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Septic System


Septic Tank
• Household wastewater is retained 1-3 days
• Solids settle to the bottom of the tank (digested
• A thick crust of scum is formed (help anaerobic
• Some sludge accumulates Æ desludged (every 1-5
• Effluent Æ on-site or off-site by settled sewerage for
populations up to about 300.


Septic Tank
• Length to breadth ratio = 2-3 : 1
• (Liquid) depth at least 0,9 m (but not more than 2 m) • Most appropriate in low- to medium-density urban
• Drainfield: • Not an option for low-income areas
▫ Depth: ~ 0.7 m
▫ Width: 0.2 m (min)

Tank Design Four zones:

▫ scum storage
▫ sedimentation
Septic Tank
▫ sludge digestion • DESIGN EXAMPLE
▫ digested sludge storage zone. Design a septic tank and drainfield to serve a family
of six whose sewage production is 100 lcd. The
design temperature is 25oC, and the soil is a sandy
Scum storage zone
Sedimentation zone
Sludge digestion zone

Digested sludge storage zone


Overall design capacity

Scum storage
V = Vsc + Vh + Vd + Vsl • Scum accumulates at ~ 30-40% the rate sludge accumulates.
• Therefore, the Vsc ~ 0.4 Vsl
Since Vsc is around 0.4Vsl, this becomes:

V = Vh + Vd + 1.4Vsl

Sedimentation Sludge digestion

• th = 1.5 – 0.3 log (Pq)
• Vh= 10-3 Pqth
td = 30 (1.035)35-T
The time required to permit sedimentation << with the number Vd= 0.5 x 10-3 Ptd
of people served.
• th = 1.5 – 0.3 log (Pq) The time needed for anaerobic digestion, td days varies with
▫ th = minimum HRT for sedimentation, days
▫ P = Population temperature
▫ q = wastewater flow per person, l/day
th > 0.2 day. Grafik vs Temperatur

• The tank volume for sedimentation (Vh):

Vh = 10-3 Pqth


Digestion Sludge storage

• The time needed for anaerobic digestion, td days: • The volume depends on:
▫ the rate of accumulation of digested sludge (r, m3/person.year) and
td = 30 (1.035)35-T ▫ The interval between desludging operations (n, years)
• The volume of fresh sludge is around 1 liter/person.day. This • For n < 5: r = 0.06 m3/person year
is digested in td days when it passes to the sludge storage For n > 5: r = 0.04 m3/person year
zone. So the average volume of digesting sludge present • The sludge storage volume, Vsl:
during the period td is 0.5 lcd. Vsl = r P n
• Thus, the volume of the sludge digestion zone, Vd:
Vd = 0.5 x 10-3 Ptd

Digested sludge storage Overall effective tank volume

Choosing n = 2 years
V = Vh + Vd + 1.4Vsl
and r = 0.06 m3 per person per year:
Vsl = r Pn


Two-compartment septic tanks Design Example 2

• Disposed of on-site, it is best Æ two-compartment tank: minimizes the
• Design a septic tank for a family of twelve which has a water
suspended solids content of the effluent. consumption or 100 l/c/d. Effluent disposal is to be by
• Settle again in the more quiescent 2nd compartment. subsurface irrigation in a drainfield.
• Effective tank volume normally Solution
▫ 2/3 for the first compartment Assume that the waste flow is 80 per cent of the water consumption and that all of
▫ 1/3 for the second compartment. this enters the septic tank. Allowing 3 d retention at start-up, the tank volume is:

(0.08 m3/p/d) x (12 people) x (3 d retention) = 2.9 m3

Say 2.9 m long x 1 m wide x 1 m deep with the inter-compartmental wall 1.9 from
the inlet end.

Design Example 3
Design a drainfield to serve a
• Alternative design procedure: family of six whose sewage
assume that the sludge accumulation rate is 0.04 m3/c/yr as above but production is 100 lcd. The
chose the desludging interval to be n years (n may be 2, 3, 5 or 10 years). design temperature is 25oC,
Then the tank volume is given by:
and the soil is a sandy loam.
3 x (0.04 m3/cap-yr) x (n yr) x (12 people)

The factor 3 is introduced as the tank is one-third full of sludge just prior to desludging.
Thus if n were chosen as 3 years, the tank volume would be 4.3 m3.

The retention time at start up would be = 4.3 m3/ ((0.08 m3/cap.d) x (12 people))
= 4.5 days (satisfactory)


Infiltration Rate
Infiltration Rate
Soil type Long-term infiltration rate
(l/m2 day) Soil type Long-term infiltration
Sand 50 rate (l/m 2 day)
Sandy loam 30
Porous silty loam, porous silty 20 Sand 50
clay loam Sandy loam 30
Compact silty loam, clay 10 Porous silty loam, 20
porous silty clay loam
Compact silty loam, clay 10

Drainfield design Drainfield design

Take the effective trench depth as 0.7 m.
The long-term infiltration rate for a sandy loam is 30
l/m2 per day (from the table): The total trench length (2 sides):
The trench sidewall infiltration area: = ½ (20/0.7) = 15 m (3 trenches in series, each 5 m in length)

