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Appendix B 

Tooth Traits of the


Permanent Dentition

Appendix B includes tables listing important traits and char- of proximal contacts, heights of contour, curvature of the
acteristics of the teeth in the permanent dentition. The cementoenamel junction, and features of various profile,
tables can be used in conjunction with the illustrations in incisal, and occlusal views are summarized to facilitate the
Appendix A to note differences and similarities in tooth study of dental anatomy.
morphology. Tooth notation systems, dimensions, position

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Copyright © 2010, 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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328  Appendix B

Table 1  Maxillary Incisors: Type Traits and Other Characteristics


Central Incisor Lateral Incisor
Facial/Labial Aspect Fig. 6-9 Fig. 6-19
Proximal contacts Cervico-incisal location —
  Mesial Incisal third Junction incisal/middle thirds
  Distal Junction incisal/middle thirds Middle third
Mesioincisal angle Sharp right angle Slightly rounded
Distoincisal angle Slightly rounded Distinctly rounded
Mesial profile Straight Slightly rounded
Distal profile Nearly round Distinctly rounded
Mesiodistal width Comparatively wide Comparatively narrow
Pulp horn(s) 3 (facial view) Usually 2 (facial view)
Lobes 4 (Fig. 4-12, A) 4
Lingual Aspect Fig. 6-3 Fig. 6-14
Marginal ridges Moderate More prominent
Cingulum Moderately pronounced More prominent
Fossa Moderately deep Deep
Incisal Aspect Fig. 6-11 Fig. 6-18
Outline Triangular Ovoid
Labial Slightly convex More convex
Dimensions Table 6-1 Table 6-2
Crown length (cervico-incisal) 10.5 mm 9 mm
Crown diameter
  Mesiodistal 8.5 mm 6.5 mm
  Cervical 7.0 mm 5.0 mm
  Labiolingual 7.0 mm 6.0 mm
Contour height 0.5 mm; Figs. 6-4, 6-5 0.5 mm; Fig. 6-13
  Facial/lingual Both cervical third Both cervical third
Curvature at CEJ Table 6-1 Table 6-2
  Mesial 3.5 mm 3.0 mm
  Distal 2.5 mm 2.0 mm
Root Figs. 6-3, 6-5, 6-9, 6-10 Figs. 6-13, 6-19, 6-20
Length 13.0 mm 13.0 mm
Pulp canal(s) 1 Less frequent apical accessory canals
Chronology Tables 2-3, 6-1 Tables 2-3, 6-2
Eruption 7–8 yr 8–9 yr
Root completed 10 yr 11 yr
Tooth Notations Chapter 1 Chapter 1
Universal Right: 8; left: 9 Right: 7; left: 10
International (FDI) Right: 11; left: 21 Right: 12; left: 22
Palmer Right/left: 1 1 Right/left: 2 2

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Tooth Traits of the Permanent Dentition  329

Table 2  Mandibular Incisors: Type Traits and Other Characteristics


Central Incisor Lateral Incisor
Facial/Labial Aspect Figs. 7-2, 7-9 Figs. 7-13, 7-19
Symmetry Symmetrical bilaterally Asymmetrical
Proximal contacts Fig. 5-8, A Fig. 5-8, B
  Mesial Incisal third Incisal third
  Distal Incisal third Incisal third
Mesioincisal angles Sharp right angles Some rounding
Distoincisal angles Sharp right angles More rounded than mesioincisal angle
Curvature at CEJ Fig. 5-27, Table 7-1 Table 7-2
  Mesial 3.0 mm 3.0 mm
  Distal 2.0 mm 2.0 mm
Incisal Aspect Fig. 7-11 Fig. 7-18
Incisal edge (ridge) Right angle to line bisecting cingulum Distolingual twist to line bisecting cingulum
Pulp horn(s) 1 or 0 Variable; more prominent
Lobes 4 4
Dimensions Table 7-1 Table 7-2
Crown length (cervico-incisal) 9.0 mm 9.5 mm
Crown diameter
  Mesiodistal 5 mm 5.5 mm
  Cervical 3.5 mm 4.0 mm
  Labiolingual 6.0 mm 6.5 mm
Contour height Less than 0.5 mm; Fig. 7-7 Less than 0.5 mm
  Facial/lingual Both cervical third Both cervical third
Root

Dimensions Table 7-1 Table 7-2


Length 12.5 mm 14.0 mm
Pulp (root) canal(s) Usually 1; 2 possible 1
Chronology Table 7-1 Table 7-2
Eruption 6–7 yr 7–8 yr
Root completed 9 yr 10 yr
Tooth Notations Chapter 1 Chapter 1
Universal Right: 25; left: 24 Right: 26; left: 23
International (FDI) Right: 41; left: 31 Right: 42; left: 32

