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Process Analysis & Theory of Constraints V2

1 Discuss the product process matrix.

2 Differentiate between setup time and cycle time.

3 Explain lead time.

4 Discuss process layouts.

5 Explain TOC thinking process.

6 Describe the components of critical chain project management.

7 Explain performance management system.

8 Discuss cost, quality and strategy.

Assignment B

Case study

CRT is a focusing procedure formulated by the late Eliyahu Goldratt, inventor of


the theory of constraints. This process is intended to help leaders gain
understanding of cause and effect in a situation they want to improve. It treats
multiple problems in a system as symptoms arising from one or a few ultimate root
causes or systemic core problems. It describes, in a visual (cause-and-effect
network) diagram, the main perceived symptoms (along with secondary or hidden ones
that lead up to the perceived symptoms) of a problem scenario and ultimately the
apparent root causes or core conflict. The benefit of building a CRT is that it
identifies the connections or dependencies between perceived symptoms (effects) and
root causes (core problems or conflicts) explicitly. If core problems are
identified, prioritized, and tackled well, multiple undesirable effects in the
system will disappear. Leaders may then focus on solving the few core problems
which would cause the biggest positive systemic changes.

Q.No 1: Explain CRT.

Q.No 2: Elaborate the uses of CRT.

Q.No 3: Discuss the benefits of CRT.

Assignment C

The matrix itself consists of two dimensions, product structure/product life cycle
and process structure/process life cycle.
(A): product process matrix

(B): process matrix

(C): product matrix

(D): all
Generally, resources for processing have �����.availability with temporary in-
process storage capability needed while jobs wait for subsequent processing.
(A): regular

(B): limited

(C): unlimited

(D): constant

In a job shop, the outputs differ significantly in


(A): form

(B): structure

(C): materials

(D): all

�����...are sometimes accumulated until a lot can be processed together.


(A): processes

(B): Products

(C): both

(D): none

Since the volume is ���. than that of the job shop, many processes can be utilized
in repetition, creating a much smoother flow of work-in-process throughout the
shop.
(A): higher

(B): lower

(C): equal

(D): smaller

When product demand is high enough, the appropriate process is ,���.


(A): assembly line.

(B): batch

(C): both

(D): none

Distinctive competence is defined as the ����. that give a firm a comparative


advantage over its competitors.
(A): resources

(B): skills

(C): organizational characteristics

(D): all

A ��... time is the latency between the initiation and execution of a process.
(A): setup

(B): cycle

(C): lead

(D): throughput

The ���..time is included because the manufacturing company needs to know when the
parts will be available for material requirements planning
(A): shipping

(B): setup

(C): cycle

(D): lead

Lead time is also the saved time by ����..an activity before its predecessor is
completed.
(A): starting

(B): ending

(C): between

(D): equal

������. is comparing one�s business processes and performance metrics to industry


bests and best practices from other companies.
(A): product process matrix

(B): process matrix

(C): product matrix

(D): benachmarking

In the process of ������., management identifies the best firms in their industry,
or in another industry where similar processes exist, and compares the results and
processes of those studied (the "targets") to one�s own results and processes.
(A): product process matrix

(B): process matrix

(C): product matrix

(D): benachmarking

The purpose of the thinking processes is to help answer questions essential to


achieving focused improvement:
(A): What to change?

(B): What to change it into?

(C): How to cause the change?

(D): all of the above


������. evaluates the network of cause-effect relations between the undesirable
effects (UDE�s, also known as gap elements) and helps to pinpoint the root cause(s)
of most of the undesirable effects.
(A): CRT

(B): FRT

(C): PRT

(D): none

15���.solves conflicts that usually perpetuate the causes for an undesirable


situation.

