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Turbo System Optimization

Outline
1. Turbobygarrett.com Website
RY
2. Application Information
T A
3. Turbo Match
IE
4. System Components
PR
¾
¾
Air Filter
RO
¾
Oil Supply & Drain
Water Lines - P
¾
L L
Charge Tubing & Charge-Air-Cooler
¾ BOV E
¾ Wastegate
Y W
5. E
Common Causes of Oil Leakage
SystemN
6.
7.
O Testing/Monitoring
H Checklist
11-Point

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Turbobygarrett.com Website

• Product information
R Y
• FAQS
T A
• Tech Tutorials IE
R
- 101 (Basic) – Turbo system basics, turbo components, etc.
P
compression ratio with boost, etc. O
- 102 (Advanced) – Wheel trim, housing A/R, manifold types,

- 103 (Expert) – Pressure ratio, P


R
mass flow rate, compressor
-
map details and formulas required to plot operating points
on a compressor map L
• News & Events E
L
Y W
• Distributor Locator
N E
H O
Website contains both general and technical information
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Application Information

• Understand the intended use of the vehicle;


RY
drag, road racing, rally, drifting, street driven,
etc. T A
IE
• Have a target flywheel horsepower in mind
PR
RO
- P
LL
E
YW
NE
HO
4
Turbo Match

• Go to www.turbobygarrett.com
RY
• Click on Turbo Tech
Read Turbo Techs 101, 102 and 103. T A

IE
Using formulas in Turbo Tech 103, calculate mass flow

PR
and pressure ratio (PR) at redline for your specific
application.
RO
- P
L L
• Plot mass flow and PRE on several compressor maps to
W
determine the best fit.
Y
E
be a 400N
• For the example in this presentation, the “application” will

H O flywheel hp street car using pump gas, therefore


the estimated mass flow ~ 40 lbs/min

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Air Filter
• Important to appropriately size the air filter for the
maximum flow rate of the application R Y
T A
• Target face velocity of ≤130 ft/min at redline
minimize restriction IE to

P R
• Excessive restriction can cause:
R O
- Oil leakage from the compressor
results in oil loss, a fouled- P side piston ring, which
CAC and potentially smoke out
of the tailpipe.
L L
- Increased pressure
overspeed. W
E ratio, which can lead to turbo

- OverspeedE Y will reduce turbo durability and could result in

O N
an early turbo failure.

H
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Air Filter

How do we determine the correct air filter size?


RY
Example:
T A
IE
Face Velocity = 130 ft/min
Mass Flow = 40 lbs/min PR
Air density = 0.076 lbs/ft3
RO
- P
Mass Flow (lbs/min) = Volumetric Flow Rate (CFM) x Air Density (lbs/ft3)
L L
E
Y WVolumetric Flow Rate (CFM) = Mass Flow (lbs/min)
Air Density (lbs/ft3)

NE
HO Volumetric Flow Rate = 526 CFM

For Twin-Turbo Applications Divide The Flow Rate By 2


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Air Filter

RY
Face Velocity (ft/min) = Volumetric Flow rate (CFM)
A
Area (ft2)
T
IE
PR
Area (ft2) = Volumetric Flow rate (CFM)
O
Face Velocity (ft/min)
R
- P
LL Area (ft2) = 526 / 130 = 4.05

E
YW Area (in2) = 4.05 x 144

NE
HO Area = 582 in 2

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Air Filter

How do we determine the correct air filter size


knowing the calculated area (582 in2)? RY
T A
Example:
Flow

IE 526 ft^3/min

Pleat Height = 9.00 in.


# of Pleats
50
PR Pleat Height
8.00
Pleat Depth Area (in^2)
0.55 440
Face Velocity (fpm)
172

Pleat Depth = 0.55 in.


# of Pleats = 60
60
60
60
RO 9.00
10.00
10.50
0.55
0.55
0.55
594
660
693
128
115
109

- P - input value

L L
Area (in2) = pleat height x pleat depth x # of pleats x 2
E Area (in2) = 9.00 x 0.55 x 60 x 2
Y W
NE Area = 594 in 2

O
H Filter Area (594 in ) > Calculated Area (582 in )
Actual 2 2

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Oil Supply (Journal-bearing Turbo)

• Journal-bearings function similar


to rod or crank bearings in an RY
engine - oil pressure is required to T A
keep components separated. IE
• Oil restrictor is generally not PR
needed except for oil-pressure
induced leakage. RO
- P
• Recommended oil feed is -4AN or
LL
hose/tubing with an ID of ~ 0.25”.
E
• Use an oil filter that meets or
YW
exceeds the OEM specifications.

NE
HO
Oil Restrictor Is Generally Not Needed
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Oil Supply (Ball-bearing Turbo)

• Oil restrictor is recommended for optimal


performance. RY
• Recommended oil pressure is 40 – 45 psi
T A
at maximum engine speed.
IE
0.040” orifice.
PR
• Normally translates to a restrictor with

turbo after the restrictor.