Palmer Right/left: 1 1 Right/left: 2 2

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330  Appendix B

Table 3  Maxillary and Mandibular Incisors: Arch Traits and Other Characteristics
Maxillary Incisors Mandibular Incisors
Central incisor wider than lateral incisor Lateral incisor wider than central incisor
Wider than mandibular central incisor Narrowest of incisor class
Marginal ridges and cingulum more prominent Marginal ridges and cingulum not prominent
Lingual fossa pronounced, often with a lingual pit Lingual fossa shallow without grooves or pits
Crown width greater mesiodistally than labiolingually Crown width greater labiolingually than mesiodistally
Roots rounded in cross section Roots thin mesiodistally
Incisal edge labial to root axis Incisal edge lingual to root axis

Table 4  Canines: Type and Arch Traits and Other Characteristics


Maxillary Canine Mandibular Canine
Facial/Labial Aspect
Proximal contacts Fig. 5-8, C Fig. 5-7, C
  Mesial Junction incisal/middle thirds Incisal third
  Distal Middle third Middle third
Mesial Aspect Wider faciolingually Narrower, longer
Lingual Aspect Deeper lingual fossae Flat lingual surface
Marginal ridges Pronounced; 2 fossae Parallel or slightly converging
Cingulum Large, centered mesiodistally Smaller, may be off center distally
  Lingual pits, grooves Common None
Incisal Aspect Marked asymmetry of mesial/distal halves Less symmetry; distal cusp ridge rotated
Incisal/Proximal Aspects Cusp tip may be at or labial to root axis line Cusp tip lingual to root axis line
Dimensions
Mesiodistal 7.5 mm 7.0 mm
Labiolingual 8.0 mm 7.5 mm
Curvature at CEJ 2.5 mm (mesial) 1.0 mm (distal)
Incisal-cervical 10.0 mm 11.0 mm
Contour height 0.5 mm Less than 0.5 mm
  Facial/lingual Both cervical third Both cervical third
Pulp horn(s) 1 1
Lobes 4 4
Root

Terminal (number) 1 Maybe 2 (Fig. 8-24)


Length 17 mm 16 mm
Chronology Table 8-1 Table 8-2
Eruption 11–12 yr 9–10 yr
Root completed 13–15 yr 12–14 yr
Tooth Notations Chapter 1 Chapter 1
Universal Right: 6; left: 11 Right: 27; left: 22
International (FDI) Right: 13; left: 23 Right: 43; left: 33
Palmer Right/left: 3 3 Right/left: 3 3
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Tooth Traits of the Permanent Dentition  331

Table 5  Maxillary Premolars: Type Traits and Other Characteristics


First Premolar Second Premolar
Facial/Buccal Aspect
Proximal contacts Mesial/distal: middle third Mesial/distal: middle third
Shoulders Prominent Narrow
Buccal cusp Tipped more to distal Not tipped
Cusp ridges Longer mesial ridge Similar
Cusp size, height Slightly wider, longer Shorter
Lingual Aspect Buccal profile visible Profile not visible
Mesial Aspect
Mesiomarginal groove Crosses marginal ridge Does not cross ridge
Mesial concavity Present Not present
Mesial root depression Present Present
Occlusal Aspect Fig. 9-6 Fig. 9-21
Profile Hexagonal Ovoid
Central groove Long Short
Supplemental groves Usually not present Many; often present
Lobes 4 4
Pulp horn(s) 2 2
Dimensions Table 9-1 Table 9-2
Cervico-occlusal 8.5 mm 8.5 mm
Crown diameter
  Mesiodistal 7.0 mm 7.0 mm
  Cervical 5.0 mm 5.0 mm
  Buccolingual 9.0 mm 9.0 mm
Contour height Fig. 9-5 Fig. 9-19
  Facial/buccal crest Cervical third Cervical third
  Lingual Middle third Middle third
Curvature at CEJ Figs. 9-4, 9-5
  Mesial 1.0 mm 1.0 mm
  Distal 0.0 mm 0.0 mm
Root
Length of root 14.0 mm 14.0 mm
Grooves Distinct, longitudinal No distinct grooves
Number of roots Usually 2 1 root
Pulp canal(s) Often 2 Usually 1
Chronology Table 9-1 Table 9-2
Eruption 10–11 yr 10–12 yr
Root completed 12–13 yr 12–14 yr
Tooth Notations Chapter 1 Chapter 1
Universal Right, 5; left, 12 Right, 4; left, 13
International (FDI) Right, 14; left, 24 Right, 15: left, 25
Palmer Right/left: 4 4 Right/left: 5 5
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332  Appendix B