(A): evaporating cloud

(B): CRT

(C): FRT

(D): PRT

The goal of the ����... is to understand the causal path between the action and
negative ramifications so that the negative effect can be "trimmed."
(A): NBR

(B): CRT

(C): FRT

(D): PRT

����..describes in great detail the action that will lead to the fulfillment of a
plan to implement changes
(A): evaporating cloud

(B): CRT

(C): FRT

(D): transition tree

�������.is used to measure performance using a specific indicator (cost per unit of
measure, productivity per unit of measure, cycle time of x per unit of measure or
defects per unit of measure) resulting in a metric of performance that is then
compared t
(A): product process matrix

(B): process matrix

(C): product matrix

(D): benachmarking

This process is intended to help leaders gain understanding of cause and effect in
a situation they want to improve.
(A): CRT

(B): FRT
(C): PRT

(D): ART

In project management ����... time is the time it takes to complete a task or a set
of interdependent tasks.
(A): setup

(B): cycle

(C): lead

(D): throughput

������...is a management paradigm that views any manageable system as being limited
in achieving more of its goals by a very small number of constraints.
(A): theory of constraints

(B): product process matrix

(C): process matrix

(D): product matrix

The underlying premise of the theory of constraints is that organizations can be


measured and controlled by variations on�������..
(A): throughput

(B): operational expense

(C): inventory

(D): all of the above

A �����. is anything that prevents the system from achieving its goal.
(A): constraint

(B): product

(C): process

(D): service

Types of (internal) constraints


(A): equipment

(B): people

(C): policy

(D): all of the above

A CRT begins with a list of problems, known as ���.


(A): undisputed effects

(B): disrupted effect

(C): isputed effect


(D): none

�����.shows the future states of the system and helps to identify possible negative
outcomes of the changes (Negative Branches) and to prune them before implementing
the changes.
(A): CRT

(B): FRT

(C): PRT

(D): ART

Material flows in a sequence, such as in an assembly line. The primary work is done
in a straight sequence of events (one-to-one). The constraint is the slowest
operation.
(A): I plant

(B): A plant

(C): V plant

(D): all of the above

The general flow of material is one-to-many, such as a plant that takes one raw
material and can make many final products. Classic examples are meat rendering
plants or a steel manufacturer.
(A): T plants

(B): I plant

(C): A plant

(D): V plant

���.is based on the idea that all projects look like A-plants: all activities
converge to a final deliverable.
(A): CCPM

(B): CRT

(C): FRT

(D): PRT

Critical chain project management uses buffer management instead of ����.management


to assess the performance of a project.
(A): market value

(B): earned value

(C): both of the above

(D): none of the above

Main features that distinguish critical chain from critical path are:
(A): Use of (often implicit) resource dependencies.
(B): Lack of search for an optimum solution

(C): Identification and insertion of buffers

(D): all of the above

Event chain methodology can determine a size of


(A): project

(B): feeding

(C): resource buffers

(D): all of the above

Event chain methodology is the next advance beyond


(A): CPM

(B): CCPM

(C): both of the above

(D): none

A����.network strives to keep resources levelled, and requires that they be


flexible in start times.
(A): CCPM

(B): CRT

(C): FRT

(D): PRT

�������.adopts the common idiom "a chain is no stronger than its weakest link."
(A): theory of constraints

(B): product process matrix

(C): process matrix

(D): product matrix

�����.suffer from both synchronization problems of A-plants (parts aren�t all


available for an assembly) and the robbing problems of V-plants (one assembly
steals parts that could have been used in another).
(A): T plants

(B): I plant

(C): A plant

(D): V plant

There are some primary types of plants in the TOC lexicon.


(A): I plant

(B): A plant
(C): V plant

(D): all of the above

��������..states that all of the intermediate objectives necessary to carry out an


action chosen and the obstacles that will be overcome in the process.
(A): CRT

(B): FRT

(C): PRT

(D): ART

������.is often treated as a continuous process in which organizations continually


seek to improve their practices.
(A): product process matrix

(B): process matrix

(C): product matrix

(D): benachmarking

One of the thinking processes in the theory of constraints, a���...is a way of


analyzing many systems or organizational problems at once.
(A): CRT

(B): FRT

(C): PRT

(D): ART

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