= (effluent flow, l/day)/(infiltration rate, l/m2per day)

= (100 x 6) / 30 = 20 m2


Septic tank

Drainfield trenches

Potongan Memanjang Typical Design


Scope Requirement Effectivities

• any storm water : roof and rainwater
• Scum zone tank overflow, and surface drainage
• sanitary plumbing fixtures connected to drain pipes • Detention zone waters,
that enable sewage and sullage wastes to be ▫ Minimum 24 jam⇒60-70% Suspended • any backflush waters from a
Solid mengendap swimming pool or water softener,
• conveyed from the fixtures to the tank, ▫ ↓30% BOD
• any sanitary napkin, clothing or
• Sludge Zone
• a pumping sump, plastic material or liner,
• any petrol or other flammable or
• a sewage treatment tank, explosive substance whether solid,
liquid or gas,
• a distribution box, • any disinfectant or deodorant,
• an effluent disposal system, antiseptic or germicide powder or
fluid, unless specifically
• a surface and subsurface effluent irrigation or
disposal system.

Design a septic tank suitable for a household with up to eight occupants in a low-
density housing area in which the houses have full plumbing, all household wastes go
to the septic tank and the nominal water supply is 200 l per person per day. Water is
used for anal cleaning and the ambient temperature is not less than 25°C for most of
the year.

Volume of liquid entering the tank each day

A = volume of liquid to be stored in the septic tank
P = number of people using the tank
q = sewage flow = 90% of the daily water consumption per person (Q).
q = 0.9 x Q = 0.9 x 200 = 180 litres per person per day.
Therefore A = 8 x 180 = 1440 litres


The volume of sludge and scum is given by

B=PxN xFxS
B = volume of sludge and scum
P = number of people using the tank
N = period between desludgings Desludging
F = sizing factor (see Table 6.2)
S = sludge and scum accumulation rate (see Chapter 6)
Assume N is 3 years; from Table 6.2, F= 1.0;
as all wastes go to septic tank S = 40 L per person per year.

S = the rate of sludge and scum accumulation which may be taken as 25 litres per
person per year for tanks receiving WC waste only, and 40 litres per person per year
for tanks receiving WC waste and sullage.

B = 8 x 3 x 1.0 x 40 = 960 litres Konstruksi
Total tank volume = A + B = 1440 + 960 = 2400 litres (2.4 m³)
Assume liquid depth = 1.5 m • Capacity • Air Gap
Assume tank width is W m ▫ shall be calculated using the ▫ 220mm for septic tanks less than
depth (D) or equal to 5000 litres capacity,
Assume two compartments, length of first = 2W • Operating Depth ▫ 300mm for septic tanks between
length of second = W • Shape 5000 - 10000 litres capacity,
Volume of tank (V) = 1.5 x (2W + W) x W = 4.5 W² ▫ cylindrical or rectangular, ▫ 400mm for septic tanks greater
Thus 4.5 than 10000 litres capacity.
• Inlet Fitting
W² = 2.4 m³ • Access Openings
• Outlet fitting ▫ Rectangular : 900mm x 500mm
W = 0.73 • Provision for Scum
Therefore: ▫ Cylindrical : 500mm in diameter.
• Access Opening Covers
width of tank = 0.73 m • Inspection Covers
length of first compartment = 1.46 m
• Partition Walls/baffles
length of second compartment = 0.73 m ▫ the effective capacity of the first
Depth of tank from floor to soffit of cover slab chamber is twice that ofthe
= liquid depth + freeboard second chamber
= 1.5 + 0.3 • Septic Tank Venting
= 1.8 m




Potongan memanjang dan melintang

SETBACK DISTANCES TO SURFACE FEATURE Dispersal of pollution from its source

L : Source of pollution : pit latrine, septic tank, soakaway

A : Pollution cone
B : groundwater <3 m depth
C : The cone of chemical pollution continues to spread until about 25 metres from the source, and then
gradually reduces to almost nothing at a distance of about 100 metres.


• If there is too much clay in the soil?
• the waste may percolate poorly.
• If the soil contains too much sand and large
• waste-water may pass through to the groundwater
without being treated by soil microbes.
• Soil profiles made of sand, silt and clay work best.


Septic systems need space..

• Soil treatment occurs best when above the water Only part of the microorganisms and chemicals are
table and the soil is relatively dry with oxygen removed from waste water as it moves downward.
present. Even properly operating systems can discharge some
• Water at greater depths allows wastewater to phosphates, nitrates and bacteria or viruses into the
remain in the unsaturated soil, where it can be groundwater. To reduce loading of groundwater with
treated most effectively before reaching effluent, install systems on lots with adequate space.

Proper design and use is important. Septic systems

are designed to treat and dispose of a specific Routine maintenance is critical.
volume and type of wastewater in the conditions Septic tanks must eventually be pumped. Sludge and
found at the site.
The system must not be overloaded. scum accumulate and, if allowed to remain, will
Hazardous chemicals or large amounts of grease eventually cause the tank to overflow and clog the
should not be disposed in septic systems. drainfield.
Kitchen grease should be placed in the garbage, not
the septic tank. Water conservation extends the life
of the system.