excessive starting time Series 20
locked rotor

Starting is detected when current goes over If the consumed current is higher than Is
10% of Ib. during a time longer than ST the CB trips.
Is is set lower than the value of starting
current and ST longer than normal starting
time.
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48-51LR excessive starting time Series 20
locked rotor

ST
LTS
Excessive
starting time

Locked rotor
during start

If the current exceeds Is without going under To protect the motor in case of locked rotor
and over 10% of Ib this is a case of locked during starting it’s possible to use an
rotor. LT must be set with a time delay shorter external zero speed switch relay. If the
than the locked rotor time given by the motor motor speed is zero the CB trips with LTS
manufacturer time delay which is shorter than ST.
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48-51LR excessive starting time Series 20
locked rotor

Motor re-acceleration

When the motor re-accelerates (after loss of mains, change over for
example) it consumes a current close to the starting current whithout
passing through a value less than 10% of Ib.

In that case the starting is not detected by sepam and there is a possibily
to trip on locked rotor time delay.

It’s possible to reinitialize the excessive starting time protection by using


logic input I22

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66 starts per hour Series 20
This function picks up when the number
of starts reaches the following limits :

-Nt- maximum number of starts allowed per


period of time P (from 1 to 6 hours)

-Nh-maximum allowed number of


consecutive hot starts

-Nc-maximum allowed number of


consecutive cold starts

motor hot state : 50% heat rise (70% Ib)


T=time delay between stop and start(from 0 to 90mn) in case of re-acceleration it’s possible to
(in documentation : time between starts) increment the number of starts by using
Measurement: - waiting time logic input I22 (as 48-51LR function)
-number of starts allowed

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66 starts per hour Series 40

Use of circuit breaker closed data :

detection of starts for synchronous


motors

When a synchronous motor starts


without load, often the current
decreases lower than 10% of Ib
during a certain time. In that case
sepam counts a second start.

To avoid that problem it ’s possible


to take into account the closed
position of the circuit breaker.

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66 starts per hour Series 20
Examples :
4 starts per day. Settings: P=6 Nt=1 Nh=1 Nc=1
Series 40
6h 6h 6h 6h

blocking blocking blocking blocking

24h

1° start

3 starts every 2 hours and 2 consecutive starts. Settings : P=2 Nt=3 Nh=2 Nc=2
40mn (P/Nt) 1 start allowed 2h
1 start Blocking
0 allowed time Blocking time

2 hot or cold 40mn (P/Nt) 40mn (P/Nt)


consecutive
1 start 2° start
starts
allowed allowed

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66 starts per hour Series 20
Examples :
Series 40
3 starts every 2 hours and 2 consecutive cold starts or 1 consecutive hot start.
Settings : P=2 Nt=3 Nh=1 Nc=2
2h
40mn (P/Nt)
1 cold or 1 hot Blocking time
Blocking time for start allowed
hot start

1cold start Blocking 1 cold start


0 allowed time allowed

1 hot or 2 cold Sliding period 40mn


consecutive
1 cold start 1 hot or
starts
allowed 2 cold
starts
Sliding period 2 hours allowed

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66 starts per hour Series 20
Examples :
1h Series 40
8 starts per hour.
Settings : P=1 Nt=8 Nh=8 Nc=8
Blocking time

15mn 15mn 15mn 15mn 1h

8 starts in 2 hours. 2 consecutive 15mn 15mn


Settings : P=2 Nt=8 Nh=2 Nc=2

15mn

0 15mn 15mn 15mn 15mn 1h


8 starts in 2 hours. 2 consecutive T T T T T T T T
5mn between stop and start
Settings : P=2 Nt=8 Nh=2 Nc=2 15mn 15mn 15mn
T=5mn

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37 undercurrent Series 20
Series 40
„ Use :
†protection of pumps against the
consequences of a loss of
priming.
†Detection of breaking in
transmission.

Starting detection : 10% Ib


minimum setting : 15% Ib

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Phase-to-phase undervoltage 27 Series 20
phase-to-neutral undervoltage 27S Series 40
„ Use :
†27 : detection of a general voltage drop : motor protection
†27S : detection of 1 phase-to-earth fault : isolated neutral system
†27 : information used in automated functions : changeover, load
shedding

Serie 20 : 27 and 27S protections are separate functions


Serie 40 : the choice between phase-to-phase and phase-to-neutral
measurement is made by parameter setting
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Overvoltage 59 Series 20
Series 40
„ Use :
†detection of an abnormally high voltage
†checking that there is sufficient voltage for power supply changeover

This protection function measures phase-to-phase voltage (serie 20


and serie 40) or phase-to-neutral voltage (serie 40 only)

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Neutral voltage displacement 59N Series 20
Series 40
Residual voltage (as residual current) depends on the grounding system
example : isolated neutral (low current, high overvoltage)
Vb
a

b N
N
c Va
N V0

Vc
In case of solid fault, the voltage Va becomes zero, there is a displacement of
the neutral point and the voltages of the sound phases Vb and Vc are equal
to phase-to-phase voltages.
The residual voltage is the same everywhere in the network and is equal to 3
times the phase-to-neutral voltage.
Disadvantage : equipment must be designed for these overvoltages.
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Neutral voltage displacement 59N Series 20
Series 40
example : directly earthed neutral (strong current, no overvoltage)
Vb
a

b
N
c Va
N V0

Vc
In case of solid fault, at fault, the voltage Va becomes zero, there is a very
short voltage displacement, the sound phases don’t change and the
residual voltage is equal to a phase-to-neutral voltage.
At source, there is a voltage Va (and then a drop in residual voltage) which
depends on the values of the link impedances between fault and source for
the faulted phase.