RO
• Always verify oil pressure entering the

• OIL LEAKAGE SHOULD NOT OCCUR ON


-
A PROPERLY FUNCTIONING SYSTEM IF
P
LL
RESTRICTOR IS NOT USED UNLESS THE
SYSTEM PRESSURE IS EXCESSIVELY
HIGH . E
YW
• Recommended oil feed is -3AN or -4AN
line or hose/tubing with a similar ID.
NE
• Use an oil filter that meets or exceeds the
O
OEM specifications.
H
Oil Restrictor Is Recommended
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Oil Drain

• Generally -10AN is sufficient but try not to have an ID


smaller than the drain hole in the housing. R Y
• Gravity feed needs to be just that! T A
IE
• Oil outlet - direction of gravity +/-35° when installed in
the vehicle on level ground
P R
• Turbocharger axis of rotation - parallel to the level
ground within +/- 15°
R O
• Avoid:
- P
- Undulations in the line or extended lengths parallel to the
ground
L L
- Dead heading W
E
- Draining into oil pan below oil level
into a component behind the oil pan
- Area behindY
N E
sling occurs
the oil pan (windage tray window) where oil
from crankshaft
O
- Scavenge pump should be used if there is not a suitable
Hgravity feed option
The Larger The Better!
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Water Lines

• Key design feature for improved durability


RY
T A
• Eliminates coking by utilizing the Thermal Siphon Effect to
reduce the Peak Heat Soak Back Temperature at turbine side
piston after shut-down.
IE
Siphon Effect PR
• Avoid undulations in the water lines to maximize the Thermal

O
Hot Water-Out (High)
R
- P Tilt 20 degrees

LL
E
YW
NE
HO Temperature @ this area
Cold Water-In (Low)

Always Install Water Lines


13
Water Lines

RY
T A
IE
PR
RO
- P
LL
E
YW
NE
Negative degrees:
water outlet of center
Positive degrees:
water outlet of center

HO
housing is lower
than water inlet
housing is higher
than water inlet

Set Orientation Of Center Housing to 20°


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Result of No Water Lines

R Y
T
wheel and
A
Bluing on the turbine
turbine
IEbearing from
side of

P R
excessive heat

RO
- P
LL
E
YW
NE Bearing retainer melts
and is damaged from

HO heat soak back

Damage To Turbo Can Occur From Water Lines Not Set-Up Properly

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Charge Tubing

RY
• Tubing Diameter: velocity of 200 – 300 ft/sec is desirable. Too
small a diameter will increase pressure drop, too large can
slow transient response.
T A
IE
• Velocity (ft/min) = Volumetric Flow rate (CFM) / Area (ft2)

PR
RO
Diameter (in) Area (ft^2) Flow Velocity (fps)
Flow (CFM) 526.00 ft^3/min

- P1.50
1.75
0.012
0.017
714
525

LL 2.00
2.25
0.022
0.028
402
317

E 2.50 0.034 257

YW 2.75
3.00
0.041
0.049
213
179

NE 3.25
3.50
0.058
0.067
152
131

HO - input value
3.75
4.00
0.077
0.087
114
100

For Twin-Turbo Applications Divide The Flow Rate By 2


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Charge Tubing

• Duct bend radius:


RY
- Radius/diameter > 1.5
T A
I E
• Flow area: R
- Avoid area changes, sharp transitions, P
R O shape changes

• Available packaging space - P


in the vehicle usually
dictates certain designs.
L L
E
Y W
N E
H O
Charge Tubing Design Affects Overall System Performance
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Charge-Air-Cooler

respective power levels RY


• Visit www.turbobygarrett.com for core sizes w/

T A
• Size accordingly to power level (400 hp)
IE
PR
RO
- P
LL
E
YW
NE
HO
Use The Largest CAC That Will Fit In The Available Space
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Charge-Air-Cooler

Manifold Design: Shape


RY
T A
IE
PR
RO
- P
LL
E
YW
NE
HO
Manifold Design Affects The Overall CAC Performance
19
Charge-Air-Cooler

Mounting considerations: module isolation


RY
T A Supported

IE Member

PR
RO Grommet

- P
LL
E Supporting
Member

YW
NE
BENEFITS OF ISOLATION:

HO Guards against vibration by damping loads


Reduces thermal loading by providing for thermal expansion

Proper CAC Mounting Improves Durability


20
Blow-Off Valves (BOV)

• MAP (Manifold Absolute Pressure)


sensor use either a vent-to- RY
atmosphere valve or a recirculation
T A
valve.
IE
- Connect signal line to manifold source
- Surge can occur if spring rate is too stiff P R
R O
• MAF (Mass Air Flow) sensor - P use a
recirculation (bypass) L Lvalve for best
drivability.
- Connect signal W
E
E
- Position valveY line to manifold source
close to the turbo outlet for best