Table 6  Mandibular Premolars: Type Traits and Other Characteristics


First Premolar Second Premolar
Facial/Buccal Aspect Figs. 10-2, 10-9 Figs. 10-13, 10-18
Proximal contacts Fig. 5-7 Fig. 5-7
  Cervico-occlusal Mesial/distal: middle third Mesial/distal: middle third
Form Asymmetrical Bilaterally symmetrical
Lingual Aspect Fig. 10-3 Fig. 10-14
Buccal profile All buccal profile seen None seen
Cusp height Lingual less than buccal Buccal/lingual cusps nearly equal
Mesial Aspect Fig. 10-1 Fig. 10-15
Occlusal plane Tilted lingually Essentially horizontal
Transverse ridge or buccal triangular ridge Transverse ridge present (Fig. 10-1) No transverse ridge present (Fig. 10-17)
Occlusal Aspect Figs. 10-6, 10-11 Fig. 10-17
Outline form Diamond-shaped Square
Cusps 2 (Fig. 10-1) 2 or 3 (Fig. 10-20)
Lobes 4 4 or 5
Dimensions Table 10-1 Table 10-2
Crown length (cervico-occlusal) 8.5 mm 8.0 mm
Crown diameter
  Mesiodistal 7.0 mm 7.0 mm
  Cervical 5.0 mm 5.0 mm
  Buccolingual 7.5 mm 8.0 mm
Contour height Figs. 5-27, 10-4 Fig. 10-16
  Facial Cervical third Middle third
  Lingual Middle third Middle third
Curvature at CEJ Table 10-1 (cervical line) Table 10-2
  Mesial 1.0 mm 1.0 mm
  Distal 0.0 mm 0.0 mm
Root Table 10-1 Table 10-2
Length 14.0 mm 14.5 mm
Pulp canal(s) 1 1
Pulp horn(s) 1 2
Chronology Table 2-3; Table 10-1 Table 2-3; Table 10-2
Eruption 10–12 yr 11–12 yr
Root completed 12–13 yr 13–14 yr
Tooth Notations Chapter 1 Chapter 1
Universal Right: 28; left: 21 Right: 29; left: 20
International (FDI) Right: 44; left: 34 Right: 45; left: 35
Palmer Right/left: 4 4 Right/left: 5 5

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Table 7  Premolars: Arch Traits and Other Characteristics
Maxillary Premolars Mandibular Premolars
Facial/Buccal Aspect: Fig. 4-16
Crowns are trapezoidal* Crowns are trapezoidal
Mesial Aspect: Fig. 4-16
Crowns are trapezoidal Crowns are rhomboidal†
Buccal and lingual cusps are almost equal in height Lingual cusps comparatively much shorter than maxillary lingual cusps
Lingual cusp tips may be lingual to the root
Two major cusps of almost equal size and prominence Buccal and lingual cusps of uneven height and prominence
*A trapezoid is a four-sided plane figure having two sides parallel.

A rhomboid is an oblique-angled parallelogram with only the opposite sides equal.

Table 8  Maxillary Molars: Type Traits and Other Characteristics


General Characteristics of All Molars
Height of Contour: Buccal crest is at cervical third; lingual crest is at middle third of crown (e.g., Fig. 11-13)
Proximal Contacts: Cervical-occlusal location of mesial contact is at middle third (toward occlusal third); distal contact is at middle
third, slightly toward cervical third (e.g., Fig. 11-13)
Crown Dimensions: Crowns are wider mesiodistally than cervico-occlusal height