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Neutral voltage displacement 59N Series 20
Series 40
example : impedant neutral (earth fault current and overvoltage limitation)
N Vb Vb
N a

b
N
c Va Va
N N V0
V0
Z
Voltage diagram Voltage diagram
at source Vc at fault Vc

In case of solid fault, at fault, the voltage diagram is the same as the isolated
neutral one. Residual voltage is equal to 3 times phase-to-neutral voltage.
At source, the displacement of the neutral point (and then the values of Vo
and the other voltages) depends on the values of the link impedances
between fault and source for the faulted phase.

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Neutral voltage displacement 59N Series 20
Series 40

Use :
„ generally, in isolated grounding systems on transformer incomings or
on busbar (alarm or tripping).
„ possibly, in the other grounding systems for back up protection.

„ usual setting : 10% of 3 V (30% of V)

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Neutral voltage displacement 59N Series 20
Series 40
Parameter settings :
„ according the measurement method : ∑3V, external VT’s Uns/√3 or Uns/3
Uns/√3 Uns/3

0 20KV 20KV 0 20KV 20KV


20KV/√3
/ 100V/√3 20KV/√3
/ 100V/3
0 100V 100V Vb 0 57V 57V
173V 100V
N
Va
N V0
3Vns (√3Uns) √3Vns (Uns)
Vc
Vo = 3V = √3U
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Positive sequence undervoltage 27D Series 20
Phase rotation direction check 47 Series 40
Motor protection
27D : the positive sequence voltage is the exact image of the motor
torque.
Consequences of a positive sequence voltage drop :
„ during energizing, increase in starting torque and maximum torque,
then increase in starting current (overheating, loss) and even rotor
stalling.
„ In normal operation, increase in consumed current to maintain the
power.
47 : detection of phase rotation direction (wrong connection)
„ protection of the load

usual settings : 75 to 80% of Un


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Negative sequence overvoltage 47 Series 40

Negative sequence voltage is due to phase inversion, unbalanced power


supply or single or 2-phase fault.

Generally, this protection function is used to distinguish a single phase


fault or a 2-phase fault from a 3-phase fault in association with
overcurrent protections. (to reach a better discrimination)

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Remanent undervoltage 27R Series 20
Series 40

After a loss of power supply, motors sustain voltage on busbar.


The fast re-energizing can cause transient electrical and mechanical
phenomena.
This protection function is used to give closing authorization to power
supply changeover.

Usual setting : 20 to 25% of Un

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Overfrequency 81H Series 20
Underfrequency 81L Series 40

Causes of variation in frequency :


„ overload of the network
„ wrong operation of a regulator
„ disconnection of generators
„ disconnection of large motors
Consequences :
„ speed variation of machines
„ wrong operation of synchronous receivers (recorder, clock…)
„ increase of iron loss in magnetic circuits

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Underfrequency 81L Series 40

„ Possibility to set a minimum set point for the voltage :


†from 20 to 50%of Unp
„ Possibility to set a restraint on frequency variation (dF/dt) :
†from 1 to 15 Hz/s
„ Use :
†to avoid tripping of sound feeders by load shedding during a strong
short-circuit near a sub-station.
†to avoid tripping of all the feeders when the busbar is resupplied by
remanent motor voltage after a change-over.

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ROCOF protection df/dt 81R Series 20
Rate Of Change Of Frequency
Advantages of 81R
compared to 81L
„ Faster
fast tripping with low
frequency variations

„ More selective
precise setting of tripping time
protection used for fast
disconnection of a source
transmitting power into a
network when a fault occurs or
to monitor load shedding

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ROCOF protection df/dt 81R Series 20
Rate Of Change Of Frequency
Example: load shedding

Speed of frequency variation: 0.4 Hz/s


50 Hz

49.5 Hz

Underfrequency (81L) settings: 49.5 Hz 0.1 s


the protection trips in 1.25 s + 0.1 s (time delay) = 1.35 s

df/dt (81R) settings: 0.15 Hz/s 0.5 s


the protection trips in 0.5 s

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ROCOF protection df/dt 81R Series 20
Rate Of Change Of Frequency
Example: disconnection

Speed of frequency variation: 5 Hz/s


50 Hz

49.5 Hz

Underfrequency (81L) settings: 49.5 Hz 0.1 s


the protection trips in 0.1 s + 0.1 s (time delay) = 0.2 s

df/dt (81R) settings: 0.15 Hz/s 0.5 s


the protection trips in 0.5 s

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Temperature monitoring 38/49T Series 20
Series 40
Protection associated with RTD
Pt100, Ni100 ou 120 :
„ 2 set points per sensor : alarm and
tripping
„ detection of RTD shorting (T<- 35°C)
or RTD disconnection (T> 205°C)
outputs are then inhibited
R RTD

I It’s better to use a 3-wire connection in


connection
U order to obtain a good accuracy. In that
r r U=rI
case, variation in wires resistance due to
E - 2U temperature is not taken into account.
V R=
I
A E
The 3° wire is then used to measure the
Sepam resistance of the link.
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Temperature monitoring Series 20
Series 40
When the protection is activated, it detects whether the RTD is shorted or
disconnected :
†RTD shorting is detected if the measured temperature is less than
-35°C, displayed : ****
†RTD disconnection is detected if the measured temperature is greater
than +205°C, displayed : -****
†a message « RTD fault 1 » for the 1st MET148 module or
« RTD fault 2 » for the 2nd module is displayed. The protection
outputs are set to zero.
†Caution : contrary to Sepam 2000, RTD inputs that are not used
mustn ’t be short-circuited.

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