O
- Surge
N
performance (if valve can handle high temp).
can occur if valve and/or outlet plumbing
Hare restrictive.
Using The Proper BOV Affects Turbo Performance & Durability
21
Wastegate - Internal

• Part of the turbo and integrated into


the turbine housing RY
• Two connection possibilities for T A
signal line
IE
1. Connect line from compressor outlet
(not manifold - vacuum) to actuator.PR
RO
2. Connect a line from compressor outlet

then to actuator
- P
to boost controller (PWM valve) and

LL
• Manifold pressure is limited by spring
rate of actuator
E
• Most OEM style actuators are not
YW
designed for vacuum. Diaphragm can

NE
be damaged resulting in excessive
manifold pressure and engine
O
damage.
H
22
Wastegate - External

• Separate from turbo and integrated


into the exhaust manifold RY
• Connection to the manifold greatly T A
affects flow capability
IE
-
90° to the manifold will reduce flow
capacity by up to 50%! PR
-
Ideal connection – 45° w/ smooth
R O
transition
-
• Two connection possibilities for P
signal line
L L
1.
E
Connect line from compressor outlet
(not manifold - vacuum) to actuator

Y W
2. Connect a line from compressor outlet

N E
to boost controller (PWM valve) and
then to actuator
O
• Manifold pressure is limited by spring
Hof actuator
rate

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Common Causes of Oil Leakage

Leakage from compressor and turbine seals


- Excessively high oil pressure RY
- Inadequate drain T A
- Improper venting of crankcase pressure
IE
- Excessive crankcase pressure
P R
- Oil drain rotated past the recommended 35°.
R O
Leakage from compressor seal
-
Excessive pressure across the
P
compressor housing inlet
-
caused by:
L L
- E
Air filter too small
Tubing too small or has too many bends between the air filter and
- Y W
compressor housing
Clogged air filter

LeakageN
E
from Turbine seal
- O
-H
Collapsed turbine piston ring from excessive EGT’s
Turbo tilted back on axis past recommended 15°.
Properly Installed Turbos Should Not Leak Oil
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System Testing

Pressurize system to test for leaks


RY
• Clamps
T A
- Check tightness
IE
• Couplers
PR
- Check for holes or tears
• CAC core / end tanks RO
- P
- Check for voids in welds
LL
E
YW
NE
HO
25
System Monitoring

Instrumentation used to monitor / optimize system


1.Oil Pressure * RY
2.Oil Temperature *
T A
3.Water Temperature *
IE
4.A/F Ratio * (wideband sensor)
5.Manifold Pressure PR
6.Turbine Inlet Pressure
RO
7.Exhaust Gas Temperature
- P
8.Turbo Speed Sensor
L L
Eway to calibrate and optimize a
• The most accurate
Y W
system is through datalogging!

N E
*
O
Required to monitor engine operation
H
26
System Monitoring

RY
T A
IE
PR
RO
- P
LL
E
YW
NE
HO
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System Monitoring

Manifold Pressure
RY
- Calibrate actuator setting to achieve
manifold pressure required to meet hp T A
target IE
- Detect over-boost condition R
- Detect damaged actuator diaphragmOP
P R
Back Pressure
L -
housing inlet E L
- Monitor pressure changes in turbine

Y W
- Affect of different turbine housing A/R’s

N E
- Increased
Volumetric
back pressure decreases
Efficiency thus decreasing

H O
ultimate power

28
System Monitoring

Pyrometer
RY
- Monitor exhaust gas temperature (EGT) in
manifold / turbine housing T A
- Adjust calibration based on temperature IE
rating of turbine housing material or other
P R
exhaust components
R O
- P
Turbo Speed
L L
- Determine operatingE points on compressor
map
- Determine if Y
W
N E the current turbo is correct for
the application and target hp
O
- Avoid turbo over-speed condition, which
Hcould damage turbo
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11 - Point Checklist

1. Y
Application Information – target horsepower, intended use of
vehicle, etc. R
2.
T A
Air filter sizing - determine size for application needs
3. IE
Oil Supply - restrictor for ball-bearing turbo
4. Oil Drain – proper size and routing
PR
5. O
Water Lines - set up for greatest thermal siphon effect
R
6.
7. - P
Charge Tubing – determine diameter for application needs
Charge-Air-Cooler - determine core size for application needs,
L
design manifolds for optimal flow, mount for durability
L
8. E
BOV – VTA for MAP engines and by-pass for MAF engines
9. W
Wastegate – connect signal line to compressor outlet, smooth
Y
transition to external wastegate

NE
10. System Testing – pressurize system to check for leakage,

HO
periodically check clamp tightness and the condition of couplers
11. System Monitoring – proper gauges/sensors to monitor engine for
optimal performance and component durability

30