Characteristic First Molar Second Molar Third Molar


Facial/Buccal Aspect Figs. 11-4, 11-15 Figs. 11-19, 11-24 Figs. 11-28, 11-33
Dimensions Widest of three Middle in width Smallest of three
Distobuccal cusp height Equals mesiobuccal cusp height Slightly less than mesiobuccal Much less than mesiobuccal
Lingual Aspect Fig. 11-6 Fig. 11-20 Fig. 11-29
Distolingual cusp Largest distolingual cusp Smaller width/height Usually missing
Lingual root Widest mesiodistally Narrower Narrowest
Occlusal Aspect Fig. 11-12 Fig. 11-23 Fig. 11-32
Crown form Trapezoid to rhomboid More rhomboidal Heart-shaped
Lobes 5 4 3 or 4
Dimensions Table 11-1 Table 11-2 Table 11-3
Crown length (cervico-occlusal) 7.5 mm 7.0 mm 6.5 mm
Crown diameter
  Mesiodistal 10.0 mm 9.0 mm 8.5 mm
  Cervical 8.0 mm 7.0 mm 6.5 mm
  Buccolingual 11.0 mm 11.0 mm 10.0 mm
Contour height 0.5 mm; Fig. 11-13 0.5 mm; Fig. 11-21 0.5 mm; Fig. 11-30
  Buccal crest Cervical third Cervical third Cervical third
  Lingual crest Middle third Middle third Middle third
Curvature at CEJ Table 11-1 Table 11-2 Table 11-3
  Mesial 1.0 mm 1.0 mm 1.0 mm
  Distal 0.0 mm 0.0 mm 0.0 mm
Root Table 11-1 Table 11-2 Table 11-3
Length, buccal 12.0 mm 11.0 mm 11.0 mm
Length, lingual 13.0 mm 12.0 mm
Chronology Table 11-1 Table 11-2 Table 11-3
Eruption 6 yr 12–13 yr 17–21 yr
Root completed 9–10 yr 14–16 yr 18–25 yr
Tooth Notations Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1
Universal Right: 3; left: 14 Right: 2; left: 15 Right: 1; left: 16
International (FDI) Right: 16; left: 26 Right: 17; left: 27 Right: 18; left: 28 W
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Right/left: 6 by
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334  Appendix B

Table 9  Mandibular Molars: Type Traits and Other Characteristics


Characteristic First Molar Second Molar Third Molar
Facial/Buccal Aspect Figs. 12-4, 12-14 Figs. 12-18, 12-23 Figs. 12-29, 12-34
Crown size Largest; widest mesiodistally Smaller Smallest
Cusps 5 Cusps: mesiobuccal, distobuccal, 4 Cusps: mesiobuccal, distobuccal, 4 Cusps: mesiobuccal,
mesiolingual, distolingual, distal mesiolingual, distolingual distobuccal, mesiolingual,
distolingual
Groove(s)/pit(s) 1 Mesiobuccal ± pit, 1 distobuccal 1 Buccal ± pit 1 Buccal ± pit
Root(s) Figs. 12-4, 12-14 Fig. 12-18 Fig. 12-29
Widely separated; nearly vertical Close together, parallel; distally Most short, fused, less
inclined inclination
Lingual Aspect Fig. 12-6 Fig. 12-19 Fig. 12-30
Cervix Crown narrower Less narrow Less narrow
Occlusal Aspect Fig. 12-2 Fig. 12-25 Fig. 12-33
Crown form Quadrilateral or hexagonal, pentagonal Quadrilateral or rectangular Quadrilateral or ovoid
Lobes 5 (Fig. 4-12, C) 4 4
Pulp horn(s) 5 4 4
Dimensions Table 12-1 Table 12-2 Table 12-3
Crown length (cervico-occlusal) 7.5 mm 7.0 mm 7.0 mm
Crown diameter
  Mesiodistal 11.0 mm 10.5 mm 10.0 mm
  Cervical 9.0 mm 8.0 mm 7.5 mm
  Buccolingual 10.5 mm 10.0 mm 9.5 mm
Contour height Figs. 12-7, 12-12 Figs. 12-20, 12-21 Figs. 12-31, 12-32
  Buccal crest Cervical third, 0.5 mm Cervical third, 0.5 mm Cervical third, 0.5 mm
  Lingual crest Middle third, 1.0 mm Middle third, 1.0 mm Middle third, 1.0 mm
Curvature at CEJ Figs. 5-27, 12-12 Fig. 12-12 Fig. 12-32
  Mesial 1.0 mm 1.0 mm 1.0 mm
  Distal 0.0 mm 0.0 mm 0.0 mm
Root Fig. 12-7 Fig. 12-21 Fig. 12-31
Length 14.0 mm; Table 1-1 13.0 mm; Table 1-1 11.0 mm; Table 1-1
Chronology Table 12-1 Table 12-2 Table 12-3
Eruption 6–7 yr 11–13 yr 17–21 yr
Root complete 9–10 yr 14–15 yr 18–25 yr
Tooth Notations Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Chapter 1
Universal Right: 30; left: 19 Right: 31; left: 18 Right: 32; left : 17
International (FDI) Right: 46; left: 36 Right: 47; left: 37 Right: 48; left: 38
Palmer Right/left: 6 6 Right/left: 7 7 Right/left: 8 8

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